Publications by authors named "Yoo-Jeong Kim"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Therapeutic Effects of Inhibitor of Expression against Carbapenem-Resistant Strains.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 12;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea.

The widespread of carbapenem-resistant (CRAB) is of great concern in clinical settings worldwide. It is urgent to develop new therapeutic agents against this pathogen. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potentials of compound 62520, which has been previously identified as an inhibitor of the promoter activity of , against CRAB isolates, both in vitro and in vivo. Compound 62520 was found to inhibit the expression and biofilm formation in ATCC 17978 at sub-inhibitory concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. These inhibitory properties were also observed in clinical CRAB isolates belonging to sequence type (ST) 191. Additionally, compound 62520 exhibited a bacteriostatic activity against clinical clonal complex (CC) 208 CRAB isolates, including ST191, and ESKAPE pathogens. This bacteriostatic activity was not different between STs of CRAB isolates. Bacterial clearance was observed in mice infected with bioimaging strain 24 h after treatment with compound 62520. Compound 62520 was shown to significantly increase the survival rates of both immunocompetent and neutropenic mice infected with ATCC 17978. This compound also increased the survival rates of mice infected with clinical CRAB isolate. These results suggest that compound 62520 is a promising scaffold to develop a novel therapeutic agent against CRAB infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623844PMC
November 2021

Neuroprotective properties of ethanolic extract of Citrus unshiu Markovich peel through NADPH oxidase 2 inhibition in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain animal model.

Phytother Res 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Dong-Eui University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

The present study aimed to determine the antioxidant effect of Citrus unshiu Markovich (CUM) extract in neuronal cell lines under oxidative stress and to investigate the effect of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) on the nociceptive response in a preclinical mice model. We tested the inhibition of H O in Neuro2A cells treated with CUM. Experimental animals were treated with oxaliplatin to induce CINP, and then administered oral CUM for 4 weeks in order to observe the effect of CUM. Animals were evaluated weekly for thermal hyperalgesia and digital motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) isolated from each animal were evaluated through immunochemical and western blot analysis for nerve damage, inflammatory response, and expression of redox signaling factors. The main mechanisms were determined to be decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production due to the inhibition of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2). To determine the functional role of NOX2 in CINP, we administrated CUM into NOX2-deficient mice with neuropathic pain. Therefore, we suggest that CUM controls the expression levels of inflammatory factors in CINP via NOX2 inactivation. This study demonstrated that a complementary medicine such as CUM might be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of CINP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7304DOI Listing
November 2021

Global regulator DksA modulates virulence of .

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):2750-2763

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

DksA with (p)ppGpp regulates a wide range of gene transcriptions during the stringent response. The aim of this study was to identify a DksA ortholog in and clarify the roles of DksA in bacterial physiology and virulence. The ∆ mutant and its complemented strains were constructed using ATCC 17978. The in ATCC 17978 was identified to using sequence homology, protein structure prediction, and gene expression patterns under different culture conditions. The ∆ mutant strain showed a filamentous morphology compared with the wild-type (WT) strain. Bacterial growth was decreased in the ∆ mutant strain under static conditions. Surface motility was decreased in the ∆ mutant strain compared with the WT strain. In contrast, biofilm formation was increased and biofilm-associated genes, such as and , were upregulated in the ∆ mutant strain. The ∆ mutant strain produced less autoinducers than the WT strain. The expression of and was significantly decreased in the ∆ mutant strain. Furthermore, the ∆ mutant strain showed less bacterial burden and milder histopathological changes in the lungs of mice than the WT strain. Mice survival was also significantly different between the ∆ mutant and WT strains. Conclusively, DksA is directly or indirectly involved in regulating a wide range of genes associated with bacterial physiology and virulence, which contributes to the pathogenesis of . Thus, DksA is a potential anti-virulence target for infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1995253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8583241PMC
December 2021

Screening of small molecules attenuating biofilm formation of Acinetobacter baumannii by inhibition of ompA promoter activity.

