Publications by authors named "Yoo Kyoung Park"

64 Publications

Dietitians View of Foodservice Sanitary Practices and Demands in Long-Term Care Hospitals.

Clin Nutr Res 2021 Jul 30;10(3):192-205. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate the current state of foodservice management and demands for improvement in long-term care hospitals. The survey was performed in experienced dietitians working at 25 hospitals. General characteristics, status of sanitary management (document management, self-assessment of importance and performance), necessity and ranking of sanitary management items were investigated. Approximately 2.5 dietitians worked in each hospital, but only 7 (28.0%) hospitals employed clinical dietitians. From the questionnaire, the scores of the importance in sanitary management and performance were 4.5 ± 0.7 and 4.3 ± 0.9, respectively, and were significantly different (p = 0.000). Participants also reported "special therapeutic diets management" and "compliance with standards of refrigerating time, food, method management" had the lowest importance and performance, respectively. The result of Importance-Performance Analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between importance and performance (R = 0.427). However, items such as "performing hand hygiene" and "compliance with standards of refrigerating time, food, method" and etc. had low importance recognition with low performance. All participants reported "preparing sanitary management standards was necessary" is necessary and "development of sanitary management manual" is the most important. These findings suggest that sanitary management is important in food service management of long-term care hospitals, and improving awareness is required. Developing a hospital foodservice hygiene manual would ensure better safety and quality for patient care and public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2021.10.3.192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8331285PMC
July 2021

Facility-based and home-based multidomain interventions including cognitive training, exercise, diet, vascular risk management, and motivation for older adults: a randomized controlled feasibility trial.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 06 18;13(12):15898-15916. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 22332, Republic of Korea.

We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of multidomain intervention (MI) tailored to the Korean context. In an outcome assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial, participants without dementia and with one or more modifiable dementia risk factors, aged 60-79 years, were randomly assigned to the facility-based MI (FMI; n=51), the home-based MI (HMI; n=51), or the control group receiving general health advice (n=50). The 24-week intervention comprised vascular risk management, cognitive training, social activity, physical exercise, nutrition guidance, and motivational enhancement. The FMI participants performed all intervention programs at a facility three times a week. The HMI participants performed some programs at a facility once every 1-2 weeks and performed others at home. The primary outcome was feasibility measured through retention, adherence, and at least no differences from the control group in the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). In the FMI and HMI groups, the retention rates were 88.2% and 96.1%, and adherence to the intervention was 94.5% and 96.8%, respectively. The RBANS total scale index score improved significantly in the FMI (5.46 ± 7.50, = 0.004) and HMI (5.50 ± 8.14, = 0.004) groups compared to the control group (-0.74 ± 11.51). The FMI and HMI are feasible and there are indicators of efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266338PMC
June 2021

The molecular basis and cellular effects of distinct CD103 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Aug 15;78(15):5789-5805. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Experimental Immunology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Integrin CD103 mediates the adhesion and tissue retention of T cells by binding to E-cadherin which is abundant on epithelial cells. Notably, CD103 is highly expressed on CD8 T cells but conspicuously absent on most CD4 T cells. The mechanism controlling such lineage-specific expression of CD103 remains unclear. Using a series of genetically engineered mouse models, here, we demonstrate that the regulatory mechanism of CD103 expression is distinct between CD4 and CD8 T cells, and that the transcription factor Runx3 plays an important but not an essential role in this process. We further found that the availability of integrin β7 which heterodimerizes with CD103 was necessary but also constrained the surface expression of CD103. Notably, the forced surface expression of CD103 did not significantly alter the thymic development of conventional T cells but severely impaired the generation of MHC-II-restricted TCR transgenic T cells, revealing previously unappreciated aspects of CD103 in the selection and maturation of CD4 T cells. Unlike its effect on CD4 T cell development, however, CD103 overexpression did not significantly affect CD4 T cells in peripheral tissues. Moreover, the frequency and number of CD4 T cells in the small intestine epithelium did not increase even though E-cadherin is highly expressed in this tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that most mature CD4 T cells are refractory to the effects of CD103 expression, and that they presumably utilize CD103-independent pathways to control their tissue retention and residency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-021-03877-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Development and Validation of a Food Literacy Assessment Tool for Community-Dwelling Elderly People.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 7;18(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

Food literacy refers to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for individuals to choose foods that promote health. As the rate of diet-related diseases increases, food literacy is becoming more important. However, there are no tools available to evaluate food literacy among the Korean elderly. We derived 547 questions from a literature review and, after three rounds of Delphi surveys, selected 33 preliminary questions. We calculated the content validity ratio of the questions and applied a face validity procedure. We then selected 32 questions, assessed their validity, and distributed them as a questionnaire to 205 elderly people. We then conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine the validity of the questionnaire and used an internal consistency index (Cronbach's α coefficient) to determine reliability. Based on the factor analysis, 13 questions were selected, distributed among three factors, and evaluated using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett sphericity tests. The factor analysis showed that KMO was 0.872, which is a highly acceptable score, and the Bartlett sphericity test was χ = 1,374.69 at = 0.00. The food literacy questionnaire developed in this study will likely be helpful for improving the healthcare of elderly people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124382PMC
May 2021

Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nutr J 2021 05 5;20(1):41. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medical Nutrition (AgeTech-Service Convergence Major), Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, Republic of Korea.

