Publications by authors named "Yong Wang"

5,330 Publications

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Quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analyses reveal the protective effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and its metabolite protocatechuic acid against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells via apoptosis-related pathways.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 8:112256. Epub 2021 May 8.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center of Food Additives, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, 100048, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) and its metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) mediated protection against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. The effects of C3G and PCA on cell viability, LDH release and apoptosis in IQ-induced HepG2 cells were evaluated using CCK-8, LDH release and flow cytometry assays, respectively. TMT-based proteomics was utilized to characterize the proteins and pathways associated with the improvement after C3G and PCA treatment. Results showed that exposure to IQ significantly increased cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which were alleviated by C3G and PCA. C3G was more effective than PCA in protecting HepG2 cells against IQ-induced cytotoxicity and regulating the related signaling pathways. Proteomics and bioinformatics analyses and western blot validation revealed that apoptosis-related signaling pathways played pivotal roles in protecting against the cytotoxicity of IQ by C3G, and XIAP was identified as the target protein. Molecular docking proved that C3G had strong binding affinity to XIAP and hindered the binding of IQ to the BIR3 domain of XIAP, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Our findings suggested that C3G has potential as a preventive food ingredient to prevent carcinogenic risk of heterocyclic aromatic amines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112256DOI Listing
May 2021

Architecture and assembly dynamics of the essential mitochondrial chaperone complex TIM9·10·12.

Structure 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS), 71, Avenue Des Martyrs, 38044 Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

Tim chaperones transport membrane proteins to the two mitochondrial membranes. TIM9·10, a 70 kDa protein complex formed by 3 copies of Tim9 and Tim10, guides its clients across the aqueous compartment. The TIM9·10·12 complex is the anchor point at the inner-membrane insertase TIM22. The subunit composition of TIM9·10·12 remains debated. Joint NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering, and MD simulation data allow us to derive a structural model of the TIM9·10·12 assembly, with a 2:3:1 stoichiometry (Tim9:Tim10:Tim12). Both TIM9·10 and TIM9·10·12 hexamers are in a dynamic equilibrium with their constituent subunits, exchanging on a minutes timescale. NMR data establish that the subunits exhibit large conformational dynamics: when the conserved cysteines of the CXC-X-CXC motifs are formed, short α helices are formed, and these are fully stabilized only upon formation of the mature hexameric chaperone. We propose that the continuous subunit exchange allows mitochondria to control their level of inter-membrane space chaperones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2021.04.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Extracellular Vesicle Mediated Tumor-Stromal Crosstalk Within an Engineered Lung Cancer Model.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:654922. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Tumor-stromal interactions within the tumor microenvironment (TME) influence lung cancer progression and response to therapeutic interventions, yet traditional studies fail to replicate the complexity of these interactions. Herein, we developed three-dimensional (3D) lung tumor models that mimic the human TME and demonstrate tumor-stromal crosstalk mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs released by tumor cells, independent of p53 status, and fibroblasts within the TME mediate immunomodulatory effects; specifically, monocyte/macrophage polarization to a tumor-promoting M2 phenotype within this 3D-TME. Additionally, immune checkpoint inhibition in a 3D model that included T cells showed an inhibition of tumor growth and reduced hypoxia within the TME. Thus, perfused 3D tumor models incorporating diverse cell types provide novel insights into EV-mediated tumor-immune interactions and immune-modulation for existing and emerging cancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.654922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103208PMC
April 2021

Application of metastatic biopsy based on "When, Who, Why, Where, How (4W1H)" principle in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic castration-resistance prostate cancer.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1723-1733

Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: To determine the feasibility of secondary biopsy of metastatic castration-resistance prostate cancer based on the "4W1H-When, Who, Why, Where, How" principle and analyze the factors that affect tumor detection. Its application will further direct the patients for individualized precision therapy.

Methods: A total of 55 patients were collected for secondary biopsy (27 prostate biopsies and 55 metastases biopsies). The parameters of biopsy location, computed tomography attenuation coefficient, lesion size, core number, laboratory tests, and the use of bone protection were evaluated. Histopathological data and the pathogenesis and etiology classification were used to guide precision treatment.

Results: Fifteen/27 patients had a positive prostate biopsy, and 47/55 had positive metastasis biopsy. Bone metastasis biopsy was positive in 21/29 of cases. Also, parenchymal organs and lymph node biopsies were positive. In the prostate rebiopsy, significant differences were observed between total prostate volume (P=0.028), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (P=0.047), PSA velocity (P=0.036), and positive biopsy results. In the bone metastasis biopsy, we divided the patients into biopsy-positive and -negative groups. The computed tomography attenuation coefficient, PSA, alkaline phosphatase, and hemoglobin were related to tumor positive detection. However, the lesion size, core number, bone-sparing agents and previous treatments did not affect tumor detection.

