Publications by authors named "Yong-Ki Hong"

49 Publications

The complete mitochondrial genome of and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jan 16;5(1):631-632. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Marine Molecular Bioscience, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Korea.

is a snailfish commonly confused with similar fish species because of unclear morphological characteristics. Moreover, molecular genetic studies have not been conducted for snailfish in Korea. Here, we report the complete mitogenome sequence of , obtained via long PCR using universal primers for the fish mitogenome. The mitogenome is 17,522 bp long, comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on CO1 sequences depicted a close relationship with . The complete mitogenome is a valuable resource to classify and conserve .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1711217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748685PMC
January 2020

Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Injury in Primary Hippocampal Neurons through Suppressing GluN2B Expression.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Mar 9;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju 38066, Korea.

Oxidative stress is known to be critically implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke. The remarkable neurotrophic activity of which has been reported consistently in a series of our previous studies, inspired us to investigate whether this popular agarophyte could protect against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative injury in hippocampal neurons. The primary culture of hippocampal neurons challenged with H/R suffered from a significant loss of cell survival, accompanied by apoptosis and necrosis, DNA damage, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), which were successfully attenuated when the neuronal cultures were preconditioned with ethanolic extract of (GAE). GAE also attenuated an H/R-mediated increase of BAX and caspase 3 expressions while promoting Bcl-2 expression. Moreover, the expression of -methyl-d-acetate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B), an extrasynaptic glutamate receptor, was significantly repressed, while synaptic GluN2A expression was preserved in GAE-treated neurons as compared to those without GAE intervention. Together, this study demonstrates that GAE attenuated H/R-induced oxidative injury in hippocampal neurons through, at least in part, a potential neuroprotective mechanism that involves inhibition of GluN2B-mediated excitotoxicity and suppression of ROS production, and suggests that this edible seaweed could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites with therapeutic significance against oxidative stress-related neurodegeneration, including ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139944PMC
March 2020

Spinogenesis and Synaptogenesis Effects of the Red Seaweed and Its Isolated Cholesterol on Hippocampal Neuron Cultures.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2019 Dec 31;24(4):418-425. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea.

Neurotrophic factors promote the formation of spines and synapses in neuron development and maintenance. Synaptic connections enhance memory in the brain. In this study, the effects of ethanolic extract (EKA) and its isolated cholesterol (iCHOL) on spinogenesis and synaptogenesis of hippocampal neurons were evaluated. Compared with the vehicle, both EKA and iCHOL significantly promoted generation of dendritic filopodia (2.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively) and spine (1.7- and 1.4-fold) formations in spinogenesis; they also increased presynaptic (3.6- and 2.6-fold), postsynaptic (2.5- and 2.9-fold), and cocolonized (3.8- and 3.0-fold) puncta, which enhances synaptic function (< 0.05). Further, EKA- and iCHOL-treated neurons showed significantly improved functional presynaptic plasticity (1.6- and 1.4-fold, respectively, at 17 days ; <0.05). These results indicate that facilitates neuronal development, and support its use as a functional food to reduce neurological disorders and prevent brain aging via helping to reconstruct partially damaged neural networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2019.24.4.418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941723PMC
December 2019

The ethanol extract from the rhodophyta Gloiopeltis furcata and its active ingredient docosahexaenoic acid improve exercise performance in mice.

J Food Biochem 2019 09 15;43(9):e12980. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

The effectiveness of natural bioresources at enhancing exercise performance is of interest to those in sports and health care. The use of 29 common seaweed species as supplements to enhance exercise performance and the recovery from physical fatigue was evaluated. The ethanol extract of the red seaweed Gloiopeltis furcata (GFE) had the greatest effect on forelimb grip strength and swimming endurance in mice. The optimal daily dose of GFE was 0.1 mg per 10 μl per g of body weight. GFE significantly increased muscle mass but had little effect on body weight and fatty deposits. The extract also significantly raised the blood superoxide dismutase and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, while reducing the lactate and urea levels (p < 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from GFE made the greatest contribution to improving physical exercise performance. These results support the use of GFE and DHA in health food products for enhancing physical performance. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The study shows the exercise enhancement and anti-fatigue activities of GFE using the forelimb grip strength test, forced swimming endurance test, muscle mass measurement, and blood biochemical parameters. These results support the use of GFE and its active constituent DHA in functional foods or nutraceuticals for enhancing physical performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12980DOI Listing
September 2019

The hot water extract and active components nicotinamide and guanosine of the leather carp Cyprinus carpio nudis improve exercise performance in mice.

J Food Biochem 2019 11 31;43(11):e13004. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea.