Background: Current evidence demonstrate that sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and bone health are related; however, there has been only a few reviews on the link between SSBs and bone health. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between SSBs consumption and bone health in chidren and adults.

Methods: Relevant studies of SSBs and bone health published up to 15 March 2021 were searched using PubMed, the Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and a reference search. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD). Subgroup analyses were performed to identify whether effects were modified by age, sex, measured skeletal sites, type of SSBs, and SSBs intake questionnaire.

Results: Twenty-six publications including 124,691 participants were selected on the review. The results from this meta-analysis showed a significant inverse association between SSBs intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults (ES: -0.66, 95% CI: - 1.01, - 0.31, n = 4312). Eighteen of the 20 studies included in the qualitative-only review in children and adults supported the findings from the meta-analysis. When subgroup analysis was performed according to skeletal site, a large effect was found on whole body BMD (ES: -0.97, 95% CI: - 1.54, - 0.40). There was a moderate effect on BMD in females (ES: -0.50, 95% CI: - 0.87, - 0.13). There was a moderate or large effect on BMD in individuals aged under 50 years (under 30 years: ES: -0.57, 95% CI: - 0.97, - 0.17; 30 to 50 years: ES: -1.33, 95% CI: - 1.72, - 0.93). High consumption of carbonated beverages had a moderate effect on BMD (ES: -0.73, 95% CI: - 1.12, - 0.35).

Conclusion: The meta-analysis showed that SSBs consumption such as carbonated beverages were inversely related to BMD in adults. Qualitative review supported the results of meta-analysis.

Trial Registration: This review was registered in the PROSPERO database under identifier CRD42020164428 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00698-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101184PMC
May 2021

Trends and Dietary Assessment According to Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Korean Elderly People: Analysis Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998, 2008, and 2018.

Foods 2020 Nov 22;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

The study aimed to examine the 20-year trends in fruit and non-starch/unsalted vegetable intake among the Korean elderly aged 65 years or older based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. A total of 3722 elderly citizens aged 65 years or older who participated in the dietary survey (24-h recall of dietary intake) of the 1998, 2008, and 2018 NHANES were selected as the subjects of this study. Fruit and non-starchy/unsalted vegetable intake increased by approximately 86.53 g over the past 20 years, from 268.27 g in 1998 to 355.8 g in 2018. In particular, 65-74-year-olds had an increased intake by approximately 130.38 g over the past 20 years, from 277.34 g in 1998 to 407.72 g in 2018. In addition, snacks intake significantly increased over the past 20 years ( for trend < 0.001). Intake according to daily meal cooking location increased by approximately 130 g over the past 20 years, from 64.50 g in 1998 to 123.39 g in 2008, and to 198.01 g in 2018. The annual proportion of the total elderly population who meet the amount of vegetable food intake recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO)/World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) (400 g or more fruits and non-starchy vegetables) increased by approximately 11.28%p (percentage points) over the past 20 years, from 21.78% in 1998 to 24.63% in 2008, and to 33.06% in 2018. The results of this study suggest that more fundamental measures are required to increase the fruit and non-starchy vegetable intake among the elderly. Furthermore, it is thought that the results of this study can be used as basic data in establishing dietary policy. In addition, it is thought that it can be used in developing nutrition education and dietary guidelines for enhancing fruit and vegetable intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9111712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700258PMC
November 2020

Dietary Assessment and Factors According to Fruits and Vegetables Intake in Korean Elderly People: Analysis of Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2018.

Nutrients 2020 Nov 13;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

This study analyzed dietary assessment and factors according to fruits and vegetables intake in Korean elderly people. We enrolled 8336 Korean elderly people aged ≥65 who participated in the dietary intake survey (24-h recall methods) of the 2013-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (KNHANES). The intake of fruits and unsalted/non-starchy vegetables was 372.06 g/day. According to age group, the intake in the age group 65-74 years as 422.47 g/day, and the intake in the age group 75 years + was 301.12 g/day. Based on the intake of daily meals and snacks, the intake of fruits and unsalted/non-starchy vegetables was the highest in snack-eating individuals (480.96 g/day). The subjects who consumed more than the World Health Organization (WHO)/World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)'s plant food intake standards (over 400 g/day of intake of fruits and unsalted/non-starchy vegetables) were 35.47% of the elderly people. These results suggest that it is necessary to develop more fundamental strategies to increase fruits and vegetables intake among elderly people. Furthermore, the study outcomes are expected to provide basic information for developing education programs to improve the dietary life of Korean elderly people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698264PMC
November 2020

Development of a Comprehensive Food Literacy Measurement Tool Integrating the Food System and Sustainability.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 28;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Interdisciplinary Program in Precision Public Health, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