Conclusions: In metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients, the "4W1H" principle was applied in the second biopsy. The biopsy site, image, and laboratory variables affected the positive of tumor tissue. Further pathological analysis of tumor tissue is essential to guide the precision medicine of mCRPC etiological classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100831PMC
April 2021

Expression of G3BP1 in benign and malignant human prostate tissues.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1665-1675

Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology and School of Medical Laboratory, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the world's leading type of cancer in men. GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) is overexpressed in a variety of tumors. However, there are limited studies in PCa concerning G3BP1. This present study was to investigates the expression of G3BP1 and the mechanism of action on PCa.

Methods: We explored the G3BP1 expression in PCa using the TCGA database and verified it using clinical samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods. G3BP1 and Androgen receptor (AR) status of 104 human PCa and 50 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) samples were analyzed by IHC and the association between G3BP1 expression and biochemical recurrence was determined. Moreover, we generated G3BP1 knockdown cell lines in human PCa LNCaP cell lines, to observe AR changes.

Results: G3BP1 and AR were overexpressed in PCa compared to BPH tissues. The expression of G3BP1 and AR was positively correlated with the malignant degree of the tumor. Higher G3BP1 expression showed a trend toward biochemical recurrence. Western blot showed downregulation of G3BP1 affected AR expression levels.

Conclusions: Our study suggested that G3BP1 was frequently upregulated in PCa and closely related to AR expression and tumor metastasis. Besides, G3BP1 might be associated with biochemical recurrence. These results supply potential target for the management of the PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100838PMC
April 2021

Methacrylate-functionalized proanthocyanidins as novel polymerizable collagen cross-linkers - Part 2: Effects on polymerization, microhardness and leaching of adhesives.

Dent Mater 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Dentistry, University of Missouri - Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a novel polymerizable collagen cross-linker methacrylate-functionalized proanthocyanidins (MAPA) on the polymerization, microhardness and leaching of a HEMA-based experimental dental adhesive system.

Methods: Three MAPAs were synthesized using different methacrylate (MA) to proanthocyanidins (PA) feeding ratios of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 to obtain MAPA-1, MAPA-2, and MAPA-3, respectively. The resulting three MAPAs and PA were added to an experimental adhesive formulated with HEMA and a tri-component photoinitiator system (0.5 wt% CQ/EDMAB/DPIHP) at 1%, 5% and 10% MAPA or PA concentrations (wt%). The adhesive polymerization kinetics was measured continuously in real-time for 10 min using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory. Degree of conversion (DC) and Vickers microhardness (MH) of cured adhesives were measured at 72 h post-cure. The leaching of cured adhesives in DI water was monitored using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way and two-way ANOVA, Tukey's (p < 0.05).

Results: The adhesive formulations with 1%, 5% and 10% MAPAs-1, -2, -3 all generated higher rate of polymerization and 10-min DC than the formulations with PA at the same concentrations. At 72 h post-cure, the adhesive formulation with 5% MAPA-2 exhibited significantly higher DC (99.40%) and more than doubled MH (18.93) values than the formulation with 5% PA (DC = 89.47%, MH = 8.41) and the control (DC = 95.46%, MH = 9.33). Moreover, the cured adhesive with 5% MAPA-2 demonstrated significantly reduced PA leaching in comparison with cured adhesive with 5% PA.

Significance: Synthesized MAPA is a novel class of polymerizable collagen cross-linker that not only stabilizes dentin collagen via its PA component, but also improves polymerization, mechanical properties and stability of HEMA-based adhesives via its MA component. By inheriting the benefit while overcoming the drawback of PA, MAPA offers a revolutionary solution for improved bond-strength and longevity of dental restorations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2021.04.010DOI Listing
May 2021

Various effects of bariatric surgery on mortality and incidences of obesity-related co-morbidities at different follow-up times at a population level.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Healthcare-Associated Infection Control Center, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2021.04.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Domain Knowledge Powered Deep Learning for Breast Cancer Diagnosis Based on Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Videos.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

In recent years, deep learning has been widely used in breast cancer diagnosis, and many high-performance models have emerged. However, most of the existing deep learning models are mainly based on static breast ultrasound (US) images. In actual diagnostic process, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a commonly used technique by radiologists. Compared with static breast US images, CEUS videos can provide more detailed blood supply information of tumors, and therefore can help radiologists make a more accurate diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel diagnosis model based on CEUS videos. The backbone of the model is a 3D convolutional neural network. More specifically, we notice that radiologists generally follow two specific patterns when browsing CEUS videos. One pattern is that they focus on specific time slots, and the other is that they pay attention to the differences between the CEUS frames and the corresponding US images. To incorporate these two patterns into our deep learning model, we design a domain-knowledge-guided temporal attention module and a channel attention module. We validate our model on our Breast-CEUS dataset composed of 221 cases. The result shows that our model can achieve a sensitivity of 97.2% and an accuracy of 86.3%. In particular, the incorporation of domain knowledge leads to a 3.5% improvement in sensitivity and a 6.0% improvement in specificity. Finally, we also prove the validity of two domain knowledge modules in the 3D convolutional neural network (C3D) and the 3D ResNet (R3D).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3078370DOI Listing
May 2021

Social frailty and longitudinal risk of depressive symptoms in a Chinese population: the Rugao Longevity and Aging Study.

