Publications by authors named "Yong-Soo Baek"

38 Publications

Unipolar and bipolar electrogram characteristics of recurrent cases of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias undergoing repeat catheter ablation.

Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: Activation mapping guided catheter ablation (CA) of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) is limited in some cases when it is only relied on bipolar electrogram (EGM). We hypothesized that activation mapping with use of combined bipolar and unipolar EGM facilitates to identify the focal origin of VAs and results in reduction of recurrence rate of CA of VAs.

Methods: We analyzed the data of patients undergoing repeat ablations for idiopathic out-flow tract VAs. The EGM of the 1 st and 2 nd ablations were compared for earliest local activation time (LAT), presence of discrete potentials, and polarity reversal, unipolar potential morphology (QS or non-QS), potential amplitude and activation slope.

Results: Thirty-seven patients were included. The Local activation time was significantly earlier in the 2nd ablation as compared to the 1st procedure (36.90 msec vs 31.85 msec, P < 0.01). The incidence of discrete potentials and polarity reversal were similar in both procedures (51% vs 57%, P = 0.8 and 62% in both the occasions, respectively). The unipolar voltage was similar in both occasions (6.94 mV vs 7.22 mV in repeat ablations, P = 0.7). The recurrence rate (5.7%) was significantly lower with routine use of combined unipolar and bipolar EGMs, as compared to the use of bipolar EGM alone (16.7%) CONCLUSIONS: Use of both bipolar and unipolar electrograms helps in better delineation of the sites of earliest activation for effective ablation of VAs. Use of unipolar electrograms in addition to bipolar electrograms is associated with lower long term recurrence rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ipej.2021.11.005DOI Listing
November 2021

Correlation of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability with atrial fibrillation progression.

J Int Med Res 2021 Nov;49(11):3000605211057822

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 65745Inha University Hospital, Inha University College of Medicine and Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To examine the combination of heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) progression.

Methods: Data from patients with a first detected episode of AF who underwent treadmill exercise testing and 24-h Holter electrocardiography were retrospectively analysed. Autonomic dysfunction was verified using HRR values. Sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation was analysed by HRV. AF progression was defined as transition from the first detected paroxysmal episode to persistent/permanent AF.

Results: Of 306 patients, mean LF/HF ratio and HRR did not differ significantly by AF progression regardless of age (< or ≥65 years). However, when the LF/HF ratio was divided into tertiles, in patients aged <65 years, the mid LF/HF (1.60-2.40) ratio was significantly associated with lower AF progression rates and longer maintenance of normal sinus rhythm. For patients aged <65 years, less metabolic equivalents were related to higher AF progression rates. For patients aged ≥65 years, a low HRR was associated with high AF progression rates.

Conclusion: In relatively younger age, high physical capacity and balanced autonomic nervous system regulation are important predictors of AF progression. Evaluation of autonomic function assessed by age could predict AF progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211057822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8619754PMC
November 2021

The Impact of Personal Thoracic Impedance on Electrical Cardioversion in Patients with Atrial Arrhythmias.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jun 13;57(6). Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine and Korea University Medical Center, Seoul 02841, Korea.

: Direct current cardioversion (DCCV) is a safe and useful treatment for atrial tachyarrhythmias. In the past, the energy delivered in DCCV was decided upon empirically, based only on the type of tachyarrhythmia. This conventional method does not consider individual factors and may lead to unnecessary electrical damage. : We performed DCCV in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias. The impedance and electrical current at the moment of shock were measured. The human thoracic impedance between both defibrillator patches and the electric current that was used were measured. : A total of 683 DCCVs were performed on 466 atrial tachyarrhythmia patients. The average impedance was 64 ± 11 Ω and the average successful current was 23 ± 6 mA. The magnitude of the electrical current that was successful depended upon the human impedance (linear regression, B = -0.266, < 0.001) and the left atrial diameter (B = 0.092, < 0.001). Impedance was directly proportional to body mass index (BMI) (B = 1.598, < 0.001) and was higher in females than in males (77 ± 15 Ω vs. 63 ± 11 Ω, < 0.001). Notably, the high-impedance (>70 Ω) group had a higher BMI (27 ± 4 kg/m vs. 25 ± 3 kg/m, < 0.001) and a higher proportion of females (37% vs. 9%, < 0.001) than the low-impedance group (<70 Ω). However, thoracic impedance was not an independent predictor for successful DCCV. : Human thoracic impedance was one of the factors that impacted the level of electrical current required for successful DCCV in patients with atrial arrhythmias. In the future, it will be helpful to consider individual predictors, such as BMI and gender, to minimize electrical damage during DCCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57060618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231855PMC
June 2021

Ventricular tachycardia of right ventricular outflow tract origin during the perioperative period: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26372

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Rationale: Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurs in individuals without structural abnormalities in the heart, accounts for approximately 10% of total VTs. Furthermore, approximately 70% of idiopathic VTs originate from Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). However, among perioperative arrhythmias, incidence of VT after surgery is extremely rare and most arrhythmias are atrial origin.

Patient Concerns: A 69-year-old man with permanent pacemaker underwent colon surgery.

Diagnoses: Patient suffered from low blood pressure and dizziness, sweating at post anesthetic care unit (PACU) and heart rate (HR) increased suddenly to 200 beats/min with monomorphic VT after bolus ephedrine administration and continuous dopamine infusion.

Interventions: Pacemaker interrogation followed by DC cardioversion was done.

Outcomes: Patient's vital signs became normal and symptoms are subsided.

