Publications by authors named "Yong-Ming Li"

39 Publications

[In the search of mobile target for acupuncture: why is mast cell?]

Authors:
Yong-Ming Li

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Sep;41(9):965-70

American TCM Acupunctre and Moxibustion Society, New York 10016, USA.

Both clinical practice and basic research of acupuncture have pointed out that acupuncture treatment has specific tissue and cellular targets. In addition to the known fixed tissue targets such as nerves and blood vessels, the author analyzes the biological characteristics of other skin resident cells in the skin and concludes that cutaneous mast cells are the most suitable candidate for the cellular target of acupuncture. A hypothesis of the bionic acupuncture is proposed to explain the biological principles by which the innate immunity and healing system respond to acupuncture. The distribution of mast cells in the human skin is characterized by "approaching to the terminals and gathering at the orifices", and the cell density is highly correlated with the density of acupoints and the micro-acupuncture systems. These evidences all support that mast cells are the mobile target cells for acupuncture, which can explain some clinical phenomena and principles of acupuncture, and suggest mast cells as one of the tissue markers for acupoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20210629-k0001DOI Listing
September 2021

[Discussion on published in ].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Apr;41(4):359-64

American TCM Society, New York NY 10016, USA.

Professor ' team from Chengdu University of TCM published in on July 29, 2019, which demonstrates that acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy is safety and effective for mild and moderate chronic stable angina. Sixteen experts at home and abroad conducted serious discussions on the research design, evaluation methods, principles and mechanisms, clinical significance and enlightenment of future acupuncture research, and provided practical suggestions for acupuncture and moxibustion to go global and gain international recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20190929-k0003DOI Listing
April 2021

Three hand yin meridians in ancient Chinese medicine were established initially based on arterial structures.

Authors:
Yong Ming Li

J Anat 2021 06 31;238(6):1494-1496. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Dermatopathology Service and Herb Acupuncture Clinic, Bridgewater, NJ, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128774PMC
June 2021

Who Has the Final Say on the Dose of Acupuncture? Comment on the Article by Tu et al.

Authors:
Yong Ming Li

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 06 7;73(6):1089-1090. Epub 2021 May 7.

Herb Acupuncture Clinic, Bridgewater, NJ.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41664DOI Listing
June 2021

Persistent median artery may explain the transition from 11 to 12 meridians in ancient Chinese medicine.

Authors:
Yong Ming Li

J Anat 2021 06 13;238(6):1442-1443. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Dermatopathology Service and Herb Acupuncture Clinic, Bridgewater, NJ, USA.

Persistent median artery (PMA) has been recognized as a major arterial variant of the forearm in about 30% adults and it also shows a continuously increasing trend in the last two hundred years. This may explain well the mystery why a "new meridian" was added to the older 11-meridian system over two thousand years ago in Chinese medicine. The 12th meridian, Hand Jue Yin Meridian, happens to run along the same pathway as PMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128758PMC
June 2021

Automatic identification of compressions and ventilations during CPR based on the fuzzy c-means clustering and deep belief network.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(18):1165

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Medicine, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Background: A transthoracic impedance (TTI) signal is an important indicator of the quality of chest compressions (CCs) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We proposed an automatic detection algorithm including the wavelet decomposition, fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering, and deep belief network (DBN) to identify the compression and ventilation waveforms for evaluating the quality of CPR.

Methods: TTI signals were collected from a cardiac arrest model that electrically induced cardiac arrest in pigs. All signals were denoised using the wavelet and morphology method. The potential compression and ventilation waveforms were marked using an algorithm with a multi-resolution window. The compressions and ventilations in these waveforms were identified and classified using the FCM clustering and DBN methods.