Psychogeriatrics 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

National Clinical Research Center for Aging and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social frailty (SF) and incident depressive symptoms in a Chinese population.

Methods: SF was measured with 6 questions (6 points maximum; 0-1 = non-SF, 2-3 = pre-SF, 4-6 = SF). Depressive symptoms were defined as a score of ≥6 on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Compared to baseline, participants with a ≥2-point increase in the Geriatric Depression Scale score were considered to have worsening depressive symptoms.

Results: At baseline, among 1764 participants, 9.9% (n = 175) had depressive symptoms, 3.6% (n = 61) were SF, and 38.2% (n = 650) were pre-SF. The percentage of depressive symptoms increased with SF status from 5.1% (non-SF) to 12.9% (pre-SF), to 41.0% (SF). In cross-sectional analysis, after adjustments for multiple covariates, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with both pre-SF (odds ratio (OR) = 2.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-4.32) and SF (OR = 16.70, 95% CI 8.80-31.71). During the 3-year follow-up period, 10.0% (n = 117) of the participants developed depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analyses, after multiple adjustments, SF and pre-SF were associated with a 2.31-fold (95% CI 1.10-4.88) and 1.58-fold (95% CI 1.05-2.38) increased risk of incidence of depressive symptoms, respectively. Among participants without depressive symptoms at baseline, 23.2% had worsening depressive symptoms, and SF was associated with increased risk of worsening depressive symptoms (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.18-3.65).

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that SF may be a predictor of depression among Chinese community-dwelling older adults. In addition, in elders with no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with SF had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 3 years later.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12696DOI Listing
May 2021

Erythropoietin Improves Poor Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage.

CNS Drugs 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Henan Key Laboratory of Child Brain Injury and Henan Pediatric Clinical Research Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

Background: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication in preterm infants that has poor outcomes, especially in severe cases, and there are currently no widely accepted effective treatments. Erythropoietin has been shown to be neuroprotective in neonatal brain injury.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of repeated low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in preterm infants with IVH.

Methods: This was a single-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial. Preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestational age who were diagnosed with IVH within 72 h after birth were randomized to receive rhEPO 500 IU/kg or placebo (equivalent volume of saline) every other day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was death or neurological disability assessed at 18 months of corrected age.

Results: A total of 316 eligible infants were included in the study, with 157 in the rhEPO group and 159 in the placebo group. Although no significant differences in mortality (p = 0.176) or incidence of neurological disability (p = 0.055) separately at 18 months of corrected age were seen between the rhEPO and placebo groups, significantly fewer infants had poor outcomes (death and neurological disability) in the rhEPO group: 14.9 vs. 26.4%; odds ratio (OR) 0.398; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.199-0.796; p = 0.009. In addition, the incidence of Mental Development Index scores of < 70 was lower in the rhEPO group than in the placebo group: 7.2 vs. 15.3%; OR 0.326; 95% CI 0.122-0.875; p = 0.026.

Conclusions: Treatment with repeated low-dose rhEPO improved outcomes in preterm infants with IVH.

Trial Registration: The study was retrospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 16 April 2019 (NCT03914690).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-021-00817-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes reveal abnormal regulation of FGF16 in a familial atrial septal defect.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital & Institute for Cardiovascular Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215000, China.

Aims: Congenital heart disease (CHD) frequently occurs in newborns due to abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels. Mutations in the GATA4 gene, which encodes GATA binding protein 4, are responsible for atrial septal defect (ASD), a common CHD. This study aims to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of CHD using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a family cohort with ASD.

Methods And Results: Patient-specific iPSCs possess the same genetic information as the donor and can differentiate into various cell types from all three germ layers in vitro, thus presenting a promising approach for disease modeling and molecular mechanism research. Here, we generated a patient-specific iPSC line (iPSC-G4T280M) from a family cohort carrying a hereditary ASD mutation in GATA4 gene (T280M), as well as a human embryonic stem cell line (ESC-G4T280M) carrying the isogenic T280M mutation using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method. The GATA4-mutant iPSCs and ESCs were then differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs) to model GATA4 mutation-associated ASD. We observed an obvious defect in cell proliferation in cardiomyocytes derived from both GATA4T280M-mutant iPSCs (iPSC-G4T280M-CMs) and ESCs (ESC-G4T280M-CMs), while the impaired proliferation ability of iPSC-G4T280M-CMs could be restored by gene correction. Integrated analysis of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq data indicated that FGF16 is a direct target of wild-type GATA4. However, the T280M mutation obstructed GATA4 occupancy at the FGF16 promoter region, leading to impaired activation of FGF16 transcription. Overexpression of FGF16 in GATA4-mutant cardiomyocytes rescued the cell proliferation defect. The direct relationship between GATA4T280M and ASD was demonstrated in a human iPSC model for the first time.

