Publications by authors named "Yong Tao"

382 Publications

Reduced Expression of Erythropoietin After Intravitreal Ranibizumab in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients-Retrospective Interventional Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 21;8:710079. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

To evaluate the expressions of erythropoietin (EPO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the vitreous and fibrovascular membranes (FVMs) of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) after the intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) and further explore the relationship between EPO and VEGF. The concentrations of EPO and VEGF levels in the vitreous fluid were measured in 35 patients (24 PDR and 11 non-diabetic patients) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients were divided into three groups: PDR with IVR (IVR group) before par plana vitrectomy ( = 10), PDR without IVR (Non-IVR group) ( = 14) and a control group [macular holes (MHs) or epiretinal membranes (ERM), = 11]. Fluorescence immunostaining was performed to examine the expressions of VEGF, EPO and CD 105 in the excised epiretinal membranes. The PDR eyes of Non-IVR group had the highest vitreous VEGF and EPO levels (836.30 ± 899.50 pg/ml, 99.29 ± 27.77 mIU/ml, respectively) compared to the control group (10.98 ± 0.98 pg/ml and 18.96 ± 13.30 mIU/ml/ml). Both the VEGF and EPO levels in the IVR group (13.22 ± 2.72 pg/ml and 68.57 ± 41.47 mIU/ml) were significantly lower than the Non-IVR group ( = 0.004 and = 0.04, respectively). Furthermore, no significant difference was observed for VEGF levels between the control and IVR groups (10.9 ± 0.98 pg/ml and 13.22 ± 2.72 pg/ml, respectively, = 0.9). Yet the EPO level in the IVR group was significantly higher than that in the Non-diabetic group (68.57 ± 41.47 pg/ml and 18.96 ± 13.30 pg/ml, respectively, = 0.001). The expressions of EPO, VEGF, and CD105 were significantly reduced in fluorescence immunostaining of FVMs in the IVR group compared with the Non-IVR group. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the EPO and VEGF levels were 0.951 and 0.938 in the PDR group. Both of the VEGF and EPO level were significantly increased in PDR patients, which have equal diagnostic value in the prediction of PDR. IVR could reduce the EPO level, but not enough to the normal level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.710079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490617PMC
September 2021

Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of -caproic acid production in bacterium CPB6 with lactate supplementation.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Aug 27;31. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology and Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, P.R. China.

-Caproic acid (CA) is gaining increased attention due to its high value as a chemical feedstock. bacterium strain CPB6 is an anaerobic mesophilic bacterium that is highly prolific in its ability to perform chain elongation of lactate to CA. However, little is known about the genome-wide transcriptional analysis of strain CPB6 for CA production triggered by the supplementation of exogenous lactate. In this study, cultivation of strain CPB6 was carried out in the absence and presence of lactate. Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using RNA-seq, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the lactate-supplemented cells and control cells without lactate were analyzed. The results showed that lactate supplementation led to earlier CA production, and higher final CA titer and productivity. 295 genes were substrate and/or growth dependent, and these genes cover crucial functional categories. Specifically, 5 genes responsible for the reverse β-oxidation pathway, 11 genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, 6 genes encoding substrate-binding protein (SBP), and 4 genes encoding phosphotransferase system (PTS) transporters were strikingly upregulated in response to the addition of lactate. These genes would be candidates for future studies aiming at understanding the regulatory mechanism of lactate conversion into CA, as well as for the improvement of CA production in strain CPB6. The findings presented herein reveal unique insights into the biomolecular effect of lactate on CA production at the transcriptional level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2107.07009DOI Listing
August 2021

Repigmentation of nipple-areola complex after ReCell® treatment on breast vitiligo.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Nipple-areola complex is a naturally hyperpigmented skin area which can be involved in vitiligo. But limited study focused on the treatment of nipple-areola complex vitiligo, and few methods were proven to be effective. In this study, we aimed to explore the feasibility and efficacy of ReCell® on vitiligo in the nipple-areola complex area.

Methods: Medical records of patients with vitiligo involving nipple-areola complex and underwent ReCell® treatment from October 2016 to April 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The repigmentation rate of the nipple-areola complex and other breast area were calculated under the Wood's light at each follow-up. The grade of repigmentation and patient-reported satisfaction rate were also evaluated to prove the effect of ReCell® on vitiligo of breast and especially in the nipple-areola complex area.

Results: A total of 18 patients were included in this study. No surgical complications were reported. The mean postoperative repigmentation rate in the nipple-areola complex area (3rd-month, 78.7 ± 5.8%; 6th-month, 87.6 ± 5.1%; and 12th-month, 96.1 ± 3.5%) was significantly higher than that in the other breast treatment area (3rd-month, 70.4 ± 6.9%; 6th-month, 84.2 ± 5.7%, and 12th-month, 93.2 ± 3.6%). All patients showed good or excellent grades at the last follow-up, and 94.4% of them considered the overall treatment results satisfactory.

Conclusions: ReCell® is a feasible and efficient treatment strategy in the nipple-areola complex vitiligo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14399DOI Listing
August 2021

Butyryl/Caproyl-CoA:Acetate CoA-transferase: cloning, expression and characterization of the key enzyme involved in medium-chain fatty acid biosynthesis.

Biosci Rep 2021 Aug;41(8)

Faculty of Bioengineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000, China.

