Publications by authors named "Yong-Sheng Liu"

75 Publications

Cardioprotective effect of saffron total glycoside tablets in patients with breast cancer receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy: study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Anthracyclines, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, are the most effective chemotherapy agents against breast cancer. However, the dose-dependent cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is a serious drawback in clinical treatment. Considerable efforts have been made to establish suggestions to avoid anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Crocin extracted from saffron has potential cardioprotective effects against anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study was to estimate the cardioprotective effects and safety of saffron total glycoside tablets relative to placebo in patients with breast cancer undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

Methods: This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A sample of 200 participants (100 per group) with breast cancer will be randomly assigned to receive either saffron total glycoside tablet or placebo (four tablets each time, three times each day) for 6 months. Each participant will be interviewed three times: baseline (visit 1), after 3 months (visit 2), and after 6 months (visit 3). The primary outcome is to confirm if administration of saffron total glycoside tablets reduces the rate of cardiotoxicity relative to that with placebo. Secondary outcomes include new arrhythmic events, and cardiac troponin I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. The quantity, quality, and severity of the adverse events will be carefully documented.

Discussion: We look forward to obtaining high-quality evidence that can be used to formulate clinical practice guidelines. Thus, the findings of this study are expected to help fill the current gap in cardiotoxicity prevention drugs.

Trial Registration: This trial was published in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTR2000041134, registered on 19th December 2020).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-444DOI Listing
June 2021

First report of Nigrospora sphaerica causing fruit dried-shrink disease in Akebia trifoliata from China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Hefei University of Technology, 558979, NO. 193 TUNXI ROAD, BAOHE QU, HEFEI, Hefei, ANHUI, China, 230009;

Akebia trifoliata, a recently domesticated horticultural crop, produces delicious fruits containing multiple nutritional metabolites and has been widely used as medicinal herb in China. In June 2020, symptoms of dried-shrink disease were first observed on fruits of A. trifoliata grown in Zhangjiajie, China (110.2°E, 29.4°N) with an incidence about 10%. The infected fruits were shrunken, colored in dark brown, and withered to death (Figure S1A, B). The symptomatic fruits tissues (6 × 6 mm) were excised from three individual plants, surface-disinfested in 1% NaOCl for 30s and 70% ethanol solution for 45s, washed, dried, and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing 50 mg/L streptomycin sulfate in the dark, and incubated at 25℃ for 3 days. Subsequently, hyphal tips were transferred to PDA to obtain pure cultures. After 7 days, five pure cultures were obtained, including two identical to previously reported Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing leaf anthracnose in A. trifoliata (Pan et al. 2020) and three unknown isolates (ZJJ-C1-1, ZJJ-C1-2, and ZJJ-C1-3). The mycelia of ZJJ-C1-1, ZJJ-C1-2 and ZJJ-C1-3 were white, and formed colonies of approximate 70 mm (diameter) in size at 25℃ after 7 days on potato sucrose agar (PSA) plates (Figure S1C). After 25 days, conidia were formed, solitary, globose, black, shiny, smooth, and 16-21 μm in size (average diameter = 18.22 ± 1.00 μm, n = 20) (Figure S1D). These morphological characteristics were similar to those of N. sphaerica previously reported (Li et al. 2018). To identify species of ZJJ-C1-1, ZJJ-C1-2 and ZJJ-C1-3, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, β-tubulin (TUB2), and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-α) were amplified using primer pairs including ITS1/ITS4 (Vilgalys and Hester 1990), Bt-2a/Bt-2b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), and EF1-728F/EF-2 (Zhou et al. 2015), respectively. Multiple sequence analyses showed no nucleotide difference was detected among genes tested except ITS that placed three isolates into two groups (Figure S2). BLAST analyses determined that ZJJ-C1-1, ZJJ-C1-2 and ZJJ-C1-3 had 99.73% to N. sphaerica strains LC2705 (KY019479), 100% to LC7294 (KY019397), and 99.79-100% to LC7294 (KX985932) or LC7294 (KX985932) based on sequences of TUB2 (MW252168, MW269660, MW269661), TEF-1α (MW252169, MW269662, MW269663), and ITS (MW250235, MW250236, MW192897), respectively. These indicated three isolates belong to the same species of N. sphaerica. Based on a combined dataset of ITS, TUB2 and TEF-1α sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using Maximum likelihood method through IQ-TREE (Minh et al. 2020) and confirmed that three isolates were N. sphaerica (Figure S2). Further, pathogenicity tests were performed. Briefly, healthy unwounded fruits were surface-disinfected in 0.1% NaOCl for 30s, washed, dried and needling-wounded. Then, three fruits were inoculated with 10 μl of conidial suspension (1 × 106 conidia/ml) derived from three individual isolates, with another three fruits sprayed with 10 μl sterilized water as control. The treated fruits were incubated at 25℃ in 90% humidity. After 15 days, all the three fruits inoculated with conidia displayed typical dried-shrink symptoms as those observed in the farm field (Figure S1E). The decayed tissues with mycelium and spores could be observed on the skin or vertical split of the infected fruits after 15 days' inoculation (Figure S1F-H). Comparably, in the three control fruits, there were no dried-shrink-related symptoms displayed. The experiment was repeated twice. The re-isolated pathogens were identical to N. sphaerica determined by sequencing the ITS, TUB2 and TEF-1α. Previous reports showed N. sphaerica could cause postharvest rot disease in kiwifruits (Li et al. 2018). To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. sphaerica causing fruits dried-shrink disease in A. trifoliata in China.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2471-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

The impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on long-term outcomes in older patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Mar 5;21(1):43. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Heart Center, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No.89 Donggang Road, Shijiazhuang, 050031, Hebei, China.