Lessons: RVOT VT can be caused by triggering activities, such as ephedrine, dopamine, and inadequate fluid management. These triggering activities are initiated by acceleration of HR from ventricles with infusion of catecholamine which lead monomorphic VT originating from RVOT.RVOT origin PVCs can be precipitated into monomorphic VT by administrating catecholamines such as ephedrine and dopamine even in patient with pacemaker. The mechanism of these VTs includes catecholamine induced acceleration of HR. Since RVOT PVCs can be recognize by 12 EKGs, we should be pay more attentions to the pre-operation EKG and be cautious using catecholamines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238283PMC
June 2021

A new deep learning algorithm of 12-lead electrocardiogram for identifying atrial fibrillation during sinus rhythm.

Sci Rep 2021 06 17;11(1):12818. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine and Inha University Hospital, 27 Inhang-ro, Jung-gu, Incheon, 22332, Republic of Korea.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent arrhythmia and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its early detection is challenging because of the low detection yield of conventional methods. We aimed to develop a deep learning-based algorithm to identify AF during normal sinus rhythm (NSR) using 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) findings. We developed a new deep neural network to detect subtle differences in paroxysmal AF (PAF) during NSR using digital data from standard 12-lead ECGs. Raw digital data of 2,412 12-lead ECGs were analyzed. The artificial intelligence (AI) model showed that the optimal interval to detect subtle changes in PAF was within 0.24 s before the QRS complex in the 12-lead ECG. We allocated the enrolled ECGs to the training, internal validation, and testing datasets in a 7:1:2 ratio. Regarding AF identification, the AI-based algorithm showed the following values in the internal and external validation datasets: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.79 and 0.75; recall, 82% and 77%; specificity, 78% and 72%; F1 score, 75% and 74%; and overall accuracy, 72.8% and 71.2%, respectively. The deep learning-based algorithm using 12-lead ECG demonstrated high accuracy for detecting AF during NSR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92172-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211689PMC
June 2021

Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio at Emergency Room Predicts Mechanical Complications of ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 17;36(19):e131. Epub 2021 May 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine and Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proven to be a reliable inflammatory marker. A recent study reported that elevated NLR is associated with adverse cardiovascular events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We investigated whether NLR at emergency room (ER) is associated with mechanical complications of STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: A total of 744 patients with STEMI who underwent successful primary PCI from 2009 to 2018 were enrolled in this study. Total and differential leukocyte counts were measured at ER. The NLR was calculated as the ratio of neutrophil count to lymphocyte count. Patients were divided into tertiles according to NLR. Mechanical complications of STEMI were defined by STEMI combined with sudden cardiac arrest, stent thrombosis, pericardial effusion, post myocardial infarction (MI) pericarditis, and post MI ventricular septal rupture, free-wall rupture, left ventricular thrombus, and acute mitral regurgitation during hospitalization.

Results: Patients in the high NLR group (> 4.90) had higher risk of mechanical complications of STEMI ( = 0.001) compared with those in the low and intermediate groups (13% vs. 13% vs. 23%). On multivariable analysis, NLR remained an independent predictor for mechanical complications of STEMI (RR = 1.947, 95% CI = 1.136-3.339, = 0.015) along with symptom-to balloon time ( = 0.002) and left ventricular dysfunction ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: NLR at ER is an independent predictor of mechanical complications of STEMI undergoing primary PCI. STEMI patients with high NLR are at increased risk for complications during hospitalization, therefore, needs more intensive treatment after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129614PMC
May 2021

Association of left atrial pressure with late gadolinium enhancement extent in patient who underwent catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.

Sci Rep 2020 10 5;10(1):16486. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine and Korea University Anam Hospital, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.

Atrial remodeling with fibrosis has been well-described in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that the left atrial (LA)-late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) extent on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is associated with LA pressure and can be a marker for suitable candidates for non-paroxysmal AF ablation. A total of 173 AF patients with an LA-LGE area on CMR imaging were enrolled. The clinical parameters, including invasively measured LA pressure, were compared between the patients with extensive LA-LGE (E-LGE, LGE extent ≥ 20%, n = 78) and those with small LA-LGE (S-LGE, LGE extent < 20%, n = 95). The E-LGE group had higher peak LA pressures than the S-LGE group (23 versus 19 mmHg, p < 0.001). The E-LGE group had more patients with non-paroxysmal AF (non-PAF) (51% vs. 34%), heart failure (9% vs. 0%), and higher NT pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (472 vs. 265 pg/ml) (all p < 0.05). LA pressure ≥ 21 mmHg was an independent predictor of E-LGE (OR = 2.218; p = 0.019). In the paroxysmal AF (PAF) subgroup, freedom from atrial arrhythmia after catheter ablation was not different (81% vs 86%, log-rank p = 0.529). However, in the non-PAF subgroup, it was significantly higher in the S-LGE group than in the E-LGE group (81% vs 55%, log-rank p = 0.014). Increased LA pressure was related to the LA-LGE extent. LA-LGE was a good predictor of outcome after catheter ablation, but only in patients with non-PAF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72929-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536288PMC
October 2020