Coenzyme A transferases (CoATs) are important enzymes involved in carbon chain elongation, contributing to medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) biosynthesis. For example, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase (BCoAT) is responsible for the final step of butyrate synthesis from butyryl-CoA. However, little is known about caproyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (CCoAT), which is responsible for the final step of caproate synthesis from caproyl-CoA. In the present study, two CoAT genes from Ruminococcaceae bacterium CPB6 and Clostridium tyrobutyricum BEY8 were identified by gene cloning and expression analysis. Enzyme assays and kinetic studies were carried out using butyryl-CoA or caproyl-CoA as the substrate. CPB6-CoAT can catalyze the conversion of both butyryl-CoA into butyrate and caproyl-CoA into caproate, but its catalytic efficiency with caproyl-CoA as the substrate was 3.8-times higher than that with butyryl-CoA. In contrast, BEY8-CoAT had only BCoAT activity, not CCoAT activity. This demonstrated the existence of a specific CCoAT involved in chain elongation via the reverse β-oxidation pathway. Comparative bioinformatics analysis showed the presence of a highly conserved motif (GGQXDFXXGAXX) in CoATs, which is predicted to be the active center. Single point mutations in the conserved motif of CPB6-CoAT (Asp346 and Ala351) led to marked decreases in the activity for butyryl-CoA and caproyl-CoA, indicating that the conserved motif is the active center of CPB6-CoAT and that Asp346 and Ala351 have a significant impact on the enzymatic activity. This work provides insight into the function of CCoAT in caproic acid biosynthesis and improves understanding of the chain elongation pathway for MCFA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20211135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360832PMC
August 2021

PolyG-DS: An ultrasensitive polyguanine tract-profiling method to detect clonal expansions and trace cell lineage.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195;

Polyguanine tracts (PolyGs) are short guanine homopolymer repeats that are prone to accumulating mutations when cells divide. This feature makes them especially suitable for cell lineage tracing, which has been exploited to detect and characterize precancerous and cancerous somatic evolution. PolyG genotyping, however, is challenging because of the inherent biochemical difficulties in amplifying and sequencing repetitive regions. To overcome this limitation, we developed PolyG-DS, a next-generation sequencing (NGS) method that combines the error-correction capabilities of duplex sequencing (DS) with enrichment of PolyG loci using CRISPR-Cas9-targeted genomic fragmentation. PolyG-DS markedly reduces technical artifacts by comparing the sequences derived from the complementary strands of each original DNA molecule. We demonstrate that PolyG-DS genotyping is accurate, reproducible, and highly sensitive, enabling the detection of low-frequency alleles (<0.01) in spike-in samples using a panel of only 19 PolyG markers. PolyG-DS replicated prior results based on PolyG fragment length analysis by capillary electrophoresis, and exhibited higher sensitivity for identifying clonal expansions in the nondysplastic colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. We illustrate the utility of this method for resolving the phylogenetic relationship among precancerous lesions in ulcerative colitis and for tracing the metastatic dissemination of ovarian cancer. PolyG-DS enables the study of tumor evolution without prior knowledge of tumor driver mutations and provides a tool to perform cost-effective and easily scalable ultra-accurate NGS-based PolyG genotyping for multiple applications in biology, genetics, and cancer research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023373118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346827PMC
August 2021

Highly efficient production of L-homoserine in Escherichia coli by engineering a redox balance route.

Metab Eng 2021 09 28;67:321-329. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

L-Homoserine is a nonessential chiral amino acid and the precursor of L-threonine and L-methionine. It has great potential to be used in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, cosmetic, and fragrance industries. However, the current low efficiency in the fermentation process of L-homoserine drives up the cost and therefore limits applications. Here, we systematically analyzed the L-homoserine production network in Escherichia coli to design a redox balance route for L-homoserine fermentation from glucose. Production of L-homoserine from L-aspartate via reduction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate oxaloacetate lacks reducing power. This deficiency could be corrected by activating the glyoxylate shunt and driving the flux from fumarate to L-aspartate with excess reducing power. This redox balance route decreases cell growth pressure and the theoretical yield of L-homoserine is 1.5 mol/mol of glucose without carbon loss. We fine-tuned the flux from fumarate to L-aspartate, deleted competitive and degradative pathways, enhanced L-homoserine efflux, and generated 84.1 g/L L-homoserine with 1.96 g/L/h productivity and 0.50 g/g glucose yield in a fed-batch fermentation. This study proposes a novel balanced redox metabolic network strategy for highly efficient production of L-homoserine and its derivative amino acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2021.07.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Reduction of choroidal neovascularization via cleavable VEGF antibodies conjugated to exosomes derived from regulatory T cells.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 Sep 26;5(9):968-982. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.

Choroidal neovascularization induced by age-related macular degeneration and retinal neovascularization induced by diabetic retinopathy-two leading causes of blindness-are often treated using antibodies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here we report a strong association between inflammation and high VEGF expression in aqueous humour samples from patients with choroidal or retinal neovascularization, and show that intravitreally injected exosomes derived from regulatory T cells and conjugated with an anti-VEGF antibody via a peptide linker that is cleavable by matrix metalloproteinases markedly suppressed ocular neovascularization in mouse and non-human primate models of choroidal neovascularization. The engineered exosomes, which selectively accumulate in the neovascularization lesions, could be adapted for other combination therapies of therapeutic antibodies and anti-inflammatory cargo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00764-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of low temperature on ex situ nitritation/in situ denitritation in field pilot-scale landfill for postclosure care of leachate treatment and gas content.