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is reportedly associated with an increased risk of adverse events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The prognostic significance of SCH in the elderly was poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between SCH and long-term outcomes in older patients undergoing PCI.

Methods: Three thousand one hundred sixty-eight patients aged 65 years or older who underwent PCI from January 2012 to October 2014 were included. Patients were divided into SCH group (n = 320) and euthyroidism (ET) group (n = 2848) based on thyroid function test. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of all-cause death and cardiac death for patients with SCH during a 4-year follow-up period.

Results: There were 227 deaths during the follow-up period including 124 deaths caused by cardiac events. There was no significant difference in mortality rate between the SCH group and the ET group (p > 0.05). After adjustment for covariates, compared with patients with ET, the RRs of death from all-cause and cardiac in patients with SCH were 1.261 (95%CI: 0.802-1.982, p = 0.315) and 1.231 (95%CI: 0.650-2.334, p = 0.524), respectively. When SCH was stratified by age, gender, and degree of thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation, no significant associations were also found in any stratum.

Conclusion: Our investigation revealed that SCH was negatively associated with the outcome of PCI in older patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00702-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934482PMC
March 2021

Strategies and challenges in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Nov;8(21):5070-5085

Department of General Surgery, Aviation General Hospital, China Medical University, Beijing 100012, China.

Evaluating patients with chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) is essential to find the underlying etiology. The basic tenets in managing CVLUs are to remove the etiological causes, to address systemic and metabolic conditions, to examine the ulcers and artery pulses, and to control wound infection with debridement and eliminating excessive pressure on the wound. The first-line treatments of CVLUs remain wound care, debridement, bed rest with leg elevation, and compression. Evidence to support the efficacy of silver-based dressings in healing CVLUs is unavailable. Hydrogen peroxide is harmful to the growth of granulation tissue in the wound. Surgery options include a high ligation with or without stripping or ablation of the GSVs depending on venous reflux or insufficiency. Yet, not all CVLUs are candidates for surgical treatment because of comorbidities. When standard care of wound for 4 wk failed to heal CVLUs effectively, use of advanced wound care should be considered based on the available evidence. Negative pressure wound therapy facilitates granulation tissue development, thereby helping closure of CVLUs. Autologous split-thickness skin grafting is still the gold standard approach to close huge CVLUs. Hair punch graft appears to have a better result than traditional hairless punch graft for CVLUs. Application of adipose tissue or placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells is a promising therapy for wound healing. Autologous platelet-rich plasma provides an alternative strategy for surgery for safe and natural healing of the ulcer. The confirmative efficacy of current advanced ulcer therapies needs more robust evidence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i21.5070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674718PMC
November 2020

Structural Insight into the Interactions between Structurally Similar Inhibitors and SIRT6.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 9;21(7). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase with a significant role in 20% of all cancers, such as colon cancers and rectal adenocarcinoma. However, there is currently no effective drug for cancers related to SIRT6. To explore potential inhibitors of SIRT6, it is essential to reveal details of the interaction mechanisms between inhibitors and SIRT6 at the atomic level. The nature of small molecules from herbs have many advantages as inhibitors. Based on the conformational characteristics of the inhibitor Compound 9 (Asinex ID: BAS13555470), we explored the natural molecule Scutellarin, one compound of Huang Qin, which is an effective herb for curing cancer that has been described in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCMS) library. We investigated the interactions between SIRT6 and the inhibitors using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We illustrated that the structurally similar inhibitors have a similar binding mode to SIRT6 with residues-Leu9, Phe64, Val115, His133 and Trp188. Hydrophobic and π-stacking interactions play important roles in the interactions between SIRT6 and inhibitors. In summary, our results reveal the interactive mechanism of SIRT6 and the inhibitors and we also provide Scutellarin as a new potential inhibitor of SIRT6. Our study provides a new potential way to explore potential inhibitors from TCMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178056PMC
April 2020

Homocysteine as a potential predictive factor for high major adverse cardiovascular events risk in female patients with premature acute coronary syndrome.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov;98(47):e18019

Heart Center, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang.