Atrial Substrate Underlies the Recurrence after Catheter Ablation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 30;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine and Korea University Medical Center, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Prediction of recurrences after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains challenging. We sought to investigate the long-term outcomes after AF catheter ablation. A total of 2221 consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation for symptomatic AF were included in this study (mean age 55 ± 11 years, 20.3% women, and 59.0% paroxysmal AF). Extensive ablation, in addition to circumferential pulmonary vein isolation, was more often accomplished in patients with non-paroxysmal AF than in those with paroxysmal AF (87.4% vs. 25.3%, < 0.001). During a median follow-up of 54 months, sinus rhythm (SR) was maintained in 67.1% after index procedure. After redo procedures in 418 patients, 83.3% exhibited SR maintenance. Recurrence rates were similar for single and multiple procedures (17.4% vs. 16.7%, = 0.765). Subanalysis showed that the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance, is greater in patients with recurrence than in those without recurrence (36.2 ± 23.9% vs. 21.8 ± 13.7%, < 0.001). Cox-regression analysis revealed that non-paroxysmal AF (hazard ratio (HR) 2.238, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.905-2.629, < 0.001), overweight (HR 1.314, 95% CI 1.107-1.559, = 0.020), left atrium dimension ≥ 45 mm (HR 1.284, 95% CI 1.085-1.518, = 0.004), AF duration (HR 1.020 per year, 95% CI 1.006-1.034, = 0.004), and LGE ≥ 25% (HR 1.726, 95% CI 1.330-2.239, < 0.001) are significantly associated with AF recurrence after catheter ablation. This study showed that repeated catheter ablation improves the clinical outcomes of patients with non-paroxysmal AF, suggesting that AF substrate based on LGE may underpin the mechanism of recurrence after catheter ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601892PMC
September 2020

Mechanical and Pharmacological Revascularization Strategies for Prevention of Microvascular Dysfunction in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Analysis from Index of Microcirculatory Resistance Registry Data.

J Interv Cardiol 2020 9;2020:5036396. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to identify mechanical and pharmacological revascularization strategies correlated with the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Background: Microvascular dysfunction (MVD) after STEMI is correlated with infarct size and poor long-term prognosis, and the IMR is a useful analytical method for the quantitative assessment of MVD. However, therapeutic strategies that can reliably reduce MVD remain uncertain.

Methods: Patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled. The IMR was measured with a pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire immediately after primary PCI. High IMR was defined as values ≥66 percentile of IMR in enrolled patients (IMR > 30.9 IU).

Results: A total of 160 STEMI patients were analyzed (high IMR = 54 patients). Clinical factors for Killip class (=0.006), delayed hospitalization from symptom onset (=0.004), peak troponin-I level (=0.042), and multivessel disease (=0.003) were associated with high IMR. Achieving final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade 3 tended to be associated with low IMR (=0.119), whereas the presence of distal embolization was significantly associated with high IMR (=0.034). In terms of therapeutic strategies that involved adjusting clinical and angiographic factors associated with IMR, preloading of third-generation P2Y12 inhibitors correlated with reducing IMR value ( = -10.30, < 0.001). Mechanical therapeutic strategies including stent diameter/length, preballoon dilatation, direct stenting, and thrombectomy were not associated with low IMR value (all > 0.05), and postballoon dilatation was associated with high IMR ( = 8.30, =0.020).

Conclusions: In our study, mechanical strategies were suboptimal in achieving myocardial salvage. Preloading of third-generation P2Y12 inhibitors revealed decreased IMR value, indicative of MVD prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5036396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368229PMC
November 2020

An analysis of vascular properties using pulse wave analysis in patients with vasovagal syncope.

Clin Cardiol 2020 Jul 18;43(7):781-788. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common cause of recurrent syncope. Nevertheless, the exact hemodynamic mechanism has not been elucidated. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) is widely used to evaluate vascular properties, as it reflects the condition of the entire arterial system.

Hypothesis: Cardiovascular autonomic modulation may influence the hemodynamic mechanism and result in different vascular properties between VVS patients and healthy individuals.

Methods: We enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with VVS on head-up tilt testing from January 2014 to August 2019. Healthy subjects were enrolled as the control group. We performed PWA on all participants. Using propensity score matching, we assembled a study population with similar baseline characteristics and compared hemodynamic parameters.

Results: A total of 111 VVS patients (43 ± 18 years, 72 females) and 475 healthy control subjects (48 ± 13 years, 192 females) were enrolled. Compared to the healthy control subjects, the VVS patients had a higher augmentation index (AIx) adjusted to a heart rate of 75 beats per minute ([email protected], 20.5 ± 13.1% vs 16.7 ± 11.9%, P = .003). After 1:1 matched comparison (111 matched control), VVS patients consistently showed higher [email protected] (20.5 ± 13.1% vs 16.7 ± 12.9%, P = .02) than the matched control group. According to age distribution, VVS patients showed significantly higher [email protected] (10.6 ± 11.7% vs 2.5 ± 11.1%, P = .01) in a young age (15-33 years) group.

Conclusions: VVS patients had greater arterial stiffness than healthy subjects. This is one of the plausible mechanisms of the pathophysiology of VVS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368349PMC
July 2020

Effectiveness and Safety of Off-label Dosing of Non-vitamin K Antagonist Anticoagulant for Atrial Fibrillation in Asian Patients.

Sci Rep 2020 02 4;10(1):1801. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine and Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (NOACs) have been used to prevent thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and shown favorable clinical outcomes compared with warfarin. However, off-label use of NOACs is frequent in practice, and its clinical results are inconsistent. Furthermore, the quality of anticoagulation available with warfarin is often suboptimal and even inaccurate in real-world data. We have therefore compared the effectiveness and safety of off-label use of NOACs with those of warfarin whose anticoagulant intensity was accurately estimated. We retrospectively analyzed data from 2,659 and 3,733 AF patients at a tertiary referral center who were prescribed warfarin and NOACs, respectively, between 2013 and 2018. NOACs were used at off-label doses in 27% of the NOAC patients. After adjusting for significant covariates, underdosed NOAC (off-label use of the reduced dose) was associated with a 2.5-times increased risk of thromboembolism compared with warfarin, and overdosed NOAC (off-label use of the standard dose) showed no significant difference in either thromboembolism or major bleeding compared with warfarin. Well-controlled warfarin (TTR ≥ 60%) reduced both thromboembolism and bleeding events. In conclusion, the effectiveness of NOACs was decreased by off-label use of the reduced dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58665-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000392PMC
February 2020

Impact of persistent left superior vena cava on radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Europace 2019 12;21(12):1824-1832

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine and Korea University Medical Center, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

Aims: The impact of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is not well known. We performed this analysis to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics of PLSVC and its role in triggering and maintaining AF.