Conclusions: In summary, our study revealed the molecular mechanism of the GATA4T280M mutation in ASD. Understanding the roles of the GATA4-FGF16 axis in iPSC-CMs will shed light on heart development and provide novel insights for the treatment of ASD and other CHD disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab154DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant in Hospitalized Patients in Eastern Heilongjiang Province, China.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 28;14:1635-1643. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Microbiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi, 154002, Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Recently, owing to antibiotic resistance, the incidence of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) colonization among intensive care unit (ICU) patients has increased rapidly. So far, there are few studies on active screening of MRSA. The purpose of the current study was to verify the effectiveness of active screening and analyze the molecular epidemiological characteristics of MRSA in the region.

Methods: We collected 30 samples of the MRSA strains from a tertiary hospital in the Eastern Heilongjiang Province. Among them, 7 were retrieved through nasal vestibular swabs at the emergency ICU and 23 were obtained from clinical specimens. Additionally, relevant patient medical information was examined retrospectively and molecular epidemiology and risk factor analysis for MRSA were performed.

Results: Molecular epidemiology studies revealed that all strains of bacteria carried the mecA resistance gene. The Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), for instance, was detected at a rate of 13.33% (4/30). The protein A (spa) types, found amongst our samples, were mainly t324, t437, t034, etc., and we discovered a new spa type t19702. We also revealed 3 types of SCCmec, namely, SCCmec type II, SCCmec type IVa, and SCCmec type V, with the most prevalent clonotypes being ST72 and ST59. In addition, we also found 7 new ST types, namely, ST6567, ST6568, ST6569, ST6570, ST6571, ST6572, and ST6573. Using risk factor analysis, we also demonstrated that long, invasive procedures used in the ICU, such as tracheal intubation and ventilator usage, along with patients with cerebral infarction and other embolism are more susceptible to developing MRSA colonization and further infections.

Conclusion: We recommend the infection control department within hospitals to actively screen for MRSA and perform risk factor analysis in order to establish accurate preventive measures for controlling MRSA spread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S307856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8089471PMC
April 2021

Analysis of partially coherent light propagation through the soft X-ray interference lithography beamline at SSRF.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 14;28(Pt 3):902-909. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 239 Zhangheng Road, Pudong District, Shanghai 201800, People's Republic of China.

The mutual optical intensity (MOI) model is extended to the simulation of the interference pattern produced by extreme ultraviolet lithography with partially coherent light. The partially coherent X-ray propagation through the BL08U1B beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is analysed using the MOI model and SRW (Synchrotron Radiation Workshop) method. The fringe intensity at the exposure area is not uniform but has similar envelope lines to Fresnel diffraction, which is explained by the diffraction from the finite grating modelled as a single aperture. By balancing the slit size and photon stop size, the fringe visibility, photon flux and intensity slope can be optimized. Further analysis shows that the effect of pink light on the aerial images is negligible, whereas the third-harmonic light should be considered to obtain a balance between high fringe visibility and high flux. Two grating interference exposure experiments were performed in the BL08U1B beamline. The aerial image depth showed that the polymethyl methacrylate photoresist depth was determined by the X-ray coherence properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577521003398DOI Listing
May 2021

Click preparation of multiple-thioether bridged cyclodextrin chiral materials for efficient enantioseparation in high-performance liquid chromatography.

Analyst 2021 May;146(9):3025-3033

School of Science, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Science, Department of Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China.

A highly efficient covalent immobilization procedure is considered as an essential tool for obtaining stable and reliable cyclodextrin (CD) chiral stationary phases (CSPs). This work reports the "thiolene" click immobilization of heptakis(6-mercapto-6-deoxy)-β-CD-CSP onto alkene functional silica to afford novel multiple-thioether bridged CD CSPs by controlling the surface CD concentration. Solid-state NMR, FTIR, TGA and X-ray photoelectron diffraction spectroscopy (XPS) results proved the successful preparation of the desired CSPs with different surface CD loadings. The surface CD concentrations were calculated to be 0.49 and 0.68 μmol m-2 according to the elemental analysis results. More than 60 chiral enantiomers including isoxazolines, chiral lactides, chiral ketones, dansyl amino acids, small molecule acids and alkalis as well as some flavonoids were resolved or partially separated in the reversed-phase HPLC mode. Compared with the previously prepared single thiolene bridged CD-CSP, the current multiple-thioether CD-CSP afforded much better enantioseparation ability due to the existence of the thiol moiety and a confined structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an00145kDOI Listing
May 2021

General Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Carbonaceous Hybrid Nanostructures with Molecularly Dispersed Polyoxometallates.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Zhejiang University, Department of Chemistry, CHINA.

Hybrid nanomaterials with controlled dimensions, intriguing components and ordered structures have attracted significant attention in nanoscience and technology. Herein, we report a facile and green polyoxometallate (POM)-assisted hydrothermal carbonization strategy for synthesis of carbonaceous hybrid nanomaterials with molecularly dispersed POMs and ordered mesopores. By using various polyoxometallates such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, silicotungstic acid, and phosphotungstic acid, our approach can be generalized to synthesize ordered mesoporous hybrid nanostructures with diverse compositions and morphologies (nanosheet-assembled hierarchical architectures, nanospheres, and nanorods). Moreover, the ordered mesoporous nanosheet-assembled hierarchical hybrids with molecularly dispersed POMs exhibit remarkable catalytic activity toward the dehydration of tert-butanol with the high isobutene selectivity (100 %) and long-term catalytic durability (80 h).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202104028DOI Listing
May 2021

Total parathyroidectomy with forearm autotransplantation in secondary hyperparathyroidism patients: analysis of muscle, subcutaneous and muscle + subcutaneous method.