We identified the main active, exercise performance-enhancing compounds in a hot water extract of the leather carp, Cyprinus carpio nudus, as nicotinamide and guanosine. Mice were fed casein (30 mg/ml) enriched with nicotinamide (0.1 mg/ml) and guanosine (0.05 mg/ml) once daily for a week at 10 µl/g body weight. Swimming endurance (57%) and forelimb grip strength (21%) were increased significantly. The diet had little effect on body weight. After the swimming exercise, the blood glucose and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly higher (137% and 131%, respectively) than in the saline controls. The blood lactate level was 90% of that in the controls. The estimated amount of nicotinamide in the carp fillet was 26.2 mg/kg. These results suggest that the triple combination of casein with nicotinamide and guanosine improves exercise performance and delays the onset of fatigue, supporting the traditional use of carp extract in healthcare as a tonic soup. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The triple-combination of casein (30 mg/ml) + nicotinamide (0.1 mg/ml) + guanosine (0.05 mg/ml) significantly enhanced the exercise performance and anti-fatigue in mice, supporting the traditional use of carp extract in healthcare as a tonic soup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13004DOI Listing
November 2019

Protective effects of a mixed plant extracts derived from Astragalus membranaceus and Laminaria japonica on PTU-induced hypothyroidism and liver damages.

J Food Biochem 2019 07 1;43(7):e12853. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Seafood Research Center, IACF, Silla University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Protective effects of a mixed hot water extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (AWE) and Laminaria japonica (LWE), AWE: LWE 85:15 (g/g; AL mix), were investigated against propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Rats were challenged with PTU, resulting in, increased thyroid gland weight, decreased liver weight and antioxidant activities, reduced serum tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine levels with increased thyroid stimulating hormone levels, and elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase level. However, orally administered AL mix with 100, 200, and 400 mg kg  day , significantly inhibited such abnormalities, dose-dependently. Moreover, PTU-induced abnormal histological architecture of the rat thyroid gland and liver were also significantly ameliorated by an AL mix. The results suggested that, therapeutic use of AL mix for treating hypothyroidism can be characterized by its diversified active ingredients particularly iodine and ferulic acid as confirmed by phytochemical analyses. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The AL mix has synergistic effects in modulating thyroid hormone synthesis and preventing liver damages in PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. These effects of AL mix are mainly related to its richness specifically in iodine and ferulic acid. The growing interests of iodine and ferulic acid in AL mix are principally due to their beneficial effects in releasing sufficient thyroid hormones in hypothyroid conditions and promoting liver-protective functions through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials, respectively. Moreover, the results of AL mix are well-matched with the effects of standard drug levothyroxine in the present study. Therefore, appropriate dosage of AL mix will be promising as new medicinal food for preventing thyroid dysfunctions and its related liver damages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12853DOI Listing
July 2019

Identification of the minimum region of flatfish myostatin propeptide (Pep45-65) for myostatin inhibition and its potential to enhance muscle growth and performance in animals.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215298. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Marine Molecular Bioscience, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung-si, Ganwon-do, Korea.

Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth, and its activity is inhibited by the binding of MSTN propeptide (MSTNpro), the N-terminal domain of proMSTN that is proteolytically cleaved from the proMSTN. Partial sequences from the N-terminal side of MSTNpro have shown to be sufficient to inhibit MSTN activity. In this study, to determine the minimum size of flatfish MSTNpro for MSTN inhibition, various truncated forms of flatfish MSTNpro with N-terminal maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion were expressed in E. coli and purified. MSTNpro regions consisting of residues 45-68, -69, and -70 with MBP fusion suppressed MSTN activity with a potency comparable to that of full-sequence flatfish MSTNpro in a pGL3-(CAGA)12-luciferase reporter assay. Even though the MSTN-inhibitory potency was about 1,000-fold lower, the flatfish MSTNpro region containing residues 45-65 (MBP-Pro45-65) showed MSTN-inhibitory capacity but not the MBP-Pro45-64, indicating that the region 45-65 is the minimum domain required for MSTN binding and suppression of its activity. To examine the in vivo effect of MBP-fused, truncated flatfish MSTNpro, MBP-Pro45-70-His6 (20 mg/kg body wt) was subcutaneously injected 5 times for 14 days in mice. Body wt gain and bone mass were not affected by the administration. Grip strength and swimming time were significantly enhanced at 7 d after the administration. At 14 d, the effect on grip strength disappeared, and the extent of the effect on swimming time significantly diminished. The presence of antibody against MBP-Pro45-70-His6 was observed at both 7 and 14 d after the administration with the titer value at 14 d being much greater than that at 7 d, suggesting that antibodies against MBP-Pro45-70-His6 neutralized the MSTN-inhibitory effect of MBP-Pro45-70-His6. We, thus, examined the MSTN-inhibitory capacity and in vivo effect of flatfish MSTNpro region 45-65 peptide (Pep45-65-NH2), which was predicted to have no immunogenicity in silico analysis. Pep45-65-NH2 suppressed MSTN activity with a potency similar to that of MBP-Pro45-65 but did not suppress GDF11, or activin A. Pep45-65-NH2 blocked MSTN-induced Smad2 phosphorylation in HepG2 cells. The administration of Pep45-65 (20 mg/kg body wt, 5 times for 2 weeks) increased the body wt gain with a greater gain at 14 d than at 7 d and muscle wt. Grip strength and swimming time were also significantly enhanced by the administration. Antibody titer against Pep45-65 was not detected. In conclusion, current results indicate that MSTN-inhibitory proteins with heterologous fusion partner may not be effective in suppressing MSTN activity in vivo due to an immune response against the proteins. Current results also show that the region of flatfish MSTNpro consisting of 45-65 (Pep45-65) can suppress mouse MSTN activity and increase muscle mass and function without invoking an immune response, implying that Pep45-65 would be a potential agent to enhance skeletal muscle growth and function in animals or to treat muscle atrophy caused by various clinical conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215298PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472743PMC
January 2020

antioxidant activity of mackerel () muscle protein hydrolysate.

