Publications by authors named "Yoo Yong Kim"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Amino acid digestibility in diets containing copra meal with β-mannanase fed to growing pigs.

Anim Biosci 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing increasing levels of copra meal (CM) with β-mannanase supplementation.

Methods: Twenty barrows (initial body weight: 34.43 ± 0.11 kg) surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum were individually housed in metabolism crates. Pigs were allotted to 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were: 1) NC: negative control, corn-soybean meal (SBM) based diet, 2) PC: positive control, basal diet + 0.10% β-mannanase supplementation (800 IU/kg), 3) CM6: PC diet with 6% CM supplementation, 4) CM12: PC diet with 12% CM supplementation, and 5) CM18: PC diet with 18% CM supplementation. A nitrogen-free diet was used to estimate basal endogenous losses of AA for SID calculation. All experimental diets contained 0.5% chromic oxide as an indigestible marker. Each period consisted of a 4-d diet adaptation period and a 3-d ileal digesta collection period.

Results: There were no differences in apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID of all AA between the NC and PC treatments except that the PC treatment had lower AID and SID of Gly than the NC treatment (p<0.05). There were linear decreases in AID and SID of Lys (p<0.05) and Asp (p=0.06; tendency) with increasing levels of CM in the diets with β-mannanase.

Conclusion: The β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on AA digestibility in pigs fed the corn-SBM based diet but increasing levels of CM reduced SID of Lys and Asp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0019DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of feed form and particle size on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, and gastric health in growing-finishing pigs.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 14;34(6):1061-1069. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed processing and particle size on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, and gastric health in growing-finishing pigs.

Methods: A total of 360 growing pigs (22.64±0.014 kg initial body weight [BW]) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replicates by BW and sex, and 10 pigs were housed in one pen in a randomized complete block design. The BW and feed intake were recorded to calculate growth performance. For the digestibility trial, a total of 24 barrows with an initial BW of 33.65±0.372 kg were split into 6 treatments with a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments were designed by a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments based on two main factors, particle size (600, 750, 900 μm) and feed form (mash and pellet) of diet. Experimental diets were formulated to contain the requirements of the NRC (2012).

Results: The BW and average daily gain were not changed by dietary treatments, and the feed intake of finishing pigs (wks 6 to 12) was increased when the pigs were fed a mash diet (p<0.05). For the overall period, the feed efficiency of pigs was improved with the pellet diet (p<0.01) and reduced particle size (p<0.05). The pellet diet had effects on increasing crude fat digestibility (p<0.01) relative to a mash diet, but there was no considerable change in dry matter and crude protein digestibilities by dietary treatments. In the evaluation of gastric health, a trend for an increased incidence of keratinization in the esophageal region was observed as particle size decreased (p = 0.07).

Conclusion: Feed efficiency could be improved by pellet diet and reduced particle size. Nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, and gastric health were not affected by feed form, and particle size ranged from 600 to 900 μm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100489PMC
June 2021

Mealworm ( Larvae) as an Alternative Protein Source for Monogastric Animal: A Review.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 8;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Edible insects have been used as an alternative protein source for food and animal feed, and the market size for edible insects has increased. larvae, also known as mealworm and yellow mealworm, are considered a good protein source with nutritional value, digestibility, flavor, and a functional ability. Additionally, they are easy to breed and feed for having a stable protein content, regardless of their diets. Therefore, larvae have been produced industrially as feed for pets, zoo animals, and even for production animals. To maintain the nutrient composition and safety of larvae, slaughtering (heating or freezing) and post-slaughtering (drying and grinding) procedures should be improved for animal feed. larvae are also processed with defatting or hydrolysis before grinding. They have a high quality and quantity of protein and amino acid profile, so are considered a highly sustainable protein source for replacing soybean meal or fishmeal. has a chitin in its cuticle, which is an indigestible fiber with positive effects on the immune system. In studies of poultry, the supplementation of larvae improved the growth performance of broiler chickens, without having negative effects on carcass traits, whereas some studies have reported that there were no significant differences in the growth performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens. In studies of swine, the supplementation of larvae improved the growth performance and protein utilization of weaning pigs. Furthermore, 10% of larvae showed greater amino acid digestibility than conventional animal proteins in growing pigs. However, there are some challenges regarding the biosafety, consumer's acceptance, and price for the use of larvae in animal feed. Consequently, larvae could be used as an alternative or sustainable protein source in monogastric animal feed with a consideration of the nutritional values, biosafety, consumer's acceptance, and market price of larvae products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10112068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695176PMC
November 2020

