Publications by authors named "Yong-Ho Lee"

238 Publications

Heat exposure and workers' health: a systematic review.

Rev Environ Health 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Several studies on the health effects of heat exposure on workers have been reported; however, only few studies have summarized the overall and systematic health effects of heat exposure on workers. This study aims to review the scientific reports on the health status of workers exposed to high temperatures in the workplace.

Methods: We reviewed literature from databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify studies that address health effects of heat exposure among workers.

Results: In total, 459 articles were identified, and finally, 47 articles were selected. Various health effects of heat exposure on workers have been reported, such as heat-related diseases, deaths, accidents or injuries, effects on the urinary system, reproductive system, and on the psychological system.

Conclusions: Our review suggests that many workers are vulnerable to heat exposure, and this has a health effect on workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2020-0158DOI Listing
March 2021

Factors Predicting the Success of Adhesiolysis Using a Steerable Catheter in Lumbar Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A Retrospective Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 26;10(5). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 07345, Korea.

Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a commonly encountered disease after lumbar surgery. There are many cases where it is difficult to choose a treatment because no specific cause can be found. Nevertheless, according to recent reports, adhesiolysis has shown reasonable evidence. However, considering its poor cost-effectiveness, adhesiolysis cannot be used as the first line of treatment. FBSS patients often suffer from chronic pain; accordingly, they become frustrated when this treatment produces a poor response. Therefore, before the procedure, the target group must be selected carefully. We sought to identify the pre-procedure factors predicting the effect of adhesiolysis in FBSS. A total of 150 patients were evaluated and analyzed retrospectively. Of these 150 patients, 69 were classified as responders three months after the procedure (46%). The outer diameter of the catheter during the procedure and grade of foraminal stenosis were correlated with the procedure effect. In conclusion, of the 2.1 mm diameter of the catheter, 1.7 mm of it was used during the procedure, and the milder the foraminal stenosis, the greater the pain reduction effect was three months after the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956797PMC
February 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Ipragliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor, Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Changes by Upregulating Energy Expenditure through Activation of the AMPK/SIRT1 Pathway.

Diabetes Metab J 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that exhibit multiple extraglycemic effects. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibition on energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ipragliflozin (a selective SGLT2 inhibitor) on energy metabolism.

Methods: Six-week-old male 129S6/Sv mice with a high propensity for adipose tissue browning were randomly assigned to three groups: normal chow control, 60% high-fat diet (HFD)-fed control, and 60% HFD-fed ipragliflozin-treated groups. The administration of diet and medication was continued for 16 weeks.

Results: The HFD-fed mice became obese and developed hepatic steatosis and adipose tissue hypertrophy, but their random glucose levels were within the normal ranges; these features are similar to the metabolic features of a prediabetic condition. Ipragliflozin treatment markedly attenuated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and reduced the size of hypertrophied adipocytes to that of smaller adipocytes. In the ipragliflozin treatment group, uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and other thermogenesis-related genes were significantly upregulated in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and fatty acid oxidation was increased in the brown adipose tissue. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway in the liver and adipose tissue.

Conclusion: SGLT2 inhibition by ipragliflozin showed beneficial metabolic effects in 129S6/Sv mice with HFD-induced obesity that mimics prediabetic conditions. Our data suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors, through their upregulation of energy expenditure, may have therapeutic potential in prediabetic obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0187DOI Listing
February 2021

Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Modification of Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein Regulates Antiviral Signaling by Modulating Its Activity.

Front Immunol 2020 2;11:589259. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Glycosylation Network Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

Post-translational modifications, including -GlcNAcylation, play fundamental roles in modulating cellular events, including transcription, signal transduction, and immune signaling. Several molecular targets of -GlcNAcylation associated with pathogen-induced innate immune responses have been identified; however, the direct regulatory mechanisms linking -GlcNAcylation with antiviral RIG-I-like receptor signaling are not fully understood. In this study, we found that cellular levels of -GlcNAcylation decline in response to infection with Sendai virus. We identified a heavily -GlcNAcylated serine-rich region between amino acids 249-257 of the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS); modification at this site disrupts MAVS aggregation and prevents MAVS-mediated activation and signaling. -GlcNAcylation of the serine-rich region of MAVS also suppresses its interaction with TRAF3; this prevents IRF3 activation and production of interferon-β. Taken together, these results suggest that -GlcNAcylation of MAVS may be a master regulatory event that promotes host defense against RNA viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.589259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884448PMC
February 2021

Palladium-catalysed carboformylation of alkynes using acid chlorides as a dual carbon monoxide and carbon source.