The concept of food literacy is evolving and expanding, increasing the need for a comprehensive measurement tool for food literacy. This study aimed to develop a validated food literacy questionnaire based on an expanded conceptual framework for food literacy. A literature review of existing frameworks and questionnaires for food literacy and focus group interviews ( = 12) were conducted to develop a conceptual framework and candidate questions. A Delphi study ( = 15) and pilot survey ( = 10) to test the preliminary questionnaire's content and face validity were conducted, which were followed by the main survey ( = 200). Construct validity and reliability were assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing food literacy scores with food knowledge scores (FN-score) and nutrient quotient scores (NQ-score). By integrating and revising the six existing conceptual frameworks and focus group interview results, we proposed a two-dimensional conceptual framework comprising a literacy dimension and a food system dimension. After reviewing 560 items and categorizing them into 18 domains (3 in the literacy dimension × 6 in the food system dimension), 32 questions were selected. As a result of the Delphi study, two items were deleted, and content validity was confirmed for the remaining 30 items (content validity ratio (CVR) = 0.92). Ten items were revised during the face validation process, and five items were excluded as a result of the EFA. The final food literacy questionnaire comprised 25 questions related to five factors: production, selection, preparation and cooking, intake, and disposal. Food literacy scores were positively associated with FN- and NQ-scores, confirming the reliability and criterion validity of the final questionnaire. The two-dimensional food literacy conceptual framework developed in this study systematically encompasses complex food literacy concepts by adding a food systems dimension (production, selection, preparation and cooking, intake, and disposal domain) to the existing literacy dimension (functional, interactive, and critical literacy domain). Based on this integrated conceptual framework, a 25-item food literacy questionnaire was developed and validated for practical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692683PMC
October 2020

Feasibility of a 12 Week Physical Intervention to Prevent Cognitive Decline and Disability in the At-Risk Elderly Population in Korea.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 28;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Neurology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Korea.

There is a need for measures that can prevent the onset of dementia in the rapidly aging population. Reportedly, sustained physical exercise can prevent cognitive decline and disability. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of a 12-week physical exercise intervention (PEI) for delay of cognitive decline and disability in the at-risk elderly population in Korea. Twenty-six participants (aged 67.9 ± 3.6 years, 84.6% female) at risk of dementia were assigned to facility-based PEI ( = 15) or home-based PEI ( = 11). The PEI program consisted of muscle strength training, aerobic exercise, balance, and stretching using portable aids. Feasibility was assessed by retention and adherence rates. Physical fitness/cognitive function were compared before and after the PEI. Retention and adherence rates were 86.7% and 88.3%, respectively, for facility-based PEI and 81.8% and 62.3% for home-based PEI. No intervention-related adverse events were reported. Leg strength/endurance and cardiopulmonary endurance were improved in both groups: 30 s sit-to-stand test (facility-based, = 0.002; home-based, = 0.002) and 2 -min stationary march (facility-based, = 0.001; home-based, = 0.022). Cognitive function was improved only after facility-based PEI (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive total score, = 0.009; story memory test on Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment, = 0.026). We found that, whereas our PEI is feasible, the home-based program needs supplementation to improve adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600858PMC
September 2020

Sex Differences in the Association between Living Environmental Factors and Nutritional Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly Koreans.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 19;17(17). Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduated School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

The association between nutritional status and living environment among 703 community-dwelling participants (268 men and 435 women) aged 65 years and older was assessed. In this cross-sectional survey study, living environmental factors, health-related factors, and nutrition (the Nutrition Quotient for the Elderly scores; NQ-E) were assessed. NQ-E scores were significantly higher in men than women, as were diversity and behavior factor scores (diversity: men, 50.2 ± 16.1; women, 44.1 ± 17.5; behavior: men, 59.3 ± 16.9; women, 54.1 ± 16.6). Participants living with a spouse and engaging in frequent sports activities had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having a high NQ-E than those who lived alone and engaged in restful activities and hobbies (men: adjusted OR for high NQ-E = 8.99; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-59.56; women: adjusted OR for high NQ-E = 5.62; 95%CI: 2.36-13.38). We confirmed that women's nutritional status, unlike men's, was better when proper nutrition education was provided and when food security was guaranteed. For all participants, social activities and networks were important for maintaining good nutritional status and a healthy life. We suggest that different nutritional management strategies are needed for elderly people depending on sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504555PMC
August 2020

Maternal nutrition intervention focused on the adjustment of salt and sugar intake can improve pregnancy outcomes.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jul 10;8(7):3900-3911. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Medical Nutrition Graduate School of East-West Medical Science Kyung Hee University Yongin Korea.

Due to the increasing age of pregnant women, maternal nutrition management is becoming more important. Since pregnant women are more likely to consume sodium and sugars than nonpregnant women of the same age, we investigated whether maternal nutrition intervention focused on the adjustment of salt and sugar intake can help pregnancy outcome. This randomized controlled trial was performed on 142 pregnant women within 22 weeks of gestational age for at least 16 weeks until childbirth. Subjects were unequally assigned to the intervention group ( = 98) and the control group ( = 44). Dietary changes based on perceived taste preferences were evaluated by 24-hr dietary recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at pre- and postintervention. In the intervention group, while the intakes of energy, protein, and vitamins were maintained, the intakes of sodium ( < .001) and sugar from processed food ( < .05) were significantly reduced after the intervention. The decreases in salt and sugar consumption were more pronounced in the mothers who had a high preference for saltiness and sweetness. The mean neonatal birth weight of the intervention group was significantly greater than the weight of control group, (3,251.5 ± 402.2 g vs. 2,974.5 ± 294.8 g, < .05). Through this study, nutrition intervention was found to be effective for the formation of healthy eating habits such as reduced salt and sugar intake in pregnant women especially with a high preference for saltiness and sweetness. Also, such specialized maternal nutrition intervention during pregnancy promotes the birth of healthy newborn babies of normal weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382176PMC
July 2020

Leucine-Enriched Protein Supplementation Increases Lean Body Mass in Healthy Korean Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Nutrients 2020 Jun 18;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in 17104, Korea.