We aimed to investigate the correlation of homocysteine (Hcy) level with clinical characteristics, and explore its predictive value for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) risk in female patients with premature acute coronary syndrome (ACS).The serum Hcy level was detected from 1299 female patients with premature ACS. According to the tertile of Hcy level, patients were divided into 3 groups: lowest tertile group (≤9.1 μmol/L), middle tertile group (9.2-11.6 μmol/L) and highest tertile group (>11.6 μmol/L). MACE incidence was recorded and MACE-free survival was caculated with the median follow-up duration of 28.3 months.Increased Hcy correlated with older age (P < .001), higher creatinine level (P < .001), and enhanced uric acid level (P = .001), while reduced fasting glucose concentration (P < .001). MACE incidence was 10.7% and it was highest in highest tertile group (22.1%), followed by middle tertile group (7.7%) and lowest tertile group (2.4%) (P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that Hcy distinguished MACE patients from non-MACE patients with the area under the curve of 0.789 (95% CI: 0.742-0.835). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that MACE-free survival was shortest in Hcy highest tertile group, followed by middle tertile group and lowest tertile group (P < .001). Multivariate Cox analyses further showed that higher Hcy level was an independent predictive factor for poor MACE-free survival (middle tertile vs lowest tertile (P = .001, HR: 3.615, 95% CI: 1.661-7.864); highest tertile vs lowest tertile (P < .001, HR: 11.023, 95% CI: 5.356-22.684)).Hcy serves as a potential predictive factor for increased MACE risk in female patients with premature ACS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000018019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882653PMC
November 2019

Brachiocephalic artery stenting through the carotid artery: A case report and review of the literature.

World J Clin Cases 2019 Sep;7(17):2644-2651

Department of Interventional Therapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116000, Liaoning Province, China.

Background: As the population ages and people's living standards gradually improve, the incidence of cerebrovascular disease in China is increasing annually, posing a serious threat to people's health. The incidence of brachiocephalic artery stenosis in ischemic cerebrovascular disease is relatively low, accounting for 0.5% to 2% of patients, but its consequences are very serious. Herein, we report a case of brachiocephalic artery stenting through the carotid artery.

Case Summary: The patient was a 66-year-old man. He came to our hospital because of repeated dizziness and was diagnosed with ischemic cerebrovascular disease (stenosis at the beginning of the brachiocephalic artery). Cerebral angiography suggested that the stenosis of the brachiocephalic artery had almost occluded it. Contrast agent threaded a line through the stenosis, and there was reversed blood flow through the right vertebral artery to compensate for the subclavian steal syndrome in the right subclavian artery. To improve the symptoms, we placed an Express LD (8 mm × 37 mm) balloon expanding stent in the stenosis section. After the operation, the patient's dizziness significantly improved. However, after 6 mo, the patient was re-admitted to the hospital due to dizziness. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed multiple cerebral infarctions in bilateral basal ganglia and the right lateral ventricle. An auxiliary examination including computerized tomography angiography of the vessels of the head and cerebral angiography both showed severe stenosis in the brachiocephalic artery stent. During the operation, the guidewire and catheter were matched to reach the opening of the brachiocephalic artery. Therefore, we decided to use a right carotid artery approach to complete the operation. We sutured the neck puncture point with a vascular stapler and then ended the operation. After the operation, the patient recovered well, his symptoms related to dizziness disappeared, and his right radial artery pulsation could be detected.

Conclusion: In patients with brachial artery stenosis, when the femoral artery approach is difficult, the carotid artery is an unconventional but safe and effective approach. At the same time, the use of vascular suturing devices to suture a carotid puncture point is also commendable. Although it is beyond the published scope of the application, when used cautiously, it can effectively avoid cerebral ischemia caused by prolonged artificial compression, and improper suturing can lead to stenosis of the puncture site and improper blood pressure, resulting in the formation of a hematoma. Finally, satisfactory hemostasis can be achieved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v7.i17.2644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745338PMC
September 2019

Dietary supplementation with polypeptides improved growth performance, antibacterial immune and intestinal microbiota structure of Litopenaeus vannamei.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Sep 14;92:480-488. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, PR China. Electronic address:

Antibacterial peptides (AMPs) are expected to replace some or all of the antibiotics and become a new feed additive. However, the high production cost and unclear mechanism limited the application of AMPs. In this research, the effects of a commercial polypeptide (Polypeptide S100) whose main components are AMPs on the growth, antibacterial immune and intestinal microbial of Litopenaeus vannamei were study. L. vannamei (initial weight of 0.16 ± 0.03 g) were fed for 123 days with basal diet added Polypeptide S100 at two levels each (0.5% and 1%) as experimental groups, and a basal diet as control. Dietary inclusion of Polypeptide S100 at 1% level significantly increased the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of L. vannamei. The survival rates of L. vannamei in 0.5% and 1% Polypeptide S100 groups were significantly higher than the control when infected by Vibrio harveyi but not Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and lysozyme (LZM) in the two experimental groups were all significantly higher than the control. Differently, the activities of amylase (AMS) and lipase (LPS) were significantly higher in 0.5% Polypeptide S100 group but lower in 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group. Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing showed that the dominant phyla in the intestine of L. vannamei were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Fusobacteria and Tenericutes, and the abundance of predominant phyla Cyanobacteria were upregulated significantly in the experimental groups. At the family level, significant increase was observed in Pseudomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae but decrease in Vibrionaceae in the 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group. The abundance of predominant genus Photobacterium were obviously downregulated in the two experimental groups. Unlikely, the abundance of Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas were distinctly increased in the 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group but not significantly different from the control in 0.5% Polypeptide S100 group. All these results suggested that Polypeptide S100 could improve the growth performance, antibacterial immune and intestinal microbiota structure of L. vannamei.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.06.033DOI Listing
September 2019