Nat Chem 2021 02 29;13(2):123-130. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Hydroformylation, a reaction that installs both a C-H bond and an aldehyde group across an unsaturated substrate, is one of the most important catalytic reactions in both industry and academia. Given the synthetic importance of creating new C-C bonds, the development of carboformylation reactions, wherein a new C-C bond is formed instead of a C-H bond, would bear enormous synthetic potential to rapidly increase molecular complexity in the synthesis of valuable aldehydes. However, the demanding complexity inherent in a four-component reaction, utilizing an exogenous CO source, has made the development of a direct carboformylation reaction a formidable challenge. Here, we describe a palladium-catalysed strategy that uses readily available aroyl chlorides as a carbon electrophile and CO source, in tandem with a sterically congested hydrosilane, to perform a stereoselective carboformylation of alkynes. An extension of this protocol to four chemodivergent carbonylations further highlights the creative opportunity offered by this strategy in carbonylation chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41557-020-00621-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Isolation and Characterization of Compounds from as Therapeutic Agents for the Muscle Disorders.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 16;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue and constitutes about 40% of total body mass. Herein, we report that crude water extract (CWE) of enhanced myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Pretreatment of mice with the CWE of prior to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury was found to enhance muscle regeneration by inducing myogenic gene expression and downregulating myostatin expression. Furthermore, this extract reduced nitrotyrosine protein levels and atrophy-related gene expression. Of the five different fractions of the CWE of obtained, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction more significantly enhanced myoblast proliferation and differentiation than the other fractions. Ten bioactive compounds were isolated from the EtOAc fraction and characterized by GC-MS and NMR. Of these compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, liquiritigenin, ()-(-)-vestitol, isoliquiritigenin, medicarpin, tetrahydroxymethoxychalcone, licochalcone B, liquiritin, liquiritinapioside, and ononin), liquiritigenin, tetrahydroxymethoxychalcone, and licochalcone B were found to enhance myoblast proliferation and differentiation, and myofiber diameters in injured muscles were wider with the liquiritigenin than the non-treated one. Computational analysis showed these compounds are non-toxic and possess good drug-likeness properties. These findings suggest that G. uralensis-extracted components might be useful therapeutic agents for the management of muscle-associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830955PMC
January 2021

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diastolic dysfunction, and impaired myocardial glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Apr 15;23(4):1041-1051. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Aims: To investigate whether degree of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with myocardial dysfunction related to impaired myocardial glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Materials And Methods: In total, 131 patients with type 2 diabetes from a tertiary care hospital were included in this study. Myocardial glucose uptake was assessed using [ F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were determined using transient liver elastography. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac structure and function.

Results: Patients with NAFLD had cardiac diastolic dysfunction with higher left ventricular filling pressure (E/e' ratio) and left atrial (LA) volume index than patients without NAFLD (all P < 0.05). Hepatic steatosis correlated with E/e' ratio and LA volume index, and hepatic fibrosis also correlated with E/e' ratio (all P < 0.05). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, a higher degree of hepatic steatosis (r = 0.409, P = 0.041) and a higher degree of fibrosis (r = 0.423, P = 0.009) were independent contributing factors to a higher E/e' ratio. Decreased myocardial glucose uptake was associated with a higher degree of steatosis (P for trend = 0.084) and fibrosis (P for trend = 0.012). At the same time, decreased myocardial glucose uptake was an independent contributing factor for a higher E/e' ratio (r = 0.409; P = 0.040).

Conclusions: Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were significantly associated with diastolic heart dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes coupled with impaired myocardial glucose uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14310DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between the severity of liver fibrosis and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Dec 28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Aim: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the principal cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we assessed whether liver fibrosis predicted the risk of CVD in patients with T2D.

Methods: A total of 1481 patients who had commenced oral antidiabetic drugs to treat newly diagnosed T2D between 2006 and 2010 were recruited. The fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS), and BARD score were used to assess fibrotic burden at the time of T2D diagnosis.

Results: During the follow-up period (median 88.1 [interquartile range 36.6-113.6] months), 242 (16.3%) patients developed CVD. CVD occurred frequently in older patients and was associated with hypertension; metabolic syndrome; obesity; smoking; administration of statin, which is an antihyperlipidemic drug; lower platelet counts; lower alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, and HbA1c levels; higher C-peptide and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels; and higher FIB-4, NFS, and BARD score (all P < 0.05). FIB-4 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.163), NFS (HR = 1.322), BARD score (HR = 1.564), metabolic syndrome (HR = 1.556), smoking (HR = 2.829), and statin use (HR = 0.603) independently predicted the risk of CVD (all P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence of CVD was significantly different among groups stratified by liver fibrotic burden (all P < 0.05, log-rank test). Competing risk analysis showed a significant association between the severity of liver fibrosis and CVD development (all P < 0.001, Gray's test).