BMC Surg 2021 May 1;21(1):226. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University College of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Forearm autotransplantation after parathyroidectomy has turned into the standard method for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) treatment in chronic kidney disease patients. Our study aimed to explore the effects of three methods including muscle, subcutaneous and muscle + subcutaneous transplant methods on SHPT.

Methods: Seventy five SHPT patients were enrolled and assigned into the muscle + subcutaneous (M + S) (n = 26), muscle (M) (n = 35), and subcutaneous (S) (n = 14) groups. The operation efficacy evaluation included preoperative and postoperative biological characteristics such as parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum phosphorus, serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The data were recorded from pre-operation time point to 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 month (mo) postoperation periods. After operation, short-form health survey (SF-36) scores was made for life quality identification at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 time points. Symptoms about SHPT including bone pain, fracture, pruritus, and coronary artery calcification were followed-up based on the scale.

Results: Compared with the preoperative record, all the M + S, M, and S groups showed postoperative decreased levels of PTH, serum phosphorus, serum calcium, calcium-phosphorus. In M + S group, the PTH and serum calcium level kept more steady compared with the M and S groups during a 24 mo duration observation. After this, a SF-36 score scale which represents the life quality show M + S group got more scores at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 mo points. At last, the incidence of SHPT associated symptoms including Bone pain, Fracture, Pruritus, and Coronary artery calcification in M + S group were decreased compared with M and S groups at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 mo post-operation time points.

Conclusion: M + S seems to be an efficient method for medical treatment of SHPT patients in the control of PTH and serum calcium. This mixed transplant strategy improves the biochemical characterizes compared with M and S groups in SHPT patients. Furthermore, the M + S method make beneficial on clinical outcomes and life quality of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-021-01222-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088620PMC
May 2021

Enhanced complexation of humic acids: Homogenization of protonated groups in the hybrid ozonation-coagulation process.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 25;280:130647. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, 710055, China.

In this study, we compared dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV removal efficiencies of the hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) and pre-ozonation-coagulation (POC) processes for humic acid (HA) at pH 5 with AlCl•6HO as the coagulant. The DOC and UV removal efficiencies of the HOC process were higher than those of the POC process at ozone dosages less than 2.0 mg O (mg DOC). The ozone dosage was optimized at 0.3 and 0.1 mg O (mg DOC) for the HOC and POC processes, respectively, implying a more rigorous ozone dosage for the POC process. During the POC process, pre-ozonation was observed to increase the binding sites of HA (e.g., hydroxyl and carboxyl groups), improving the complexation of dissolved organic matter. For the HOC process, in addition to its role in the oxidation of organic matter, ozone also reacted with coagulants. The reaction between ozone and coagulants can facilitate the formation of Al. Moreover, the oxidation of •OH and ozone can increase the charge density of the HA binding sites, homogenizing the binding sites of HA and enhancing the complexation with Al.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130647DOI Listing
April 2021

Characteristics of rice dreg protein isolate treated by high-pressure microfluidization with and without proteolysis.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;358:129861. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330047, China. Electronic address:

The characteristics of rice dreg protein isolate (RDPI) treated by microfluidization (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 MPa) with or without proteolysis were investigated. Alcalase, Neutrase, and the combination of the two (Alcalcase:Neutrase = 1:1 [w/w]) were adopted for hydrolysis. The surface hydrophobicity and solubility of RDPI were increased. As pressure increased, different structures of RDPI exhibited disaggregation (<120 MPa) and reaggregation (160 MPa), and the effect on proteolysis was significant. The solubility of Neutrase and combined enzyme hydrolysates was improved after microfluidization. Additionally, the optimum choice of microfluidization (40 MPa) and Neutrase was efficient for improving the DPPH radical scavenging activity. The results indicate that both pressure level and enzyme type synergistically determine the functionality and antioxidant activities of products. This work may provide an alternative methodology for improving the utilization of RDPI in the food industry through desirable modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129861DOI Listing
April 2021

Utilization of Ogura CMS germplasm with the clubroot resistance gene by fertility restoration and cytoplasm replacement in Brassica oleracea L.

Hortic Res 2020 May 1;7(1):61. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, #12 Zhong Guan Cun Nandajie Street, Beijing, 100081, China.