Cerebral arterial air embolism after computed tomography-guided hook-wire localization of a pulmonary nodule: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 May;98(18):e15437

Department of Intervention Therapy, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Rationale: Cranial arterial air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication after computed tomography (CT)-guided pulmonary interventions.

Patient Concerns: A 64-year-old man was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule (diameter: approximately 1 cm) in the right lower lobe. The patient developed convulsions after CT-guided hook-wire localization.

Diagnosis: Cranial CT revealed arborizing/linearly distributed gas in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery.

Interventions: The patient was administered hyperbaric oxygen, antiplatelet aggregation therapy, and dehydration treatment.

Outcomes: Clinical death occurred 55 hours after air embolism.

Lessons: Systemic air embolism is a serious complication of lung puncture. Clinicians should improve their understanding of this complication and remain vigilant against air embolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6504259PMC
May 2019

Development of a New RT-PCR with Multiple Primers for Detecting Southern African Territories Foot-and-mouth Disease Viruses.

J Vet Res 2018 Dec 31;62(4):431-437. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu, China.

Introduction: The extremely high genetic variation and the continuously emerging variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of Southern African Territory (SAT) serotypes including SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 make it necessary to develop a new RT-PCR for general use for monitoring viruses based on the updated genome information.

Material And Methods: A FMDV SAT-D8 one-step RT-PCR was established based on the 1D2A2B genes of the SAT serotype viruses with a multiplex primer set. FMDV A, O, C, and Asia 1 serotypes, other vesicular disease viruses, inactivated SAT viruses, and 125 bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine tissue samples collected from the Chinese mainland were included for evaluating the assay.

Results: The new RT-PCR was proven to be specific without cross-reactions with Eurasian FMDV, swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Seneca valley virus (SVV), or other common viral pathogens of cattle, sheep, goat, and pig. An around 257 bp-sized amplicon clearly appeared when the inactivated SAT viruses were detected. However, all 125 samples collected from FMDV-susceptible animals from the Chinese mainland which has not known SAT epidemics showed negative results.

Conclusions: A FMDV SAT-D8 one-step RT-PCR is a promising method for primary screening for FMDV SAT serotypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2018-0064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364153PMC
December 2018

Enhanced Expression of TGFBI Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Glioma Cells.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 7;49(3):1097-1109. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Background/aims: Transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBI) is an extracellular matrix protein induced by TGF-β. Previous studies have reported that the abnormal expression of TGFBI is related to the occurrence and development of some types of cancers, while the role of TGFBI in glioma is uncertain.

Methods: The association between TGFBI expression and the prognosis of patients with glioma was analyzed based on data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. TGFBI expression was analyzed in 3 normal human brains and 57 cases of human gliomas by immunohistochemistry followed by an evaluation of the relationships between TGFBI expression and clinic-pathological features. Furthermore, the RNA interference plasmid pSUPER-shTGFBI was constructed and transfected into U87 and U251 cells to explore the effect of short hairpin RNA against TGFBI (shTGFBI) on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the expression of proteins related to apoptosis and proteins in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Results: High TGFBI expression was found to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Immunohistochemistry showed that TGFBI expression was significantly higher in glioma tissue than in normal human brain tissues. The expression level of TGFBI showed no significant correlation with age, sex, lymph-node metastasis, or pathological grade. sh-TGFBI could inhibit proliferation, invasion and migration and induce apoptosis in U87 and U251 cells in vitro. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of AKT and mTOR declined significantly in sh-TGFBI transfected U81 and U251 cells when compared with control.

Conclusion: TGFBI was up-regulated in glioma cells and played a promoting role in the growth and motility of U87 and U251 cells. These results suggested that TGFBI has the potential to be a diagnostic marker and to serve as a target for the treatment of gliomas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000493293DOI Listing
October 2018

The effects of codon usage on the formation of secondary structures of nucleocapsid protein of peste des petits ruminants virus.