J Microbiol 2021 Sep 27;59(9):871-878. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

Anti-virulence therapeutic strategies are promising alternatives against drug-resistant pathogens. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) plays a versatile role in the pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, OmpA is an innovative target for anti-virulence therapy against A. baumannii. This study aimed to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) system to discover small molecules inhibiting the ompA promoter activity of A. baumannii and screen chemical compounds using the bacterial growth-based HTS system. The ompA promoter and open reading frame of nptI fusion plasmids that controlled the expression of nptI encoding resistance to kanamycin by the ompA promoter were constructed and then transformed into A. baumannii ATCC 17978. This reporter strain was applied to screen small molecules inhibiting the ompA promoter activity in a chemical library. Of the 7,520 chemical compounds, 15 exhibited ≥ 70% growth inhibition of the report strain cultured in media containing kanamycin. Three compounds inhibited the expression of ompA and OmpA in the outer membrane of A. baumannii ATCC 17978, which subsequently reduced biofilm formation. In conclusion, our reporter strain is useful for large-scale screening of small molecules inhibiting the ompA expression in A. baumannii. Hit compounds identified by the HTS system are promising scaffolds to develop novel therapeutics against A. baumannii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-021-1394-zDOI Listing
September 2021

Outer membrane protein A contributes to antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii through the OmpA-like domain.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Nov;72(11):3012-3015

Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 41944, Korea.

Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii outer membrane protein A (AbOmpA) is involved in bacterial pathogenesis. However, the role of AbOmpA in the antimicrobial resistance of A. baumannii has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the role of the OmpA-like domain of AbOmpA in the antimicrobial resistance of A. baumannii.

Methods: The MICs of antimicrobial agents for the WT A. baumannii ATCC 17978, ΔompA mutant, OmpA-like domain-deleted (amino acids 223-356) AbOmpA mutant and single-copy ompA-complemented strain were determined by the Etest method. The MICs of antimicrobial agents for MDR strain 1656-2 and its ΔompA mutant strains were also determined.

Results: The ΔompA mutant strain of ATCC 17978 was more susceptible to trimethoprim (>5.3-fold) and other antimicrobial agents tested (<2.0-fold), except tigecycline, than the WT strain. The ΔompA mutant strain of 1656-2 was more susceptible to trimethoprim (>4.0-fold), tetracycline (2.3-fold) and other antimicrobial agents (<2.0-fold), including tigecycline, colistin and imipenem, than the WT strain. The MICs of gentamicin, imipenem and nalidixic acid for the WT ATCC 17978 and ΔompA mutant strains were decreased in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor. A mutant strain of ATCC 17978 with the OmpA-like domain of AbOmpA deleted was more susceptible (≥2.0-fold) to substrates of the resistance-nodulation-division efflux pumps, including aztreonam, gentamicin, imipenem and trimethoprim, than the WT strain.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that AbOmpA contributes to the antimicrobial resistance of A. baumannii through the OmpA-like domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx257DOI Listing
November 2017

Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolates from two Korean hospitals.

PLoS One 2017 29;12(3):e0174716. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Clostridium difficile is one of the main etiological agents causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This study investigated the genetic diversity of 70 toxigenic C. difficile isolates from two Korean hospitals by employing toxinotyping, ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Toxin gene amplification resulted in 68 A⁺B⁺ and two A-B+ isolates. Most isolates (95.7-100%) were susceptible to daptomycin, metronidazole, and vancomycin. Seventy C. difficile isolates were classified into five toxinotypes, 19 ribotypes, 16 sequence types (STs), and 33 arbitrary pulsotypes. All C. difficile isolates of ribotype 018 (n = 38) were classified into ST17, which was the most prevalent ST in both hospitals. However, C. difficile isolates of ST17 (ribotype 018) exhibited pulsotypes that differed by hospital. ST2 (ribotype 014/020), 8 (ribotypes 002), 17 (ribotype 018), and 35 (ribotypes 015) were detected in both hospitals, whereas other STs were unique to each hospital. Statistical comparison of the different typing methods revealed that ribotyping and PFGE were highly predictive of STs. In conclusion, our epidemiological study indicates that C. difficile infections in both hospitals are associated with the persistence of endemic clones coupled with the emergence of many unique clones. A combination of MLST with PFGE or ribotyping could be useful for monitoring epidemic C. difficile strains and the emergence of new clones in hospitals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174716PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5371380PMC
September 2017

Clostridium difficile-derived membrane vesicles induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity in colonic epithelial cells in vitro.