Conclusions: The severity of liver fibrosis independently predicted CVD in patients with T2D. Thus, assessment of liver fibrosis might allow physicians to optimize the timing of appropriate cardiovascular interventions in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15387DOI Listing
December 2020

Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: An international expert panel proposed a new definition for metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) as a name change from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The clinical impact of this change on the assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is yet unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of fatty liver disease (FLD) and the associated CVD risk using each of these definitions.

Methods: From a nationwide health screening database, we included 9,584,399 participants (48.5% male) aged 40-64 years between 2009 and 2010. Participants were categorized by presence of NAFLD and MAFLD, separately, and by the combination of the 2 definitions-Neither-FLD, NAFLD-only, MAFLD-only, or Both-FLD. The primary outcome was a composite CVD event, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, heart failure, or CVD-related death.

Results: The prevalence of NAFLD and MAFLD was 28.0% and 37.3%, respectively. After excluding those with prior CVD, 8,962,813 participants were followed for a median of 10.1 years. NAFLD and MAFLD were each associated with significantly higher risk for CVD events. When the Neither-FLD group was the reference, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for CVD events were 1.09 (1.03-1.15) in the NAFLD-only group, 1.43 (1.41-1.45) in the MAFLD-only group, and 1.56 (1.54-1.58) in the Both-FLD group.

Conclusions: A considerable proportion of middle-aged Korean adults have MAFLD without satisfying the former definition of NAFLD. The change from NAFLD to MAFLD criteria may identify a greater number of individuals with metabolically complicated fatty liver and increased risk for CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.12.022DOI Listing
December 2020

Modular Cyclopentenone Synthesis through the Catalytic Molecular Shuffling of Unsaturated Acid Chlorides and Alkynes.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 12 7;142(50):20948-20955. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 3, HCI, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

We describe a general strategy for the intermolecular synthesis of polysubstituted cyclopentenones using palladium catalysis. Overall, this reaction is achieved via a molecular shuffling process involving an alkyne, an α,β-unsaturated acid chloride, which serves as both the alkene and carbon monoxide source, and a hydrosilane to create three new C-C bonds. This new carbon monoxide-free pathway delivers the products with excellent yields. Furthermore, the regioselectivity is complementary to conventional methods for cyclopentenone synthesis. In addition, a set of regio- and chemodivergent reactions are presented to emphasize the synthetic potential of this novel strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c10832DOI Listing
December 2020

Glycaemic control with add-on thiazolidinedione or a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes after the failure of an oral triple antidiabetic regimen: A 24-week, randomized controlled trial.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Feb 13;23(2):609-618. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adding either a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) or thiazolidinedione (TZD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled with triple therapy.

Materials And Methods: In this prospective, open-label, multicentre, 24-week clinical trial, we randomly assigned 119 patients with T2D who failed to achieve glycaemic control (7% < HbA1c ≤ 10%) with conventional triple oral antidiabetic agents (OADs; metformin, sulphonylurea and dipeptidyl peptide-4 [DPP-4] inhibitor) into two groups who received either an SGLT2i or TZD. The primary endpoint was mean change in HbA1c level between the two groups at 24 weeks.

Results: In total, 119 patients were enrolled in the SGLT2i (n = 60) and TZD (n = 59) groups. Mean age of the study subjects was 61.86 years, and the mean duration of T2D was 13.89 years. After 24 weeks, both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1c (from 7.94% ± 0.74% to 6.97% ± 0.84% in the SGLT2i group and from 8.00% ± 0.78% to 7.18% ± 0.98% in the TZD group), without a significant between-group difference (P = .235). A significant body mass index (BMI) reduction was noted in the SGLT2i group, whereas an increase in BMI was noted in the TZD group (-0.79 ± 1.37 vs. 0.92 ± 0.86 kg/m , P < .001). Other safety profiles were favourable in both groups.

Conclusions: The current study shows that an SGLT2i or TZD could be a valid option as a fourth OAD for treatment of patients with T2D inadequately controlled with a triple combination of OADs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14259DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of Switching from Linagliptin to Teneligliptin Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors in Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 2;13:4113-4121. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their glycemic control effects are well studied. However, information regarding the effects of switching DPP-4 inhibitors is limited, especially in older patients.