Waste Manag 2021 Jul 6;131:61-71. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Leachates and landfill gas (LFG) are the major problems for closed landfills (CL) and cause significant threats to receiving waterbody and ambient air quality. In this study, a field pilot-scale CL with ex situ nitritation/in situ denitritation process was constructed and operated continuously under wide temperature variations. The effect of low temperature on leachate treatment, and LFG content was studied. Results showed that the combined process can efficiently remove nitrogen and organic matters from leachate, and change LFG content under low-temperature condition. In the ex situ nitritaion, maximum removal efficiencies of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were over 99% and 85%, respectively. The loading rate of nitrogen and COD reached 0.5 kg N m d and 0.7 kg COD m d, respectively. The inhibitions of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA), and low temperature were the key factors affecting nitritation. With recirculating nitrified leachate, total oxidized nitrogen (TON) was completely reduced, and the refuse decomposition was accelerated. Denitritation was the main reaction responsible in the CL. Additionally, methane content was observed lowly at non-inhibitory TON loading rate of 5.8 ± 3.7 g N ton TS d. This decrease was not caused by the increased of TON loading, but a carbon source competition by denitrificans. The estimated COD consumption and methane reduction were 55.0 kg d by TON reduction, and 20 m d, respectively. Hence, this study served a potential strategy for postclosure care of landfills under low temperature variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.05.036DOI Listing
July 2021

Variation of PPARG Expression in Chemotherapy-Sensitive Patients of Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

PPAR Res 2021 17;2021:5525091. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.

Our previous study showed that the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) could promote chemosensitivity of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) in chemotherapeutic treatments. Here, we acquired two more independent expression data of PPARG to validate the expression levels of PPARG in chemotherapy-sensitive patients (CSP) and its individualized variations compared to chemotherapy-non-sensitive patients (CNSP). Our results showed that overall PPARG expression was mildly downregulated (log fold change = -0.55; value = 0.42; overexpression in three CSPs and reduced expression in four CSPs), which was not consistent with previous results (log fold change = 0.50; = 0.22; overexpression in nine CSPs and reduced expression in three CSPs). Both studies indicated that PPARG expression variation was significantly associated with the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) stage ( = 7.45 - 7 and 6.50 - 4, for the first and second studies, respectively), which was used as one of the predictors of chemosensitivity. The new dataset analysis revealed 51 genes with significant gene expression changes in CSPs (LFC > 1 or <-1; value < 0.01), and two of them (TMEM45A and RBP1) demonstrated strong coexpression with PPARG (Pearson correlation coefficient > 0.6 or <-0.6). There were 21 significant genes in the data from the first study, with no significant association with PPARG and no overlap with the 51 genes revealed in this study. Our results support the connection between PPARG and chemosensitivity in HSCC tumor cells. However, significant PPARG variation exists in CSPs, which may be influenced by multiple factors, including the TNM stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5525091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149230PMC
May 2021

Construction of an Alternative NAD De Novo Biosynthesis Pathway.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 1;8(9):2004632. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources and CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering Institute of Microbiology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101 P. R. China.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a life essential molecule involved in versatile biological processes. To date, only two de novo biosynthetic routes to NAD are described, both of which start from a proteinogenic amino acid and are tightly controlled. Here, a de novo quinolinic acid pathway starting from chorismate, which provides an alternative route (named as the C3N pathway) to NAD biosynthesis, is established. Significantly, the C3N pathway yields extremely high cellular concentrations of NAD(H) in . Its utility in cofactor engineering is demonstrated by introducing the four-gene C3N module to cell factories to achieve higher production of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and develop an efficient C3N-based whole-cell bioconversion system for preparing chiral amines. The wide distribution and abundance of chorismate in most kingdoms of life implies a general utility of the C3N pathway for modulating cellular levels of NAD(H) in versatile organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097395PMC
May 2021

Flow cytometric analysis of T lymphocytes and cytokines in aqueous humor of patients with varicella zoster virus-mediated acute retinal necrosis.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 May 1;21(1):193. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the aqueous humor (AH) T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) to elucidate the immunologic inflammatory features of this disorder.

Methods: Three patients with ARN infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) who underwent multiple intravitreal injections of ganciclovir were enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of four non-infectious patients with acute anterior uveitis (AAU). Flow cytometric analysis was performed on the lymphocyte subsets from the AH and peripheral blood (PB) samples during the active phase of intraocular inflammation. Five inflammatory cytokines were measured in each AH sample and various clinical characteristics were also assessed.

Results: VZV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in AH from all the ARN patients, who showed higher CD8+ T lymphocytes population in AH than the AAU patients (p = 0.006). CD4/CD8 ratios of T lymphocytes and the percentage of CD8 + CD25+ T lymphocytes in AH were significantly lower in ARN than in AAU (p = 0.006; p = 0.012). In the ARN patients, the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in AH were higher than those found in PB. The percentage of CD4 + CD25+ T lymphocytes in AH was significantly higher than the proportion in PB in the AAU patients (p = 0.001). Immunoregulatory cytokine Interleukin-10 in AH was significantly elevated in the ARN patients in comparison with the case of the AAU patients (p = 0.036). In ARN, the copy number of VZV DNA in AH positively correlated with the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes in AH and negatively correlated with the CD4/CD8 ratio in AH during the course of disease treatment (p = 0.009, r = 0.92; p = 0.039, r = - 0.834).