Clubroot disease, a major plant root disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, has become one of the most destructive diseases among cultivated cruciferous vegetables. However, clubroot-resistant Brassica oleracea materials are rare. A few clubroot-resistant cabbage varieties are available on the market, but all are Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) types. Therefore, in this study, to reutilize the clubroot-resistant Ogura CMS germplasm of cabbage, a new fertility-restored Ogura CMS material, 16Q2-11, was used as a bridge to transfer the clubroot resistance (CR) gene from the Ogura CMS cytoplasm to the normal cytoplasm by a two-step method (a fertility restoration and cytoplasm replacement method). In the first cross for fertility restoration of Ogura CMS clubroot-resistant cabbage (FRCRC), 16Q2-11 was used as a restorer to cross with Ogura CMS materials containing the CR gene CRb2. Eleven Rfo-positive progenies were generated, of which four contained CRb2: F8-514, F8-620, F8-732 and F8-839. After inoculation with race 4 of P. brassicae, these four CRb2-positive individuals showed resistance. Furthermore, F8-514 and F8-839 were then used as male parents in the second cross of FRCRC to cross with cabbage inbred lines, resulting in the successful introgression of the CRb2 gene into the inbred lines. All offspring produced from this step of cross, which had a normal cytoplasm, showed a high resistance to race 4 of P. brassicae and could be utilized for the breeding of clubroot-resistant cabbage varieties in the future. This is the first time that the Ogura CMS restorer has been used to restore the fertility of Ogura CMS clubroot-resistant cabbages, which could improve germplasm diversity in cabbage and provide a reference method for using CMS germplasm in Brassica crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0282-8DOI Listing
May 2020

ZmPPR26, a DYW-type pentatricopeptide repeat protein, is required for C-to-U RNA editing at atpA-1148 in maize chloroplasts.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Lab of Plant Development and Environment Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are involved in the C-to-U RNA editing of organellar transcripts. Maize genome contains over 600 PPR proteins and few have been found to function in the C-to-U RNA editing in chloroplasts. Here, we report the function of ZmPPR26 in the C-to-U RNA editing and chloroplast biogenesis in maize. ZmPPR26 encodes a DYW-type PPR protein targeted to chloroplasts. The zmppr26 mutant exhibits albino seedling-lethal phenotype. Loss-function of ZmPPR26 abolishes the editing at atpA-1148 site, and decreases the editing at ndhF-62, rpl20-308, rpl2-2, rpoC2-2774, petB-668, rps8-182, and ndhA-50 sites. Over-expression of ZmPPR26 in zmppr26 restores the editing efficiency and rescues the albino seedling-lethal phenotype. Abolished editing at atpA-1148 causes a Leu to Ser change at AtpA-383 that leads to a reduction in the abundance of chloroplast ATP synthase in zmppr26. The protein accumulation and content of photosynthetic complexes are also markedly reduced in zmppr26, providing an explanation for the albino seedling-lethal phenotype. These results indicate that ZmPPR26 is required for the editing at atpA-1148 and important for the editing at the other seven sites in maize chloroplast. The editing at atpA-1148 is critical to the AtpA function, assembly of ATP synthase complex, and chloroplast biogenesis in maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab185DOI Listing
April 2021

Sequential Superassembly of Nanofiber Arrays to Carbonaceous Ordered Mesoporous Nanowires and Their Heterostructure Membranes for Osmotic Energy Conversion.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 30;143(18):6922-6932. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Lab of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P. R. China.

The capture of sustainable energy from a salinity gradient, in particular, using renewable biomass-derived functional materials, has attracted significant attention. In order to convert osmotic energy to electricity, many membrane materials with nanofluidic channels have been developed. However, the high cost, complex preparation process, and low output power density still restrict the practical application of traditional membranes. Herein, we report the synthesis of highly flexible and mechanically robust nanofiber-arrays-based carbonaceous ordered mesoporous nanowires (CMWs) through a simple and straightforward soft-templating hydrothermal carbonization approach. This sequential superassembly strategy shows a high yield and great versatility in controlling the dimensions of CMWs with the aspect ratio changes from about 3 to 39. Furthermore, these CMWs can be used as novel building blocks to construct functional hybrid membranes on macroporous alumina. This nanofluidic membrane with asymmetric geometry and charge polarity exhibits low resistance and high-performance energy conversion. This work opens a solution-based route for the one-pot preparation of CMWs and functional heterostructure membranes for various applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00547DOI Listing
May 2021

Computational Simulation of Exosome Transport in Tumor Microenvironment.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 13;8:643793. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Cellular exosome-mediated crosstalk in tumor microenvironment (TME) is a critical component of anti-tumor immune responses. In addition to particle size, exosome transport and uptake by target cells is influenced by physical and physiological factors, including interstitial fluid pressure, and exosome concentration. These variables differ under both normal and pathological conditions, including cancer. The transport of exosomes in TME is governed by interstitial flow and diffusion. Based on these determinants, mathematical models were adapted to simulate the transport of exosomes in the TME with specified exosome release rates from the tumor cells. In this study, the significance of spatial relationship in exosome-mediated intercellular communication was established by treating their movement in the TME as a continuum using a transport equation, with advection due to interstitial flow and diffusion due to concentration gradients. To quantify the rate of release of exosomes by biomechanical forces acting on the tumor cells, we used a transwell platform with confluent triple negative breast cancer cells 4T1.2 seeded in BioFlex plates exposed to an oscillatory force. Exosome release rates were quantified from 4T1.2 cells seeded at the bottom of the well following the application of either no force or an oscillatory force, and these rates were used to model exosome transport in the transwell. The simulations predicted that a larger number of exosomes reached the membrane of the transwell for 4T1.2 cells exposed to the oscillatory force when compared to controls. Additionally, we simulated the interstitial fluid flow and exosome transport in a 2-dimensional TME with macrophages, T cells, and mixtures of these two populations at two different stages of a tumor growth. Computational simulations were carried out using the commercial computational simulation package, ANSYS/Fluent. The results of this study indicated higher exosome concentrations and larger interstitial fluid pressure at the later stages of the tumor growth. Quantifying the release of exosomes by cancer cells, their transport through the TME, and their concentration in TME will afford a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of these interactions and aid in deriving predictive models for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.643793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076500PMC
April 2021