Research Design And Methods: We investigated whether switching from linagliptin to teneligliptin decreases blood glucose in older (≥65 years) T2D patients. In total, 164 patients with T2D who switched from linagliptin to teneligliptin for >12 weeks were included and the primary outcome was glycemic changes.

Results: Switching from linagliptin to teneligliptin ameliorated fasting blood glucose (148.1 ± 47.1 to 139.6 ± 43.4 mg/dL), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; 7.9 ± 1.3 to 7.5 ± 1.2%), and postprandial blood glucose (224.8 ± 77.4 to 205.8 ± 70.8 mg/dL) levels (all P < 0.05). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was reduced while liver and kidney functions were maintained. Subgroup analysis showed that glucose control improved more in patients with uncontrolled hyperglycemia (HbA1c > 8.0%) and chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <90 mL/min/1.73m). Multiple logistic analysis indicated higher baseline HbA1c was the strongest predictor of teneligliptin switching response.

Conclusion: Switching from linagliptin to teneligliptin helps maintain kidney function and reduce blood glucose safely in older patients with T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S267994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646502PMC
November 2020

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor protects against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice by targeting TRAIL receptor-mediated lipoapoptosis via modulating hepatic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 expression.

Sci Rep 2020 11 10;10(1):19429. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) are antidiabetic medications that prevent cleavage of incretin hormones by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). DPP4 is ubiquitously expressed, and its hepatic DPP4 expression is upregulated under non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) conditions. We investigated the effect of DPP4i treatment on NASH pathogenesis, as well as its potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1, chow-fed mice treated with vehicle for 20 weeks; Group 2, high-fat, high-fructose, and high-cholesterol Amylin liver NASH (AMLN) diet-fed mice treated with vehicle for 20 weeks; Group 3, AMLN diet-fed mice treated with vehicle for the first 10 weeks, followed by the DPP4i teneligliptin (20 mg/kg/day) for additional 10 weeks. DPP4i administration reduced serum liver enzyme and hepatic triglyceride levels and markedly improved hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in the AMLN diet-induced NASH model. In vivo, NASH alleviation significantly correlated with the suppression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-mediated apoptosis and downregulated hepatic DPP4 expression. In vitro, DPP4i treatment significantly decreased the markers of TRAIL receptor-mediated lipoapoptosis and suppressed DPP4 expression in palmitate-treated hepatocytes. In conclusion, DPP4i may efficiently attenuate the pathogenesis of AMLN diet-induced NASH in mice by suppressing lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis, possibly by modulating hepatic DPP4 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75288-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655829PMC
November 2020

Metformin and Gastrointestinal Cancer Development in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Study in Korea.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2020 11;11(11):e00254

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Introduction: Clinical studies have produced conflicting results on the effects of metformin on gastrointestinal cancer development. We aimed to investigate the association between metformin use and stomach, colon, liver, and pancreatic cancer development among patients with newly diagnosed, drug-naïve type 2 diabetes.

Methods: This retrospective study evaluated propensity score-matched patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Metformin users were categorized into tertiles according to the cumulative dose or duration of metformin treatment, and the risks of gastrointestinal cancers were compared.

Results: Metformin users had reduced risks of developing stomach cancer (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.841, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.797-0.887), colon cancer (HR: 0.865, 95% CI: 0.822-0.91), and liver cancer (HR: 0.709, 95% CI: 0.675-0.746; P < 0.001). However, metformin users did not have a reduced overall risk of pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.335, 95% CI: 1.209-1.475; P < 0.001). The risks tended to decrease at higher cumulative doses and durations of metformin use, with significantly reduced risks of all 4 cancers at the highest cumulative dose (≥1,200,000 mg) and the longest duration (≥2,000 days) of metformin use.

Discussion: This population-based data suggest that metformin could be associated with reductions in the risks of stomach, colon, and liver cancers, as well a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in some subgroups. Metformin has benefit as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. A further role in cancer risk reduction could be studied in controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587422PMC
November 2020

Pharmaceutical Efficacy of Gypenoside LXXV on Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH).

Biomolecules 2020 10 8;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

MODNBIO Inc. digital road 34, Kolon Science Valley I, Guro-gu, Seoul 08378, Korea.