Conclusion: The ARN patients caused by VZV had different intraocular T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines profile than those of the non-infectious patients. High percentages of CD8+ T lymphocytes and low CD4/CD8 T cell ratios may be a potential biomarker for diagnosis of viral-infectious uveitis. T lymphocytes examination at the inflammatory sites has the potential to become a useful research tool for differentiating viral and non-viral uveitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-01951-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088617PMC
May 2021

Neural presbycusis at ultra-high frequency in aged common marmosets and rhesus monkeys.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 04 27;13(9):12587-12606. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, P.R. China.

The aging of the population and environmental noise have contributed to high rates of presbycusis, also known as age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Because mice have a relatively short life span, murine models have not been suitable for determining the mechanism of presbycusis development and methods of diagnosis. Although the common marmoset, a non-human primate (NHP), is an ideal animal model for studying age-related diseases, its auditory spectrum has not been systematically studied. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) from 38 marmosets of different ages demonstrated that auditory function correlated with age. Hearing loss in geriatric common marmosets started at ultra-high frequency (>16 kHz), then extended to lower frequencies. Despite age-related deterioration of ABR threshold and amplitude in marmosets, outer hair cell (OHC) function remained stable at all ages. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), which are the first auditory neurons in the auditory system, were found to degenerate distinctly in aged common marmosets, indicating that neural degeneration caused presbycusis in these animals. Similarly, age-associated ABR deterioration without loss of OHC function was observed in another NHP, rhesus monkeys. Audiometry results from these two species of NHP suggested that NHPs were ideal for studying ARHL and that neural presbycusis at high frequency may be prevalent in primates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148503PMC
April 2021

Highly Efficient Production of Menaquinone-7 from Glucose by Metabolically Engineered .

ACS Synth Biol 2021 04 23;10(4):756-765. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) possesses wide health and medical value, and the market demand for MK-7 has increased. Metabolic engineering for MK-7 production in still remains challenging due to the characteristics of the competing quinone synthesis, and cells mainly synthesized menaquinones under anaerobic conditions. To increase the production of MK-7 in engineered strains under aerobic conditions, we divided the whole MK-7 biosynthetic pathway into three modules (MVA pathway, DHNA pathway, and MK-7 pathway) and systematically optimized each of them. First, by screening and enhancing Idi expression, the amounts of MK-7/DMK-7 increased significantly. Then, in the MK-7 pathway, by combinatorial overexpression of endogenous MenA and exogenous UbiE, and fine-tuning the expression of HepPPS, MenA, and UbiE, 70 μM MK-7 was achieved. Third, the DHNA synthetic pathway was enhanced, and 157 μM MK-7 was achieved. By the combinational metabolic engineering strategies and membrane engineering, an efficient metabolic engineered strain for MK-7 synthesis was developed, and 200 μM (129 mg/L) MK-7 was obtained in shake flask experiment, representing a 306-fold increase compared to the starting strain. In the scale-up fermentation, 2074 μM (1350 mg/L) MK-7 was achieved after 52 h fermentation with a productivity of 26 mg/L/h. This is the highest titer of MK-7 ever reported. This study offers an alternative method for MK-7 production from biorenewable feedstock (glucose) by engineered . The high titer of our process should make it a promising cost-effective resource for MK-7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.0c00568DOI Listing
April 2021

Regional anesthetics versus analgesia for stopping the persistent postsurgical pain: A meta-analysis.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Aug 27;75(8):e14159. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Anesthesiology, Jiangjin Central Hospital, Chongqing, China.

Introduction: Regional anesthesia might moderate the risk of persistent postsurgical pain, but its effect compared to systemic analgesia is still conflicting. This meta-analysis study was performed to assess the relationship between the efficiency of regional anesthesia versus systemic analgesia in reducing pain persisting longer than 3 months after surgery.

Methods: Through a systematic literature search up to August 2020, 31 studies included 2975 subjects who underwent surgery at baseline and reported a total of 1471 subjects using regional anesthesia and 1319 subjects using conventional anesthesia were found recording relationships between efficiency of regional anesthesia versus systemic analgesia in reducing pain persisting longer than 3 months after surgery. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated between regional anesthesia versus systemic analgesia in reducing pain persisting longer than 3 months after surgery using the dichotomous methods with a random or fixed-effect model.

Results: Number of subjects reporting persistent pain 3 months postsurgery was significantly lower in regional anesthesia compared to systemic analgesia in thoracotomy (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.29-0.65, P < .001); breast surgery (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.72, P < .001); and cesarean section (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.27-0.72, P < .001).