Early prevention of sarcopenia could be an important strategy for muscle retention, but most studies have focused on subjects aged 65 or older. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of leucine-enriched protein supplementation on muscle condition in a sample including late middle-aged adults. A 12-week intervention was performed for 120 healthy community-dwelling adults by providing either leucine-enriched protein supplement [leucine 3 g, protein mixture (casein 50% + whey 40% + soy 10%) 17 g, vitamin D 800IU (20 µg), calcium 300 mg, fat 1.1 g, carbohydrate 2.5 g] or isocaloric carbohydrate supplement twice per day. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) and lean body mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 111 participants completed the study, with a dropout rate of 9.2%. LBM normalized by height and body weight (LBM/Wt) was significantly increased ( < 0.001) in the intervention group (0 wk: 633.9 ± 8.5 vs. 12 wk 636.9 ± 8.4 in the intervention group; 0 wk: 638.6 ± 8.3 vs. 12 wk: 632.9 ± 8.1 in the control group). In subgroup analyses, significant differences remained only in subjects between 50 and 64 years of age. We concluded that leucine-enriched protein supplementation can have beneficial effects by preventing muscle loss, mainly for late middle-aged adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353448PMC
June 2020

South Korean Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Protect Brain Health Through Lifestyle Intervention in At-Risk Elderly People: Protocol of a Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial.

J Clin Neurol 2020 Apr;16(2):292-303

Department of Neurology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

Background And Purpose: The prevalence of dementia is increasing in South Korea. Multidomain interventions may be useful for preventing dementia. Such programs need to be disseminated to elderly Koreans throughout the country. We have developed programs of the SoUth Korean study to PrEvent cognitive impaiRment and protect BRAIN health through lifestyle intervention in at-risk elderly people (SUPERBRAIN), which consists of a facility-based multidomain intervention (FMI) program and a home-based multidomain intervention (HMI) program suitable for elderly Koreans. We aim to determine the feasibility of the SUPERBRAIN programs before a large-scale randomized controlled trial.

Methods: We will recruit 150 participants among those without dementia aged 60-79 years with at least 1 modifiable dementia risk factor. They will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to the FMI, HMI, and the waiting-list control arm. The 6-month multidomain intervention consists of management of metabolic and vascular risk factors, cognitive training and social activity, physical exercise, nutritional guidance, and motivational enhancement programs. The primary outcomes are adherence and retention rates and changes in the total scale index score of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status from baseline to the study end. The main secondary outcomes are disability, depressive symptoms, quality of life, vascular risk factors, physical performance, nutritional assessment, and motivation questionnaire. There will be an exploratory evaluation of neurotrophic, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation factors, microbiome, telomere length, electroencephalography, and neuroimaging measures.

Conclusions: The results obtained will provide information on the applicability of these multidomain intervention programs to at-risk elderly people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3988/jcn.2020.16.2.292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174118PMC
April 2020

Nutrient intakes and medication use in elderly individuals with and without dry mouths.

Nutr Res Pract 2020 Apr 13;14(2):143-151. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 17104, Korea.

Background/objectives: The nutrition of the elderly depends on various factors. Oral health, especially oral dryness, can be an important risk factor. In this study, we attempted to determine whether dry mouth is associated with compromised nutrient intakes.

Subjects/methods: A total of 120 participants aged 65-86 yrs (mean age: 69 ± 1 y) were included in this study. Demographic and health-related characteristics, living status, meals, number of medications, medical conditions, chewing ability, and quality of life, the Oral Health Impact Profile (the OHIP-14) were assessed. We performed one day 24-hr recall assessment for nutrient analyses. The differences of the means between the dry-mouth and non-dry-mouth groups were analyzed. Elderly subjects with xerostomia-induced dry mouth were classified as those who reported at least one dryness symptom on a questionnaire.

Results: A significant difference in population distribution was observed among the elderly who took medications for hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis and was significantly higher in the dry-mouth group (70.2%) than in the non-dry-mouth group (44.4%) ( = 0.005). Compared with the non-dry-mouth group (50.8%), a significantly higher proportion (73.7%) of participants in the dry-mouth group took multiple medicines (≥ 4 medications) ( = 0.019). The intakes of vegetable fat, vitamin E, folate and water in the dry-mouth group were lower than in the non-dry-mouth group. The intakes of fluoride and ω-3 fatty acids were significantly lower in the dry-mouth group than in the non-dry-mouth group.