PeerJ 2018 21;6:e6181. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Seafood Research Center, IACF, Silla University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Pacific chub mackerel () is an important fish throughout the world, especially in East Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan. Protein hydrolysates from marine sources are commonly used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants isolated from fish are relatively easy to prepare, are cost effective, and have no reported side effects. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activities of mackerel muscle protein hydrolysate (MMPH) prepared using Protamex. The bioactivities of MMPH were investigated in alcoholic fatty liver mice (C57BL/6). Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were comparable in test and control mice, whereas serum triglyceride and lipid peroxidation levels significantly ( < 0.05;  < 0.001) decreased after administration of MMPH (100-500 mg kg), especially at a concentration of 100 mg kg. A significant ( < 0.05) reduction in xanthine oxidase activity was observed in all groups treated with MMPH (100-500 mg kg), as compared with the control group. Significantly ( < 0.05) higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/protein expression and regulated catalase (CAT) activity/protein expression levels were observed in groups administered MMPH (100-500 mg kg), especially at a concentration of 100 mg kg. These results show that the abundant amino acids of play an important role in the cytosol of the liver cells by directly participating in the expression of xanthine oxidase and the detoxifying SOD and CAT proteins, thereby enhancing antioxidant ability and ultimately, inhibiting lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrated that muscle protein hydrolysate from has strong antioxidant activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305115PMC
December 2018

Calotropis gigantea Promotes Neuritogenesis and Synaptogenesis through Activation of NGF-TrkA-Erk1/2 Signaling in Rat Hippocampal Neurons.

Am J Chin Med 2018 6;46(8):1861-1877. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

* Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University Graduate School of Medicine, Gyeongju 38066, Republic of Korea.

Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae) (commonly known as milkweed or crown flower) is a large shrub native to temperate regions of Asia, including China, Bangladesh and India and has a long history of use in traditional medicines. In this study, we investigated the neuromodulatory effects of the ethanol extracts of C. gigantea leaves (CGE) during synaptogenesis in the late stage of neuronal development and during early stage neuritogenesis in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Maximum neuritogenic activity was achieved at a CGE concentration of 7.5 g/ml. At this concentration, CGE facilitated the early development of cytoarchitecture, as evidenced by increases in morphometric parameters, such as, the numbers, lengths, and number of branches of initial neurites, axon and dendrites. During the synaptogenic stage (DIV 14), immunocytochemistry (ICC) showed that CGE upregulated synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2, a marker of axon terminals) and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95, a postsynaptic marker) and their colocalization. CGE upregulated nerve growth factor (NGF) and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), which is blocked by a TrkA-specific inhibitor suggesting the neuritogenic and synaptogenic potential of CGE was due to the activation of NGF-TrkA-Erk1/2 signaling. Moreover, UPLC of CGE did not detect stigmasterol, an active component of C. gigantea. However, the chloroform-methanol and ethyl acetate subfractions of CGE exhibited initial neuritogenic activity, suggesting that multiple active components were responsible for the neurotrophic-mimetic properties of CGE. Our data prove the neuromodulatory ability of CGE and provide a means of identifying new active phytochemicals with potential nootropic, preventative or therapeutic effects on the human brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X18500933DOI Listing
February 2019

Neurotrophic Activity of the Carrageenophyte Cultivated at Different Depths and for Different Growth Periods in Various Areas of Indonesia.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 18;2018:1098076. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Nam-gu, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea.

The carrageenophyte (Rhodophyta) has neurotrophic activity in primary hippocampal neurons. This seaweed is abundant and easily cultivated in tropical coastal areas. To determine the best growth conditions for neurotrophic activity, thalli were grown at different depths and for different periods in various areas of Indonesia. Neurotrophic activity was measured based on the number of primary neurites, the total length of the primary neurites, and the length of the longest neurite. . had higher neurotrophic activity than carrageenophytes . and cultured under the same conditions. . grown at the surface for 45 days had higher (1.4- to 1.8-fold) neurotrophic activity than thalli grown at depth (2 m) or harvested sooner (15 days) ( < 0.05). Relatively high activities were detected in thalli cultured at Ternate and Garut, Indonesia. Therefore, from a commercial perspective, the culture conditions at the surface for 45 days were optimal for the production of both neurotrophic compounds and carrageenan. . produced neurotrophic compounds under various environmental conditions, although some conditions were optimal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1098076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211153PMC
October 2018