Conclusions: Regional anesthesia might have an independent relationship with lower pain persisting longer than 3 months after thoracotomy, breast surgery, and cesarean section. Further studies are required to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14159DOI Listing
August 2021

Microbial Ecological Mechanism for Long-Term Production of High Concentrations of -Caproate via Lactate-Driven Chain Elongation.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 05 11;87(11). Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Lactate-driven chain elongation (LCE) has emerged as a new biotechnology to upgrade organic waste streams into a valuable biochemical and fuel precursor, mediumchain carboxylate, -caproate. Considering that a low cost of downstream extraction is critical for biorefinery technology, a high concentration of -caproate production is very important to improve the scale-up of the LCE process. We report here that in a nonsterile open environment, the -caproate concentration was increased from the previous record of 25.7 g·liter to a new high level of 33.7 g·liter (76.8 g chemical oxygen demand [COD]·liter ), with the highest production rate being 11.5 g·liter·day (26.2 g COD·liter ·day). In addition, the LCE process remained stable, with an average concentration of -caproate production of 20.2 ± 5.62 g·liter (46.1 ± 12.8 g COD·liter ) for 780 days. Dynamic changes in taxonomic composition integrated with metagenomic data reveal the microbial ecology for long-term production of high concentrations of -caproate: (i) the core microbiome is related to efficient functional groups, such as (with functional strain CPB6); (ii) the core bacteria can maintain stability for long-term operation; (iii) the microbial network has relatively low microbe-microbe interaction strength; and (iv) low relative abundance and variety of competitors. The network structure could be shaped by hydraulic retention time (HRT) over time, and long-term operation at an HRT of 8 days displayed higher efficacy. Our research revealed the microbial network of the LCE reactor microbiome for caproate production at high concentrations, which will provide a foundation for designing or engineering the LCE reactor microbiome to recover -caproate from organic waste streams in the future. In addition, the hypothetical model of the reactor microbiome that we proposed may offer guidance for researchers to find the underlying microbial mechanism when they encounter low-efficiency -caproate production from the LCE process. We anticipate that our research will rapidly advance LCE biotechnology with the goal of promoting the sustainable development of human society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03075-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208166PMC
May 2021

Efficient bioconversion of raspberry ketone in Escherichia coli using fatty acids feedstocks.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Mar 12;20(1):68. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NO. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, PR China.

Background: Phenylpropanoid including raspberry ketone, is a kind of important natural plant product and widely used in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, cosmetics, and healthcare products. Bioproduction of phenylpropanoid in Escherichia coli and other microbial cell factories is an attractive approach considering the low phenylpropanoid contents in plants. However, it is usually difficult to produce high titer phenylpropanoid production when fermentation using glucose as carbon source. Developing novel bioprocess using alternative sources might provide a solution to this problem. In this study, typical phenylpropanoid raspberry ketone was used as the target product to develop a biosynthesis pathway for phenylpropanoid production from fatty acids, a promising alternative low-cost feedstock.

Results: A raspberry ketone biosynthesis module was developed and optimized by introducing 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), benzalacetone synthase (BAS), and raspberry ketone reductase (RZS) in Escherichia coli strains CR1-CR4. Then strain CR5 was developed by introducing raspberry ketone biosynthesis module into a fatty acids-utilization chassis FA09 to achieve production of raspberry ketone from fatty acids feedstock. However, the production of raspberry ketone was still limited by the low biomass and unable to substantiate whole-cell bioconversion process. Thus, a process by coordinately using fatty-acids and glycerol was developed. In addition, we systematically screened and optimized fatty acids-response promoters. The optimized promoter Pfrd3 was then successfully used for the efficient expression of key enzymes of raspberry ketone biosynthesis module during bioconversion from fatty acids. The final engineered strain CR8 could efficiently produce raspberry ketone repeatedly using bioconversion from fatty acids feedstock strategy, and was able to produce raspberry ketone to a concentration of 180.94 mg/L from soybean oil in a 1-L fermentation process.

Conclusion: Metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains were successfully developed for raspberry ketone production from fatty acids using several strategies, including optimization of bioconversion process and fine-tuning key enzyme expression. This study provides an essential reference to establish the low-cost biological manufacture of phenylpropanoids compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01551-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953670PMC
March 2021

Whole-Cell Biosensors Aid Exploration of Vanillin Transmembrane Transport.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 5;69(10):3114-3123. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Transcriptional regulatory protein (TRP)-based whole-cell biosensors are widely used nowadays. Here, they were demonstrated to have great potential application in screening cell efflux and influx pumps for small molecules. First, a vanillin whole-cell biosensor was developed by altering the specificity of a TRP, VanR, and strains with improved vanillin productions that were selected from a random genome mutagenesis library by using this biosensor as a high-throughput screening tool. A high intracellular vanillin concentration was found to accumulate due to the inactivation of the AcrA protein, indicating the involvement of this protein in vanillin efflux. Then, the application of this biosensor was extended to explore efflux and influx pumps, combined with directed genome evolution. Elevated intracellular vanillin levels resulting from efflux pump inactivation or influx pump overexpression could be rapidly detected by the whole-cell biosensor, markedly facilitating the identification of genome targets related to small-molecule transmembrane transport, which is of great importance in metabolic engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07886DOI Listing
March 2021

Life as a self-referential deep learning system: A quantum-like Boltzmann machine model.

