Publications by authors named "Yongjing Zhao"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride on environmental gas emissions, growth performance, and carcass characteristics in feedlot steers.

J Anim Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

With a growing global population and increased environmental concerns around animal agriculture, it is essential to humanely maximize animal performance and reduce environmental emissions. The present study aims to determine the efficacy of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC), an orally active, β1-adrenergic agonist (β1AA), to feedlot steers in the last 42 d of finishing to reduce ammonia (NH3) emissions and improve animal performance. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 112 Angus and crossbred Angus steers (Initial BW = 566.0 ± 10.4 kg) to 8 cattle pen enclosures. Pens (n = 4/treatment, 14 steers/pen, 56 steers/treatment) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) CON; finishing ration containing no RAC, 2) RAC; finishing ration containing 27.3 g/907 kg dry matter (DM) basis RAC. Steers were weighed on d -1 and 0 before treatment and d 14, 28, and 42 during treatment. Treatment rations were mixed and delivered daily by masked personnel. Measured emissions included NH3, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The primary response variables assessed were emissions standardized by live weight (LW) and hot carcass weight (HCW). Steers were harvested on d 43 and carcass data was collected on d 43 and 44. Steers fed RAC reduced NH3 emissions by 17.21% from d 0 to 28 (P = 0.032) and tended to reduce NH3 from d 0 to 42 by 11.07% (P = 0.070) vs. CON. When standardized for LW, NH3 was reduced by 23.88% from d 0 to 14 (P = 0.018), 17.80% from d 0 to 28 (P = 0.006), and 12.50% for d 0 to 42 (P = 0.027) in steers fed RAC vs. CON. Steers fed RAC had 14.05% (P = 0.013) lower cumulative NH3 emissions when standardized by HCW vs. CON. Feeding RAC to Steers reduced H2S by 29.49% from d 0 to 14 (P = 0.009) and tended to reduce H2S over d 0 to 28 by 11.14% (P = 0.086) vs. CON. When H2S emissions were standardized for LW, RAC fed steers had a 28.81% reduction from d 0 to 14 (P = 0.008) vs. CON. From d 0 to 42 the RAC fed steers tended to have a 0.24 kg/d greater ADG (P = 0.066) and tended to eat 4.27% less (P = 0.069) on a DM basis vs. CON. The RAC fed steers had a 19.95% greater gain to feed ratio compared to CON (P = 0.012). Steers fed RAC had an average of 12.52 kg greater HCW (P = 0.006) and an increase of 1.93 percentage units in dressing percent (P = 0.004) vs. CON. Ractopamine is an effective medicated feed additive for reducing NH3 and improving end product performance through HCW yields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab143DOI Listing
May 2021

Spatial-temporal variability of aerosol sources based on chemical composition and particle number size distributions in an urban settlement influenced by metallurgical industry.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 5;27(31):38631-38643. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, 265 Crittenden Boulevard, Rochester, NY, 14642-0708, USA.

The Moravian-Silesian region of the Czech Republic with its capital city Ostrava is a European air pollution hot spot for airborne particulate matter (PM). Therefore, the spatiotemporal variability assessment of source contributions to aerosol particles is essential for the successful abatement strategies implementation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to highly-time resolved PM chemical composition (1 h resolution) and particle number size distribution (PNSD, 14 nm - 10 μm) data measured at the suburban (Ostrava-Plesná) and urban (Ostrava-Radvanice) residential receptor sites in parallel during an intensive winter campaign. Diel patterns, meteorological variables, inorganic and organic markers, and associations between the chemical composition factors and PNSD factors were used to identify the pollution sources and their origins (local, urban agglomeration and regional). The source apportionment analysis resolved six and four PM sources in Plesná and Radvanice, respectively. In Plesná, local residential combustion sources (coal and biomass combustion) followed by regional combustion sources (residential heating, metallurgical industry) were the main contributors to PM. In Radvanice, local residential combustion and the metallurgical industry were the most important PM sources. Aitken and accumulation mode particles emitted by local residential combustion sources along with common urban sources (residential heating, industry and traffic) were the main contributors to the particle number concentration (PNC) in Plesná. Additionally, accumulation mode particles from local residential combustion sources and regional pollution dominated the particle volume concentration (PVC). In Radvanice, local industrial sources were the major contributors to PNC and local coal combustion was the main contributor to PVC. The source apportionment results from the complementary datasets elucidated the relevance of highly time-resolved parallel measurements at both receptor sites given the specific meteorological conditions produced by the regional orography. These results are in agreement with our previous studies conducted at this site. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09694-0DOI Listing
November 2020

The Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS) Version 1.0.

Geosci Data J 2019 Nov 23;6(2):137-150. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science The University of Maryland College Park MD USA.

The Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS) dataset version 1.0 contains hourly gridded atmospheric variables for the planet Mars, spanning Mars Year (MY) 24 through 33 (1999 through 2017). A reanalysis represents the best estimate of the state of the atmosphere by combining observations that are sparse in space and time with a dynamical model and weighting them by their uncertainties. EMARS uses the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) for data assimilation with the GFDL/NASA Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM). Observations that are assimilated include the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) temperature retrievals. The dataset includes gridded fields of temperature, wind, surface pressure, as well as dust, water ice, CO surface ice and other atmospheric quantities. Reanalyses are useful for both science and engineering studies, including investigations of transient eddies, the polar vortex, thermal tides and dust storms, and during spacecraft operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gdj3.77DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919928PMC
November 2019

Source apportionment of aerosol particles at a European air pollution hot spot using particle number size distributions and chemical composition.

Environ Pollut 2018 Mar 22;234:145-154. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708, USA; Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Ostrava in the Moravian-Silesian region (Czech Republic) is a European air pollution hot spot for airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ultrafine particles (UFPs). Air pollution source apportionment is essential for implementation of successful abatement strategies. UFPs or nanoparticles of diameter <100 nm exhibit the highest deposition efficiency in human lungs. To permit apportionment of PM sources at the hot-spot including nanoparticles, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to highly time resolved particle number size distributions (NSD, 14 nm-10 μm) and PM chemical composition. Diurnal patterns, meteorological variables, gaseous pollutants, organic markers, and associations between the NSD factors and chemical composition factors were used to identify the pollution sources. The PMF on the NSD reveals two factors in the ultrafine size range: industrial UFPs (28%, number mode diameter - NMD 45 nm), industrial/fresh road traffic nanoparticles (26%, NMD 26 nm); three factors in the accumulation size range: urban background (24%, NMD 93 nm), coal burning (14%, volume mode diameter - VMD 0.5 μm), regional pollution (3%, VMD 0.8 μm) and one factor in the coarse size range: industrial coarse particles/road dust (2%, VMD 5 μm). The PMF analysis of PM revealed four factors: SIA/CC/BB (52%), road dust (18%), sinter/steel (16%), iron production (16%). The factors in the ultrafine size range resolved with NSD have a positive correlation with sinter/steel production and iron production factors resolved with chemical composition. Coal combustion factor resolved with NSD has moderate correlation with SIA/CC/BB factor. The organic markers homohopanes correlate with coal combustion and the levoglucosan correlates with urban background. The PMF applications to NSD and chemical composition datasets are complementary. PAHs in PM were found to be associated with coal combustion factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.10.097DOI Listing
March 2018

Association between interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to liver cirrhosis.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(9):11680-4. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Clinical Laboratory, Children's Hospital of Zhengzhou Zhengzhou 450053, China.