Ginsenosides have offered a wide array of beneficial roles in the pharmacological regulation of hepatic metabolic syndromes, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and obesity. Of the numerous ginsenosides, Rg3 has been widely investigated, but there have been few studies of gypenosides (Gyp). Particularly, no study on Gyp LXXV has been reported to date. Here, to firstly explore the pharmacological effects of Gyp LXXV against NASH and the related mechanism, methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH mice and hepatic cells (stellate cells, hepatic macrophages, and hepatocytes) were selected. Gyp LXXV exhibited markedly alleviated MCD diet-induced hepatic injury, inflammation, and fibrosis by down-regulating hepatic fibrosis markers such as α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), collagen1, transforming growth factors-β (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), MCP-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, nuclear factor κB (NFκB), and GRP78. Remarkably, histopathological studies confirmed that 15 mg/kg of Gyp LXXV administration to MCD diet-induced mice led to effective prevention of liver injury, lipid accumulation, and activation of hepatic macrophages, indicating that Gyp LXXV might be a potential anti-NASH drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10101426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599508PMC
October 2020

Hepatic fibrosis is associated with total proteinuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(33):e21038

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetic kidney disease assessed using either albuminuria or proteinuria remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis or fibrosis and albuminuria or proteinuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).We enrolled 1108 patients with T2D and categorized as 3 groups; non-proteinuria (NP), isolated non-albumin proteinuria (iNAP), and albuminuria. Urinary albumin and protein levels were assessed as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (uPCR), respectively. Hepatic steatosis and fibrotic burden were assessed using the NAFLD liver fat score, Fibrosis-4 calculator (FIB-4) index, and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS).The prevalence of significant steatosis was similar among groups (NP: 74.6% vs iNAP: 70.3% vs albuminuria: 79.9%, P = .085). The prevalence of significant fibrosis was significantly higher in the iNAP (18.7%) and albuminuria (16.5%) groups than in the NP group (9.5%, P = .001). Both uPCR and uACR showed a correlation with NFS (uPCR: r = 0.123, P < .001; uACR: r = 0.064, P = .033). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, uPCR ≥150 mg/g was found to have a stronger association with hepatic fibrosis than uACR ≥30 mg/g (adjusted odds ratio 1.55 [95% CI 1.03-2.33] vs adjusted odds ratio 1.16 [95% CI, 0.72-1.87]).In conclusion, patients with iNAP and albuminuria had a higher prevalence of hepatic fibrosis than those without proteinuria. Total proteinuria was associated with advanced liver fibrosis, whereas albuminuria was related to hepatic steatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437801PMC
August 2020

Association Between Serum Bilirubin and the Progression of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes.

J Lipid Atheroscler 2020 Jan 13;9(1):195-204. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Huh's Diabetes Center and the 21st Century Diabetes and Vascular Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: This study investigated whether serum bilirubin levels can predict the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: This observational study included 1,381 subjects with T2DM in whom serial measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were made at 1- to 2-year intervals for 6-8 years. The progression of carotid atherosclerosis was defined as newly detected plaque lesions on repeat ultrasonography. After dividing total serum bilirubin levels into tertiles, the association between total serum bilirubin at baseline and plaque progression status was analyzed.

Results: Among 1,381 T2DM patients, 599 (43.4%) were categorized as having plaque progression in their carotid arteries. Those with plaque progression were significantly older; showed a higher prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, and chronic kidney disease; and had a longer duration of T2DM, higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and insulin resistance, and lower total bilirubin concentrations than those with no plaque progression. When total serum bilirubin levels were divided into tertiles, the highest tertile group was younger than the lowest tertile group, with higher levels of TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with a significantly lower risk of CIMT progression (odds ratio, 0.584; 95% confidence interval, 0.392-0.870; =0.008). Age (<0.001), body mass index (=0.023), and TC (=0.019) were also associated with the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM patients.

Conclusion: Total serum bilirubin is independently associated with progression of atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries in T2DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12997/jla.2020.9.1.195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379078PMC
January 2020

Association between liver fibrosis and appendicular skeletal muscle mass during antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B.

Dig Liver Dis 2020 11 6;52(11):1338-1345. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Yonsei Liver Center, Severance Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Sarcopenia is associated with fibrotic burden in patients with chronic hepatitis B. We investigated the dynamic association between fibrosis changes and appendicular skeletal muscle mass during antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

Methods: Between 2015 and 2018, chronic hepatitis B patients who received paired transient elastography to assess fibrotic burden in the liver and bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess appendicular skeletal muscle mass were recruited retrospectively. The sarcopenia index was calculated as total appendicular skeletal muscle mass/body mass index. Significant liver fibrosis was defined as a liver stiffness value≥8 kPa.