Authors:
Yong Tao

Biosystems 2021 Jun 25;204:104394. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

College of Economics and Management, Southwest University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

It has been empirically found that the income structure of market-economy societies obeys a Boltzmann-like income distribution. The empirical evidence has covered more than 66 countries. In this paper, we show that when a human society obeys a Boltzmann-like income distribution, it resembles a social organism in which the swarm intelligence in humans is reflected as technological progress. Also, we have verified that the technological progress stands for the information entropy of a human society. However, differing from the entropy in classical physics, we show that the entropy in a human society is self-referential. In particular, we find that the self-reference might change a classical physical system into a quantum-like system. Based on this finding, we employ the Boltzmann-like income distribution to construct a quantum-like Boltzmann machine. Here, we propose to use it to simulate the biological behaviors of a social organism in which each social member plays a role analogous to that of a neuron within a brain-like architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2021.104394DOI Listing
June 2021

Relationship between the higher inflammatory cytokines level in the aqueous humor of Fuchs uveitis syndrome and the presence of cataract.

Authors:
Hui Wang Yong Tao

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 27;21(1):108. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, the Third Clinical Medical College of Capital Medical University, No. 8, Worker's stadium south road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100020, PR China.

Background: This study aims to compare the levels of intraocular cytokines between Fuchs uveitis syndrome (FUS) eyes and the senile cataract eyes. The association between inflammatory cytokine levels and cataract severity in FUS is evaluated to find the possible mechanism of cataract in FUS eyes.

Methods: A retrospective study of 28 eyes with FUS was performed. Auxiliary examinations were performed, including ophthalmic examinations, laser flare-cell photometry, and levels of inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous humor were measured. The control group included 25 eyes with senile cataract. Data on the aqueous humor inflammatory cytokines were compared between the two groups. The association between the aqueous humor cytokine levels and severity of posterior subcapsular cataract was assessed.

Results: There were 28 eyes with FUS in 27 patients. Unilateral involvement was noted in 26 patients (96.30%). Stellate keratic precipitates (KPs) were noted in 16 eyes (57.14%). Heterochromia was observed in 21.43% of affected eyes. Posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) was observed in 16 of the 28 eyes. Eyes with FUS had significantly higher aqueous humor (AH) cytokine levels (VEGF, bFGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) compared with the control eyes (P < 0.05). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the severity of cataract and IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the AH (τ = 0.664 and 0.634, respectively; P = 0.001, P = 0.002, respectively).

Conclusions: Expression of VEGF, bFGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in the AH of FUS patients was significantly higher than in senile cataract eyes, and the aqueous humor levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly positively associated with the severity of posterior subcapsular cataract. Our results imply that an inflammation mechanism may be involved in the early development of cataract in FUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-01860-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912921PMC
February 2021

Biosynthesis of Chlorogenic Acid Using an Artificial Microbial Community.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 25;69(9):2816-2825. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Engineering an artificial microbial community for natural product production is a promising strategy. As mono- and dual-culture systems only gave non-detectable or minimal chlorogenic acid (CGA) biosynthesis, here, a polyculture of three recombinant strains, acting as biosynthetic modules of caffeic acid (CA), quinic acid (QA), and CGA, was designed and used for CGA biosynthesis. An influx transporter of 3-dehydroshikimic acid (DHS)/shikimic acid (SA), ShiA, was introduced into the QA module-a DHS auxotroph. The QA module proportion in the polyculture and CGA production were found to be dependent on ShiA expression, providing an alternative approach for controlling microbial community composition. The polyculture strategy avoids metabolic flux competition in the biosynthesis of two CGA precursors, CA and QA, and allows production improvement by balancing module proportions. The performance of this polyculture approach was superior to that of previously reported approaches of CGA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07588DOI Listing
March 2021

Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Activation in Keratinocytes Contributes to Elevated Peripheral β-Endorphin Levels in Patients With Obstructive Jaundice.

Anesth Analg 2021 07;133(1):251-262

Department of Anesthesiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cholestatic diseases are often accompanied by elevated plasma levels of endogenous opioid peptides, but it is still unclear whether central or peripheral mechanisms are involved in this process, and little is known about the change of pain threshold in these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the preoperative pain threshold, postoperative morphine consumption, and central and peripheral β-endorphin levels in patients with obstructive jaundice. This study also tests the hypothesis that activation of the cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2R) in skin keratinocytes by endocannabinoids is the mechanism underlying circulating β-endorphin elevation in patients with obstructive jaundice.

Methods: The electrical pain thresholds, 48-hour postoperative morphine consumption, concentrations of β-endorphin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, skin and liver β-endorphin expression, and plasma levels of endocannabinoids were measured in jaundiced (n = 32) and control (n = 32) patients. Male Sprague-Dawley rats and human keratinocytes (human immortalized keratinocyte cell line [HaCaT]) were used for the in vivo and in vitro experiments, respectively. Mechanical and thermal withdrawal latency, plasma level, and skin expression of β-endorphin were measured in CB2R-antagonist-treated and control bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. In cultured keratinocytes, the effect of CB2R agonist AM1241-induced β-endorphin expression was observed and the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2, p38, and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways were investigated.