Effects of Copra Meal Inclusion Level in Growing-Finishing Pig Diets Containing β-Mannanase on Growth Performance, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility, Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations and Pork Quality.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Oct 9;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of copra meal (CM) inclusion level on the growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations, and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing β-mannanase. Eighty crossbred pigs with average body weight (BW) of 27.22 ± 0.09 kg were allotted to five dietary treatments with four pigs per pen and four replicates per treatment based on sex and BW. The dietary treatments were: (1) NC: negative control, corn-soybean meal (SBM) based basal diet, (2) PC: positive control, basal diet + 0.10% β-mannanase (800 IU/ kg diet), (3) CM6: PC diet with 6% CM inclusion, (4) CM12: PC diet with 12% CM inclusion, and (5) CM18: PC diet with 18% CM inclusion in a three-phase feeding program (growing: 0-6 weeks, finishing I: 7-9 weeks, and finishing II: 10-12 weeks). The quadratic responses were observed in the BW at six weeks ( < 0.05), ADG in the growing phase (0-6 weeks; < 0.05), and ADFI in the finishing phase with a tendency (7-12 weeks; = 0.06) as the inclusion level of CM increased. However, the BW at 12 weeks (linear, < 0.05 and quadratic, = 0.06), the overall ADG (0-12 weeks; linear and quadratic, < 0.05), and the G:F ratio in the finishing (7-12 weeks; linear, < 0.05) and overall (0-12 weeks; linear, < 0.05) phases decreased with increasing levels of CM in the diets. The ATTD of crude protein (linear, < 0.05), crude fiber (linear, < 0.05), and ash (linear, < 0.05) decreased linearly as the inclusion level of CM increased. The BUN concentrations increased linearly with increasing levels of CM in the diets at 12 weeks of the experiment ( < 0.05). As the inclusion level of CM increased, TBARS value at d 3 post-mortem (linear, = 0.07) tended to increase, whereas initial loin pH at 1 h post-mortem decreased (linear and quadratic, < 0.05) with no difference in ultimate loin pH at 24 h post-mortem. These results indicated that CM inclusion up to 12% in the growing-finishing pig diets with β-mannanase did not affect growth performance, nutrient utilization, and pork quality whereas 18% CM inclusion to the diets could negatively impact nutrient digestibility, BUN concentrations, and thereby growth performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10101840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600652PMC
October 2020

Effects of L-Arginine Supplementation during Late Gestation on Reproductive Performance, Piglet Uniformity, Blood Profiles, and Milk Composition in High Prolific Sows.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 30;10(8). Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-arginine supplementation levels during late gestation on reproductive performance and piglet uniformity in high prolific sows. A total of 60 F1 multiparous sows (Yorkshire × Landrace), with an average body weight of 238.2 kg, were allotted to one of three treatment groups in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were divided by the supplementation level of arginine during the late-gestation period, from day 70 to farrowing, as follows-(1) CON: corn-soybean meal-based basal diet (Arg 0.72%), (2) Arg10: basal diet + L-Arg 0.28% (Arg 1.0%), and (3) Arg15: basal diet + L-Arg 0.79% (Arg 1.5%). The same lactation diet was provided ad libitum to sows during the lactation period. There were no significant differences in body weight and backfat thickness in sows during late-gestation and lactation. Dietary arginine levels had no significant influences on the number of total born, stillbirth, and born alive. However, increasing inclusion level of L-arginine supplementation tended to increase ( < 0.10) alive litter weight linearly, and also linearly increased ( < 0.05) the piglet weight gain and litter weight gain during the lactation period. In piglet uniformity, the standard deviation of piglet birth weight ( < 0.05) and the coefficient of variation for piglet birth weight ( < 0.10) increased linearly, as dietary arginine levels increased in the late gestation period. Increasing L-arginine supplementation to late gestating sows linearly increased ( < 0.05) the blood concentrations of arginine and ornithine at day 90 and day 110 of gestation. On the other hand, dietary arginine levels in late gestation did not affect the blood parameters related to the nitrogen utilization. Increasing dietary arginine levels for the late gestating sows did not affect the milk composition for colostrum and milk at day 21 of lactation. In conclusion, the inclusion level of arginine in the diet for late gestating sows, by up to 1.5%, could improve the alive litter weight at birth and litter weight gain during lactation, whereas the piglet uniformity at birth was decreased due to the increase of survival for fetuses with light birth weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10081313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459627PMC
July 2020

Effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on physiological responses, reproductive performance, blood profiles, and milk composition in primiparous sows.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 May 31;62(3):334-347. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The adequate intake of energy and lysine for primiparous sows are necessary for maternal growth of sows and growth of their progeny. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on primiparous sows and their progeny. A total of 48 gilts (Yorkshire × Landrace), with an initial body weight (BW) of 168.1 ± 9.71 kg and at day 35 of gestation, were allotted to eight treatment groups with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The first factor was metabolizable energy levels in diet (3,265 or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg), and the second factor was lysine levels in diet (gestation 0.55%, 0.65%, 0.75%, 0.85%, lactation 0.70%, 0.85%, 1.00%, 1.15%). The BW gain ( = 0.07) and backfat thickness ( = 0.09) in the gestation period showed a tendency to be increased in sows fed the high-energy diets. In the lactation period, sows fed the high-energy diets tended to be greater BW ( = 0.09) and less BW loss ( = 0.05) than those of sows fed the low-energy diets. Sows fed high-energy diets had a tendency of greater piglet weight at day 21 of lactation and greater piglet weight gain ( = 0.08 and = 0.08, respectively). Although the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was increased linearly as dietary lysine level increased at day 110 of gestation (Linear, = 0.03), the BUN was decreased linearly as dietary lysine level increase at day 21 of lactation (Linear, < 0.01). In the composition of colostrum, sows fed high-energy diets had greater casein, protein, total solid, solid not fat, and free fatty acid concentrations than those of sows fed low-energy diets ( < 0.05). Supplementation of total lysine 0.75% for gestation and 1.00% for lactation with 3,365 kcal of ME/kg energy level could be applied to the primiparous sows' diet to improve performance of sows and growth of their progeny.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.3.334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288234PMC
May 2020

Effects of Dietary β-Mannanase Supplementation on Growth Performance, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility, Intestinal Integrity, and Immune Responses in Weaning Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Apr 17;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The experiment aimed to investigate the effects of dietary β-mannanase supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, intestinal integrity, and the immunological and oxidative stress parameters in weaning pigs. A total of 64 newly weaning pigs (initial body weight: 6.96 ± 0.70 kg) were allotted to two dietary treatments in eight replicates per treatment with four pigs per pen based on body weight and sex. Dietary treatments were 1.) CON (control: corn-soybean meal based basal diet) and 2.) β-mannanase (basal diet +0.06% β-mannanase). The β-mannanase supplementation did not affect growth performance, concentrations of acute phase protein, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. However, the pigs fed the β-mannanase-supplemented diet had greater ATTD of ether extract, jejunum villus height, and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio, and lower crypt depth compared with those fed the CON diet ( < 0.05). The pigs fed the β-mannanase-supplemented diet tended to have the lower count of in cecum than those fed the CON diet ( = 0.08). In conclusion, dietary β-mannanase supplementation did not affect growth performance, immune response and oxidative stress of weaning pigs, whereas it increased fat digestibility and had positive effects on intestinal integrity and cecum microflora by reducing the count of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10040703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222840PMC
April 2020

Effects of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae hydrolysate on nutrient ileal digestibility in growing pigs compared to those of defatted mealworm larvae meal, fermented poultry by-product, and hydrolyzed fish soluble.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Mar 24;33(3):490-500. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Animal Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Objective: To investigate effect of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae hydrolysate on nutrient ileal digestibility compared to those of dried mealworm larvae meal, fermented poultry by-product, and hydrolyzed fish soluble in growing pigs.

Methods: A total of 12 crossbred ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc) growing pigs with average body weight of 28.70±0.32 kg were surgically equipped with simple T-cannulas. A total of 12 pigs were assigned to individual metabolic crates and allotted to one of four treatments with 3 replicates in a fully randomized design.

Results: Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM) was the highest in pigs fed HML diet. AIDs of crude protein (CP) were higher in pigs fed HML and DMLM diets than those in pigs fed the other two diets. AID of total amino acid was higher (p = 0.06) in pigs fed HML diet. AIDs of lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), and threonine (Thr) were similar in pigs fed DMLM and HML diets, but were higher (p = 0.05, p<0.05, and p = 0.05, respectively) than those in pigs fed FPBM or HFS diet. Pigs fed HML diet had higher standardized ileal digestibilities (SIDs) of DM and CP (p<0.05 and p<0.05, respectively) compared to pigs fed the other FPBM and HFS diets. SIDs of total amino acid were not different (p = 0.06) between treatments. For SIDs of Lys, Met, and Thr, pigs fed HML and DMLM diets showed higher SIDs (p = 0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively) than pigs fed FPBM and HFS diets. SIDs of non-essential amino acids (aspartic acid, glycine, and alanine) were higher (p<0.05, p< 0.05, and p<0.05, respectively) in pigs fed HML, FPBM, and DMLM diets than those in pigs fed the HFS diet. AID and SID of glutamic acid were higher in pigs fed HML and FPBM diets.

Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary supplementation of mealworm larvae hydrolysate had higher digestibility in DM, CP, Lys, Met, and Thr compared to dietary supplementation with fermented poultry by-product and hydrolyzed fish soluble.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054617PMC
March 2020

Effects of dietary vitamin levels on physiological responses, blood profiles, and reproductive performance in gestating sows.

J Anim Sci Technol 2019 Sep 30;61(5):294-303. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin levels on physiological responses, blood profiles, and reproductive performance in gestating sows. A total of 52 F1 multiparous sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) with an average body weight of 223.5 ± 31.7 kg, an average parity of 6.4 ± 2.7, and an average backfat thickness of 18.5 ± 4.9 mm were divided into four treatment groups considering body weight, backfat thickness, and parity in a completely randomized design with 13 replicates. The treatments were 100% (V1), 300% (V3), 600% (V6) and 900% (V9) of the National Research Council (NRC) . The gestation diet was formulated based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and contained 3,265 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg and 12.00% crude protein. During the lactation period, all sows were fed the same commercial lactation diet. There was no significant difference in body weight of gestating sows. However backfat thickness tended to increase when higher levels of vitamins were provided to gestating sows ( < 0.10). When high levels of dietary vitamins were provided, the body weight change of lactating sows increased ( < 0.01). When sows were fed higher levels of vitamins, the feed intake of lactating sows tended to decrease ( = 0.06). There were no treatment differences in the number of total born, born alive, stillbirth piglets, or the body weight of piglets according to different dietary vitamin level. As dietary vitamin level increased, the serum concentration of 25(OH)D in sows at 90 days of gestation linearly increased ( < 0.01). Furthermore, the serum vitamin E level of gestating sows was linearly increased with increasing dietary vitamin level ( < 0.05). The current NRC vitamin requirements are sufficient for gestating sows and higher levels of vitamins in the gestation diet did not show any beneficial effects for gestating and lactating sows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2019.61.5.294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778853PMC
September 2019

Effects of dietary energy and crude protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles, and carcass traits in growing-finishing pigs.

J Anim Sci Technol 2019 Jul 31;61(4):204-215. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary energy and crude protein (CP) levels on growth performance, blood profiles, and carcass traits in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 180 crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) with an average body weight of 30.96 ± 3.068 kg were used for a 12-week feeding trial. Experimental pigs were allotted to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement using a randomized complete block (RCB) design. The first factor was two levels of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density (13.40 MJ/kg or 13.82 MJ/kg), and the second factor was three dietary CP levels based on subdivision of growing-finishing phases (high: 18%/16.3%/16.3%/13.2% middle: 17%/15.3%/15.3%/12.2% and low: 16%/14.3%/14.3%/11.2%). Average daily gain (ADG) and gain-feed ratio (G:F ratio) decreased as dietary CP level was decreased linearly (linear, < 0.05; < 0.05, respectively) in the early growing period, and G:F ration also decreased as dietary CP level was decreased linearly (linearly, < 0.05) over the whole growing phase. Over the entire experimental period, G:F ratio decreased as dietary ME level decreased ( = 0.01). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was increased as dietary energy level decreased in growing period ( < 0.01). During finishing period, total protein concentration was decreased by lower dietary energy level ( < 0.05). In this study, there were no significant differences in proximate factors, physiochemical properties, muscle TBARS assay results, pH changes, or color of pork by dietary treatments. However, saturated fatty acid (SFA) increased ( < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased ( < 0.05) when ME was decreased by 0.42 MJ/kg in growing-finishing pig diets. In addition, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) tended to increase when CP level was decreased in growing-finishing pig diets ( = 0.06). A growing-finishing diet of 13.82 MJ/kg diet of ME with the high CP level can improve growth performance and show better fatty acids composition of pork.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2019.61.4.204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686147PMC
July 2019

Effects of dietary energy and protein levels on reproductive performance in gestating sows and growth of their progeny.

J Anim Sci Technol 2019 May 31;61(3):154-162. Epub 2019 May 31.