Microb Pathog 2017 Jun 9;107:6-11. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Clostridium difficile is the most common etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. This study investigated the secretion of membrane vesicles (MVs) from C. difficile and determined the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity of C. difficile MVs in epithelial cells in vitro. C. difficile ATCC 43255 and two clinical isolates secreted spherical MVs during in vitro culture. Proteomic analysis revealed that MVs of C. difficile ATCC 43255 contained a total of 262 proteins. Translation-associated proteins were the most commonly identified in C. difficile MVs, whereas TcdA and TcdB toxins were not detected. C. difficile ATCC 43255-derived MVs stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human colorectal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Moreover, these extracellular vesicles induced cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, C. difficile MVs are important nanocomplexes that elicit a pro-inflammatory response and induce cytotoxicity in colonic epithelial cells, which may contribute, along with toxins, to intestinal mucosal injury during C. difficile infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.03.006DOI Listing
June 2017

Antimicrobial activity of novel 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2017 Jan 21;49(1):107-111. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 41944, South Korea. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to screen lead compounds exhibiting potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains from a library of chemical compounds. In a high-throughput screening analysis of 7520 compounds representative of 340,000 small molecules, two 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds were the most active against A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Subsequent selection and analysis of 70 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds revealed that the top 7 compounds were extremely active against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) A. baumannii isolates. These compounds commonly carried a 1-cyclopropyl-7-fluoro-4-oxo-4H-quinolizine-3-carboxylic acid core structure but had different C-8 and/or C-9 moieties. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the seven compounds against fluoroquinolone-resistant A. baumannii isolates were found to be in the range of 0.02-1.70 µg/mL regardless of the mutation types in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA and ParC. Cytotoxicity of the seven compounds was observed in HeLa and U937 cells at a concentration of 50 µg/mL, which was >32.5- to 119-fold higher than the MIC for A. baumannii isolates. In conclusion, novel 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds represent a promising scaffold on which to develop antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant A. baumannii strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.10.008DOI Listing
January 2017

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia outer membrane vesicles elicit a potent inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.

Pathog Dis 2016 11 17;74(8). Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 41944, Korea

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has become one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. This microorganism secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), but the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia as it relates to OMVs has not been characterized. This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of S. maltophilia OMVs and their ability to induce inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13637 and two clinical isolates were found to secrete spherical OMVs during in vitro culture. OMVs from S. maltophilia ATCC 13637 were cytotoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OMVs stimulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in A549 cells. Early inflammatory responses such as congestion and neutrophilic infiltrations and profound expression of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes were observed in the lungs of mice injected with S. maltophilia OMVs, and were similar to responses elicited by the bacteria. Our data demonstrate that S. maltophilia OMVs are important secretory nanocomplexes that elicit a potent inflammatory response that might contribute to S. maltophilia pathogenesis during infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftw104DOI Listing
November 2016

Differences in Biofilm Mass, Expression of Biofilm-Associated Genes, and Resistance to Desiccation between Epidemic and Sporadic Clones of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Sequence Type 191.

PLoS One 2016 13;11(9):e0162576. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Understanding the biology behind the epidemicity and persistence of Acinetobacter baumannii in the hospital environment is critical to control outbreaks of infection. This study investigated the contributing factors to the epidemicity of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) sequence type (ST) 191 by comparing the differences in biofilm formation, expression of biofilm-associated genes, and resistance to desiccation between major epidemic (n = 16), minor epidemic (n = 12), and sporadic (n = 12) clones. Biofilm mass was significantly greater in the major epidemic than the minor epidemic and sporadic clones. Major and minor epidemic clones expressed biofilm-associated genes, abaI, bap, pgaABCD, and csuA/BABCDE, higher than the sporadic clones in sessile conditions. The csuC, csuD, and csuE genes were more highly expressed in the major epidemic than minor epidemic clones. Interestingly, minor epidemic clones expressed more biofilm-associated genes than the major epidemic clone under planktonic conditions. Major epidemic clones were more resistant to desiccation than minor epidemic and sporadic clones on day 21. In conclusion, the epidemic CRAB ST191 clones exhibit a higher capacity to form biofilms, express the biofilm-associated genes under sessile conditions, and resist desiccation than sporadic clones. These phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of CRAB ST191 may account for the epidemicity of specific CRAB ST191 clones in the hospital.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162576PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5021322PMC
July 2017

Variation among Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicle proteomes affects cytotoxicity of host cells.