Results: This study found (1) the plasma level of β-endorphin (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) was 193.9 ± 9.6 pg/mL in control patients, while it was significantly increased in jaundiced patients (286.6 ± 14.5 pg/mL); (2) the electrical pain perception threshold and the electrical pain tolerance threshold were higher in patients with obstructive jaundice compared with controls, while the 48-hour postoperative morphine consumption was lower in the jaundiced patients; (3) there was no correlation between plasma β-endorphin levels, electrical pain thresholds, and 48-hour postoperative morphine consumption in patients with obstructive jaundice; (4) the plasma level of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide was increased in the jaundiced patients; (5) CB2R antagonist treatment of the BDL rats reduced β-endorphin levels in plasma and skin keratinocytes, while it did not alter the nociceptive thresholds in BDL and control rats; (6) the endocannabinoid anandamide-induced β-endorphin synthesis and release via CB2R in cultured keratinocytes; and (7) phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2 is involved in the CB2R-agonist-induced β-endorphin expression in keratinocytes.

Conclusions: CB2R activation in keratinocytes by the endocannabinoid anandamide may play an important role in the peripheral elevation of β-endorphin during obstructive jaundice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005405DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals female-biased olfactory genes potentially involved in plant volatile-mediated oviposition behavior of Bactrocera dorsalis.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jan 6;22(1):25. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Background: Olfactory systems take on important tasks to distinguish salient information from a complex olfactory environment, such as locating hosts, mating, aggression, selecting oviposition sites, and avoiding predators. The olfactory system of an adult insect consists of two pairs of main olfactory appendages on the head, the antennae, and the palps, which are covered with sensilla. Benzothiazole and 1-octen-3-ol could elicit oviposition behavior in gravid B. dorsalis are regarded as oviposition stimulants. However, the mechanism for how B. dorsalis percepts benzothiazole and 1-octen-3-ol still remains unknown.

Results: We conducted a comparative analysis of the antennal transcriptomes in different genders of B. dorsalis using Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). We identified a total of 1571 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the two sexes, including 450 female-biased genes and 1121 male-biased genes. Among these DEGs, we screened out 24 olfaction-related genes and validated them by qRT-PCR. The expression patterns of these genes in different body parts were further determined. In addition, we detected the expression profiles of the screened female-biased chemosensory genes in virgin and mated female flies. Furthermore, the oviposition stimulants-induced expression profilings were used to identify chemosensory genes potentially responsible for benzothiazole and 1-octen-3-ol perception in this fly.

Conclusions: The results from this study provided fundamental data of chemosensory DEGs in the B. dorsalis antenna. The odorant exposure assays we employed lay a solid foundation for the further research regarding the molecular mechanism of benzothiazole and 1-octen-3-ol mediated oviposition behavior in B. dorsalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07325-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789660PMC
January 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Aqueous Humor Laboratory Analysis of Chinese Patients With Rubella Virus-Associated and Cytomegalovirus-Associated Fuchs Uveitis Syndrome.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 18;7:610341. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

To describe and compare the clinical characteristics and laboratory analysis results of aqueous humor (AH) in fuchs uveitis syndrome (FUS) patients caused by rubella virus (RV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). A retrospective and observation-based study was performed on 32 patients with FUS. Etiologies, clinical characteristics, ocular complications, visual prognoses, inflammatory cytokines, and virus-specific antibodies in AH were compared. Among all the cases involved, 24 had RV FUS and 8 had CMV FUS. The mean age at diagnosis of FUS in the CMV group was older than that of the RV group ( = 0.031). The mean LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at initial presentation and at the final visit were both significantly higher in the CMV FUS group than those in the RV FUS group ( = 0.004, 0.047). The highest intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly higher in the CMV group ( = 0.040). Consistent with elevated IOP, the CMV FUS patients were significantly more prone to developing glaucoma eventually than the RV FUS patients ( = 0.039). Vitreous opacity was found in 66.7% of the RV patients and 25.0% of the CMV patients ( = 0.038). The gender ratio, initial symptoms, presence and types of keratic precipitates, severity of anterior segment inflammation, iris lesions, and incidence of complicated cataract were similar between the two groups. There was no detectable difference of inflammatory cytokines in AH between RV FUS and CMV FUS. The clinical manifestations and disease prognosis vary between CMV FUS and RV FUS. However, clinical differences are always not obvious enough for differential diagnosis. The laboratory AH analysis is necessary to identify the etiology, determine the therapeutic strategies, and assess the disease prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.610341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775528PMC
December 2020

The predictive value of interleukin-8 in the development of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-negative patients.

Ophthalmic Res 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Introduction: To evaluate the value of interleukin (IL)-8 in the development and management of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) in HIV-negative patients.

Introduction: To evaluate the value of interleukin (IL)-8 in the development and management of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) in HIV-negative patients.

Methods: A retrospective case series from January 2014 to May 2018 was conducted. Forty patients (40 eyes) received intravitreal injection of ganciclovir (IVG). The aqueous levels of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA and IL-8 in each follow-up visit were tested. The initial and final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the course of treatment, the recurrence rate, and the occurrence of complications were recorded and analyzed.

Results: The aqueous value of IL-8 was significantly correlated with the aqueous level of the CMV DNA during treatment but was not associated with the BCVA or the number of IVG. No recurrence occurred in the condition in which a low aqueous IL-8 level was set as the endpoint of the treatment.

Conclusion: In HIV-negative patients with CMVR, IL-8 was closely associated with CMV DNA concentration in the aqueous humor. The real-time aqueous level of IL-8 could be used as one of the evidences of disease recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513791DOI Listing
December 2020

Markedly Elevated Serum Level of T-Helper Cell 17-Related Cytokines/Chemokines in Acute Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Optic Neuritis.