Results: Using the FCM clustering method, the positive predictive values (PPVs) for compressions and ventilations were 99.7% and 95.7%, respectively. The sensitivities of recognition were 99.8% for compressions and 95.1% for ventilations. The DBN approach exhibited similar PPV and sensitivity results to the FCM clustering method. The time cost was satisfactory using either of these techniques.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that FCM clustering and DBN can be utilized to effectively and accurately evaluate CPR quality, and provide information for improving the success rate of CPR. Our real-time algorithms using FCM clustering and DBN eliminated most distortions and noises effectively, and correctly identified the compression and ventilation waveforms with a low time cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576062PMC
September 2020

[The influence of two calculation methods on relative energy contribution of men's wheelchair racing T54 events].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2020 Jan;36(1):27-32

School of Physical Education and Sport Training, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438.

Objective: To study whether the two methods of energy calculation affects the value of relative energy contribution in men's T54 wheelchair racing events.

Methods: Ten men's T54 wheelchair racers (age (22.9±5.2) yrs、sitting height (90.9±3.2) cm、body mass (59.3±8.3) kg) participate in 1 incremental test and 4 time trials (400 m、800 m、1 500 m、5 000 m). A portable gas analyzer, polar heart rate belt and a blood lactate analyzer were used to measure VO at every breath, HR and blood lactate changes. The energetic contribution was measured with phosphocreatine-lactate-oxygen(PCr-La-O) and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit(MAOD) methods.

Results: The anaerobic and total energy portions from MAOD were lower than those from PCr-La-O ( especially in 400 m: W (50.8 ±12.7) KJ vs (65.2±13.5) KJ、W (31.0±9.0) KJ vs (45.4±11.4) KJ, P<0.05), resulting in W% calculated by MAOD was generally higher than PCr-La-O method (especially in 400 m : W% 39.0% ±1.2% vs 30.4%±8.4 %,P<0.05).

Conclusion: The study proves that the two-calculation method causes W% difference. MAOD method does lead to an overestimate of W%. Recommend to use the same calculation method for diagnosis and monitoring in the longitudinal study of long-term scientific research (such as the 4-year Olympic Games),to avoiding the difference in results caused by different calculation methods, which will further influence the development of coaches' training plans and training implementation effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5895.2020.006DOI Listing
January 2020

The Neuroimmune Basis of Acupuncture: Correlation of Cutaneous Mast Cell Distribution with Acupuncture Systems in Human.

Authors:
Yong Ming Li

Am J Chin Med 2019 5;47(8):1781-1793. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Dermatopathology Service, Bridgewater, NJ, USA.

The hypothesis that cutaneous mast cells (MCs) are responsible for skin phenomena in acupuncture was proposed 40 years ago, but very little is known about the correlation of MC distribution with acupuncture systems in human. The aim of this study is to quantify cutaneous mast cells at different body sites and compare them with the distributions of classical acupuncture points and micro-acupuncture systems. Skin biopsies from dermatological practice were evaluated under microscope with H&E or CD117 stains. Dermal MCs were counted and expressed as MCs per high power field. Densities of classical acupuncture points at different body sites were also calculated and expressed as points per dm. MC densities at special sites of the body were compared with micro-acupuncture systems. After examining 285 skin biopsies, MC enriched special sites (MESS) were found at peripheral parts of the body and around orifices of body surfaces. Comparative mapping showed that patterns of MC distribution are highly correlated with the distributions of classic acupuncture points in 14 classic acupuncture meridians, with the exception of the trunk areas. Mapping also revealed that all micro-acupuncture systems were established at MESS, including ear, scalp, hand, foot, eye, face, and umbilicus. The conclusion is that the densities of cutaneous MCs are highly correlated with classical acupuncture points and micro-acupuncture systems. These findings provide tissue evidence of neuroimmune basis of acupuncture and suggest that MC is a tissue target for acupuncture stimulation and may serve as a tissue marker for acupuncture points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X19500903DOI Listing
April 2020

Dry Needling: Is It Derived From Acupuncture? How Did Nonacupuncturists Start Using It?

Altern Ther Health Med 2020 May;26(3):40-46

Context: In the United States. and other Western countries, dry needling (DN) has been a disputed topic in both the academic and legal fields.

Objective: The research team intended to examine whether DN is a technique independent from acupuncture and also how nonacupuncturists, such as physical therapists (PTs), started practicing DN.