Genes Genomics 2018 09 31;40(9):905-912. Epub 2018 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

The nucleocapsid (N) protein of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) with a conserved amino acid usage pattern plays an important role in viral replication. The primary objective of this study was to estimate roles of synonymous codon usages of PPRV N gene and tRNA abundances of host in the formation of secondary structure of N protein. The potential effects of synonymous codon usages of N gene and tRNA abundances of host on shaping different folding units (α-helix, β-strand and the coil) in N protein were estimated, based on the information about the modeling secondary structure of PPRV N protein. The synonymous codon usage bias was found in different folding units in PPRV N protein. To better understand the role of translation speed caused by variant tRNA abundances in shaping the specific folding unit in N protein, we modeled the changing trends of tRNA abundance at the transition boundaries from one folding unit to another folding unit (β-strand → coil, coil → β-strand, α-helix → coil, coil → α-helix). The obvious fluctuations of tRNA abundance were identified at the two transition boundaries (β-strand → coil and coil → β-strand) in PPRV N protein. Our findings suggested that viral synonymous codon usage bias and cellular tRNA abundance variation might have potential effects on the formation of secondary structure of PPRV N protein.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-018-0684-2DOI Listing
September 2018

Analyses of nucleotide, synonymous codon and amino acid usages at gene levels of Brucella melitensis strain QY1.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 11 7;65:257-264. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu, PR China. Electronic address:

Brucella melitensis is the causative pathogen of the zoonotic disease brucellosis in China. This work focused on analyses of genetic features represented by nucleotide, synonymous codon and amino acid usages at gene levels of B. melitensis strain QY1 isolated from China. Although nucleotide usage biases at different codon positions all work on synonymous codon usage bias, nucleotide usage biases at the 1st and 3rd positions play more important roles in codon usages. Mutation pressure caused by nucleotide composition constraint influences the formation of over-representative synonymous codons, but neighboring nucleotides surrounding a codon strongly influence synonymous codon usage bias for B. melitensis strain QY1. There is significant correlation between amino acid usage bias and hydropathicity of proteins for B. melitensis strain QY1. Compared with different Brucella species about synonymous codon usage patterns, synonymous codon usages are not obviously influenced by hosts. Due to nucleotide usage bias at the 1st codon position influencing synonymous codon and amino acid usages, good interactions among nucleotide, synonymous codon and amino acid usages exist in the evolutionary process of B. melitensis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.08.004DOI Listing
November 2018

Progress in Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for the Surgical Treatment of Thoracic Spinal Stenosis.

Chin Med Sci J 2017 Dec;32(4):260-264

Department of Orthopedics, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Thoracic spinal stenosis (TSS) is a group of clinical syndromes caused by thoracic spinal cord compression, which always results in severe clinical complications. The incidence of TSS is relatively low compared with lumbar spinal stenosis, while the incidence of spinal cord injury during thoracic decompression is relatively high. The reported incidence of neurological deficits after thoracic decompression reached 13.9%. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) can timely provide information regarding the function status of the spinal cord, and help surgeons with appropriate performance during operation. This article illustrates the theoretical basis of applying IONM in thoracic decompression surgery, and elaborates on the relationship between signal changes in IONM and postoperative neurological function recovery of the spinal cord. It also introduces updated information in multimodality IONM, the factors influencing evoked potentials, and remedial measures to improve the prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.24920/J1001-9294.2017.041DOI Listing
December 2017

Unique features of nucleotide and codon usage patterns in mycoplasmas revealed by information entropy.

Biosystems 2018 Mar 20;165:1-7. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, PR China. Electronic address:

Currently, the comparison between GC usage pattern at the 3rd codon position and codon usage index is commonly used to estimate the roles of evolutionary forces in shaping synonymous codon usages, however, this kind of analysis often losses the information about the role of A/T usage bias in shaping synonymous codon usage bias. To overcome this limitation and better understand the interplay between nucleotide and codon usages for the evolution of bacteria at gene levels, in this study, we employed the information entropy method with some modification to estimate roles of nucleotide compositions in the overall codon usage bias for 18 mycoplasma species in combination with Davies-Bouldin index. At gene levels, the overall nucleotide usage bias represents A content as the highest, followed by T, G and C for mycoplasmas, resulting in a low GC content. This feature is universal across these species derived from different hosts, suggesting that the hosts have the limited impact on nucleotide usage bias of mycoplasmas. Information entropy and Davies-Bouldin index can better reveal that the nucleotide usage bias at the 3rd codon position is essential in shaping the overall nucleotide bias for all given mycoplasmas except M. pneumoniae M129. Davies-Bouldin index revealed that the 1st and 2nd codon position play more important role in synonymous codon usage bias than that of the 3rd position at gene levels. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive investigation into cooperation between nucleotide and codon usages for mycoplasma and extends our knowledge of the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage and evolution of this microorganism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2017.12.008DOI Listing
March 2018

Protective effect of the microcatheter placed at the normal vertebral artery in intracranial stent-assisted angioplasty for vertebral artery stenosis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jul;96(29):e7569

Department of Intervention Therapy, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Rationale: A carefully designed intracranial stent-assisted angioplasty (SAA) is presented here that may prevent subsequent branch artery occlusion.

Patient Concerns: A 72-year-old man with a 3-month history of progressive and intermittent vertigo without any obvious trigger, accompanied by nausea.