We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between three common SNPs in IL-10 gene (rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872) and the development of liver cirrhosis in a Chinese population. Between January 2013 and December 2014, a total of 318 patients with liver cirrhosis and 318 health control subjects were enrolled into our study. The IL-10 rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872 polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that individuals with the AA genotype and GA+AA genotype of IL-10 rs1800896 were more likely to have an increased risk of liver cirrhosis when compared with the GG genotype, and the ORs (95% CI) for the AA genotype and GA+AA genotype were 2.04 (1.20-3.50) and 1.41 (1.02-1.96), respectively. We found that the GA+AA genotype of IL-10 rs1800896 had higher risk of liver cirrhosis in individuals with chronic hepatitis B when compared with the GG genotype (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01-3.59). In conclusion, we found that IL-10 rs1800896 polymorphism was correlated with an increased risk of liver cirrhosis, especially in individuals with chronic hepatitis B.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637726PMC
September 2016

Pulmonary inflammatory effects of source-oriented particulate matter from California's San Joaquin Valley.

Atmos Environ (1994) 2015 Oct;119:174-181

Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California, 95616 USA.

The EPA regulates ambient particulate matter (PM) because substantial associations have been established between PM and health impacts. Presently, regulatory compliance involves broad control of PM emission sources based on mass concentration rather than chemical composition, although PM toxicity is likely to vary depending upon PM physicochemical properties. The overall objective of this study was to help inform source-specific PM emission control regulations. For the first time, source-oriented PM was collected from the atmosphere in Fresno, CA, onto 38 source/size substrates. Mice were exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to equivalent mass doses [50 μg] of two size fractions: ultrafine (Dp < 0.17μm) and submicron fine (0.17 < Dp < 1 μm) during summer and winter seasons. At 24 hours post-exposure, cellular and biochemical indicators of pulmonary inflammation were evaluated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Significant inflammatory responses were elicited by vehicle, regional background, and cooking PM sources that were dependent on season and particle size. This is the first study of source-oriented toxicity of atmospheric PM and supports source-specific emissions control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.08.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4639935PMC
October 2015

Allergic airway inflammation is differentially exacerbated by daytime and nighttime ultrafine and submicron fine ambient particles: heme oxygenase-1 as an indicator of PM-mediated allergic inflammation.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2015 ;78(4):254-66

a Center for Health and the Environment , University of California , Davis , California , USA.

Ambient particulate matter (PM) originates from a range of sources and differs in composition with respect to season, time of day, and particle size. In this study, ambient PM samples in the ultrafine and submicrometer fine range were tested for the potential to exacerbate a murine model of allergic airway inflammation when exposure occurs solely during allergic sensitization, but not during subsequent allergen challenge. Temporally resolved and size-segregated PM samples were used to understand how summer or winter, day or night, and ambient ultrafine and submicrometer fine particle size influence PM's ability to exacerbate allergic inflammation. PM was collected in urban Fresno, CA. BALB/c mice were exposed to PM and house dust mite allergen (HDM) via intranasal aspiration on d 1, 3, and 5. HDM challenge occurred on d 12-14, with inflammation assessed 24 h following final challenge. While season or particle size did not predict allergic inflammation, daytime ultrafine and submicrometer fine particles significantly increased total cellular inflammation, specifically lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration, compared to allergic controls. Further studies examined PM-mediated changes within the lung during the period where allergen sensitization occurred by measuring direct effects of PM on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Pulmonary levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a biomarker of oxidative stress, but not cellular inflammation, demonstrated a remarkable correlation with the degree of allergic inflammation in animals sensitized to allergen and PM concomitantly, suggesting acute PM-mediated HO-1 levels may serve as a predictive indicator of a particle's ability to exacerbate allergic airway inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2014.959627DOI Listing
April 2015

Analysis of the effect of integrons on drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by multiplex PCR detection.

Mol Med Rep 2013 Mar 21;7(3):719-24. Epub 2013 Jan 21.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, PR China.