Design: The research team completed research, examined critical issues related to DN, and published a white paper in 2017 that discussed evidence and expert opinions from academic scholars, for health care professionals, administrators, policy makers, and the general public that demonstrate that DN is acupuncture. This article continues that endeavor.

Results: DN is not merely a technique but a medical therapy that is a simplified form of acupuncture practice. To promote DN theory and business, some commercial DN educators have recruited a large number of nonacupuncturists, including PTs, athletic trainers, and nurse practitioners, in recent years. PTs did not initiate the practice of DN and DN does not fit into the practice scope for PTs because it is an invasive practice. The national organizations of the PT profession, such as the American Physical Therapy Association and the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy, began to support the practice of DN by PTs in approximately 2010. Currently, more PTs are involved in DN practice and are teaching than any other specialty.

Conclusions: Acupuncturists and physicians must complete extensive acupuncture training in accredited programs and pass national examinations to become licensed or certified to practice acupuncture. However, a typical DN course runs only 20-30 h, often in the course of 1 weekend, and the participants may receive a DN certificate without any national examination being required. For the safety of patients and professional integrity, the research team strongly suggests that all DN practitioners and educators should have to meet the same basic standards as those required for licensed acupuncturists or physicians.
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May 2020

[Application of energy cost in evaluating energy expenditure in multi-ball practice with table tennis players].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jul;35(4):331-335

China Table Tennis College, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China.

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of applying the measure of energy cost, utilized widely in cyclic sports, in table tennis multi-ball practice.

Methods: Eleven collegiate table tennis players volunteered (18±1 yrs, 177±2 cm, 71±3 kg, approximately 10 yrs' training experience) to participate in one graded exercise test on treadmill, and two step tests (forehand and backhand, 3 min × 6, 35~85 stroke/min). A portable spirometric system and heart rate monitor were utilized for the three trials. Earlobe blood samples were collected and analyzed prior to and post the test. Energy cost was calculated for one stroke at each stroke frequency.

Results: The energy cost of loop drive multi-ball practice was decreased with increased stroke frequency (P<0.05). The energy cost of forehand loop drive was higher than backhand, with the difference significant at 35, 45, 55, 65, and 85 stroke·min (P<0.05). The function between energy cost and frequency were y=166.4x (R=0.9731), and y=33.21x (R=0.8423), respectively, where y was energy cost, and x was stroke frequency.

Conclusion: The measure of energy cost utilized in cyclic sports could be applied to evaluate the energy expenditure in table tennis multi-ball practice of single technique, and indicate the stroke efficiency of table tennis muti-ball practice with different stroke frequencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5778.2019.070DOI Listing
July 2019

Interdisciplinarity research based on NSFC-sponsored projects: A case study of mathematics in Chinese universities.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(7):e0201577. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

School of Foreign Languages, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

We investigate the interdisciplinarity of mathematics based on an analysis of projects sponsored by the NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China). The motivation of this study lies in obtaining an efficient method to quantify the research interdisciplinarities, revealing the research interdisciplinarity patterns of mathematics discipline, giving insights for mathematics scholars to improve their research, and providing empirical supports for policy making. Our data set includes 6147 NSFC-sponsored projects implemented by 3225 mathematics professors in 177 Chinese universities with established mathematics departments. We propose the weighted-mean DIRD (diversity of individual research disciplines) to quantify interdisciplinarity. In addition, we introduce the matrix computation method, discover several properties of such a matrix, and make the computation cost significantly lower than the bitwise computation method. Finally, we develop an automatic DIRD computing system. The results indicate that mathematics professors at top normal universities in China exhibit strong interdisciplinarity; mathematics professors are most likely to conduct interdisciplinary research involving information science (research department), computer science (research area), computer application technology (research field), and power system bifurcation and chaos (research direction).
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201577PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6067728PMC
February 2019

[The Incorrect Translation, Misinterpretation and Misunderstanding of "Superficial Fascia" in Acupuncture].

Authors:
Yong-Ming Li

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2018 May;43(5):294-5

American Traditional Chinese Medical Society, New York 10016, USA.