An Inkjet-Printed PEDOT:PSS-Based Stretchable Conductor for Wearable Health Monitoring Device Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Electrical & Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, United States.

A stretchable conductor is one of the key components in soft electronics that allows the seamless integration of electronic devices and sensors on elastic substrates. Its unique advantages of mechanical flexibility and stretchability have enabled a variety of wearable bioelectronic devices that can conformably adapt to curved skin surfaces for long-term health monitoring applications. Here, we report a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)-based stretchable polymer blend that can be patterned using an inkjet printing process while exhibiting low sheet resistance and accommodating large mechanical deformations. We have systematically studied the effect of various types of polar solvent additives that can help induce phase separation of PEDOT and PSS grains and change the conformation of a PEDOT chain, thereby improving the electrical property of the film by facilitating charge hopping along the percolating PEDOT network. The optimal ink formulation is achieved by adding 5 wt % ethylene glycol into a pristine PEDOT:PSS aqueous solution, which results in a sheet resistance of as low as 58 Ω/□. Elasticity can also be achieved by blending the above solution with the soft polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Thin films of PEDOT:PSS/PEO polymer blends patterned by inkjet printing exhibits a low sheet resistance of 84 Ω/□ and can resist up to 50% tensile strain with minimal changes in electrical performance. With its good conductivity and elasticity, we have further demonstrated the use of the polymer blend as stretchable interconnects and stretchable dry electrodes on a thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate for photoplethysmography (PPG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recording applications. This work shows the potential of using a printed stretchable conducting polymer in low-cost wearable sensor patches for smart health applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00537DOI Listing
April 2021

Study of the Electrical Properties of Aluminate Cement Adhesives for Porcelain Insulators.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003, China.

Electrical properties are one of the essential parameters of cement-based materials used in suspension porcelain insulators. This paper studied the electrical properties of aluminate cement adhesives (ACA) containing silica fume (SF), as well as their compressive strength and porosity. The results indicated that the addition of silica fume improved the resistivity of ACA under a saturated state (relative humidity is 50%). This was mainly attributed to the decrease of the ACA's pore connectivity due to the SF's filling effect. However, the early compressive strength of ACA was slightly reduced by the addition of SF. Under an unsaturated state, the ACA's resistivity without the SF gradually exceeded that with the SF at the extension of drying time. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results indicated that the addition of SF content increased the ACA's porosity; for the tiny pores especially, (the size less than 25 nm), this increased by 3.4%. Meanwhile, the addition of SF increased the tortuosity of the ACA's conductive channels, which could improve its resistivity. Therefore, SF is recommended to be used in cement-based adhesives on insulators to lower the cost and improve the resistivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092232DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Concentration and Spin Speed on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Silver Nanowire Transparent Electrodes.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210014, China.

In this paper, silver nanowires (AgNWs) with a diameter of 40 nm and a length of 45 μm were dispersed into an ethanol solution to prepare AgNW solutions with concentrations of 1, 2, and 3 mg/mL, respectively. The AgNW solutions were then deposited on a glass substrate using spin-coating at 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm for 45 s, respectively, to prepare transparent electrodes. The results showed that the distribution of AgNWs on the substrate increased in density with the increase in the AgNW solution concentration and the decrease in spin speed. The effect of concentration on the distribution of AgNWs was greater than that of the spin speed. The transmittance of each electrode was between 84.19% and 88.12% at 550 nm, the average sheet resistance was between 20.09 and 358.11 Ω/sq, the highest () was 104.42, and the lowest was 1.48%. The electrode prepared at 1000 rpm with a concentration of 2 mg/mL and that prepared at 3000 rpm with a concentration of 3 mg/mL were very similar in terms of the average sheet resistance, transmittance at 550 nm, , and ; thus, these two electrodes could be considered equivalent. The of the electrode was positively correlated with the spin speed at low concentration, but that relationship became inverse as the concentration rose. For the AgNWs used in this experiment with an aspect ratio of 1125, the concentration of the AgNW solution should reach at least 2 mg/mL to ensure that the of the electrode is greater than 35.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092219DOI Listing
April 2021

Phylogenomic Insights into Distribution and Adaptation of Bdellovibrionota in Marine Waters.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 3;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Institute of Deep Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China.