The aim of this study was to detect class Ⅰ, II and III integrons using multiplex PCR, and to analyze the role that these integrons play in mediating multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA). The sensitivity of SA to 20 types of antibiotics was examined using the K-B method. A genomic DNA extraction kit was used for extracting genomic DNA and a high-purity 96 plasmid extraction kit was used for extracting plasmid DNA. Class Ⅰ, II and III integrons were amplified using multiplex PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used for analysing amplification products. The positive rate of class Ⅰ and II integrons in the plasmid DNA from SA was higher compared to that of the genomic DNA. The positive rate of class Ⅰ integrons was highest in the group with multidrug resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, rifampin, imipenem, cefazolin, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and gentamicin. As regards integron detection in the plasmids from drug-resistant SA strians obtained from sputum, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, drainage fluid, excretion and urine specimens, the difference in the detection rate of class Ⅰ integrons among the six types of specimens was significant. Multiplex PCR is an effective method to detect class Ⅰ, II and III integrons. The SA plasmid is the main carrier transferring integrons. Integrons mediate the formation of SA multidrug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2013.1284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3597458PMC
March 2013

Direct surface analysis of time-resolved aerosol impactor samples with ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2012 Nov 30;84(22):9858-64. Epub 2012 Oct 30.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK.

Aerosol particles in the atmosphere strongly influence the Earth's climate and human health, but the quantification of their effects is highly uncertain. The complex and variable composition of atmospheric particles is a main reason for this uncertainty. About half of the particle mass is organic material, which is very poorly characterized on a molecular level, and therefore it is challenging to identify sources and atmospheric transformation processes. We present here a new combination of techniques for highly time-resolved aerosol sampling using a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and organic chemical analysis using direct liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) combined with ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. This minimizes sample preparation time and potential artifacts during sample workup compared to conventional off-line filter or impactor sampling. Due to the high time resolution of about 2.5 h intensity correlations of compounds detected in the high-resolution mass spectra were used to identify groups of compounds with likely common sources or atmospheric history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac3020615DOI Listing
November 2012

Greenhouse gas and alcohol emissions from feedlot steers and calves.

J Environ Qual 2011 May-Jun;40(3):899-906

Dep. of Animal Science, Univ. of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Livestock's contributions to climate change and smog-forming emissions are a growing public policy concern. This study quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) and alcohol emissions from calves and feedlot steers. Carbon dioxide (CO) methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ethanol (EtOH), and methanol (MeOH) were measured from a total of 45 Holstein and Angus steers and 9 Holstein calves representative of four different growth stages commonly present on calf ranches and commercial feedlots. Individuals from each animal type were randomly assigned to three equal replicate groups of nine animals per group. Steers were fed a high concentrate diet and calves a milk replacer and grain supplement. Cattle and calves were housed in groups of three animals in an environmental chamber for 24 h. The CO, NO, EtOH, and MeOH concentrations from the air inlet and outlet of the chamber were measured using an INNOVA 1412 monitor and CH using a TEI 55C methane analyzer. Emission rates (g head h) were calculated. The GHGs were mainly produced by enteric fermentation and respiration and differed across life stages of cattle. Compared with dairy cows, feedlot steers produce relatively less GHG. In general, ethanol and methanol, the most important volatile organic compound (VOC) group in the dairy sector, were below the lower limit of detection of the gas analyzer. The present data will be useful to verify models and to enhance GHG emission inventories for enteric fermentation, respiration, and fresh excreta for numerous cattle life stages across the beef industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2010.0354DOI Listing
June 2011

Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle.

Animals (Basel) 2011 Dec 8;1(4):433-46. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and quantify emissions was recently developed at the University of California, Davis. The system consists of two head hoods, two vacuum pumps, and an instrumentation cabinet housing the required data collection equipment. This system has the capability of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, ethanol, methanol, water vapor, nitrous oxide, acetic acid emissions and oxygen consumption in real-time. A unique aspect of the hoods is the front, back, and sides are made of clear polycarbonate sheeting allowing the cattle a full range of vision during gas sampling. Recovery rates for these slightly negative pressure chambers were measured ranging from 97.6 to 99.3 percent. This system can capture high quality data for use in improving emission inventories and evaluating gaseous emission mitigation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani1040433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513474PMC
December 2011

Real-world emission factors for antimony and other brake wear related trace elements: size-segregated values for light and heavy duty vehicles.

Environ Sci Technol 2009 Nov;43(21):8072-8

Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland.