The "superficial fascia" is often interpreted as "tendon-membrane like structure" in acupuncture field and it is speculated that acupuncture stimulation-induced structural alteration of the superficial fascia may contribute to the alleviation of many medical conditions. The fact is that the superficial fascia mainly consists of subcutaneous adipose tissue and fibrotic network (which function in storing, supporting and buffering external pressure and are not responsible for producing "" or "needling sensations"), and has no typical tendon or membrane structure in hypodermis. In the present paper, the author tries to clarify its incorrect translation, misinterpretation, and misunderstanding in acupuncture and propose that the target of acupuncture stimulation is probably not only the subcutaneous soft tissue per se, but also the contents in subcutaneous soft tissue network as the nerves, blood vessels, lymph-vessels, cutaneous accessory structures, mast cells, multiple movable cells, related receptors, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.180068DOI Listing
May 2018

An NGS-based approach for the identification of sex-specific markers in snakehead ().

Oncotarget 2017 Nov 19;8(58):98733-98744. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China.

We described a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach to identify sex-specific markers and subsequently determine whether a species has male or female heterogamety. To test the accuracy of this technique, we examined the snakehead (), which is economically important freshwater fish in China. Males grow faster than females, and there is significant interest in developing methods to skew breeding towards all-males to increase biomass yields. NGS was conducted on DNAs of individual female and male, the male reads were spitted into 60 bp K-mers and aligned to the female reference genome assembled by female reads, unaligned male K-mers-60 were kept in next filter process. Meanwhile, DNA sample of 48 females was pooled and sequenced, this data was further used to filter out the previous unaligned male K-mers-60. Hence, numbers of candidate Y chromosome-specific sequences were screened out, their sex-specificity were validated in wild snakeheads through PCR amplification. Finally, three Y chromosome-specific fragments (Contig-275834, Contig-359642, and Contig-418354) were identified, and specific primers were obtained to distinguish the sex of snakehead. Additionally, a pair of primers of Contig-275834 (275834X/Y-F and 275834X/Y-R) was exploited to distinguish XX females, XY males, and YY super-males, whose amplification products of different lengths were produced for different sexes. Therefore, our work demonstrated the ability of NGS data in identification of sex-specific markers, and the pipeline adopted in our study could be applied in any species of sex differentiation. Furthermore, the sex-specific markers have tremendous potential for improving the efficiency of all-male breeding practices in snakehead.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5716763PMC
November 2017

Acupuncture's Role in Solving the Opioid Epidemic: Evidence, Cost-Effectiveness, and Care Availability for Acupuncture as a Primary, Non-Pharmacologic Method for Pain Relief and Management-White Paper 2017.

J Integr Med 2017 Nov;15(6):411-425

University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, CA 92093, USA.

The United States (U.S.) is facing a national opioid epidemic, and medical systems are in need of non-pharmacologic strategies that can be employed to decrease the public's opioid dependence. Acupuncture has emerged as a powerful, evidence-based, safe, cost-effective, and available treatment modality suitable to meeting this need. Acupuncture has been shown to be effective for the management of numerous types of pain conditions, and mechanisms of action for acupuncture have been described and are understandable from biomedical, physiologic perspectives. Further, acupuncture's cost-effectiveness can dramatically decrease health care expenditures, both from the standpoint of treating acute pain and through avoiding addiction to opioids that requires costly care, destroys quality of life, and can lead to fatal overdose. Numerous federal regulatory agencies have advised or mandated that healthcare systems and providers offer non-pharmacologic treatment options for pain. Acupuncture stands out as the most evidence-based, immediately available choice to fulfil these calls. Acupuncture can safely, easily, and cost-effectively be incorporated into hospital settings as diverse as the emergency department, labor and delivery suites, and neonatal intensive care units to treat a variety of commonly seen pain conditions. Acupuncture is already being successfully and meaningfully utilized by the Veterans Administration and various branches of the U.S. Military, in some studies demonstrably decreasing the volume of opioids prescribed when included in care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60378-9DOI Listing
November 2017

Acupuncture for Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Authors:
Yong Ming Li

JAMA 2017 10;318(15):1501-1502

Herb Acupuncture Clinic, Bridgewater, New Jersey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.13386DOI Listing
October 2017

[Three Waves of Arsenic Therapy for Leukemia and Related Innovations].