Purification and cDNA cloning of the antimicrobial peptide apMolluscidin from the pen shell, Atrina pectinata.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Oct 25;81:408-415. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

A 5.6 kDa antimicrobial peptide (AMP) was purified from acidified gill extract of the pen shell, Atrina pectinata, by cation exchange and C reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Comparison of the amino acid sequences and molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known AMPs revealed that it had high sequence homology with that of cgMolluscidin or hdMolluscidin; it was designated apMolluscidin. apMolluscidin comprises 59 amino acid residues containing several dibasic residue repeats and sequence repeats such as Lys-Lys and Lys-Gly. apMolluscidin exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis (minimal effective concentration [MEC], 2.1 μg/mL), and Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli D31 (MEC, 0.5 μg/mL), without hemolytic activity. However, it did not show any activity against fungi such as Candida albicans. Secondary structure prediction suggested that it might form two helical regions and have an amphipathic structure. Full-length apMolluscidin cDNA contained 812 base pairs (bp), including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 82 bp, a 3'-UTR of 547 bp, and a coding sequence of 183 bp encoding 60 amino acids (containing Met). Furthermore, qPCR analyses revealed that the mature peptide translated from apMolluscidin mRNA is expressed in a tissue-specific manner in locations such as the gill and siphon. These results indicate that apMolluscidin might be related to the innate immune defense system of abalone and may not act directly on the bacterial membrane. This is the first report of an AMP from the pen shell with a fully identified amino acid sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.07.044DOI Listing
October 2018

The Red Alga Gracilariopsis chorda and Its Active Constituent Arachidonic Acid Promote Spine Dynamics via Dendritic Filopodia and Potentiate Functional Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampal Neurons.

J Med Food 2018 May 2;21(5):481-488. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

1 Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University , Busan, Korea.

Exogenous neurotrophins can induce neuronal differentiation, outgrowth, survival, and synaptic function in the central nervous system. In primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, an ethanol extract of the red alga Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) and its active compound arachidonic acid (AA) significantly increased the densities of dendritic filopodia and spines, promoted the expression of presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), induced robust synaptogenesis, and increased the expression of cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) and actin-related protein 2 (ARP2), which are important for actin organization in dendritic protrusions, and facilitated presynaptic plasticity by increasing the size of the synaptic vesicle pool at presynaptic nerve terminals. In addition, oral administration of GCE and AA for 10 days, at concentrations of 1 mg/g and 2.2 μg/g body weight, respectively, significantly protected against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice by increasing the latency time in the passive avoidance test. These results provide strong scientific evidence that these natural products can be used as neurotrophic substances and/or dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of memory-related neurological disorders via the reconstruction of axo-dendrites and its synapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2017.4026DOI Listing
May 2018

Anti-obesity effects of yellow catfish protein hydrolysate on mice fed a 45% kcal high-fat diet.

Int J Mol Med 2017 Sep 10;40(3):784-800. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Busan 46958, Republic of Korea.

Obesity contributes to the etiologies of a variety of comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, the anti-obesity effects of yellow catfish protein hydrolysate (YPh) were observed in mice fed a 45% kcal high-fat diet (HFD) compared with those of mice treated with simvastatin. The HFD-fed control mice exhibited noticeable increase in body weight, and whole-body and abdominal fat densities, periovarian and abdominal wall-deposited fat pad weight, as well as in the levels of triglycerides (TG), blood total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and in the fecal TG and TC contents. However, they exhibited a decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein levels. In addition, an increase was detected in periovarian and dorsal abdominally deposited fat pad thickness, adipocyte hypertrophy, the number of steatohepatitis regions, hepatocyte hypertrophy and lipid droplet deposition-related renal tubular vacuolation degenerative lesions, along with increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and a deteriorated endogenous antioxidant defense system (glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase). However, all the above-mentioned obesity-related complications were dose-dependently and significantly inhibited after 84 days of thye consecutive oral administration of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg YPh. In addition, YPh dose-dependently depleted the liver endogenous antioxidant defense system and inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation. Overall, the effects of 250 mg/kg YPh on HFD-induced obesity and related complications were similar or more potent than those of 10 mg/kg simvastatin. These results indicate that YPh is a promising new potent medicinal ingredient for possible use in the treatment of obesity and related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5548026PMC
September 2017

Blood glycemia-modulating effects of melanian snail protein hydrolysates in mice with type II diabetes.

Int J Mol Med 2017 Jun 26;39(6):1437-1451. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Sasang-gu, Busan 46958, Republic of Korea.