Methods And Results: Patients with AF referred to two tertiary hospitals were screened and patients with PLSVC in pre-RFCA imaging studies were enrolled. Among 3967 patients, PLSVC was present in 36 patients (0.9%). There were four morphological types of PLSVC: type 1, atresia of the right superior vena cava (SVC) (n = 2); type 2A, dual SVCs with an anastomosis between right and left SVCs (n = 15); type 2B, dual SVCs without an anastomosis (n = 16); type 3, PLSVC draining into the left atrium (LA; n = 2); and unclassified in one patient. Thirty-two patients underwent RFCA and electrophysiology study focusing on PLSVC: PLSVC was the trigger of AF in 48.4% of patients and the driver of AF in 46.9% of patients. Cumulatively, PLSVC was a trigger or driver of AF in 22 patients (68.8%). Whether to ablate PLSVC was determined by the results of electrophysiology study, and no significant difference in the late recurrence rate was observed between patients who did and did not have either trigger or driver from PLSVC.

Conclusion: Pre-RFCA cardiac imaging revealed PLSVC in 0.9% of AF patients. This study demonstrated that PLSVC has an important role in initiating and maintaining AF in substantial proportion of patients. Electrophysiology study focusing on PLSVC can help to decide whether to ablate PLSVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz254DOI Listing
December 2019

Chromosome 4q25 variants and biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2019 10 26;30(10):1904-1913. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine and Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Little is known about how genetic predisposition and fibrosis relate in atrial fibrillation (AF). Hence, we sought to determine whether the genetic variants and biomarkers for fibrosis enhance prediction of outcomes after catheter ablation.

Methods And Results: Consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation of AF (paroxysmal, 158; nonparoxysmal, 137) or supraventricular tachycardia without AF (n = 70) were studied retrospectively. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and 4q25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10033464 and rs220073) were measured. Mean plasma levels of both TGF-β1 and TIMP-1 were higher in patients with AF than in the control (all P < .001). Plasma levels of TIMP-1 were higher in patients with recurrence compared with those without recurrence (P = .039). Patients with variant alleles of rs10033464 showed increased recurrence after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF including after adjustment (P = .027). Patients with TIMP-1 < 107 ng/mL and no variant allele (GG) at rs10033464 had lower recurrence rates compared with other groups in those with paroxysmal AF (logrank; P = .007), whereas there was no significant difference among those patients with persistent forms of AF. Inclusion of biomarkers and genotype improved discrimination of AF recurrence in patients with paroxysmal AF (C-statistic .499 vs .600).

Conclusions: The combination of plasma TIMP-1 concentrations less than 107 ng/mL and the absence of a variant allele at rs10033464 was associated with lower recurrence rates in patients with paroxysmal AF. This study suggests that 4q25 SNPs and biomarkers for fibrosis may provide additive value in risk stratification for AF recurrence after catheter ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14104DOI Listing
October 2019

Trends in the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for prevention of sudden cardiac arrest: A South Korean nationwide population-based study.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2019 08 7;42(8):1086-1094. Epub 2019 Jul 7.

Division of Cardiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The benefits of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for the prevention of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) are well established. However, a significant knowledge gap remains regarding current indications and utilization of ICDs in real-world settings in Asia.

Methods: Patients who underwent ICD implantation in South Korea from 2007 to 2015 were identified using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. We investigated trends in use of ICD for the prevention of SCA.

Results: A total of 4649 ICDs were implanted during 9 years. ICDs were implanted in 1448 (31.2%) patients for primary prevention and in 3201 (68.8%) for secondary prevention. The proportion of ICDs for primary prevention increased from 6.1% in 2007 to 41.9% in 2015. Primary prevention was more frequent in older (≥40 years) recipients (34.4% vs. 14.6%, P < .0001). The rates of ICD implantation for primary prevention were highest for nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (55.1%) and lowest (9.7%) for inherited primary arrhythmia syndrome (IPAS).

Conclusion: Our data showed a trend of progressively increasing rates of ICD implantation in Asia, especially for primary prevention of SCA. Primary prevention as an indication for ICD in patients with IPAS remained low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.13741DOI Listing
August 2019

Relation of blood pressure variability to left ventricular function and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.

Singapore Med J 2019 Aug 11;60(8):427-431. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Division of Cardiology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea.

Introduction: Variability of blood pressure (BP) has been reported to be related to worse cardiovascular outcomes. We examined the impact of daytime systolic BP variability on left ventricular (LV) function and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.

Methods: Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiography were performed in 116 hypertensive patients. We assessed BP variability as standard deviations of daytime systolic BP on 24-hour ABPM. Conventional echocardiographic parameters, area strain and three-dimensional diastolic index (3D-DI) using 3D speckle tracking were measured. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by acquiring pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index.

Results: Patients with higher BP variability showed significantly increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and late mitral inflow velocity, as well as decreased E/A (early mitral inflow velocity/late mitral inflow velocity) ratio, area strain and 3D-DI than those with lower BP variability (LVMI: p = 0.02; A velocity: p < 0.001; E/A ratio: p < 0.001; area strain: p = 0.02; 3D-DI: p = 0.04). In addition, increased BP variability was associated with higher PWV and augmentation index (p < 0.001). Even among patients whose BP was well controlled, BP variability was related to LV mass, diastolic dysfunction and arterial stiffness.