Authors:
Yong-Ming Li

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2017 04;37(4):401-405

There were three waves of arsenic therapy for leukemia in the history and every time, it started with a particular medical innovation. German doctor first found that Fowler arsenic solution might improve symptoms of leukemia patients in 1865 but the therapy was never popular due to uncertainty. In 1931, American hematologists reported a series of chronic myeloid leukemia cases successfully managed by arsenic solutions , and published the pathological data supporting the specificity of arsenic action on leu- kemic cells. Not until late 1970s, after the publication of new FAB classification of leukemia, Chinese doctors from Harbin Medical University who had been exploring novel applications of traditional Chinese medi- cines, discovered that the new leukemic entity, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was the best indica- tion for arsenic containing remedy. The theory was supported by many APL survivors and later trials with As₂Ο₃, as a monotherapy. The Harbin Protocol was soon repeated successful in China and in the West, and As₂Ο₃, became a FDA approved new drug for APL in 2001. The discovery of arsenic therapy for APL was ap- parently not an incidental finding, but a timely advance following medical innovation. The continuing efforts in the research of traditional Chinese medicine and the teamwork of specialists in Chinese medicine, hema- tology, pathology, and pharmacology made this innovative discovery possible.
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April 2017

Evidence and expert opinions: Dry needling versus acupuncture (II) : The American Alliance for Professional Acupuncture Safety (AAPAS) White Paper 2016.

Chin J Integr Med 2017 Feb 7;23(2):83-90. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

The American Alliance for Professional Acupuncture Safety, Greenwich, Connecticut, 06878, USA.

In the United States and other Western countries, dry needling has been a topic in academic and legal fields. This White Paper is to provide the authoritative information of dry needling versus acupuncture to academic scholars, healthcare professionals, administrators, policymakers, and the general public by providing the authoritative evidence and expertise regarding critical issues of dry needling and reaching a consensus. We conclude that Dr. Travell, Dr. Gunn, Dr. Baldry and others who have promoted dry needling by simply rebranding (1) acupuncture as dry needling and (2) acupuncture points as trigger points (dry needling points). Dry needling simply using English biomedical terms (especially using "fascia" hypothesis) in replace of their equivalent Chinese medical terms. Dry needling is an over-simplified version of acupuncture derived from traditional Chinese acupuncture except for emphasis on biomedical language when treating neuromuscularskeletal pain (dry needling promoters redefined it as "myofascial pain"). Trigger points belong to the category of Ashi acupuncture points in traditional Chinese acupuncture, and they are not a new discovery. By applying acupuncture points, dry needling is actually trigger point acupuncture, an invasive therapy (a surgical procedure) instead of manual therapy. Dr. Travell admitted to the general public that dry needling is acupuncture, and acupuncture professionals practice dry needling as acupuncture therapy and there are several criteria in acupuncture profession to locate trigger points as acupuncture points. Among acupuncture schools, dry needling practitioners emphasize acupuncture's local responses while other acupuncturists pay attention to the responses of both local, distal, and whole body responses. For patients' safety, dry needling practitioners should meet standards required for licensed acupuncturists and physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-017-2800-6DOI Listing
February 2017

Evidence and expert opinions: Dry needling versus acupuncture (III) - The American Alliance for Professional Acupuncture Safety (AAPAS) White Paper 2016.

Chin J Integr Med 2017 Mar 28;23(3):163-165. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

American Alliance for Professional Acupuncture Safety, Greenwich, Connecticut, 06878, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-017-2542-xDOI Listing
March 2017

Evidence and expert opinions: Dry needling versus acupuncture (I) : The American Alliance for Professional Acupuncture Safety (AAPAS) White Paper 2016.

Chin J Integr Med 2017 Jan 21;23(1):3-9. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

American Alliance for Professional Acupuncture Safety, Greenwich, Connecticut, 06878, USA.