Freshwater animal proteins have long been used as nutrient supplements. In this study, melanian snail (Semisulcospira libertina) protein hydrolysates (MPh) were found to exert anti-diabetic and protective effects against liver and kidney damage in mice with type II diabetes adapted to a 45% kcal high-fat diet (HFD). The hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of MPh were analyzed after 12 weeks of the continuous oral administration of MPh at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Diabetic control mice exhibited an increase in body weight, and blood glucose and insulin levels, with a decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. In addition, an increase in the regions of steatohepatitis, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and lipid droplet deposit-related renal tubular vacuolation degenerative lesions were detected, with noticeable expansion and hyperplasia of the pancreatic islets, and an increase in glucagon- and insulin-producing cells, insulin/glucagon cell ratios in the endocrine pancreas and hepatic lipid peroxidation, as well as decreased zymogen contents. Furthermore, a deterioration of the endogenous antioxidant defense system was observed, with reduced glucose utilization related hepatic glucokinase (GK) activity and an increase in hepatic gluconeogenesis-related phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose‑6-phosphatase (G6pase) activity. However, all of these diabetic complications were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with MPh in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the marked dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic lipid peroxidation, the depletion of the liver endogenous antioxidant defense system, and changes in hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities were also observed. The results of this study suggest that MPh exerts potent anti-diabetic effects, along with the amelioration of related complications in mice with type II diabetes. The overall effects of MPh at a dose of 125 mg/kg on HFD-induced diabetes and related complications were similar or more potent than those of metformin (250 mg/kg).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.2967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5428967PMC
June 2017

Proteomic Analysis of the Neurotrophic Effect of Gelidium amansii in Primary Cultured Neurons.

J Med Food 2017 Mar 3;20(3):279-287. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

3 Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University Graduate School of Medicine , Gyeongju, Republic of Korea.

Gelidium amansii is an edible and economically important red alga consumed in South Eastern Asia. In previous studies, we reported that the ethanol extracts of G. amansii (GAE) has promising modulatory activity with respect to the morphological and functional maturation of hippocampal neurons in culture. In this study, we show that the chloroform (CHCl) subfraction of GAE and the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction dose-dependently promoted neurite outgrowth, and their effects were comparable with that of GAE. We further assessed in cultured cortical neurons, proteins differentially expressed in the presence/absence of the GAE, CHCl subfraction, and the EtOAc fraction by 2D-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteomic data revealed that a number of proteins responsible for multiple cellular and biochemical functions vital for neuronal development and maturation were significantly upregulated in neurons treated with the GAE, CHCl subfraction, and the EtOAc fraction. Of the identified proteins, profilin 2a, septin 7, cdc42, protein phosphatase 2A, DA11, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1, and γ-enolase are known to play important roles in neuritogenesis and dendritic arborization. Immunofluorescence data demonstrate that GAE-treated hippocampal neurons showed greater intensity ratios in the expressions of the septin 7 and cdc42 compared to vehicle control, validating their proteomic profiles. Together these results suggest that the GAE/CHCl subfraction and EtOAc fraction promote neurite development by up or downregulating several key proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2016.3848DOI Listing
March 2017

Pathogenic microorganisms, heavy metals, and antibiotic residues in seven Korean freshwater aquaculture species.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2016 31;25(5):1469-1476. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

1Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Busan, 46958 Korea.

This survey was performed to estimate the levels of pathogenic microorganisms, antibiotic residues, and heavy metals in seven Korean freshwater aquaculture species including , , , , , , and . None of the ten foodborne pathogens tested in this study were found in any of the species collected from any of the aquaculture farms. Furthermore, no banned chemicals or antibiotic residues were found in any of the species collected from any of the aquaculture farms, except enrofloxacin, which was below guideline limits (0.1 mg/kg). Finally, no species had lead, cadmium, total arsenic, or total mercury concentrations above the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MSDF) guidelines (0.5, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively). These results ensure the safety of freshwater aquaculture species and will be useful for developing consumption advisories of freshwater fishes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0228-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6049293PMC
October 2016

The Edible Red Seaweed Gracilariopsis chorda Promotes Axodendritic Architectural Complexity in Hippocampal Neurons.

J Med Food 2016 Jul 22;19(7):638-44. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

1 Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University , Busan, Korea.

The edible red seaweed Gracilariopsis chorda (Holmes) Ohmi is known for its extensive medicinal benefits and its use as a food ingredient in Korea, Japan, and China. In a previous study, an ethanol extract of G. chorda (GCE) showed potential neuroprotective effects in cultured hippocampal neurons. In this study, we further examined the ability of GCE to promote neurite extension in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons were stained with the lipophilic dye DiO or immunostained to visualize the neuronal morphology. The results indicated that GCE concentration-dependently increased neurite outgrowth, with an optimal concentration of 30 μg/mL. GCE significantly promoted early neuronal differentiation (i.e., polarity and process number) and enhanced axonal and dendritic arborization in a time-responsive manner. In addition, arachidonic acid, which was previously identified and quantified as a major neuroprotective component of GCE, significantly accelerated neurite outgrowth similar to GCE. Our findings suggest that G. chorda and its active component, arachidonic acid, may be useful for developing medicinal food or pharmaceuticals in the prevention and treatment of neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2016.3694DOI Listing
July 2016

Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2015 Dec 31;20(4):246-52. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea.