Conclusion: Increased BP variability was associated with LV mass and dysfunction, as well as arterial stiffness, suggesting that BP variability may be an important determinant of target organ damage in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717775PMC
August 2019

Delayed cortical blindness in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 19;13:33-34. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2018.11.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251780PMC
December 2018

Prognostic Impact of Left Atrial Minimal Volume on Clinical Outcome in Patients with Non-Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Int Heart J 2018 Sep 29;59(5):991-995. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital.

Maximal left atrial volume (LAVmax) has been suggested to be an important indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and a prognosticator in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, LAVmax can be influenced by LV longitudinal systolic function, which causes systolic descent of the mitral plane. We investigated the prognostic role of LAVmin in patients with HCM and tested if LAVmin is better than LAVmax in predicting clinical outcome in these patients. A total of 167 consecutive patients with HCM were enrolled (age = 64.7 ± 13.5 years, male: female = 120:47). Clinical parameters and conventional echocardiographic measurement including tissue Doppler measurement were evaluated. Left atrial maximal and minimal volumes were measured just before mitral valve opening and at mitral valve closure respectively using the biplane disk method. The relationship between LAVmin and the clinical outcome of hospitalization for heart failure (HF), stroke or all-cause mortality was evaluated. During a median follow-up of 25.0 ± 17.8 months, the primary end point of HF hospitalization, stroke or death occurred in 35 patients (21%). Indexed LAVmin was predictive of HF, stroke or death after adjustment for age, diabetes, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, LV ejection fraction, and E/e'in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.001). The model including indexed LAVmin was superior to the model including indexed LAVmax in predicting a worse outcome in patients with HCM (P = 0.02). In conclusion, LAVmin was independently associated with increased risk of HF, stroke, or mortality in patients with HCM and was superior to LAVmax in predicting clinical outcome in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.17-606DOI Listing
September 2018

Electrophysiological features and radiofrequency catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia in patients with persistent left superior vena cava.

Heart Rhythm 2018 11 25;15(11):1634-1641. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The electrophysiological features and roles of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) in supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) are not known.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the electrophysiological features and roles of PLSVC in patients with SVT.

Methods: We included 37 patients with PLSVC (mean age 43.5 ± 17.1 years; 35.1% men) and 510 patients without PLSVC (mean age 43.9 ± 18.8 years; 48.2% men) who underwent an electrophysiology study for SVT. The number of induced tachycardias, location of the slow pathway (SP) or accessory pathway (AP), and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) outcomes were compared between patients with and without PLSVC. During RFCA of the left AP, a coronary sinus (CS) catheter was placed into the left superior vena cava (left superior vena cava group) or the great cardiac vein (great cardiac vein group). The RFCA outcomes were compared between the groups.

Results: In patients with PLSVC, 40 tachycardias were induced: atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) (n = 19), atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (n = 17), and focal atrial tachycardia (n = 4). Among patients with AVNRT, an SP in the CS was significantly more frequent in patients with PLSVC than in those without PLSVC (47.4% vs 3.8%; P < .001). In patients with the left AP, the number of RFCA attempts and recurrence were lower in the great cardiac vein group than in the left superior vena cava group.

Conclusion: An SP in the CS is prevalent in patients with AVNRT and PLSVC. It is useful to place a CS catheter into the great cardiac vein in patients with a left AP and PLSVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2018.06.034DOI Listing
November 2018

Long-Term Clinical Comparison of Procedural End Points After Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Elimination of Nonpulmonary Vein Triggers Versus Noninducibility.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2018 02;11(2):e005019

From the Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea (K.-N.L., S.-Y.R., Y.-S.B., H.-S.P., J.S., J.-I.C., Y.-H.K.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea (J.A.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon, Republic of Korea (D.-H.K., S.-W.P.); and Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Republic of Korea (D.I.L.).

Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is effective for maintenance of sinus rhythm in 50% to 75% of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and it is not uncommon for patients to require additional ablation after PVI. We prospectively evaluated the relative effectiveness of 2 post-PVI ablation strategies in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

Methods And Results: A total of 500 patients (mean age, 55.7±11.0 years; 74.6% male) were randomly assigned to undergo ablation by 2 different strategies after PVI: (1) elimination of non-PV triggers (group A, n=250) or (2) stepwise substrate modification including complex fractionated atrial electrogram or linear ablation until noninducibility of atrial tachyarrhythmia was achieved (group B, n=250). During a median follow-up of 26.0 months, 75 (32.2%) patients experienced at least 1 episode of recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia after the single procedure in group A compared with 105 (43.8%) patients in group B ( value in log-rank test of Kaplan-Meier analysis: 0.012). Competing risk analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of atrial tachycardia was significantly higher in group B compared with group A (=0.007). With the exception of total ablation time, there were no significant differences in fluoroscopic time or procedure-related complications between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: Elimination of triggers as an end point of ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation decreased long-term recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia compared with a noninducibility approach achieved by additional empirical ablation. The post-PVI trigger test is thus a better end point of ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.117.005019DOI Listing
February 2018

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin for the prevention of spontaneous echo-contrast and thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter undergoing cardioversion: A trans-esophageal echocardiography study.