Conclusion: The participants in the dry-mouth group exhibited low nutrient and water intakes. It is recommended that the elderly with dry mouth should drink sufficient water and receive targeted and specific nutritional guidance to prevent malnutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2020.14.2.143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075737PMC
April 2020

Vitamin D deficiency and mortality among critically ill surgical patients in an urban Korean hospital.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Feb 24:1-8. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Acute Care Surgery, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are exposed to various risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency in extended-stay patients may result in decreased muscle mass and increased fat tissue, which may impair rehabilitation and recovery. Our study aimed to evaluate the degree of serum vitamin D deficiency in critically ill surgical patients and its association with clinical outcomes. Clinical data from 186 adult male (n = 121; 65.1%) and female (n = 65; 34.9%) patients hospitalized in surgical ICUs at Ajou University Hospital from April 2015 to September 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. All adult surgical patients between the age of 18 and 88 years were enrolled. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level of all patients was 17.8 ng/mL. A total of 120 patients (64.5%) with serum 25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/mL were classified as the deficiency group. A prolonged hospital stay was observed among the deficiency group but was not statistically significant ( = 0.824). Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly correlated with age but inversely correlated with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, selenium, triglyceride, and C-reactive protein levels. There was no significant difference in mortality rates between the group with a vitamin D injection and the group without a vitamin D injection (14.6% vs. 16.9%,  = 0.074). Vitamin D deficiency was common in surgical ICU patients; however, vitamin D levels were higher in older patients. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency was inversely associated with the SOFA severity score (Correlation Coefficient -0.165,  = 0.024) but was not associated with the length of hospital or ICU stay and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000639DOI Listing
February 2020

Low fruit and vegetable intake is associated with depression among Korean adults in data from the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

J Health Popul Nutr 2019 12 3;38(1):39. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Dept. of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, South Korea.

Background: Depression is a major mental disorder worldwide. The prevalence of depression among Korean adults was estimated to be 5.6% in 2006 and 6.7% in 2011, and that increased to 10.3% in 2013. Using national data, the present study investigated the association between vegetable and fruit intake and the prevalence of depression among Korean adults.

Methods: This analysis used data from 4349 subjects aged 19 years and older who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2014). Depression was assessed using the self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Food and nutrient intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. Individual food intake was categorized into 18 food groups. The statistical analyses in this study were performed by adopting stratification, clustering, and sample weight variables using SPSS Ver. 23.0. Cronbach's α was used to determine the internal consistency of the PHQ-9 items. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of depression adjusted for several confounders.

Results: The depression rate of all subjects was between 8.7 and 4.7% and decreased as vegetable and fruit intake increased. With regard to sex, the depression rate decreased from 6.4 to 2.5% in males and from 11.4 to 6.6% in females as vegetable and fruit intake increased. Thus, the results of this study reveal an inverse association between vegetable and fruit intake and depression. The odds ratios show that vegetable and fruit intake was inversely associated with depression with no adjustment. When the data were adjusted for age, energy intake, obesity, smoking, drinking, stress, eating-out frequency, breakfast, and food security, subjects exhibited significantly lower rates of depression with higher vegetable and fruit intakes.

Conclusions: This is the first study to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and depression in a Korean population. Additional epidemiological studies are needed to find the underlying reasons for that association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41043-019-0204-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892133PMC
December 2019

Association between Iodine Nutrition Status and Thyroid Disease-Related Hormone in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013-2015).

Nutrients 2019 Nov 13;11(11). Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

This study aimed to observe the relationship between iodine nutrition status (dietary iodine intake and estimated iodine intake based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC)) and thyroid disease-related hormones. This study involved 6090 subjects >19 years old with valid UIC, assessed between 2013 and 2015 by the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using a stratified, multistage, clustered probability-sampling design. The estimated iodine intake in participants was measured using UIC and urine creatinine. To examine the effect of iodine intake on thyroid disease, the iodine intake was divided into Korean Dietary Reference Intakes groups, and logistic regression analysis was performed via the surveylogistic procedure to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The estimated iodine intake showed a significant positive correlation with dietary iodine intake (r = 0.021, < 0.001), UIC (r = 0.918, < 0.001), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (r = 0.043, < 0.001), but a significant negative correlation with free thyroxine (FT4) (r = -0.037, < 0.001). Additionally, as the estimated iodine intake increased, age, TSH, and UIC increased, but FT4 decreased ( for trend < 0.0001). The risk of thyroid disease was higher in the "≥tolerable upper intake level (UL ≥ 2400 µg/day)" group than in the "
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11112757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893705PMC
November 2019

Two-Week Exclusive Supplementation of Modified Ketogenic Nutrition Drink Reserves Lean Body Mass and Improves Blood Lipid Profile in Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Nutrients 2018 Dec 3;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Korea.

The ketogenic diet has long been recommended in patients with neurological disorders, and its protective effects on the cardiovascular system are of growing research interest. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two-week of low-calorie ketogenic nutrition drinks in obese adults. Subjects were randomized to consume drinks either a ketone-to-non-ketone ratio of 4:1 (KD 4:1), a drink partially complemented with protein at 1.7:1 (KD 1.7:1), or a balanced nutrition drink (BD). Changes in body weight, body composition, blood lipid profile, and blood ketone bodies were investigated. Blood ketone bodies were induced and maintained in the group that consumed both 4:1 and 1.7:1 ketogenic drinks ( < 0.001). Body weight and body fat mass significantly declined in all groups between 0 and 1 week and between 1 and 2 weeks ( < 0.05), while skeletal muscle mass remained unchanged only in the KD 1.7:1 group ( > 0.05). The blood lipid profile improved, appetite was reduced, and fullness was maintained in the two ketogenic drink groups. This study indicates the possibility for the development of obesity treatments based on ketogenic nutrition drinks even with a moderate ketogenic ratio of 1.7:1, as well as adjuvant therapies based on ketosis induction and maintenance for the treatment of other diseases and health conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10121895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316485PMC
December 2018

Association of Nutrient Intakes with Cognitive Function in Koreans Aged 50 years and Older.