Microb Pathog 2016 Apr 27;93:185-93. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

Department of Microbiology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus secretes membrane-derived vesicles (MVs), which can deliver virulence factors to host cells and induce cytopathology. However, the cytopathology of host cells induced by MVs derived from different S. aureus strains has not yet been characterized. In the present study, the cytotoxic activity of MVs from different S. aureus isolates on host cells was compared and the proteomes of S. aureus MVs were analyzed. The MVs purified from S. aureus M060 isolated from a patient with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome showed higher cytotoxic activity toward host cells than that shown by MVs from three other clinical S. aureus isolates. S. aureus M060 MVs induced HEp-2 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, but the cytotoxic activity of MVs was completely abolished by treatment with proteinase K. In a proteomic analysis, the MVs from three S. aureus isolates not only carry 25 common proteins, but also carry ≥60 strain-specific proteins. All S. aureus MVs contained δ-hemolysin (Hld), γ-hemolysin, leukocidin D, and exfoliative toxin C, but exfoliative toxin A (ETA) was specifically identified in S. aureus M060 MVs. ETA was delivered to HEp-2 cells via S. aureus MVs. Both rETA and rHld induced cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells. In conclusion, MVs from clinical S. aureus isolates differ with respect to cytotoxic activity in host cells, and these differences may result from differences in the MV proteomes. Further proteogenomic analysis or mutagenesis of specific genes is necessary to identify cytotoxic factors in S. aureus MVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2016.02.014DOI Listing
April 2016

Pedobacter namyangjuensis sp. nov. isolated from soil and reclassification of Nubsella zeaxanthinifaciens Asker et al. 2008 as Pedobacter zeaxanthinifaciens comb. nov.

J Microbiol 2013 Feb 2;51(1):25-30. Epub 2013 Mar 2.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 5G38(T), was isolated from a field cultivated with Chinese cabbage in Korea. The strain grew at 5-40°C and at pH 6.0-8.0. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain 5G38(T) represented a distinct lineage within the family Sphingobacteriaceae and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.2% with Pedobacter koreensis WPCB189(T), followed by Pedobacter agri PB92(T) (94.6%), Pedobacter suwonensis 15-52(T) (94.4%), Pedobacter rhizosphaerae 01-96(T) (94.4%), Pedobacter sandarakinus DS-27(T) (94.4%), and Nubsella zeaxanthinifaciens TDMA-5(T) (94.3%). Strain 5G38(T) formed monophyletic clade with Nubsella zeaxanthinifaciens in the cluster comprised of species of the genus Pedobacter. Chemotaxonomic characteristics of the novel strains, including DNA G+C content of genomic DNA (37.0 mol%), the predominant respiratory quinine (MK-7), and the major fatty acids which were iso-C15:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH) and iso-C17:0 3-OH, are similar to those of the genus Pedobacter. However, the novel strains can be distinguished from the other species of Pedobacter by physiological properties. The name Pedobacter namyangjuensis sp. nov. is therefore proposed for strain 5G38(T) (KACC 13938(T) =NBRC 107692(T)) as the type strain. Furthermore, the reclassification of Nubsella zeaxanthinifaciens as Pedobacter zeaxanthinifaciens comb. nov. is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-013-2231-9DOI Listing
February 2013

Rudaea cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from soil.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009 Sep 20;59(Pt 9):2308-12. Epub 2009 Jul 20.

Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Medicinal Crop, Rural Development Administration (RDA), Suwon 441-707, Republic of Korea.

A yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, strain KIS3-4T, was isolated from soil collected on Daechung Island in the West Sea of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain KIS3-4T in a distinct lineage in the family Xanthomonadaceae. Strain KIS3-4T shared 87.3-93.7% sequence similarity with members of the family Xanthomonadaceae, and was related most closely to the genera Dyella and Dokdonella. In its biochemical characteristics, strain KIS3-4T was clearly separable from other genera within the family Xanthomonadaceae on the basis of the hydrolysis of cellulose and urea, high G+C content (64 mol%) and fatty acid profile. Major fatty acids (>10% of the total fatty acids) were iso-C17:1omega9c (32.8%), iso-C17:0 (18.0%) and iso-C16:0 (12.7%). Q-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. Phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified aminophospholipids and phospholipids were present. Based on its unique phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic features, strain KIS3-4T represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Rudaea cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Rudaea cellulosilytica is KIS3-4T (=KACC 12734T=JCM 15422T).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.005165-0DOI Listing
September 2009

Quantitative improvement of 16S rDNA DGGE analysis for soil bacterial community using real-time PCR.

J Microbiol Methods 2009 Aug 10;78(2):216-22. Epub 2009 Jun 10.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA fragments has been frequently used to profile a structure of the bacterial community in a given soil. However, this procedure has various types of intrinsic error and bias, thus often misleads the relative abundance of bacterial populations. In order to establish a reliability for the current 16S rDNA DGGE method, we investigated various parameters and potential sources of errors in the DGGE procedures, such as primer mismatch, dNTP concentration, DNA polymerase, PCR cycles, uneven amplification of templates, secondary structure of PCR product, melting domain profiles, and acrylamide/bis concentration. Our result showed that the relative band intensities of the corresponding 16S rDNA templates were closely correlated with the differences of the melting temperature between the higher and lower melting domains of the PCR products. In addition, application of i) real-time PCR, ii) combination of PCR primers and iii) optimization of both dNTP and acrylamide/bis concentrations significantly improved the quantitative representation of bacterial 16S rDNA levels in the mixed samples. Especially, identification of the inflection points of DNA samples through the real-time PCR was crucial for the accurate representation of soil bacterial populations. Beyond these points DNA templates can be over-amplified to a saturated level independently of their initial amounts. Therefore for the accurate analysis of soil bacterial community, a quantitative 16S rDNA DGGE analysis needs to be performed in combination with a real-time PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2009.06.001DOI Listing
August 2009

Niabella ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil cultivated with Korean ginseng.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009 Jun;59(Pt 6):1282-5

Applied Microbiology Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration (RDA), Suwon 441-707, Republic of Korea.

The taxonomic status of a yellow- to light orange-coloured strain isolated from soil of a Korean ginseng field was established based on a polyphasic investigation. The novel isolate, strain GR10-1(T), was an obligately aerobic, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, flexirubin-pigment-producing, short rod-shaped bacterium. The strain grew optimally at 28-30 degrees C, at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 0-1 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the new isolate showed the highest sequence similarities with Niabella aurantiaca R2A15-11(T) (95.1 %) and Niabella soli JS13-8(T) (94.6 %). The DNA G+C content of strain GR10-1(T) was 43 mol%. It contained iso-C(15 : 1) G (36.4 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) (32.8 %) as the major fatty acids (>10 %) and MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone. On the basis of evidence from our polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that strain GR10-1(T) should be classified within a novel species of the genus Niabella, for which the name Niabella ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GR10-1(T) (=KACC 13021(T) =JCM 15444(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.004333-0DOI Listing
June 2009

Chitinophaga niabensis sp. nov. and Chitinophaga niastensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009 Jun;59(Pt 6):1267-71

Applied Microbiology Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707, Republic of Korea.

Two yellow-coloured bacterial strains, designated JS13-10(T) and JS16-4(T), were isolated from soil from Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strains were found to be affiliated with members of the genus Chitinophaga. Phenotypically, the novel strains were identified as being different from each other and from recognized species of the genus Chitinophaga. DNA-DNA hybridization tests between the two novel strains and closely related Chitinophaga reference strains produced DNA relatedness values that were significantly lower (<36 %) than those generally accepted as the highest threshold for the phylogenetic definition of a species. On the basis of their distinct taxonomic characteristics, these strains represent two novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the names Chitinophaga niabensis sp. nov. (type strain JS13-10(T)=KACC 12952(T)=JCM 15440(T)) and Chitinophaga niastensis sp. nov. (type strain JS16-4(T)=KACC 12954(T)=JCM 15441(T)) are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.004804-0DOI Listing
June 2009

Aquitalea denitrificans sp. nov., isolated from a Korean wetland.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009 May;59(Pt 5):1045-8

Korean Agricultural Culture Collection (KACC), Microbial Genetics Division, National Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707, Republic of Korea.