PLoS One 2018 23;13(1):e0191648. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine and Korea University Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Spontaneous echo-contrast (SEC) and thrombus observed in trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) is known as a strong surrogate marker for future risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL). The efficacy of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) compared to warfarin to prevent SEC or thrombus in patients with AF or AFL is currently unknown. AF or AFL patients who underwent direct current cardioversion (DCCV) and pre-DCCV TEE evaluation from January 2014 to October 2016 in a single center were analyzed. The prevalence of SEC and thrombus were compared between patients who received NOAC and those who took warfarin. NOAC included direct thrombin inhibitor and factor Xa inhibitors. Among 1,050 patients who were considered for DCCV, 424 patients anticoagulated with warfarin or NOAC underwent TEE prior to DCCV. Eighty patients who were anticoagulated for less than 21 days were excluded. Finally, 344 patients were included for the analysis (180 warfarin users vs. 164 NOAC users). No significant difference in the prevalence of SEC (44.4% vs. 43.9%; p = 0.919), dense SEC (13.9% vs. 15.2%; p = 0.722), or thrombus (2.2% vs. 4.3%; p = 0.281) was observed between the warfarin group and the NOAC group. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between NOAC and risk of SEC (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.796-2.297, p = 0.265) or thrombus (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 0.726-16.039, p = 0.120). In conclusion, effectiveness of NOAC is comparable to warfarin in preventing SEC and thrombus in patients with AF or AFL undergoing DCCV. However, numerical increase in the prevalence of thrombus in NOAC group warrants further evaluation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191648PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779688PMC
February 2018

Value of adenosine test to reveal dormant conduction or adenosine-induced atrial fibrillation after pulmonary vein isolation.

J Arrhythm 2017 Dec 29;33(6):602-607. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Medical Center, 73 Inchon-Ro, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

Background: Recent studies investigating the implications of additional ablation guided by dormant pulmonary vein (PV) conduction testing using adenosine showed conflicting results, and the data about atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after trigger site elimination in adenosine-induced AF are still lacking.

Methods: Of 846 patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) who underwent PV isolation (PVI), adenosine test after PVI was performed in 148 patients.

Results: PVI was successfully achieved in 846 patients. We excluded 58 patients due to loss to the follow-up. A higher rate of AF recurrence was found in the group without adenosine test (136/644, 21%) compared to the group with adenosine test (20/144, 13%, log-rank =0.047). In multivariate analysis model for AF freedom during the follow-up period, the only significant clinical predictor of AF freedom was adenosine test (hazard ratio [HR] 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-3.23; =0.007).Among 148 patients with adenosine test, 114 (77%) patients showed neither dormant conductions nor AF-induced, 22 (15%) showed positive dormant conductions only, and 12 (8%) revealed adenosine-induced AF (6 of them also showed dormant conduction). After additional ablation in positive dormant conduction group and adenosine-induced AF group, AF recurrence was noted in 4/21 (19%) patients in positive dormant conduction group and 2/11 (18%) patients in adenosine-induced AF group, which was not different from that of patients in negative dormant conduction/ no AF-induced group (14/112, 12%, log-rank =0.67).

Conclusions: Adenosine test after PVI to confirm the absence of dormant conduction and triggers initiating AF is beneficial to improve the outcomes after catheter ablation of PAF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joa.2017.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728995PMC
December 2017

Associations of Abdominal Obesity and New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in the General Population.

J Am Heart Assoc 2017 Jun 6;6(6). Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Background: Higher height and weight are known to be associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF); however, whether the risk of AF is related to abdominal obesity is unclear.

Methods And Results: We studied 501 690 adults (mean age: 47.6±14.3 years; 250 664 women [50.0%]) without baseline AF in the National Sample Cohort released by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea. Body mass index (underweight defined as <18.5; normal, 18.5 to <25.0; overweight, 25.0 to <30.0; and obese, ≥30.0) and waist circumference (abdominal obesity defined as ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women) were evaluated. During a mean follow-up of 3.9±1.3 years, 3443 participants (1432 women [41.6%]) developed AF. In multivariable models adjusted for clinical variables, the AF risk of underweight, overweight, and obese individuals increased by 21% (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.45, =0.043), 14% (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.23, <0.001), and 52% (95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.78, <0.001), respectively, compared with those with normal body mass index. AF risk with confounder-adjusted hazards for abdominal obesity was 18% (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.27, <0.001). The increased AF risk was present in abdominally obese individuals regardless of body mass index except for the obese group. In subgroup analysis, abdominal obesity by waist circumference conferred increased risk of new-onset AF, particularly in participants without comorbidities.

Conclusions: Abdominal obesity is an important, potentially modifiable risk factor for AF in nonobese Asian persons. These data suggest that interventions to decrease abdominal obesity may reduce the population burden of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.116.004705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669144PMC
June 2017

The Trends of Atrial Fibrillation-Related Hospital Visit and Cost, Treatment Pattern and Mortality in Korea: 10-Year Nationwide Sample Cohort Data.

Korean Circ J 2017 Jan 26;47(1):56-64. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: The change of in-hospital and out-hospital treatments, and hospital costs for atrial fibrillation (AF) were not well known in rapidly aging Asian countries. This study is to examine the trends of AF management and outcomes in Korea.

Subjects And Methods: In the sample cohort from Korean National Health Insurance Data Sample Cohort (K-NHID-Sample Cohort) from 2004 through 2013, we identified patients with AF and hospital visit records using Korean Classification of Diseases, 6th Revision (KCD-6). Hospital cost, prescribed medications, radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA), morbidity and mortality were identified.