Hourly trace element measurements were performed in an urban street canyon and next to an interurban freeway in Switzerland during more than one month each, deploying a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent sample analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Antimony and other brake wear associated elements were detected in three particle size ranges (2.5-10, 1-2.5, and 0.1-1 microm). The hourly measurements revealed that the effect of resuspended road dust has to be taken into account for the calculation of vehicle emission factors. Individual values for light and heavy duty vehicles were obtained for stop-and-go traffic in the urban street canyon. Mass based brake wear emissions were predominantly found in the coarse particle fraction. For antimony, determined emission factors were 11 +/- 7 and 86 +/- 42 microg km(-1) vehicle(-1) for light and heavy duty vehicles, respectively. Antimony emissions along the interurban freeway with free-flowing traffic were significantly lower. Relative patterns for brake wear related elements were very similar for both considered locations. Beside vehicle type specific brake wear emissions, road dust resuspension was found to be a dominant contributor of antimony in the street canyon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es9006096DOI Listing
November 2009

Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure.

J Environ Qual 2008 Mar-Apr;37(2):615-22

Dep. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Univ. of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their manure as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). We report measurements of alcohols, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and methane (CH4) emitted from nonlactating (dry) and lactating dairy cows and their manure under controlled conditions. The experiment was conducted in an environmental chamber that simulates commercial concrete-floored freestall cow housing conditions. The fluxes of methanol, ethanol, and CH4 were measured from cows and/or their fresh manure. The average estimated methanol and ethanol emissions were 0.33 and 0.51 g cow(-1) h(-1) from dry cows and manure and 0.7 and 1.27 g cow(-1) h(-1) from lactating cows and manure, respectively. Both alcohols increased over time, coinciding with increasing accumulation of manure on the chamber floor. Volatile fatty acids and phenols were emitted at concentrations close to their detection limit. Average estimated CH4 emissions were predominantly associated with enteric fermentation from cows rather than manure and were 12.35 and 18.23 g cow(-1) h(-1) for dry and lactating cows, respectively. Lactating cows produced considerably more gaseous VOCs and GHGs emissions than dry cows (P < 0.001). Dairy cows and fresh manure have the potential to emit considerable amounts of alcohols and CH4 and research is needed to determine effective mitigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2007.0357DOI Listing
June 2008

Effects of sodium bisulfate on alcohol, amine, and ammonia emissions from dairy slurry.

J Environ Qual 2008 Mar-Apr;37(2):608-14

Dep. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Univ. of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is extensively used in the poultry industry to reduce ammonia and bacterial levels in litter. It is also used in the dairy industry to reduce bacterial counts in bedding and ammonia emissions, preventing environmental mastitis and calf respiratory stress. The present study measured the effect of SBS on the air emission of ammonia, amine, and alcohol from a dairy slurry mix. Amine flux was undetectable (<5 ng L(-1)) across treatments. Application of SBS decreased ammonia, methanol, and ethanol emissions from fresh dairy slurry. Ammonia emissions decreased with increasing levels of SBS treatment. The 3-d average ammonia flux from the control (no SBS applied) and the three different SBS surface application levels of 0.125, 0.250, and 0.375 kg m(-2) were 513.4, 407.2, 294.8, and 204.5 mg h(-1) m(-2), respectively. The ammonia emission reduction potentials were 0, 21, 43, and 60%, respectively. Methanol and ethanol emissions decreased with an increase in the amount of SBS applied. The 3-d average methanol emissions were 223.7, 178.0, 131.6, and 87.0 mg h(-1) m(-2) for SBS surface application level of 0, 0.125, 0.250, and 0.375 kg m(-2), with corresponding reduction potentials of 0, 20, 41, and 61, respectively. Similar emission reduction potentials of 0, 18, 35, and 58% were obtained for ethanol. Sodium bisulfate was shown to be effective in the mitigation of ammonia and alcohol emissions from fresh dairy slurry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2006.0446DOI Listing
June 2008