A novel bacterium, designated strain 5YN1-3(T), was isolated from wetland peat collected from Yongneup, Korea. The bacterium was facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, yellow-coloured, rod-shaped, mesophilic and motile with one polar flagellum. The strain grew optimally at 30 degrees C, at pH 6.0-9.0 and with 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the highest similarity to the sequence from Aquitalea magnusonii TRO-001DR8(T), with 98.7 % sequence similarity. However, strain 5YN1-3(T) showed DNA-DNA relatedness of 43 % (40 % in a reciprocal experiment) with A. magnusonii LMG 23054(T). The strain contained summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c) and C(16 : 0) as major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain 5YN1-3(T) should be assigned to a novel species of the genus Aquitalea, for which the name Aquitalea denitrificans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 5YN1-3(T) (=KACC 12729(T) =DSM 21300(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.002840-0DOI Listing
May 2009

Anti-obesity effect of Pinellia ternata extract in Zucker rats.

Biol Pharm Bull 2006 Jun;29(6):1278-81

Natural Products Research Institute and College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Korea.

Pinellia ternata is known as the herb effective in removing dampness-phlegm, one of the causes of obesity in traditional Korean medicine. Pinellia ternata water extract (PE) was fed to rats after mixing with diet once a day (400 mg x kg(-1)) for 6 weeks. We investigated its effect on the thermogenesis and fatty acids oxidation with obese Zucker rats. We also determined the gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), and PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC1alpha). The PE treatment lowered the levels of triglyceride and free fatty acids (p<0.05) in blood of the obese rats and the body weight was also reduced slightly. It was also observed that PE significantly increased the expression of both UCP1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue (BAT) (p<0.001) and PPARalpha and PGC1alpha mRNA in white visceral adipose tissue (WAT) (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), which may cause a reduction of obesity. These results suggested that PE would be able to affect anti-obesity through thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.1278DOI Listing
June 2006

Growth dynamics of Artemisia annua hairy roots in three culture systems.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2003 Aug;83(4):428-43

Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609, USA.

The transient growth of Artemisia annua hairy roots was compared for cultures grown in shake flasks and in bubble column and mist reactors. Instantaneous growth rates were obtained by numerically differentiating the transient biomass measurements. Specific sugar consumption rates showed good agreement with literature values. From the growth rate and sugar consumption rate, the specific yield and maintenance coefficient for sugar were determined for all three culture systems. These values were statistically indistinguishable for roots grown in shake flasks and bubble columns. In contrast, the values for roots grown in bubble columns and mist reactors were statistically different, suggesting that sugar utilization by roots grown in these two systems may be different. By measuring respiration rates in the bubble column reactor we also determined the actual biomass yield and maintenance coefficient for O(2) and CO(2). Together with an elemental analysis of the roots, this allowed us to obtain a reasonable carbon balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.10685DOI Listing
August 2003

Growth of Artemisia annua hairy roots in liquid- and gas-phase reactors.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2002 Nov;80(4):454-64

Department of Chemical Engineering, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609, USA.

Artemisia annua hairy roots were grown in liquid-phase bubble column and gas-phase nutrient mist reactors. In most cases the bubble column reactor accumulated more biomass than the mist reactor; the highest final biomass concentrations observed were 15.3 g DW/L in the bubble column reactor and 14.4 g DW/L in the mist reactor. Further analysis showed that the average specific growth rate in the mist reactors was essentially constant and independent of the biomass concentration at the beginning of the mist mode. In contrast, at low packing densities the average growth rate in the bubble column reactors was higher than in the mist reactors, decreasing to comparable rates at high packing densities. Finally, an aerosol deposition model was used to compare the volume of medium captured by the root bed in the mist reactor to the volume of medium required to maintain a specified growth rate. The results suggest that under the current operating conditions, lower growth rates in the mist reactor may be due to insufficient nutrient availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.10389DOI Listing
November 2002
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