School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary energy and crude protein (CP) levels on reproductive performance, litter performance, milk quality, and blood profiles in gestating sows. A total of 59 multiparous sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) with similar body weights (BW), backfat thickness (BF), and parity were assigned to one of six treatments with 9 or 10 sows per treatment using a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and completely randomized design. The first factor was two levels of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density (13.40 or 13.82 MJ/kg) and the second factor was three dietary protein levels based from 35 day in gestating phases (10.5%, 12%, and 13.5%). Backfat thickness change in lactating sows decreased linearly as CP level increased ( = 0.03). Increased energy level in the gestating sow diet tended to increase the total number of piglets born ( = 0.07), but piglet weight decreased ( = 0.02). Dietary CP level had a negative effect on colostrum quality. Casein, protein, total solid, and solids-not-fat concentrations decreased linearly and lactose level increased linearly as CP level in the gestating sow diet increased (casein%: = 0.03; protein%: = 0.04; lactose%: = 0.06; total solids: = 0.03; solid-not-fat: = 0.03, respectively). However, improving ME by 0.42 MJ/kg had no significant effect on the chemical composition of sow colostrum. There were no significant differences in blood glucose concentration in gestating sows when sows were fed different levels of energy during gestation, but blood glucose increased at 21 day of lactation when energy increased by 0.42 MJ/kg ( = 0.04). Blood urea nitrogen concentration increased linearly when dietary CP levels increased at 110 day in gestation, 24-hours postpartum, and 21 days of lactation (linear, < 0.05, < 0.05, and < 0.05, respectively), and it also increased when dietary energy increased at 110 days of gestation and 24-hours postpartum ( < 0.01, and < 0.01, respectively). A gestating sow diet containing 13.82 MJ/kg ME and 10.5% CP can improve reproductive performance, litter performance, and colostrum quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2019.61.3.154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582926PMC
May 2019

Evaluation of barley to replace milk by-product in weaning pig's diet.

J Anim Sci Technol 2019 03 31;61(2):77-86. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Animal Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The supplementation level of barley was limited because of high contents of fiber in monogastric animals. Barley contained high soluble fiber, thus it could prevent to diarrhea of weaning pigs. Moreover, as the barley break down by enzymes, free sugars come out from the barley, which could be used as an energy source in weaning pigs and replace milk by-products in weaning pig's diet. Therefore, present study was conducted to investigate the influence of barley to replace milk by-product in weaning pig's diet on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, and economic analysis in weaning pigs. A total of 112 crossbred ([York-shire × Landrace] × Duroc, weaned at 28 days of age) piglets were allotted to 4 treatments in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Each treatment has 7 replications with 4 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed each treatment diet which containing different levels of barley (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) at the expense of whey powder and lactose. Three phase feeding programs were used for 6 weeks of growth trial (phase 1: 0-2 weeks; phase 2: 3-4 weeks; phase 3: 5-6 weeks). During 0-2 week, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and G:F ratio were decreased as barley level increased in the diet (linear response, < 0.01). In blood profile, blood urea nitrogen was decreased as the barley level increased in the diet (linear, < 0.01). However, no significant differences were observed in blood glucose level. In nutrient digestibility, crude fat digestibility was linearly increased as barley increased (linear, < 0.01). The incidence of diarrhea was improved as increasing barley contents in all phases (linear, < 0.01). These results demonstrated that supplementation of barley to replace milk by-product influenced negatively on growth performance during 0-2 week. However, the incidence of diarrhea and later growth performance from 3 week postweaning were improved as dietary barley level increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2019.61.2.77DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582933PMC
March 2019

Erratum to: Evaluation of barley to replace milk by-product in weaning pig's diet.

J Anim Sci Technol 2019 05 31;61(3):182. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.5187/jast.2019.61.2.77.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2019.61.3.182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582929PMC
May 2019

Effects of different creep feed types on pre-weaning and post-weaning performance and gut development.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018 Dec 23;31(12):1956-1962. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Objective: This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of different creep feed types on suckling performance and further adjustments to solid feed after weaning.

Methods: A total of 24 multiparous sows and their litters were allotted to one of three treatment groups: i) provided highly digestible creep feed (Creep), ii) provided a pig weaning diet (Weaner), and iii) provided sow feed (Sow) as creep feed until weaning. After weaning, a total of 96 piglets were selected for evaluation of post-weaning performance.

Results: For pre-weaning performance, the Creep treatment led to a significantly higher feed intake from 14 to 28 d (p<0.05) and higher body weight gain from 21 to 28 d than piglets that were provided other diets. However, after weaning, the Weaner treatment yielded a significantly higher feed intake and average daily gain than other treatments from 0 to 14 d after weaning (p<0.05); Creep treatment tended to generate lower villus heights in the duodenum than the other treatments (p = 0.07).

Conclusion: Highly digestible creep feed improved pre-weaning performance, but feed familiarity and grain-based creep feed improved post-weaning performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212741PMC
December 2018

Effects of dietary energy and crude protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles, and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 Apr 27;32(4):556-563. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

School of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of reducing dietary metabolic energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) levels on growth performance, blood profiles, and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs.