Diagnoses: Intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

Interventions: the patient underwent intracranial SAA in accordance with the procedure described here.

Outcomes: The patient's paroxysmal vertigo completely subsided, with no complications during the short-term follow-up.

Lessons: This novel intracranial SAA procedure is safe and may reduce the risk of subsequent artery occlusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000007569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5521928PMC
July 2017

Kiwifruit Alleviates Learning and Memory Deficits Induced by Pb through Antioxidation and Inhibition of Microglia Activation In Vitro and In Vivo.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017 12;2017:5645324. Epub 2017 Mar 12.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China.

Lead (Pb) exposure, in particular during early postnatal life, increases susceptibility to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative outcomes. The detrimental effect of Pb exposure is basically due to an increasing ROS production which overcomes the antioxidant systems and finally leads to cognitive dysfunction. Kiwifruit is rich in the antioxidants like vitamin C and polyphenols. This study aims to investigate the effects and mechanism of kiwifruit to alleviate learning and memory deficits induced by Pb exposure. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat pups acquired Pb indirectly through their mothers during lactation period and after postnatal day 21 (PND21) directly acquired Pb by themselves. Five kinds of kiwifruits were collected in this study and the amounts of vitamin C and polyphenols in them were measured and the antioxidation effects were determined. Among them, Qinmei kiwifruit (Qm) showed the strongest antioxidation effects in vitro. In vivo, Qm significantly repaired Pb-induced learning and memory deficits and dendritic spine loss. In addition, Pb compromised the enzymatic activity and transcriptional levels of SOD and GSH-Px and decreased the microglial activation, which, to some extent, could be reversed by Qm kiwifruit administration. The results suggest that kiwifruit could alleviate Pb-induced cognitive deficits possibly through antioxidative stress and microglia inactivation. Consequently, kiwifruit could be potentially regarded as the functional food favorable in the prevention and treatment of Pb intoxication.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/5645324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5366204PMC
May 2017

[Absorption of Uranium with Tea Oil Tree Sawdust Modified by Succinic Acid].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2015 May;36(5):1686-93

In order to explore how the modification of succinic acid improves the adsorption of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium, the tea oil tree sawdust was modified by succinic acid, after the pretreatments of crushing, screening, alkalization and acidification. Infrared analysis indicated carboxylic acid groups and ester groups were added to the sawdust after modification, and scanning electron microscope demonstrated after modification the appearance of tea oil tree sawdust was transferred from the structure like compact and straight stripped into the structure like loose and wrinkled leaves, which meant modification increased its inner pores. By the static experiments, effects of reaction time between adsorbent and solvent, dosage of adsorbent, temperature, pH value and initial concentration of uranium were investigated. The results showed that after the modification by succinic acid, the absorption rate of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium increased significantly by about 20% in 12.5 mg · L(-1) initial concentration uranium solution. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 180 min, and the kinetic data can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. In addition, the maximum adsorption amounts of tea oil tree sawdust after modification calculated from Langmuir equation raised from 21.413 3 to 31.545 7 mg · g(-1) at 35°C and pH 4.0.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2015

The Hydrogen Sulfide Donor NaHS Delays Programmed Cell Death in Barley Aleurone Layers by Acting as an Antioxidant.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2015 11;2015:714756. Epub 2015 May 11.

School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China.

H2S is a signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here we investigated the effects of H2S on programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The H2S donor NaHS significantly delayed PCD in aleurone layers isolated from imbibed embryoless barley grain. NaHS at 0.25 mM effectively reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion (·O2 (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), promoted the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in isolated aleurone layers. Quantitative-PCR showed that NaHS treatment of aleurone tissue led to enhanced transcript levels of the antioxidant genes HvSOD1, HvAPX, HvCAT1, and HvCAT2 and repressed transcript levels of HvLOX (lipoxygenase gene) and of two cysteine protease genes HvEPA and HvCP3-31. NaHS treatment in gibberellic acid- (GA-) treated aleurone layers also delayed the PCD process, reduced the content of ·O2 (-), and increased POD activity while decreasing LOX activity. Furthermore, α-amylase secretion in barley aleurone layers was enhanced by NaHS treatment regardless of the presence or absence of GA. These data imply that H2S acted as an antioxidant in delaying PCD and enhances α-amylase secretion regardless of the presence of GA in barley aleurone layers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/714756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4442411PMC
April 2016

The effect of multiple evolutionary selections on synonymous codon usage of genes in the Mycoplasma bovis genome.

PLoS One 2014 28;9(10):e108949. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, P.R. China.

Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen causing arthritis, respiratory disease and mastitis in cattle. A better understanding of its genetic features and evolution might represent evidences of surviving host environments. In this study, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in M. bovis (three strains' genomes) were analyzed. The overall nucleotide content of genes in the M. bovis genome is AT-rich. Although the G and C contents at the third codon position of genes in the leading strand differ from those in the lagging strand (p<0.05), the 59 synonymous codon usage patterns of genes in the leading strand are highly similar to those in the lagging strand. The over-represented codons and the under-represented codons were identified. A comparison of the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis and cattle (susceptible host) indicated the independent formation of synonymous codon usage of M. bovis. Principal component analysis revealed that (i) strand-specific mutational bias fails to affect the synonymous codon usage pattern in the leading and lagging strands, (ii) mutation pressure from nucleotide content plays a role in shaping the overall codon usage, and (iii) the major trend of synonymous codon usage has a significant correlation with the gene expression level that is estimated by the codon adaptation index. The plot of the effective number of codons against the G+C content at the third codon position also reveals that mutation pressure undoubtedly contributes to the synonymous codon usage pattern of M. bovis. Additionally, the formation of the overall codon usage is determined by certain evolutionary selections for gene function classification (30S protein, 50S protein, transposase, membrane protein, and lipoprotein) and translation elongation region of genes in M. bovis. The information could be helpful in further investigations of evolutionary mechanisms of the Mycoplasma family and heterologous expression of its functionally important proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0108949PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211681PMC
June 2015

The silent point mutations at the cleavage site of 2A/2B have no effect on the self-cleavage activity of 2A of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

Infect Genet Evol 2014 Dec 23;28:101-6. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu, PR China. Electronic address:

The 2A region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) polyprotein is 18 amino acids in length, and 2A self-cleavage site (2A/2B) contains a conserved amino acid motif G2A/P2B. To investigate the synonymous codon usage for Glycine at the 2A/2B cleavage site of FMDV, 66 2A/2B1 nucleotide sequences were aligned and found that the synonymous codon usage of G2A is conserved and GGG was the most frequently used. To examine the role of synonymous codons for G2A in self-cleavage efficiency of 2A/2B, recombinant constructs which contains the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase protein (CAT) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) linked by the FMDV 2A sequence with four synonymous codons for G2A were produced. The activities of all the F2As based plasmids were determined in CHO cells. The results showed that the synonymous codon usage patterns for G2A at the cleavage site (2A/2B) have no effect on the cleavage efficiency. This suggests that the synonymous codon usage of 2A peptide has no effect on the cleavage efficiency of FMDV 2A element.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2014.08.006DOI Listing
December 2014

An antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum.

PLoS One 2014 7;9(8):e104206. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.

In this research, the antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum growing on fruits and under culture conditions on defined media was investigated. Our results show that H2S, released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) effectively reduced the postharvest decay of fruits induced by A. niger and P. italicum. Furthermore, H2S inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and produced abnormal mycelial contractions when the fungi were grown on defined media in Petri plates. Further studies showed that H2S could cause an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. niger. In accordance with this observation we show that enzyme activities and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes in A. niger treated with H2S were lower than those in control. Moreover, H2S also significantly inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus oryzae, the human pathogen Candida albicans, and several food-borne bacteria. We also found that short time exposure of H2S showed a microbicidal role rather than just inhibiting the growth of microbes. Taken together, this study suggests the potential value of H2S in reducing postharvest loss and food spoilage caused by microbe propagation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0104206PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125178PMC
November 2015

Establishment and evaluation of stable cell lines inhibiting foot-and-mouth disease virus by RNA interference.

Biomed Res Int 2014 10;2014:109428. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China.

RNA interference (RNAi) has been proved to be a powerful tool for foot-and-mouth disease virus FMDV inhibition in vitro and in vivo. We established five stable baby hamster kidney 21 cell lines (BHK-21) containing five short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) expression plasmids (p3D1shRNA, p3D2shRNA, p3D3shRNA, p3D4shRNA, and p3D5shRNA) targeting 3D gene of FMDV. Immunofluorescent assay, virus titration, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) were conducted to detect the effect of shRNAs on FMDV replication. After challenged with FMDV of O/CHA/99, two cell lines (p3D1shRNA and p3D4shRNA) showed a significant reduction in the synthesis of viral protein and RNA, accompanied by a sharp decrease in viral yield, and the inhibition could last for at least thirty passages. We developed an efficient procedure for the establishment and evaluation of stable cell lines for anti-FMDV research based on RNAi technology, which can be a candidate method for anti-FMDV research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/109428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3934452PMC
May 2015

Hydrogen sulfide prolongs postharvest storage of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) by alleviation of oxidative damage and inhibition of fungal growth.

PLoS One 2014 15;9(1):e85524. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui Province, China.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the decay of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). H2S gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, H2S maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radicals (•O2(-)) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), while it down-regulated those of lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Furthermore, H2S fumigation effectively inhibited the growth of two fungal pathogens of pear, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum, suggesting that H2S can be developed as an effective fungicide for postharvest storage. The present study implies that H2S is involved in prolonging postharvest storage of pears by acting as an antioxidant and fungicide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0085524PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893216PMC
December 2014

Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest senescence of broccoli by modulating antioxidant defense and senescence-related gene expression.

J Agric Food Chem 2014 Feb 24;62(5):1119-29. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology , Hefei 230009, China.