Results: In total, 223 (53.7%) received antiviral therapy, whereas 192 (46.3%) did not. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly in the antiviral therapy group (mean 21.16→21.00 kg, P = 0.01), but not in the non-antiviral therapy group (mean 20.77→20.64 kg, P = 0.134). In a subgroup with significant liver fibrosis, similar findings were observed (mean 20.73→20.54 kg in antiviral therapy group, P = 0.037; mean 21.39→21.07 kg in the non-antiviral therapy group, P = 0.097). Older age, male gender, higher body mass index, and higher aspartate aminotransferase were significantly associated with the increased risk of appendicular skeletal muscle mass reduction (≥5% from the baseline).

Conclusions: Appendicular skeletal muscle mass significantly decreased during antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2020.07.004DOI Listing
November 2020

Implications of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Skeletal Muscle and Various Diseases.

Cells 2020 07 24;9(8). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Skeletal muscle is an essential tissue that attaches to bones and facilitates body movements. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a hormone found in blood that plays an important role in skeletal myogenesis and is importantly associated with muscle mass entity, strength development, and degeneration and increases the proliferative capacity of muscle satellite cells (MSCs). IGF-1R is an IGF-1 receptor with a transmembrane location that activates PI3K/Akt signaling and possesses tyrosine kinase activity, and its expression is significant in terms of myoblast proliferation and normal muscle mass maintenance. IGF-1 synthesis is elevated in MSCs of injured muscles and stimulates MSCs proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Mechanical loading also affects skeletal muscle production by IGF-1, and low IGF-1 levels are associated with low handgrip strength and poor physical performance. IGF-1 is potentially useful in the management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, muscle atrophy, and promotes neurite development. This review highlights the role of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle, its importance during myogenesis, and its involvement in different disease conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9081773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465464PMC
July 2020

Glucose Loading Enhances the Value of F-FDG PET/CT for the Characterization and Delineation of Cerebral Gliomas.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 20;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

This study aimed to assess how to enhance the value of F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CTs for glioma grading and better delineation of the tumor boundary by glucose loading. In mouse models of brain tumor using U87MG cells, F-FDG-PET images were obtained after fasting and after glucose loading. There was a significant difference in the tumor-to-normal cortex-uptake ratio (TNR) between the fasting and glucose-loading scans. C-2-Deoxy-D-glucose (C-DG) uptake was measured in vitro using U87MG, U373MG and primary neurons cultured with different concentrations of glucose. The tumor-to-neuron ratio of C-DG uptake increased with up to 10 mM of glucose. Finally, 10 low-grade and 17 high-grade glioma patients underwent fasting and glucose loading F-FDG PET/CT and the TNR was compared between scans. The effect of glucose loading was significant in high-grade but not in low-grade gliomas. The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses with a cut-off TNR of 0.81 showed a higher area under the curve after glucose loading than fasting for differentiating low-grade versus high-grade gliomas. In addition, the glucose loading PET/CT was more useful than the fasting PET/CT for the discrimination of oligodendrogliomas from IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Glucose loading resulted in a greater reduction in F-FDG uptake in the normal cortex than in tumors, which increases the usefulness of F-FDG PET/CT for grading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409292PMC
July 2020

Low muscle mass is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Atherosclerosis 2020 07 16;305:19-25. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Sarcopenia leads to metabolic and vascular abnormalities. However, little is known regarding the independent relationship between skeletal muscle mass and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to evaluate the association between skeletal muscle mass and carotid atherosclerosis in men and women with T2DM.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 8202 patients with T2DM were recruited from the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome cohort. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using bioimpedance analysis, while skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, %) was defined as total skeletal muscle mass (kg)/body weight (kg) × 100. Both carotid arteries were examined by B-mode ultrasound. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by having a carotid plaque or mean carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) ≥1.1 mm.

Results: Among the entire population, 4299 (52.4%) subjects had carotid atherosclerosis. The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis increased with decreasing SMI quartiles for both sexes. The odds ratios for carotid atherosclerosis were 2.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-4.63) and 2.24 (95% CI, 1.06-4.741) in the lowest versus highest SMI quartile in men and women, respectively, after the adjustment for clinical risk factors. In men, the risk of atherosclerosis increased linearly with decreasing SMI quartiles (p for trend = 0.036).

Conclusions: Low skeletal muscle mass was independently associated with the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in men and women with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.05.021DOI Listing
July 2020

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a Korean cohort study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2020 06 13;19(1):81. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Huh's Diabetes Center and the 21st Century Diabetes and Vascular Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.