The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (P<0.05); 52% longer than day 0] and forelimb grip strength [1.18±0.05 Newton (P<0.01); 17% greater than day 0]. The extract increased muscle mass, but had little effect on body weight. Following the swimming exercise, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in extract-fed mice were significantly higher (145%, 131%, and 106%, respectively) than in the saline control group. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly increased (128%) in mice given the extract compared to the controls. These results suggest that leather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2015.20.4.246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700913PMC
December 2015

Mussel-Inspired Anchoring of Polymer Loops That Provide Superior Surface Lubrication and Antifouling Properties.

ACS Nano 2016 Jan 6;10(1):930-7. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University , Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea.

We describe robustly anchored triblock copolymers that adopt loop conformations on surfaces and endow them with unprecedented lubricating and antifouling properties. The triblocks have two end blocks with catechol-anchoring groups and a looping poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) midblock. The loops mediate strong steric repulsion between two mica surfaces. When sheared at constant speeds of ∼2.5 μm/s, the surfaces exhibit an extremely low friction coefficient of ∼0.002-0.004 without any signs of damage up to pressures of ∼2-3 MPa that are close to most biological bearing systems. Moreover, the polymer loops enhance inhibition of cell adhesion and proliferation compared to polymers in the random coil or brush conformations. These results demonstrate that strongly anchored polymer loops are effective for high lubrication and low cell adhesion and represent a promising candidate for the development of specialized high-performance biomedical coatings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b06066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4932843PMC
January 2016

The Edible Red Alga Porphyra yezoensis Promotes Neuronal Survival and Cytoarchitecture in Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2016 Jul 11;36(5):669-82. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, 780-714, Republic of Korea.

The edible red alga Porphyra yezoensis is among the most popular marine algae and is of economic and medicinal importance. In the present study, the neurotrophic and neuroprotective activities of the ethanol extract of P. yezoensis (PYE) were investigated in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Results revealed that PYE significantly increased neurite outgrowth at an optimal concentration of 15 µg/mL. PYE dose-dependently increased viable cells, significantly accelerated the rate of neuronal differentiation in cultures, promoted axodendritic arborization, and eventually induced synaptogenesis. In addition to morphological development, PYE also promoted functional maturation as indicated by the staining of live cultures with FM 1-43. Moreover, PYE increased neuronal survivability, which was attributed to reduced apoptosis and its ROS scavenging activity. Taurine, a major organic acid in PYE (2.584/100 mg of dry PYE) promoted neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner, and this promotion was suppressed by the taurine antagonist isethionic acid. The study indicates that PYE and its active component, taurine, facilitate neuronal development and maturation and have a neuroprotective effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-015-0247-xDOI Listing
July 2016

The neuritogenic and synaptogenic effects of the ethanolic extract of radix Puerariae in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

J Ethnopharmacol 2015 Sep 18;173:172-82. Epub 2015 Jul 18.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep, is used in Korean traditional medicine to treat neuronal disorders including Parkinson's disease, and its active constituent, puerarin has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect in experimental models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.

Aims Of The Study: To investigate the neurotrophic effects of these ethnomedicines on the development of central nervous system neurons and the molecular bases of these activities.

Materials And Methods: Rat embryonic (E19) brain neurons were cultured in the absence or presence of the ethanolic extract of Radix Puerariae (RPE) or puerarin. At predetermined times, cells were fixed and immunostained to visualize neuronal morphologies, or lysed for protein harvesting. Morphometric analyses of neurite outgrowths and synaptogenesis were performed using Image J software. RPE or puerarin-mediated changes in the protein profiles of cultured neurons were assessed by MALDI-TOF-MS/PMF and measuring immunofluorescent intensities.

Results: RPE and puerarin alone promoted maximum neurite outgrowths at concentrations of 1µg/ml and 5µM, respectively. At these optimal concentrations, RPE and puerarin provided neurotrophic support by promoting axo-dendritic arbors and synapse formation in cultured neurons. Proteomic study revealed that RPE and puerarin both up-regulated a number of proteins, including dynein light chain 2 (DLC2) and elongation factor 2 (EF2), which are associated with neuritogenesis and synaptic potentiation, respectively. Immunofluorescence intensity measurements confirmed the expressions of the DLC2 and Dync1h1 subunits of dynein in RPE or puerarin treated hippocampal neurons were up-regulated when RPE or puerarin induced changes in neuronal cytoarchitecture.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that RPE and puerarin should be considered potentially valuable preventative therapeutics for brain disorders due to their abilities to promote the neuronal cytoarchitecture and the synaptic functionality, which are possibly associated with dynein-dependent regulation of cytoskeletal structures and up-regulation of translation machinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.07.013DOI Listing
September 2015

Oral Administration of a Hot Water Extract of the Softshell Turtle (Trionyx sinensis) Improves Exercise Performance.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2015 Jun 30;20(2):133-6. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea.