Bdellovibrionota is composed of obligate predators that can consume some Gram-negative bacteria inhabiting various environments. However, whether genomic traits influence their distribution and marine adaptation remains to be answered. In this study, we performed phylogenomics and comparative genomics studies using 132 Bdellovibrionota genomes along with five metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from deep sea zones. Four phylogenetic groups, Oligoflexia, Bdello-group1, Bdello-group2 and Bacteriovoracia, were revealed by constructing a phylogenetic tree, of which 53.84% of Bdello-group2 and 48.94% of Bacteriovoracia were derived from the ocean. Bacteriovoracia was more prevalent in deep sea zones, whereas Bdello-group2 was largely distributed in the epipelagic zone. Metabolic reconstruction indicated that genes involved in chemotaxis, flagellar (mobility), type II secretion system, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and penicillin-binding protein were necessary for the predatory lifestyle of Bdellovibrionota. Genes involved in glycerol metabolism, hydrogen peroxide (HO) degradation, cell wall recycling and peptide utilization were ubiquitously present in Bdellovibrionota genomes. Comparative genomics between marine and non-marine Bdellovibrionota demonstrated that betaine as an osmoprotectant is probably widely used by marine Bdellovibrionota, and all the marine genomes have a number of genes for adaptation to marine environments. The genes encoding chitinase and chitin-binding protein were identified for the first time in Oligoflexia, which implied that Oligoflexia may prey on a wider spectrum of microbes. This study expands our knowledge on adaption strategies of Bdellovibrionota inhabiting deep seas and the potential usage of Oligoflexia for biological control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067016PMC
April 2021

Mapping the degradation pathway of a disease-linked aspartoacylase variant.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 29;17(4):e1009539. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The Linderstrøm-Lang Centre for Protein Science, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Canavan disease is a severe progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by swelling and spongy degeneration of brain white matter. The disease is genetically linked to polymorphisms in the aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene, including the substitution C152W. ASPA C152W is associated with greatly reduced protein levels in cells, yet biophysical experiments suggest a wild-type like thermal stability. Here, we use ASPA C152W as a model to investigate the degradation pathway of a disease-causing protein variant. When we expressed ASPA C152W in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found a decreased steady state compared to wild-type ASPA as a result of increased proteasomal degradation. However, molecular dynamics simulations of ASPA C152W did not substantially deviate from wild-type ASPA, indicating that the native state is structurally preserved. Instead, we suggest that the C152W substitution interferes with the de novo folding pathway resulting in increased proteasomal degradation before reaching its stable conformation. Systematic mapping of the protein quality control components acting on misfolded and aggregation-prone species of C152W, revealed that the degradation is highly dependent on the molecular chaperone Hsp70, its co-chaperone Hsp110 as well as several quality control E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, including Ubr1. In addition, the disaggregase Hsp104 facilitated refolding of aggregated ASPA C152W, while Cdc48 mediated degradation of insoluble ASPA protein. In human cells, ASPA C152W displayed increased proteasomal turnover that was similarly dependent on Hsp70 and Hsp110. Our findings underscore the use of yeast to determine the protein quality control components involved in the degradation of human pathogenic variants in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084241PMC
April 2021

MiR-421 regulates goat intramuscular preadipocytes differentiation via targeting .

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Apr 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Ministry of Education, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, China.

As a member of the MicroRNA s (miRNAs) family, miR-421 has been widely studied in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells a. However, there are still no reports on miR-421 in regulating adipocyte differentiation and its related mechanisms. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the potential involvement of miR-421 in goat intramuscular preadipocytes (P_IMA). The expression level of miR-421 was measured via quantitative real-time PCR during goat P_IMA differentiation. And the effects of miR-421 on goat P_IMA differentiation were studied by liposome transfection, Oil red O staining and qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the miR-421 target was searched and the underlying mechanism was clarified by luciferase reporter assay and rescue experiment. Our results showed that inhibition of miR-421 could accumulation of lipid droplets by upregulation the expression level of 2, , and . Further studies showed that fibroblast growth factor () was the direct target of miR-421. Knocking down of expression could inhibit lipid droplet formation and down-regulated the expression of key adipogenic regulatory genes. In addition, the rescue experiment revealed that is involved in miR-421-induced differentiation of goat P_IMA as a key factor. Overall, these findings indicate that miR-421 is a negative regulator in the progression of differentiation of goat P_IMA by inhibiting the expression of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.1898414DOI Listing
April 2021

Study Progression of Apelin/APJ Signaling and Apela in Different Types of Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:658253. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Apelin is an endogenous ligand that binds to the G protein-coupled receptor angiotensin-like-receptor 1 (APJ). Apelin and APJ are widely distributed in organs and tissues and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes including cardiovascular regulation, neuroendocrine stress response, energy metabolism, etc. Additionally, apelin/APJ axis was found to play an important role in cancer development and progression. Apela is a newly identified endogenous ligand for APJ. Several studies have revealed the potential role of Apela in cancers. In this article, we review the current studies focusing on the role of apelin/APJ signaling and Apela in different cancers. Potential mechanisms by which apelin/APJ and Apela mediate the regulation of cancer development and progression were also mentioned. The Apelin/APJ signaling and Apela may serve as potential therapeutic candidates for treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.658253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075258PMC
April 2021