In the last twenty years, in the United States and other Western countries, dry needling (DN) became a hot and debatable topic, not only in academic but also in legal fields. This White Paper is to provide the authoritative information of DN versus acupuncture to academic scholars, healthcare professional administrators, lawmakers, and the general public through providing the authoritative evidence and experts' opinions regarding critical issues of DN versus acupuncture, and then reach consensus. DN is the use of dry needles alone, either solid filiform acupuncture needles or hollow-core hypodermic needles, to insert into the body for the treatment of muscle pain and related myofascial pain syndrome. DN is sometimes also known as intramuscular stimulati on, trigger points (TrP) acupuncture, TrP DN, myofascial TrP DN, or biomedical acupuncture. In Western countries, DN is a form of simplified acupuncture using biomedical language in treating myofascial pain, a contemporary development of a portion of Ashi point acupuncture from Chinese acupuncture. It seeks to redefine acupuncture by reframing its theoretical principles in a Western manner. DN-like needling with filiform needles have been widely used in Chinese acupuncture practice over the past 2,000 years, and with hypodermic needles has been used in China in acupuncture practice for at least 72 years. In Eastern countries, such as China, since late of 1800s or earlier, DN is a common name of acupuncture among acupuncturists and the general public, which has a broader scope of indications, not limited to treating the myofascial pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-016-2630-yDOI Listing
January 2017

Villosiclava virens infects specifically rice and barley stamen filaments due to the unique host cell walls.

Microsc Res Tech 2016 Sep 30;79(9):838-44. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

The State Kay Laboratory for Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, Zhejiang, China.

Rice false smut, caused by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens, is one of the most important rice diseases in the world. Previous studies reported that the pathogen has less number of cell wall-degraded genes and attacks dominantly rice stamen filaments and extends intercellularly. To reveal why the fungus infects plant stamen filaments, inoculation test on barley was carried out with the similar protocol to rice. The experimental results showed that the fungus could penetrate quickly into barley stamen filaments and extends both intracellularly and intercellularly, usually resulting in severe damage of the stamen filament tissues. It also attacked young barley lodicules and grew intercellularly by chance. The light microscopic observations found that the epidermal and cortex cells in barley stamen filaments arranged loosely with very thick cell walls and large cell gaps. Cellulose microfibrils in barley stamen filament cell walls arranged very sparsely so that the cell walls looked like transparent. The cell walls were very soft and flexible, and often folded. However, V. virens extended dominantly in the noncellulose regions and seemed never to degrade microfibrils in barley and rice cell walls. This suggested that the unique structures of rice and barley stamen filaments should be fit for their function of elongation in anthesis, and also endow with the susceptibility to the fungus, V. virens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22710DOI Listing
September 2016

Tubeimoside-1 induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2016 Jul 13;37(7):950-62. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory on Molecular and Chemical Genetics, the Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China.

Aim: Tubeimoside-1 (TBMS1), a triterpenoid saponin extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae), has shown anticancer activities in various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular targets of TBMS1 in human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

Methods: DU145 and P3 human prostate cancer cells were treated with TBMS1. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected. ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle profile were examined. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of relevant proteins in the cells.

Results: TBMS1 (5-100 μmol/L) significantly suppressed the viability of DU145 and P3 cells with IC50 values of approximately 10 and 20 μmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, TBMS1 dose-dependently induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in DU145 and P3 cells. In DU145 cells, TBMS1 induced mitochondrial apoptosis, evidenced by ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulated Bcl-2 family protein and cleaved caspase-3, and activated ASK-1 and its downstream targets p38 and JNK. The G0/G1 phase arrest was linked to increased expression of p53 and p21 and decreased expression of cyclin E and cdk2. Co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) could attenuate TBMS1-induced apoptosis but did not prevent G0/G1 arrest. Moreover, co-treatment with NAC (ROS scavenger), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) or salubrinal (ER stress inhibitor) significantly attenuated TBMS1-induced apoptosis.