Accumulating evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) acts as a signaling regulator in plants. Here we show that H₂S delays the postharvest senescence of broccoli in a dose-dependent manner. H₂S maintains higher levels of metabolites, such as carotenoids, anthocyanin, and ascorbate, and reduces the accumulation of malondialdehyde, H₂O₂, and the superoxide anion. Further investigations showed that H₂S sustained higher activities of guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase and lower activities of lipoxygenase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and protease than those of water control. Moreover, the expression of the chlorophyll degradation related genes BoSGR, BoCLH2, BoPaO, BoRCCR, as well as cysteine protease BoCP1 and lipoxygenase gene BoLOX1, was down-regulated in postharvest broccoli treated with H₂S. The functions of H₂S on the senescence of other vegetables and fruits suggest its universal role acting as a senescence regulator.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf4047122DOI Listing
February 2014

Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Chemosphere 2013 Nov;93(10):2585-92

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.081DOI Listing
November 2013

The distribution of synonymous codon choice in the translation initiation region of dengue virus.

PLoS One 2013 25;8(10):e77239. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Lanzhou, Gansu, P.R. China.

Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral (Arboviral) illness in humans. The genetic features concerning the codon usage of dengue virus (DENV) were analyzed by the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons and the codon adaptation index. The evolutionary distance between DENV and the natural hosts (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) was estimated by a novel formula. Finally, the synonymous codon usage preference for the translation initiation region of this virus was also analyzed. The result indicates that the general trend of the 59 synonymous codon usage of the four genotypes of DENV are similar to each other, and this pattern has no link with the geographic distribution of the virus. The effect of codon usage pattern of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti on the formation of codon usage of DENV is stronger than that of the two primates. Turning to the codon usage preference of the translation initiation region of this virus, some codons pairing to low tRNA copy numbers in the two primates have a stronger tendency to exist in the translation initiation region than those in the open reading frame of DENV. Although DENV, like other RNA viruses, has a high mutation to adapt its hosts, the regulatory features about the synonymous codon usage have been 'branded' on the translation initiation region of this virus in order to hijack the translational mechanisms of the hosts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077239PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3808402PMC
August 2014

[Application of argon-nitrogen mixed gas inductively coupled plasma in elements and isotopes analysis].

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2013 Jul;33(7):1936-42

State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.

To improve the precision and accuracy of elements and isotopes analysis in traditional Ar-ICP, the addition of nitrogen in ICP has been widely used. The present review focused on the discussions of the basic physical and chemical properties of the Ar-N2 mixed gas inductively coupled plasma and the mechanisms of the special nature of Ar-N2 mixed gas plasma. The applications of Ar-N2 inductively coupled plasma in spectral analysis and mass spectrometry analysis in the past 40 years were summarized. The authors also give an overall outlook on the application of this technology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2013

Potential roles of synonymous codon usage and tRNA concentration in hosts on the two initiation regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA.

Virus Res 2013 Sep 25;176(1-2):298-302. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046 Gansu, PR China.

The open reading frame of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) contains two authentic initiation codons and the second initiation codon is often selected in high frequency. In the study, we analyzed the effects of the host-cell synonymous codon usage and the overall tRNA concentration in the hosts on the region flanked by the two initiation codons (termed as the region 1) and the same length starting from the second initiation codon (defined as the region 2). We find that low-usage codons of hosts are more selected in the region 1 than the region 2; no obvious usage bias of codon with high C/G content exists in the region 1, and the latter part (ranging from the 13th codon position to the 28th codon position) of the region 1 generally contains the codon sites with the generally lower tRNA concentration than the counterpart of the region 2. The low-usage codons of the hosts with high selection in the region 1 and the cluster codon position with low tRNA concentration in the region 1 may serve as potential factors in decreasing the translation rate of the region 1 caused by initiation from the first start codon of FMDV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2013.06.006DOI Listing
September 2013

[Revisiting Darwin's theory of heredity-Pangenesis].

Authors:
Yong-Sheng Liu

Yi Chuan 2013 May;35(5):680-4

Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China.

Pangenesis, an early theory of heredity, has been regarded as Darwin's error for a long time. The main reason is that it explains the inheritance of acquired characteristics and graft hybridization, which were largely thought to be wrong. In addition, Galton's blood transfusion experiments obtained negative results, and no evidence was found to support Darwin's hypothetical gemmules-molecular carriers of hereditary characteristics, which are supposed to be thrown off by cells and are able to circulate throughout the body. Now, there are growing evidence for the inheritance of acquired characteristics and graft hybridization. The discovery of circulating nucleic acids indicates that there are indeed inherited molecules which can move between cells of the organism, providing evidence for the chemical existence of Darwin's gemmules. This paper briefly introduces Darwin's Pangenesis, the main reasons that it was ignored, the new evidence in support of it and our own rethinking about it. A new understanding of Pangenesis brings a broader perspective on genetics, evolution, and medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/sp.j.1005.2013.00680DOI Listing
May 2013