Methods: A total of 240 crossbred pigs (Duroc×[Landrace×Yorkshire]) with an average body weight of 8.67±1.13 kg were used for a 6-week feeding trial. Experimental pigs were allotted to a 2×3 factorial arrangement using a randomized complete block design. The first factor was two levels of dietary ME density (low ME level, 13.40 MJ/kg or high ME level, 13.82 MJ/kg) and the second factor was three dietary CP levels based on subdivision of early and late weaning phases (low CP level, 19.7%/16.9%; middle CP level, 21.7%/18.9%; or high CP level, 23.7%/20.9%).

Results: Over the entire experimental period, there were no significant difference in body weight among groups, but a decrease in diet energy level was associated with an increase in average daily feed intake (p = 0.02) and decrease in gain-feed ratio (G:F) ratio (p<0.01). Decreased CP levels in the diet were associated with a linear increase in average daily gain (p< 0.05) and quadratic increase in G:F ratio (p<0.05). In the early weaning period, blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to increase when ME in the diet decreased and decrease when CP level in the diet decreased (p = 0.09, p<0.01, respectively). Total protein concentration tended to increase when CP level was reduced (p = 0.08). In the late weaning period, blood urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly as CP level decreased (p<0.01). The CP and crude fat digestibility decreased when ME was decreased by 0.42 MJ/kg (p = 0.05, p = 0.01, respectively). The CP digestibility increased linearly as CP level decreased (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: A weaning pig diet containing high ME level (13.82 MJ/kg) and low CP level (19.7%/16.9%) can improve pig growth performance and nutrient digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409451PMC
April 2019

Effects of cashew nut testa levels as an alternative to wheat bran in gestating sow diets.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018 Jun 19;31(6):881-887. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cashew nut testa (CNT) as an alternative feed ingredient to wheat bran on reproductive performance, litter performance, milk composition, and blood profiles of gestating sows.

Methods: Forth multiparous sows (Yorkshire×Landrace) were fed experimental diets starting at 35 days of pregnancy and an initial average body weight (BW) of 211.53±8.86 kg. Each sow was assigned to a treatment based on BW, backfat thickness (BF) and parity with 10 sows per treatment. Treatments were as follows: i) corn-soybean meal based diet with 6% of wheat bran (C0); ii) basal diet with 2% of CNT and 4% of wheat bran (C2); iii) basal diet with 4% of CNT and 2% of wheat bran (C4); and iv) basal diet with 6% of CNT (C6).

Results: There were no statistically significant differences in BW and BF of gestating sows throughout the experimental period. However, changes in BF (p = 0.09) and the daily feed intake of sows (p = 0.09) tended to linearly increase during the lactation period. The weaning to estrus interval (WEI) showed a quadratic response to CNT treatment (p = 0.02), and the C2 diet showed the shortest WEI. Litter birth weight (p = 0.04) and piglet birth weight (p = 0.06) were linearly decreased with increase in CNT. Furthermore, there had no significant differences in piglet weight and litter weight in 21 day. Insulin concentration at day 70 of gestation was linearly reduced with increasing CNT level in diets (p = 0.03).

Conclusion: When 6% CNT replaced wheat bran in gestating sow diets, there were no negative effects on sow performance, but litter birth weight and piglet birth weight were decreased when CNT level increased in gestating sow diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933987PMC
June 2018

Vitamin D-metabolic enzymes and related molecules: Expression at the maternal-conceptus interface and the role of vitamin D in endometrial gene expression in pigs.

PLoS One 2017 31;12(10):e0187221. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea.

Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with many varied functions including regulation of blood calcium levels, cell proliferation, immunity, and reproduction in mammals. Vitamin D is activated by 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1) and 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and is degraded by 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1). Vitamin D is transported by vitamin D-binding protein (group-specific component, GC) through the bloodstream and regulates cellular actions by binding to vitamin D receptor (VDR). In this study, we determined the expression and regulation of vitamin D-related molecules and the role of vitamin D at the maternal-conceptus interface in pigs. Vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes CYP2R1, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1, vitamin D binding protein GC, and vitamin D receptor VDR were expressed in the endometrium in a pregnancy stage-specific manner as well as in conceptus and chorioallantoic tissues during pregnancy. VDR protein was localized to endometrial and trophoblastic cells. Concentrations of calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, in the endometrial tissues were higher during early pregnancy than in mid- to late pregnancy, while plasma concentrations of calcitriol were highest during late pregnancy. Furthermore, calcitriol affected the expression of several genes related to conceptus implantation, vitamin D metabolism, calcium ion regulation, PG metabolism, and calcium-binding proteins in endometrial tissue explants. These results show that CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, GC, and VDR were expressed at the maternal-conceptus interface, endometrial calcitriol levels were regulated during pregnancy, and calcitriol modulated the expression of endometrial genes, suggesting that calcitriol may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy by regulating endometrial function in pigs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187221PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663432PMC
November 2017

Quality of Frozen Pork from Pigs Fed Diets Containing Palm Kernel Meal as an Alternative to Corn Meal.

Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2017 30;37(2):191-199. Epub 2017 Apr 30.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Food and Bioconvergence, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of palm kernel meal (PKM), an alternative to corn, on the quality of pork. A total of 72 crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) were assigned into four dietary treatments (PKM level of 0, 4, 8, or 12%). After 12 wk, one pig of median weight in each pen was selected and slaughtered to analyze meat quality. The color, free radical scavenging activity, lipid oxidation, texture, composition of fatty acids, and sensory qualities of pork loin were evaluated post slaughter. When the levels of PKM in the diet increased, the *-value of pork loin decreased, whereas *-value and total saturated fatty acids increased. 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of pork loin were lower in groups treated with 8 and 12% PKM than in the control group at day 0; this difference, however, was not observed at day 3 and 7. The results of texture analysis showed that increasing the PKM ratio decreased hardness, chewiness, and springiness at day 7. The sensory test, however, indicated no differences between the control and treated groups. These findings show that finisher pigs could tolerate PKM as a replacement for corn; PKM did not negatively affect the quality of pork, indicating that it can be utilized as feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2017.37.2.191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5434206PMC
April 2017

Various levels of rapeseed meal in weaning pig diets from weaning to finishing periods.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Sep 25;30(9):1292-1302. Epub 2017 Mar 25.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Animal Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of rapeseed meal (RSM) supplementation in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profile, carcass characteristics and economic analysis on weaning to finishing pigs.

Methods: A total of 120 cross bred ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc) weaning pigs were allotted to 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment had 4 replications with 6 pigs per pen. Five different levels of RSM (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) were used as dietary treatments.

Results: Overall, no treatment showed significant differences in growth performance with increased dietary RSM levels. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) decreased as dietary RSM levels increased in 6 weeks (linear response, p<0.01). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine showed no significant differences, neither were there any significant differences in the immune response (IgG and IgA). As the dietary RSM levels of weaning pig diet were increased, no differences were found among dietary treatments upon performing proximate analyses of the pork after finishing. The influence of RSM supplementation on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention were not affected by dietary RSM levels either. With increased dietary RSM levels in the weaning pig diet, no differences among dietary treatments were found after performing proximate analyses of the pork's physiochemical properties. In addition, there were no significant differences observed in pork colors, pH levels, and economic benefits.

Conclusion: Consequently, this experiment demonstrated that weaning pig's diet containing RSM influenced BUN concentration, but there were no detrimental effects on the growth performance of weaning pigs with up to 8% RSM in the diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582286PMC
September 2017

Effects of wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Aug 1;30(8):1150-1159. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs.

Methods: A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc), with an average 27.75± 1.319 kg body weight, were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Four-phase feeding programs were used in this experiment. The treatments included the following: i) corn-soybean meal (SBM) - based diet (CON), ii) corn-SBM - based diet+15% of wheat (W15), iii) corn-SBM - based diet+30% of wheat (W30), iv) corn-SBM - based diet+45% of wheat (W45), and 5) corn-SBM-based diet+60% of wheat (W60).

Results: There was no significant difference in growth performance among the dietary treatments. However, the gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio tended to increase (quadratic, p<0.08) when the pigs were fed a higher wheat diet during the finishing period. The digestibility of crude ash and fat tended to decrease as the wheat supplementation level increased (p<0.08). The proximate analysis of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the dietary level of wheat. The crude ash content in pork was decreased linearly as the wheat supplementation level increased (p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the pH level, shear force, water holding capacity, and cooking loss of the pork. In pork and fat, L*, a*, and b* values were not significantly different among dietary treatments.

Conclusion: Wheat can be supplemented up to 60% in a growing-finishing pig without detrimental effects on growth and pork quality. The G:F ratio tended to improve in the finishing period by wheat inclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5494489PMC
August 2017

Effect of different soybean meal type on ileal digestibility of amino acid in weaning pigs.

J Anim Sci Technol 2015 17;57:11. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, 151-921 Seoul, South Korea.