Freshwater softshell turtle (Trionyx sinensis) extract has been used traditionally as a tonic soup, and to recover from physical fatigue. To support these claims, the forelimb grip strength of mice was measured after feeding a soft-shell turtle extract for 7 days. The T. sinensis extract significantly increased the grip strength to 1.25±0.07 N (P<0.01), which is 16.8% higher than the force on day 0. After exercising, the blood glucose levels in extract-fed mice were 202% higher and urea levels were 73% lower, which were both significantly different than the levels observed after control treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher by 314%, and glutathione peroxidase increased by 165%. In addition, the obesity markers, serum triglyceride and cholesterol, decreased to 62% and 49%, respectively, after mice were fed the extract. These data show that the T. sinensis extract provided more energy for forelimb exercise, prevented protein catabolism and muscle fatigue, and decreased the oxidative stress caused by an exhaustive workout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2015.20.2.133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500516PMC
June 2015

The Edible Marine Alga Gracilariopsis chorda Alleviates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.

J Med Food 2015 Sep 24;18(9):960-71. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

3 Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine , Gyeongbuk, Korea.

Age-related neurological disorders are of growing concern among the elderly, and natural products with neuroprotective properties have been attracting increasing attention as candidates for the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders induced by oxidative stress. In an effort to explore natural resources, we collected some common marine seaweed from the Korean peninsula and Indonesia and screened them for neuroprotective activity against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress. Of the 23 seaweeds examined, the ethanol extract of Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) provided maximum neuroprotection at an optimum concentration of 15 μg/mL, followed by Undaria pinnatifida. GCE increased cell viability after H/R, decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species (measured by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate [DCF-DA] staining), and inhibited the double-stranded DNA breaks (measured by H2AX immunocytochemistry), apoptosis (measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining), internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (measured by DNA laddering), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 staining). Using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantitated the arachidonic acid (AA) in GCE, which provides neuroprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress. This neuroprotective effect of AA was comparable to that of GCE. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GCE against H/R-induced neuronal death is due, at least in part, to the AA content that suppresses neuronal apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2014.3369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580144PMC
September 2015

Undaria pinnatifida Promotes Spinogenesis and Synaptogenesis and Potentiates Functional Presynaptic Plasticity in Hippocampal Neurons.

Am J Chin Med 2015 ;43(3):529-42

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714, Republic of Korea.

Reductions in neurotrophic factors are implicated in synaptic dysfunction in the central nervous system, but exogenous neurotrophic factors with potential effects on neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction could offer therapeutic and preventive strategies for treating memory-related neurological disorders. In an earlier effort to identify natural neurotrophic agents, we found that the ethanol extract of the edible marine alga Undaria pinnatifida (UPE) had promising effects on the neuritogenesis of cultured hippocampal neurons. Here, we further investigated the ability of UPE to promote spinogenesis and synaptogenesis in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. It was found that UPE triggered significant increase in numbers of dendritic filopodia and spines, promoted the formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, and potentiated synaptic transmission by increasing the sizes of reserve vesicle pools at presynaptic terminals. These findings indicate a substantial role for UPE in the morphological and functional maturation of neurons and suggest that UPE is a possible therapeutic preventative measure and treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, such as those involving cognitive disorders and memory impairments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X15500330DOI Listing
February 2016

Differential neuritogenic activities of two edible brown macroalgae, Undaria pinnatifida and Saccharina japonica.

Am J Chin Med 2014 ;42(6):1371-84

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Namku, Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea , Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and Saccharina japonica Areschoug are two common seaweeds, and both are known to have numerous pharmacological properties that include neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, we found that the ethanol extracts of U. pinnatifida (UPE) and S. japonica (SJE) had neurite promoting activities on developing hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we studied and compared the effects of UPE and SJE on neuronal maturation. Both UPE and SJE promoted neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner with optimal concentrations of 5 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. Initial neuronal differentiation was significantly promoted by UPE and SJE. Subsequently, treatment with both increased indices of axonal and dendritic cytoarchitecture, such as, the numbers and lengths of primary processes, although only UPE had a significant effect on branching frequencies. In addition, UPE and SJE showed no evidence of cytotoxicity, rather they protected neurons from naturally occurring death in vitro. These results indicate that UPE and SJE promote axodendritic maturation and neuronal survival and suggest that these algal extracts, especially UPE, have beneficial effects on the nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X14500864DOI Listing
August 2015

A cDNA microarray analysis to identify genes involved in the acute-phase response pathway of the olive flounder after infection with Edwardsiella tarda.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2014 Sep 8;161(1-2):49-56. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Biotechnology Research Division, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, 408-Sirang-ri, Gijang-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan 619-902, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The acute-phase response (APR) is an important systemic reaction that occurs within hours of an inflammatory signal caused by physical bodily injury or microbial infection. To investigate the APR of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) following infection with a pathogen, we established an expressed sequence tag (EST)-based cDNA microarray chip composed of 13,061 PCR-amplified cDNAs encoding unique genes selected from an olive flounder EST analysis. Microarray analyses showed that the set of genes involved in the APR was strongly up-regulated in the liver of the olive flounder after infection with Edwardsiella tarda. Among the up-regulated genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase domain-containing protein 1, six-transmembrane prostate protein, haptoglobin precursor, and toll-like receptor 5 soluble form were particularly strongly up-regulated. Interestingly, the toll-like receptor 5 soluble form, which has not yet been detected in mammals, was up-regulated as much as 250-fold upon E. tarda infection. These results suggest that the APR mechanism of fish may be regulated differently from that of mammals. The data described here contribute toward our collective understanding of APR, especially in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.07.002DOI Listing
September 2014