Results: AF-related hospitalization and outpatient clinic visits increased by 2.19 and 3.06-fold, respectively. While the total cost increased from 3.6 to 11.3 billion won (p<0.001), the mean cost per patient increased from 0.68 to 0.83 million won (p<0.001). Although the mean CHADS-VASc score increased from 3.5 to 4.4 in the total AF population, the proportion of patients who receive anticoagulation therapy with warfarin showed no significant change for the decade. The proportion of hospitalization for RFCA was increased (0.4% to 1.1%, p<0.001). All-cause mortality (6.7% to 5.0%), cardiovascular mortality (1.4% to 1.1%) and stroke-related death (1.3% to 0.8%) showed a modest decrease from 2004 to 2013.

Conclusion: During the last decade, AF-related hospitalization and outpatient clinic visits have increased with the increase of many other comorbidities, whereas the rate of anticoagulation did not improved. Although mortality in patients with AF showed a modest decrease from 2004 to 2013, proper anticoagulation therapy is warranted for the improvement of public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2016.0045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5287188PMC
January 2017

Randomised trial to compare a protective effect of Clopidogrel Versus TIcagrelor on coronary Microvascular injury in ST-segment Elevation myocardial infarction (CV-TIME trial).

EuroIntervention 2016 Oct 10;12(8):e964-e971. Epub 2016 Oct 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea.

Aims: Ticagrelor has shown greater, more rapid and more consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel. However, the superiority of ticagrelor for preventing ischaemic damage in STEMI patients has not been proven. The aim of this trial was to assess whether ticagrelor is superior to clopidogrel in preventing microvascular injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods And Results: Patients with STEMI underwent prospective random assignment to receive a loading dose (LD) of clopidogrel 600 mg or ticagrelor 180 mg (1:1 ratio) before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). As the primary endpoint, the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured immediately after primary PCI. The secondary endpoint was the infarct size estimated from the wall motion score index (WMSI). A total of 76 patients were enrolled (clopidogrel group=38, ticagrelor group=38). The IMR in the ticagrelor group was significantly lower than that in the clopidogrel group (22.2±18.0 vs. 34.4±18.8 U, p=0.005). Cardiac enzymes were less elevated in the ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group (CK peak; 2,651±1,710 vs. 3,139±2,698 ng/ml, p=0.06). Infarct size, estimated by WMSI, was not different between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups at baseline (1.55±0.30 vs. 1.61±0.29, p=0.41) or after three months (1.42±0.33 vs. 1.47±0.33, p=0.57).

Conclusions: In patients with STEMI treated by primary PCI, a 180 mg LD of ticagrelor might be more effective in reducing microvascular injury than a 600 mg LD of clopidogrel, as demonstrated by IMR immediately after primary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV12I8A159DOI Listing
October 2016

Impact of area strain by 3D speckle tracking on clinical outcome in patients after acute myocardial infarction.

Echocardiography 2016 Dec 25;33(12):1854-1859. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Division of Cardiology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea.

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has been developed to overcome the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) STE and has been applied in the several clinical settings. However, no data exist about the prognostic value of 3DSTE-based strain on clinical outcome after myocardial infarction (MI). This study was designed to investigate the prognostic value of area strain (AS) by 3D speckle tracking in predicting clinical outcome after acute MI.

Methods: We assessed 96 patients (62±14 years, 72% male) with acute MI and who had undergone a coronary angiography. Clinical parameters and conventional echocardiographic measurements including the left atrial (LA) size and tissue Doppler measurements were evaluated. The global left ventricular (LV) AS was measured using 3D speckle tracking software. The relationship between the AS and clinical outcome of death or hospitalization for heart failure (HF) was assessed.

Results: During a median follow-up of 33±10 months, primary endpoint of death or HF occurred in 12 patients (12.5%). AS was predictive of death or HF after adjustment for age, gender, peak CK-MB, LA volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV mass, the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to early mitral annular velocity, and LV ejection fraction in a multivariate Cox model (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.47, P=.03). In addition, AS added incremental value in predicting death or heart failure on a model based on clinical and standard echocardiographic measures (P=.008).

Conclusion: AS is independently associated with increased risk of death or HF after acute MI, suggesting that it can be a useful prognostic parameter in the patients following MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.13354DOI Listing
December 2016

Delayed recurrence of atrial fibrillation 2years after catheter ablation is associated with metabolic syndrome.

Int J Cardiol 2016 Nov 13;223:276-281. Epub 2016 Aug 13.

Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Whether delayed clinical recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) 2years after radiofrequency catheter ablation (CR) is related to AF progression remains unclear.

Objective: We hypothesized that metabolic factors are associated with CL.

Methods: Among 1825 patients who underwent catheter ablation, the study included 523 patients with AF recurrence (27.2% women, mean age 57±11years, 58.3% paroxysmal AF) 3months after the ablation procedure. They were divided into the clinical recurrence within 2-years (CL: AF recurrence at 3-24months) and CL (AF recurrence >24months) groups. Clinical and imaging parameters and polysomnograms were compared.

Results: Over 42±19months of follow-up, 409 (78.2%) and 114 (21.8%) patients formed the CL and CL groups, respectively. The CL group had higher proportions of overweight (p=0.004), hypertension (p=0.049), diabetes mellitus (p=0.037), dyslipidemia (p=0.009), high sensitivity C-reactive protein >8mg/L (p=0.049), and metabolic syndrome (p=0.011) than the CL group. Despite no significant difference between the apnea and hypopnea indices in the CL (n=97) and CL (n=28) groups, the minimum peripheral oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the latter than the former (p=0.032). In the multivariate analysis, overweight (odds ratio [OR] 1.756, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.146-2.693, p=0.010), dyslipidemia (OR 1.587, 95% CI 1.033-2.438, p=0.035), and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.972, 95% CI 1.158-3.356, p=0.012) were independently associated with CL.