Clin Nutr Res 2018 Jul 26;7(3):199-212. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

This study attempted to investigate whether nutrient and food intake were related with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in adults and elderly over 50 years of age in Korea. Questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were conducted on general aspects of the research, and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were conducted to determine nutritional status. The relative theta power (RTP) through electroencephalography (EEG) measurements, neurocognitive function test (NFT; CNS Vital Signs), and cognitive function was measured. The MCI group consumed significantly lower C18:4, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) among the N-3 fatty acids, N-6 fatty acids dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), mono unsaturated fatty acids, C22:1, biotin, vitamin D in the nutrients, and sweet potato (12.35g/day, p = 0.015), mackerel (3.38g/day, p = 0.017), mandarin orange (p = 0.016), persimmon (p = 0.013) and apple (p = 0.023) in the food than the normal group did. And the MCI group consumed salted fish (3.14g/day, p = 0.041) and ice-cream (5.01g/day, p = 0.050) at a significantly higher level. Delayed verbal score, delayed visual score, and verbal memory score of the NFT and RTP values of the prefrontal cortex among the EEGs were significantly lower in the MCI group compared to those in the normal group. From this study, we found that nutrient and food intake are closely related to MCI in Korean aged 50 years and older, but more human studies are needed to verify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2018.7.3.199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073172PMC
July 2018

Effects of glutathione s-transferase () and polymorphisms on antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress-related parameters in Korean subclinical hypertensive subjects after kale juice () supplementation.

Nutr Res Pract 2018 Apr 22;12(2):118-128. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Life Science and Nano Technology, Hannam University, 461-6 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054, Korea.

Background/objectives: Glutathione s-transferase () is involved in the formation of a multigene family comprising phase II detoxification enzymes, involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This study evaluated whether daily supplementation with kale juice could modulate levels of plasma antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress-related parameters. We further examined whether this modulation was affected by combined and polymorphisms.

Subjects/methods: Totally, 84 subclinical hypertensive patients having systolic blood pressure (BP) over 130 mmHg or diastolic BP over 85 mmHg, received 300 mL of kale juice daily for 6 weeks. Blood samples were drawn before start of study and after completion of 6 weeks.

Results: After supplementation, we observed significant decrease in DNA damage and increase in erythrocyte catalase activity in all genotypes. Plasma level of vitamin C was significantly increased in the wild/null and double null genotypes. The plasma levels of β-carotene, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, and nitric oxide were increased only in the wild/null genotype after kale juice supplementation.

Conclusions: The effect of kale juice was significantly greater in the null genotype and wild/null genotype groups, suggesting possibility of personalized nutritional prescriptions based on personal genetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2018.12.2.118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886963PMC
April 2018

Sleep Quality and Nutritional Intake in Subjects with Sleep Issues According to Perceived Stress Levels.

J Lifestyle Med 2018 Jan 31;8(1):42-49. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Sleep disorders can negatively affect quality of life with reduced cognitive function. Since stress and eating behavior are considered crucial factors for sleep, this study's aim was to compare objective quality of sleep and nutrition between subjects with sleep issues and different stress levels.

Methods: The investigation was performed in adults (≥18 years old) in the Sleep Laboratory between September 2015 and February 2016. Several measurement instruments were utilized, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Korean version of the Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI-K), polysomnography, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).

Results: There were no statistical differences in demographic data between the lower and higher stress groups except age, which was adjusted. Sleep quality in the lower stress group was better than the higher stress group in terms of sleep efficiency (90.92 ± 7.72 vs 85.36 ± 10.25%), sleep latency (16.94 ± 20.86 vs 9.42 ± 8.24 min), and WASO result (26 ± 26.13 vs 43.66 ± 41.32 min). There were statistically significant differences in nutritional intake between the groups: the lower stress group consumed more vegetables than the higher stress group while the higher stress group consumed more grains, meat and eggs, soju, and coffee products than the lower stress group.

Conclusion: This study found that stress level and food intake have significant associations with objective sleep quality. Food and stress management for insomnia should be considered for improving not only quantity but also quality of sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15280/jlm.2018.8.1.42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846643PMC
January 2018

International hospital accreditation and clinical nutrition service in acute care hospitals in South Korea: results of a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018;27(1):158-166

Deptartment of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea.

Background And Objectives: Beginning in 2007, 29 hospitals in South Korea have received accreditation from Joint Commission International (JCI). The present study aimed to identify differences in clinical nutrition service provisions between JCI accredited acute care hospitals and non-accredited acute care hospitals. A survey questionnaire was sent to all 43 acute care hospitals in South Korea.

Methods: A total of 35 sets of clinical nutrition service surveys, 234 sets of clinical dietitian job satisfaction surveys, and five-day daily work logs from 129 clinical dietitians were received. We used Fisher's exact test and independent t-test to analyze differences between acute care hospitals based on JCI accreditation.

Study Design: Nationwide cross-sectional survey.