Background: There is increasing concern regarding cardiovascular risk in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This study was conducted to evaluate whether hepatic steatosis with or without fibrosis is associated with the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: From a longitudinal cohort, we enrolled 1120 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent repeated carotid artery ultrasonography every 1-2 years. Ultrasonographic findings at baseline and after 6-8 years were compared. Presence of hepatic steatosis was mainly assessed by abdominal ultrasonography; patients with hepatic steatosis were further evaluated for hepatic fibrosis according to fibrosis-4 index. We investigated the association between liver status and atherosclerosis progression.

Results: Of 1120 patients, 636 (56.8%) were classified as having hepatic steatosis at baseline. After 6-8 years, 431 (38.5%) showed atherosclerosis progression. Hepatic steatosis was significantly associated with atherosclerosis progression (adjusted odds ratio[AOR]: 1.370, 95% CI 1.025-1.832; p < 0.05). Among patients with hepatic steatosis, only individuals with fibrosis showed significant association with atherosclerosis progression (AOR: 1.615, 95% CI 1.005-2.598; p < 0.05). The association between hepatic fibrosis and atherosclerosis progression was significant in all metabolic subgroups regardless of age, body mass index, presence of metabolic syndrome, or insulin sensitivity (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, subjects with hepatic steatosis & fibrosis and ≥ 4 components of metabolic syndrome criteria showed markedly increased risk of atherosclerosis progression (AOR: 2.430, 95% CI 1.087-5.458; p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Hepatic steatosis with fibrosis is independently associated with the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-020-01064-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293796PMC
June 2020

Mechanisms of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition: Insights From Large-Scale Proteomics.

Diabetes Care 2020 09 11;43(9):2183-2189. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Objective: To assess the effects of empagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, on broad biological systems through proteomics.

Research Design And Methods: Aptamer-based proteomics was used to quantify 3,713 proteins in 144 paired plasma samples obtained from 72 participants across the spectrum of glucose tolerance before and after 4 weeks of empagliflozin 25 mg/day. The biology of the plasma proteins significantly changed by empagliflozin (at false discovery rate-corrected < 0.05) was discerned through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.

Results: Empagliflozin significantly affected levels of 43 proteins, 6 related to cardiomyocyte function (fatty acid-binding protein 3 and 4 [FABPA], neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase, renin, thrombospondin 4, and leptin receptor), 5 to iron handling (ferritin heavy chain 1, transferrin receptor protein 1, neogenin, growth differentiation factor 2 [GDF2], and β2-microglobulin), and 1 to sphingosine/ceramide metabolism (neutral ceramidase), a known pathway of cardiovascular disease. Among the protein changes achieving the strongest statistical significance, insulin-like binding factor protein-1 (IGFBP-1), transgelin-2, FABPA, GDF15, and sulphydryl oxidase 2 precursor were increased, while ferritin, thrombospondin 3, and Rearranged during Transfection (RET) were decreased by empagliflozin administration.

Conclusions: SGLT2 inhibition is associated, directly or indirectly, with multiple biological effects, including changes in markers of cardiomyocyte contraction/relaxation, iron handling, and other metabolic and renal targets. The most significant differences were detected in protein species (GDF15, ferritin, IGFBP-1, and FABP) potentially related to the clinical and metabolic changes that were actually measured in the same patients. These novel results may inform further studies using targeted proteomics and a prospective design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-0456DOI Listing
September 2020

-GlcNAcylation on LATS2 disrupts the Hippo pathway by inhibiting its activity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 06 8;117(25):14259-14269. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Glycosylation Network Research Center, Yonsei University, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea;

The Hippo pathway controls organ size and tissue homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. The LATS-mediated negative feedback loop prevents excessive activation of the effectors YAP/TAZ, maintaining homeostasis of the Hippo pathway. YAP and TAZ are hyperactivated in various cancer cells which lead to tumor growth. Aberrantly increased -GlcNAcylation has recently emerged as a cause of hyperactivation of YAP in cancer cells. However, the mechanism, which induces hyperactivation of TAZ and blocks LATS-mediated negative feedback, remains to be elucidated in cancer cells. This study found that in breast cancer cells, abnormally increased -GlcNAcylation hyperactivates YAP/TAZ and inhibits LATS2, a direct negative regulator of YAP/TAZ. LATS2 is one of the newly identified -GlcNAcylated components in the MST-LATS kinase cascade. Here, we found that -GlcNAcylation at LATS2 Thr436 interrupted its interaction with the MOB1 adaptor protein, which connects MST to LATS2, leading to activation of YAP/TAZ by suppressing LATS2 kinase activity. LATS2 is a core component in the LATS-mediated negative feedback loop. Thus, this study suggests that LATS2 -GlcNAcylation is deeply involved in tumor growth by playing a critical role in dysregulation of the Hippo pathway in cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1913469117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322088PMC
June 2020