An experiment was conducted to evaluate apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibilities of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) with 6 soybean products in weaning pigs. A total of 14 weaning barrows with an initial body weight of 6.54 ± 0.34 kg were fitted with T-cannula at the distal ileum and allotted to 7 diets containing various soybean products. The soybean products used in the experiment were conventional soybean meal (CSBM), SBM fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (FSBMA), SBM fermented by Bacillus subtilis PP6 (FSBMB), UV sterilized SBM fermented by Bacillus subtilis PP6 (UVFSBMB), SBM containing Bacillus subtilis PP6 (PSBM), and soy protein concentrate (SPC). Six corn-based diets were used and each of soybean products was added. All diets contained 5.0 g/kg of chromic oxide as an indigestible indicator and an N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AAs. Ileal CP digestibility did not differ by different soybean products. However, SIDs of Ile, Phe and Val were improved in pigs fed the FSBMB, UVFSBMB and SPC diets and the pigs fed the FSBMA diet showed higher SIDs of Phe and Val compared with those fed the CSBM diet (P < 0.05). The FSBMB diet had higher SIDs in most AAs compared with the FSBMA diet (P < 0.05), and higher SIDs of Lys, Ala, Pro, Ser, and Tyr compared with PSBM diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no response of UV-sterilization on the FSBMB in the SIDs of AAs. These results suggest that SIDs of AAs could be improved by the supplementation of fermented soybean products in the diet for weaning pigs but fermentation with Bacillus subtilis is more efficient in improving ileal AA digestibility than that with Aspergillus oryzae. Furthermore, probiotics supplementation in the CSBM and UV-sterilization of the FSBMB had no effects on chemical composition and ileal AA digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0041-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4540275PMC
August 2015

Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles of Small Intestine and Liver in Fast-growing and Slow-growing Weaning Piglets.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014 Nov;27(11):1532-9

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea .

Although growth rate is one of the main economic traits of concern in pig production, there is limited knowledge on its epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation. In this study, we conducted methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-seq) to compare genome-wide DNA methylation profile of small intestine and liver tissue between fast- and slow-growing weaning piglets. The genome-wide methylation pattern between the two different growing groups showed similar proportion of CpG (regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide occurs next to a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence) coverage, genomic regions, and gene regions. Differentially methylated regions and genes were also identified for downstream analysis. In canonical pathway analysis using differentially methylated genes, pathways (triacylglycerol pathway, some cell cycle related pathways, and insulin receptor signaling pathway) expected to be related to growth rate were enriched in the two organ tissues. Differentially methylated genes were also organized in gene networks related to the cellular development, growth, and carbohydrate metabolism. Even though further study is required, the result of this study may contribute to the understanding of epigenetic regulation in pig growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2014.14309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4213696PMC
November 2014

Functional characteristics of porcine peripheral T cells stimulated with IL-2 or IL-2 and PMA.

Res Vet Sci 2014 Feb 10;96(1):54-61. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In human or mouse, mature T cells express either CD4 or CD8, resulting in different functions in the periphery. Interestingly, porcine CD4 and CD8 double positive (DP) T cells are present in the blood, and their proportions change from youth to adulthood. However, the features of these cells in swine are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of porcine peripheral T cells based on their functional characteristics, including proliferation and the expression of CD4 and CD8 co-receptors. The results showed that all the populations changed their CD8 expression in a time-dependent manner and porcine T cells had different proliferative pattern from human T cells. The results further revealed that Th2 cytokines were increased later in porcine T cells compared to human T cells upon stimulation with IL-2+PMA. Collectively, we found that the fate of porcine peripheral T cells is different from that of human T cells, and the changes occur in a time- and stimulation-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.11.018DOI Listing
February 2014

Ontogeny of expression and localization of steroidogenic enzymes in the neonatal and prepubertal pig testes.

J Androl 2009 Jan-Feb;30(1):57-74. Epub 2008 Sep 4.

School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea.

The early neonatal development of boars is characterized by significant testicular production of androgens and estrogens, including an anabolic steroid hormone, 19-nortestosterone. The present study was conducted to determine the expression and presence of steroidogenic and steroid hormone metabolism-related enzymes in the testes of neonatal and 4-month-old prepubertal pigs. Quantitative analyses with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were utilized to reveal mRNA and protein expression, respectively. The localization of the molecules in the testes was determined by immunohistochemistry. mRNA expressions of the molecules tested were mostly significantly increased between 1 and 3 weeks of age and decreased at 4 months of age, compared with those at 0 weeks of age. The protein levels of cytochrome P450 aromatase and carbonyl reductase 1 were significantly increased between 1 and 3 weeks of age and decreased at 4 months of age. However, protein expression patterns of other molecules differed from those of mRNA expression, which implied the existence of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that all of the molecules were present in Leydig cells of the pig testis, regardless of age, except cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage in germ cells and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 on the blood-testis barrier at 4 months of age. Aldose reductase and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were localized in both Leydig and Sertoli cells. We postulate that marked rises in the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the pig testis during early neonatal development could be associated with peak production of 19-nortestosterone, thus eventually leading to the early growth of male pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2164/jandrol.107.004796DOI Listing
February 2009
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