Recovery of algal oil from marine green macro-algae Enteromorpha intestinalis by acidic-hydrothermal process.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2014 Sep 24;174(1):221-30. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608-737, South Korea,

In this study, the recovery of algal oil from Enteromorpha intestinalis based on an acidic-hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Overall, the algal oil yield after the acidic-hydrothermal reaction was increased under the conditions of high reaction temperature, high catalyst concentration, and long reaction time within the tested ranges. Significantly, catalyst concentration, compared with reaction temperature and time, less affected algal oil recovery. The optimal acidic-hydrothermal reaction conditions for production of algal oil from E. intestinalis were as follows-200 °C reaction temperature, 2.92 % catalyst concentration, 54 min reaction time. Under these conditions, an 18.6 % algal oil yield was obtained. By increasing the combined severity factor, the algae oil recovery yield linearly increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-014-1060-6DOI Listing
September 2014

Conversion of red-algae Gracilaria verrucosa to sugars, levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2015 Feb 22;38(2):207-17. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608-737, South Korea,

This study employed a statistical methodology to investigate the optimization of conversion conditions and evaluate the reciprocal interaction of reaction factors related to the process of red-algae Gracilaria verrucosa conversion to sugars (glucose, galactose), levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by acidic hydrolysis. Overall, the conditions optimized for glucose formation included a higher catalyst concentration than did those for galactose, and these conditions for galactose were similar to those for 5-HMF. Levulinic acid production, meanwhile, was optimized at a higher reaction temperature, a higher catalyst concentration, and a longer reaction time than was glucose, galactose or 5-HMF production. By this approach, the optimal yields (and reaction conditions) for glucose, galactose, levulinic acid, and 5-HMF were as follows: glucose 5.29 g/L (8.46 wt%) (reaction temperature 160 °C, catalyst concentration 1.92%, reaction time 20 min), galactose 18.38 g/L (29.4 wt%) (160 °C, 1.03%, 20 min), levulinic acid 14.65 g/L (18.64 wt%) (180.9 °C, 2.85%, 50 min), and 5-HMF 3.74 g/L (5.98 wt%) (160.5 °C, 1%, 20 min).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-014-1259-5DOI Listing
February 2015

Comparison of Ecklonia cava, Ecklonia stolonifera and Eisenia bicyclis for phlorotannin extraction.

J Environ Biol 2014 Jul;35(4):713-9

Phlorotannins are polyphenols of marine algae, particularly brown seaweed, having multiple biological activities. A reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for rapid and routine quantification of two major phlorotannins, dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol-A (PFE-A), from boiling water- and organic solvent-extracts of brown seaweeds Ecklonia cava, E. stolonifera and Eisenia bicyclis. The regression equations for dieckol and PFE-A were as follows: the concentration (mg ml(-1)) = 16.56 x peak height (cm) + 0.44, and the concentration = 20.60 x peak height (cm) + 0.11, with correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.999, respectively. Compared to organic solvent extraction, the recovery yield of dieckol from boiling water extracts of E. cava, E. stolonifera and E. bicyclis was 86%, 93%, and 98%, respectively. The recovery yield of PFE-A was 74%, 86% and 62%, respectively. Antioxidant activity was detected in each E. bicyclis water extract (91%), followed by E. stolonifera (90%) and E. cava (74%). Dieckol and PFE-A showed almost 9- and 7-fold stronger antioxidant activity than the standard butylhydroxytoluene, and 6-and 4-fold greater than L-ascorbic acid in molar concentration, respectively.
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July 2014

Gelidium amansii promotes dendritic spine morphology and synaptogenesis, and modulates NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2014 8;50(5):445-52. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Namku, Busan, 608-737, South Korea.

Neurotrophic factors are essential for the differentiation and maturation of developing neurons as well as providing survival support to the mature neurons. Moreover, therapeutically neurotrophic factors are promising to reconstruct partially damaged neuronal networks in neurodegenerative diseases. In the previous study, we reported that the ethanol extract of an edible marine alga, Gelidium amansii (GAE) had shown promising effects in the development and maturation of both axon and dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Here, we demonstrate that in primary culture of hippocampal neurons (1) GAE promotes a significant increase in the number of filopodia and dendritic spines; (2) promotes synaptogenesis; (3) enhances N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor recruitment; and (4) modulates NMDA-receptor-mediated postsynaptic current. Taken together these findings that GAE might be involved in both morphological and functional maturation of neurons suggest the possibility that GAE may constitute a promising candidate for novel compounds for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-013-9721-2DOI Listing
February 2015
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