Implications of Skeletal Muscle Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Metabolic Disorders: Diabetes Perspective.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 28;21(11). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Biomedical Science, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430, Korea.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a scaffold for cells, controlling biological processes and providing structural as well as mechanical support to surrounding cells. Disruption of ECM homeostasis results in several pathological conditions. Skeletal muscle ECM is a complex network comprising collagens, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and elastin. Recent therapeutic approaches targeting ECM remodeling have been extensively deliberated. Various ECM components are typically found to be augmented in the skeletal muscle of obese and/or diabetic humans. Skeletal muscle ECM remodeling is thought to be a feature of the pathogenic milieu allied with metabolic dysregulation, obesity, and eventual diabetes. This narrative review explores the current understanding of key components of skeletal muscle ECM and their specific roles in the regulation of metabolic diseases. Additionally, we discuss muscle-specific integrins and their role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. A better understanding of the importance of skeletal muscle ECM remodeling, integrin signaling, and other factors that regulate insulin activity may help in the development of novel therapeutics for managing diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312063PMC
May 2020

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association.

Diabetes Metab J 2020 06 11;44(3):382-401. Epub 2020 May 11.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

This clinical practice position statement, a product of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association, proposes recommendations for the diagnosis, progression and/or severity assessment, management, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both T2DM and NAFLD have an increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications compared to those without NAFLD. With regards to the evaluation of patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ultrasonography-based stepwise approaches using noninvasive biomarker models such as fibrosis-4 or the NAFLD fibrosis score as well as imaging studies such as vibration-controlled transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction are recommended. After the diagnosis of NAFLD, the stage of fibrosis needs to be assessed appropriately. For management, weight reduction achieved by lifestyle modification has proven beneficial and is recommended in combination with antidiabetic agent(s). Evidence that some antidiabetic agents improve NAFLD/NASH with fibrosis in patients with T2DM is emerging. However, there are currently no definite pharmacologic treatments for NAFLD in patients with T2DM. For specific cases, bariatric surgery may be an option if indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332334PMC
June 2020

SGLT2 inhibition modulates NLRP3 inflammasome activity via ketones and insulin in diabetes with cardiovascular disease.

Nat Commun 2020 05 1;11(1):2127. Epub 2020 May 1.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular events in humans with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Activation of the NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and subsequent interleukin (IL)-1β release induces atherosclerosis and heart failure. Here we show the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin on NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk receive SGLT2 inhibitor or sulfonylurea for 30 days, with NLRP3 inflammasome activation analyzed in macrophages. While the SGLT2 inhibitor's glucose-lowering capacity is similar to sulfonylurea, it shows a greater reduction in IL-1β secretion compared to sulfonylurea accompanied by increased serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and decreased serum insulin. Ex vivo experiments with macrophages verify the inhibitory effects of high BHB and low insulin levels on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In conclusion, SGLT2 inhibitor attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which might help to explain its cardioprotective effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15983-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195385PMC
May 2020

Gamma glutamyltransferase and risk of dementia in prediabetes and diabetes.

Sci Rep 2020 04 22;10(1):6800. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Graduate School, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment and greater risk for dementia, but the role of gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) in dementia has not been elucidated. We determined incident dementia including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, analyzing data from participants aged 40 years or older in the National Health Insurance Database, collected by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, from January 2009 to December 2015. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years, 272,657 participants were diagnosed as having dementia. Higher serum γ-GT was associated with increased risk of dementia (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.20-1.24), and had a strong positive association with early onset dementia (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.24-1.40). An additive impact of higher γ-GT on dementia was observed regardless of glycemic status, and prevalent diabetes with the highest γ-GT quartile had a 1.8-fold increased dementia risk (HR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.78-1.85). This effect of γ-GT concentration in diabetes was more prominent in individuals with vascular dementia (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.84-2.04). In subgroup analysis, young age, male sex, and relatively healthy subjects with a higher γ-GT quartile had more increased dementia risk. In conclusion, γ-GT concentration as well as glycemic status could be a future risk factor for dementia in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63803-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176727PMC
April 2020