Conclusion: TBMS1 induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro via the mitochondrial pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aps.2016.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933758PMC
July 2016

[Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

Authors:
Yong-ming Li

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2016 Mar;36(3):266-8

Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement.
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March 2016

Acupuncture is Effective for Chronic Knee Pain: A Reanalysis of the Australian Acupuncture Trial.

Altern Ther Health Med 2016 Mar;22(3):32-36

Context • In the October 2014 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Hinman et al published the results of an Australian clinical trial on acupuncture in a paper entitled "Acupuncture for Chronic Knee Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial" (JAMA report), in which they concluded that neither acupuncture nor laser acupuncture had any greater effects than sham laser acupuncture for pain or function for patients aged 50 y and older with moderate-to-severe knee pain. That study has been criticized extensively by international scholars for its validity because serious methodological flaws existed throughout the study's design, implementation, and conclusions. Objective • The current study intended to re-examine the prior study's conclusions about the efficacy of acupuncture for chronic knee pain. Design • The current research team performed a reanalysis of relevant data from the JAMA report. Intervention • The original study included 4 groups: (1) an acupuncture group, which received needle acupuncture, inferred by the current authors to have been set up to be a positive control in the original study; (2) a laser acupuncture group, which received laser acupuncture; (3) a sham laser acupuncture group, which received sham laser acupuncture and acted as the negative controls for the laser acupuncture intervention; and (4) a control group, which received conventional care but no acupuncture or laser treatments. The study lasted 12 wk. Outcome Measures • The measures included evaluations in the following areas: (1) poststudy modifications-an evaluation of the consistency of the JAMA report with the study's intentions as identified for a grant that was originally approved and funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in 2009, as indicated in the study's trial registration, and as compared with the published protocols and to the study's originally stated objectives; (2) high heterogeneity-an assessment of the heterogeneity among the 4 groups for the overall outcome related to pain; (3) ineffectiveness of laser acupuncture-an analysis of laser acupuncture's efficacy for chronic knee pain as stated in the JAMA report, using effect size (ES); (4) effectiveness of acupuncture-a reanalysis of acupuncture's efficacy for chronic knee pain in comparison with the original analysis in the JAMA report, using ES; and (5) acupuncture after data adjustment-a new analysis of acupuncture's efficacy for chronic knee pain using data from the original study that was discussed in the JAMA report, using ES, with an estimation after data adjustment and elimination of the dilution effect of the Zelen design. Results • Contrary to a general impression that acupuncture was the focus, laser acupuncture was the primary intervention tested in the actual study, "Laser Acupuncture in Patients With Chronic Knee Pain: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial." The study discussed in the JAMA report was neither a truly randomized, controlled trial (RCT) for acupuncture nor was it an appropriately designed, randomized study in general. High heterogeneity was found among its groups in the evaluation of overall pain in patients. Both the ES of 0.60 that had been set by Hinman et al for the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and the resulting interpretation of results in the JAMA report were not appropriate. Using the original study's criteria of efficacy, the reanalysis has confirmed that the laser acupuncture was not effective, whereas the acupuncture was found to be moderately effective for chronic knee pain (P < .05) for both overall pain and function at 12 wk, with an ES of 0.58, or after the adjustment of the data, with an ES of 0.67. Conclusions • The JAMA study was neither a conventional RCT nor an appropriately randomized trial, and its results are probably invalid. The ES of 0.60 for the MCID that was used in the JAMA study and the resulting explanation were not appropriate. Even with an ES of 0.60 for the MCID, acupuncture remained effective after data adjustment. Consequently, compared with conventional care, acupuncture treatment was found to be moderately effective for chronic knee pain in patients aged 50 y and older.
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March 2016

Treating chronic knee pain with acupuncture.

Authors:
Yong Ming Li

JAMA 2015 Feb;313(6):628

Herb Acupuncture Clinic, Bridgewater, New Jersey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.18508DOI Listing
February 2015

Downregulation of tumor suppressor menin by miR-421 promotes proliferation and migration of neuroblastoma.