Results: JCI accredited acute care hospitals (N=8) showed a higher, but not significantly higher, nutritional intervention rate of 12.7% among malnourished patients, compared with 7.0% in non-JCI accredited acute care hospitals (N=27). Analysis of work hours of clinical dietitians indicated time spent on direct care was higher (p<0.05), while time spent on outpatient care was lower (p<0.05) among JCI accredited acute care hospitals relative to non-JCI accredited acute care hospitals.

Conclusions: Accreditation from JCI has a positive influence in the advancement of not only the hospital services, but also clinical nutrition services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.032017.25DOI Listing
September 2019

Rationale, Feasibility and Acceptability of Ketogenic Diet for Cancer Treatment.

J Cancer Prev 2017 Sep 30;22(3):127-134. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Korea.

Ketogenic diet has been used for more than 80 years as a successful dietary regimen for epilepsy. Recently, dietary modulation by carbohydrate depletion via ketogenic diet has been suggested as an important therapeutic strategy to selectively kill cancer cells and as adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment. However, some researchers insist ketogenic diet to be highly undesirable as ketogenic diet may trigger and/or exacerbate cachexia development and usually result in significant weight loss. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possibility of the use of ketogenic diet for oncology patients. Article search was performed from 1985 through 2017 and finally 10 articles were analyzed. The review focused on the results of human trials for cancer patients and checked the feasibility of using ketogenic diet for cancer patients as adjuvant therapy. The main outcomes showed improvement of body weight changes, anthropometric changes, serum blood profiles, and reduction in novel marker for tumor progression, TKTL1, and increase of ketone body. Lactate concentration was reduced, and no significant changes were reported in the measurements of quality of life. Ketogenic diet may be efficacious in certain cancer subtypes whose outcomes appear to correlate with metabolic status, but the results are not yet supportive and inconsistent. Therefore, it warrants further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2017.22.3.127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624453PMC
September 2017

Kimchi intake and atopic dermatitis in Korean aged 19-49 years: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2017;26(5):914-922

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea. Email:

Background And Objectives: Many studies have reported that fermented foods have favorable effects in preventing and managing atopic dermatitis (AD). Although kimchi, a major fermented food, is an important part of the traditional diet in Korea, only a few studies have investigated the relationship between AD and kimchi. This study aimed to examine the association between the risk of AD and kimchi intake among Korean adults aged 19 to 49 years.

Methods And Study Design: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among a total of 7,222 adults who participated in the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We defined AD based on responses to a health interview and assessed kimchi intake using a 24-hour recall method administered by well-trained interviewers.

Results: In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, we observed a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR) of having AD according to kimchi consumption after adjustment for confounding factors. In particular, subjects in the third quartile of kimchi consumption (85.0-158 g) had a 32% lower presence of AD than those in the first quartile of kimchi consumption (0-36.0 g) (Odds ratio: 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.92).

Conclusions: We found that consuming 85.0-158 g/day of kimchi was significantly associated with a lower presence of AD. Considering that one serving size of kimchi is 40 g, this corresponds to about 2-4 servings per day. This finding suggests that adequate amount of kimchi intake might have a protective effect against AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.022017.16DOI Listing
July 2019

Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History.

Clin Nutr Res 2017 Jul 27;6(3):183-197. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (≥ ±5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (NWC) group. Both groups were subject to a nutritional intervention program every 2 weeks with a mandatory exercise intervention for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the nutrition/exercise interventions were ceased for 12 weeks, after which the participants' levels of the hormones relating to energy metabolism and stress, meal intakes, dietary habits, level of knowledge on sodium intake, frequency of sodium intake, and quality of life (QOL) were checked. The changes of body weight were 71.3 ± 5.5 kg (week 0) vs. 65.0 ± 6.6 kg (week 12) vs. 65.6 ± 7.1 kg (week 24) in WC group and 71.6 ± 8.6 kg (week 0) vs. 68.8 ± 9.7 kg (week 12) vs. 70.3 ± 9.4 kg (week 24) in the NWC group. The levels of hormones, meal intakes, and QOL scores were better in the WC group, as adherence to the nutritional intervention was higher. We suggest that that adherence to dietary habits heavily influences weight loss and maintenance in individuals who frequently attempt to lose weight and consequently go through a vicious cycle of weight recycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2017.6.3.183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5539212PMC
July 2017

Eating Habits and Food Additive Intakes Are Associated with Emotional States Based on EEG and HRV in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

J Am Coll Nutr 2017 Jul 26;36(5):335-341. Epub 2017 May 26.

a Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science , Kyung Hee University , Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Recent study suggests that psychological issues and eating habits are closely related. In this study, we aimed to find the association between eating habits and intakes of artificial sweeteners with emotional states of schoolchildren using quantitatively analyzing objective biosignals.

Methods: The study was conducted at the National Standard Reference Data Center for Korean EEG as a cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighteen healthy children who have not been diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (168 girls and 150 boys; mean age of 11.8 ± 3.6 years). Analysis indicators were a dietary intake checklist for children's nutrition-related behavior score (NBS), consisting of 19 items; food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), consisting of 76 items; the Child Depression Inventory (CDI); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T); electroencephalograph (EEG); and heart rate variability (HRV).