Conclusions: Overweight, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome are independent predictors of CL for AF after catheter ablation. CL seems to be affected by metabolic factors and can be related to AF progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.08.222DOI Listing
November 2016

Remnant Pacemaker Lead Tips after Lead Extractions in Pacemaker Infections.

Korean Circ J 2016 Jul 21;46(4):569-73. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Complete hardware removal is recommended in the case of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections. However, the complete extraction of chronically implanted leads is not always achieved. The outcomes and optimal management of CIED infections with retained material after lead extractions have not been elucidated. In this case report, we present five patients with CIED infections with remnant lead tips even after lead extractions. Two patients had localized pocket infections, and were managed with antibiotics for a period of more than two weeks. The other three patients had infective endocarditis, and were managed with antibiotics for a period of more than four weeks. In one patient, the lead tip migrated to the right pulmonary artery, but did not produce any symptoms or complications. Only one of five patients experienced a resurgence of an infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2016.46.4.569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4965438PMC
July 2016

Prevalence and the clinical outcome of atrial fibrillation in patients with Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease.

Int J Cardiol 2016 Jul 23;214:4-9. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little evidence exists whether the risk of AF is increased in autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD).

Methods: In 20,772 consecutive ARD patients (mean age 42±17years, 13,683 female) in a tertiary hospital from 2005 to 2015, AF prevalence, comorbidities and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes were evaluated.

Results: AF was observed in 235 (1.1%) patients. The mean duration to AF diagnoses was 5.9±2.4years. Compared with patients without AF, AF patients were older, and had a higher CRP level (5.1±0.7 vs. 2.7±0.2mg/L, p=0.01), higher incidence of hypertension, heart failure and coronary artery disease. The AF prevalence was higher in inflammatory myositis (3.5%) and systemic sclerosis (2.3%) than that in other ARDs (all p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of AF were an older age (HR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.04-1.06, p=0.01), hypertension (HR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.70-3.06, p<0.001), high CRP levels (HR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.07-2.86, p=0.04), and heart failure (HR 11.96, 95% CI: 8.13-17.60, p=0.03). During a mean follow-up period of 6.8±4.5years, ARD patients with AF had a higher all cause death (16.5% vs. 2.1%, p<0.001) and incidence of strokes (1.9% vs. 0.4%, p=0.001) than non-AF patients.

Conclusions: The incidence of AF in ARD was affected by specific disease and an inflammatory status manifested by the CRP level. AF in ARD was related to a higher mortality and strokes mandating meticulous follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.03.083DOI Listing
July 2016

Epicardial Artery Stenosis with a High Index of Microcirculatory Resistance Is Frequently Functionally Insignificant as Estimated by Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR).

Intern Med 2016 15;55(2):97-103. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, South Korea.

Objective Differences in microvascular integrity can diversely influence the functional assessment of epicardial coronary artery disease in each patient. We investigated the relevance of the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) of intermediate coronary lesions. Methods The IMR and FFR were measured in 67 intermediate coronary lesions of the left anterior descending artery of 67 patients, by using a pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire. Results To assess the differences in FFR in relationship to the IMR value, patients were divided into tertile IMR groups as follows: Low-IMR (n=22, IMR 14±3), Mid-IMR (n=23, IMR 21±2), and High-IMR (n=22, IMR 36±10). An analysis of variance showed that the High-IMR group had significantly higher FFR values (0.87±0.07) than the Low-IMR group (0.81±0.08) (p=0.03). Functionally significant lesions with FFR ≤0.8 accounted for 9% of lesions in the High-IMR group, 36% in the Low-IMR group and 22% in the Mid-IMR group (p=0.02). In the multivariate logistic analysis, the IMR value was an independent determinant of FFR ≤0.8 (p=0.03). Conclusion In patients with a high IMR, intermediate lesions as identified with visual estimation were more frequently functionally insignificant. The IMR can provide additional information in understanding the mismatch between the anatomical and functional severity of intermediate coronary stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.55.4080DOI Listing
August 2016

Comprehensive assessment of microcirculation after primary percutaneous intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: insight from thermodilution-derived index of microcirculatory resistance and coronary flow reserve.

Coron Artery Dis 2016 Jan;27(1):34-9

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea.

Objectives: A pathophysiological mechanism of microvascular dysfunction in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is multifactorial; thus, multiple modalities were needed to precisely evaluate a microcirculation.

Methods: We complementarily assessed microcirculation in STEMI by the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) immediately after a primary percutaneous intervention in 89 STEMI patients. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including cardiovascular death, target vessel failure, heart failure, and stroke were assessed during a mean follow-up period of 3.0 years.

Results: The microcirculation of enrolled patients was classified into four groups using cutoff CFR and IMR values (CFR>2 and mean IMR): group-1 (n=23, CFR>2 and IMR ≤ 27); group-2 (n=31, CFR ≤ 2 and IMR ≤ 27); group-3 (n=9, CFR>2 and IMR>27); and group-4 (n=26, CFR<2 and IMR>27). On echocardiography 3 months later, improvement in the wall motion score index was shown in group-1 (P<0.01), group-2 (P<0.01), and group-3 (P=0.04), whereas group-4 did not show improvement in wall motion score index (P=0.06). During clinical follow-up, there were no MACCE in group-1 and the patients in group-2 and group-3 showed significantly lower MACCE compared with group-4 (group-1=0%, group-2, and group-3=10%, group-4=23.1%, P=0.04).

Conclusion: Complimentary assessment of microcirculation by the IMR and CFR may be useful to evaluate myocardial viability and the long-term prognosis of STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4885592PMC
January 2016
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