Tumour Biol 2014 Oct 11;35(10):10011-7. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Henan, 450003, China,

Neuroblastoma, featured by a high rate of spontaneous remissions, is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children. Numerous reports have demonstrated that MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in cancer progression, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. miR-421 functions as an onco-miR in some malignancies. However, its role in neuroblastoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we found that miR-421 was increased in neuroblastoma tissues compared with matched adjacent normal tissues. Forced overexpression of miR-421 substantially enhanced cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, migration, and invasion of neuroblastoma cells. At the molecular level, tumor suppressor menin was found to be a target of miR-421. Furthermore, downregulation of menin by small interfering RNA oligos exhibited similar effects with overexpression of miR-421. On the other hand, overexpression of menin partially reversed the proliferative effects of miR-421 in neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, miR-421 may promote neuroblastoma cell growth and motility partially by targeting menin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-014-1921-1DOI Listing
October 2014

[Puzzles and hypotheses of acupuncture].

Authors:
Yong-ming Li

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2013 Nov;33(11):1445-8

American Traditional Chinese Medicine Society, New York 10016, USA.

Some results of clinical trials from the West on traditional acupuncture with modern research design have puzzled the acupuncture community. These include (1) what is the implication of acupuncture, (2) whether acupuncture point has its specificity, and 3) why practical experience in the East is quite different from research observations in the West. Three hypotheses, namely, Acupuncture Healing Effect, Pan-acupoint Phenomenon, and Hard Acupuncture and Soft Acupuncture, are proposed here to explain these sensitive issues. Further investigation with scientific approach may prove or reject these hypotheses. The resolving of these issues will shed light on the re-evaluation of traditional acupuncture and promote the maturation of modern acupuncture theory.
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November 2013

Is leptin a predictive factor in patients with lung cancer?

Clin Biochem 2014 Feb 16;47(3):230-2. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

Research Laboratory of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Institute, General Hospital of PLA, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and clinical significance of leptin in lung cancer.

Methods: 126 patients with lung cancer ranged from 30 to 83years of age were studied. Serum leptin levels were determined by ELISA. The mRNA and protein levels of leptin in normal and lung cancer tissues were measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The relationships between leptin levels and clinicopathological factors were evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum or Kruskal-Wallis H test.

Results: Serum leptin levels in lung cancer patients were significantly higher compared to those in controls and leptin expression in lung cancer tissue was markedly increased than that in normal lung tissue (both P<0.050).

Conclusions: Determination of leptin levels might provide useful predictive information for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2013.12.003DOI Listing
February 2014

Adaptive neural network decentralized backstepping output-feedback control for nonlinear large-scale systems with time delays.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw 2011 Jul 2;22(7):1073-86. Epub 2011 Jun 2.

Department of Mathematics, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou, China.

In this paper, two adaptive neural network (NN) decentralized output feedback control approaches are proposed for a class of uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems with immeasurable states and unknown time delays. Using NNs to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, an NN state observer is designed to estimate the immeasurable states. By combining the adaptive backstepping technique with decentralized control design principle, an adaptive NN decentralized output feedback control approach is developed. In order to overcome the problem of "explosion of complexity" inherent in the proposed control approach, the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique is introduced into the first adaptive NN decentralized control scheme, and a simplified adaptive NN decentralized output feedback DSC approach is developed. It is proved that the two proposed control approaches can guarantee that all the signals of the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded, and the observer errors and the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNN.2011.2146274DOI Listing
July 2011

Observer-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Backstepping Dynamic Surface Control for a Class of MIMO Nonlinear Systems.

IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 2011 Aug 10;41(4):1124-35. Epub 2011 Feb 10.

In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy backstepping dynamic surface control (DSC) approach is developed for a class of multiple-input-multiple-output nonlinear systems with immeasurable states. Using fuzzy-logic systems to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the immeasurable states. By combining adaptive-backstepping technique and DSC technique, an adaptive fuzzy output-feedback backstepping-control approach is developed. The proposed control method not only overcomes the problem of "explosion of complexity" inherent in the backstepping-design methods but also overcomes the problem of unavailable state measurements. It is proved that all the signals of the closed-loop adaptive-control system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded, and the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2108283DOI Listing
August 2011
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