Results: Higher scores on the CDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T indicate negative emotions, and these scores were significantly decreased from the first to the fourth quartiles. The HRV results showed that the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals was significantly higher in the first quartile than in the fourth quartile (p < 0.05). The intakes of artificial sweeteners and processed foods such as hamburgers correlate with higher theta/beta ratios, and intakes of natural foods such as legumes and fruits correlate with lower theta/beta ratios (p < 0.05).

Conclusions And Implications: From this result we confirmed a link between overall nutritional behavior, food additive intakes, and emotion in apparently healthy children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2017.1281774DOI Listing
July 2017

Soy isoflavone supplementation improves longitudinal bone growth and bone quality in growing female rats.

Nutrition 2017 May 27;37:68-73. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Korea; Research Institute of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy isoflavone on tibia length, bone mineral density (BMD), and structural parameters in growing female rats.

Methods: Three-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: control (CON: distilled water gavage); low-dose isoflavone (low-IF: 10 mg/kg body weight [BW]/d gavage); high-dose isoflavone (high-IF: 50 mg/kg BW/d gavage); and 17 β-estradiol (E2: subcutaneous injection of 10 μg). All animals received a soy-free diet and vaginal opening was monitored daily. After an 8-wk treatment period, bone-related parameters (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], osteocalcin [OC], N-terminal telopeptide [NTx], bone length, failure load, stiffness, BMD, and structural parameters) were analyzed.

Results: Serum ALP levels of the high-IF group were higher than those of the CON group (P < 0.05); however, serum OC levels of the high-IF group were lower than those of the CON, low-IF, and E2 groups (P < 0.05). The tibias and femurs of the low-IF group were longer than those of the CON and high-IF groups (P < 0.05). Bone volume, trabecular number, and BMD of trabecular bone of the high-IF and E2 groups were higher than those of the CON and low-IF groups (P < 0.05). The trabecular thickness of the high-IF group was higher than that of the CON and low-IF groups (P < 0.05). The failure load of the high-IF group was higher than those of the CON group (P < 0.05). Age and body weight at vaginal opening of the E2 group were significantly lower than those of the CON, low-IF, and high-IF groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: This study suggests that 8 wk of low-dose supplementation with soy isoflavone stimulates longitudinal bone growth. Additionally, high-dose supplementation with soy isoflavone may improve bone quality (BMD and structural parameters) in growing female rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.12.008DOI Listing
May 2017

Letter to the Editor.

Authors:
Yoo Kyoung Park

Osteoporos Sarcopenia 2017 Mar 9;3(1):59. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, South Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afos.2017.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372768PMC
March 2017

High Dietary Fructose Intake on Cardiovascular Disease Related Parameters in Growing Rats.

Nutrients 2016 Dec 26;9(1). Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin 17104, Korea.

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a high-fructose diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related parameters in growing rats. Three-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; a regular diet group (RD: fed regular diet based on AIN-93G, = 8), a high-fructose diet group (30Frc: fed regular diet with 30% fructose, = 8), a high-fat diet group (45Fat: fed regular diet with 45 kcal% fat, = 8) or a high fructose with high-fat diet group (30Frc + 45Fat, fed diet 30% fructose with 45 kcal% fat, = 8). After an eight-week treatment period, the body weight, total-fat weight, serum glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and pro-inflammatory cytokines, abdominal aortic wall thickness, and expressions of eNOS and ET-1 mRNA were analyzed. The result showed that total-fat weight was higher in the 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups compared to the RD group ( < 0.05). Serum triglyceride (TG) levels were highest in the 30Frc group than the other groups ( < 0.05). The abdominal aorta of 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups had higher wall thickness than the RD group ( < 0.05). Abdominal aortic eNOS mRNA level was decreased in 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups compared to the RD group ( < 0.05), and also 45Fat and 30Frc + 45Fat groups had decreased mRNA expression of eNOS compared to the 30Frc group ( < 0.05). ET-1 mRNA level was higher in 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups than the RD group ( < 0.05). Both high fructose consumption and high fat consumption in growing rats had similar negative effects on CVD-related parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9010011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295055PMC
December 2016

Soluble γc cytokine receptor suppresses IL-15 signaling and impairs iNKT cell development in the thymus.

Sci Rep 2016 11 11;6:36962. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Department of Anatomy, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan 626-870, South-Korea.

The soluble γc protein (sγc) is a naturally occurring splice isoform of the γc cytokine receptor that is produced by activated T cells and inhibits γc cytokine signaling. Here we show that sγc expression is also highly upregulated in immature CD4CD8 thymocytes but then downregulated in mature thymocytes. These results indicate a developmentally controlled mechanism for sγc expression and suggest a potential role for sγc in regulating T cell development in the thymus. Indeed, sγc overexpression resulted in significantly reduced thymocyte numbers and diminished expansion of immature thymocytes, concordant to its role in suppressing signaling by IL-7, a critical γc cytokine in early thymopoiesis. Notably, sγc overexpression also impaired generation of iNKT cells, resulting in reduced iNKT cell percentages and numbers in the thymus. iNKT cell development requires IL-15, and we found that sγc interfered with IL-15 signaling to suppress iNKT cell generation in the thymus. Thus, sγc represents a new mechanism to control cytokine availability during T cell development that constrains mature T cell production and specifically iNKT cell generation in the thymus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep36962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5105068PMC
November 2016
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