Front Neurol 2020 13;11:589288. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in immunopathogenesis based on the cytokine/chemokine profiles in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-IgG)-positive and -negative groups. We measured the levels of T-helper cell 17 (Th17) cell-related cytokines/chemokines in 74 serum samples, which were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC) group ( = 15), idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis (IDON) group ( = 20), aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-IgG-positive optic neuritis (ON) group ( = 18), and MOG-IgG positive-ON group ( = 21). Serum IL17, IL21, IL28, IL31, CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL2, CCL11, CCL20, and LT-α were detected. The serum of the MOG-IgG-positive ON patients showed an obvious elevation of Th17 cell-related cytokines/chemokines compared with that of all the MOG-IgG-negative ON patients. Serum IL17 and IL21 were significantly higher in the ON patients with MOG-IgG positive than in all the other three groups. The serum levels of IL28, IL31, CXCL1, and CCL11 were higher in the ON patients with MOG-IgG positive than in the HC group and the IDON group. The serum concentration of CCL2, CXCL2, and CCL20 in the MOG-IgG-positive and AQP4-IgG-positive group is higher than that of the HC group. No difference in serum LT-α level was found among the four groups. Adjusted multiple regression analyses showed a positive association of IL17 and IL21 levels with the serum concentration of MOG-IgG in the ON patients. The elevated serum level of Th17 cell-related cytokine/chemokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MOG-IgG-positive demyelinating ON.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.589288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691291PMC
November 2020

Boiled or Bottled: Regional and Seasonal Exposures to Drinking Water Contamination and Household Air Pollution in Rural China.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 12 4;128(12):127002. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Beijing, China.

Background: Inadequate access to safe drinking water remains a global health problem, particularly in rural areas. Boiling is the most commonly used form of point-of-use household water treatment (HWT) globally, although the use of bottled water in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing rapidly.

Objectives: We assessed the regional and seasonal prevalence of HWT practices (including bottled water use) in low-income rural areas in two Chinese provinces, evaluated the microbiological safety of drinking water and associated health outcomes, and estimated the air pollution burden associated with the use of solid fuels for boiling.

Methods: We conducted cross-sectional surveys and collected drinking water samples from 1,033 rural households in Guangxi and Henan provinces. Temperature sensors affixed to pots and electric kettles were used to corroborate self-reported boiling frequencies and durations, which were used to model household air pollution (HAP) in terms of estimated particulate matter in aerodynamic diameter () concentrations.

Results: Based on summer data collection in both provinces, after controlling for covariates, boiling with electric kettles was associated with the largest log reduction in thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) ( TTC most probable number), followed by boiling with pots (), and bottled water use (); all were statistically significant (). Boiling with electric kettles was associated with a reduced risk of TTC contamination [risk ratio , ] and reported diarrhea (, ). TTCs were detected in 51% () of bottled water samples. For households boiling with biomass, modeled concentrations averaged ().

Discussion: Our findings suggest that where boiling is already common and electricity access is widespread, the promotion of electricity-based boiling may represent a pragmatic stop-gap means of expanding safe water access until centralized, or decentralized, treated drinking water is available; displacing biomass use for water boiling could also reduce HAP concentrations and exposures. Our results also highlight the risks of increasing bottled water use in rural areas, and its potential to displace other sources of safe drinking water, which could in turn hamper efforts in China and other LMICs toward universal and affordable safe water access. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7124.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP7124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717838PMC
December 2020

Clinical Features and Prognostic Factors in Northern Chinese Patients with Peripheral Granuloma Type of Ocular Toxocariasis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Authors:
Hui Wang Yong Tao

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 Nov 13:1-6. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China.

Purpose: To summarize the clinical features and probable factors associated with recurrence within 6 months in northern Chinese ocular toxocariasis (OT) patients.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study (38 OT eyes) was conducted. Clinical features, aqueous inflammatory cytokines, complications, and parameters associated with recurrence after treatment were analyzed.

Results: The initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was related to the anterior inflammation grade at the onset ( = .028). The mean BCVA and anterior inflammation improved significantly ( < .05) after treatment. The OT eyes had higher aqueous humor cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) compared with the normal eyes ( < .001). More severe anterior inflammation grade or longer duration of uveitis were more likely to increase the probability of recurrence ( = .008 and = .025), TA injection during/after vitreous surgery can reduce the probability of recurrence ( = .031).

Conclusions: The combination therapy of vitreoretinal surgery, steroids, and albendazole therapy may reduce inflammation and recurrence of OT effectively. BCVA: best-corrected visual acuity; BFGF: basic fibroblast growth factor; CFT: central foveal thickness; CI: confidence interval; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ERM: epiretinal membrane; IOP: intraocular pressure; IQR: interquartile range; IL: interleukin; LFM: laser flare meter; MH: macular hole; OCT: optical coherence tomography; OR: odds ratio; OT: ocular toxocariasis; RD: retinal detachment; TA: triamcinolone acetonide; TCLA: Toxocara canis larva crude antigen; TGF: transforming growth factor; VCAM: vascular cell adhesion molecule; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2020.1804592DOI Listing
November 2020

Cloning and characterization of a L-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Ruminococcaceae bacterium CPB6.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Nov 10;36(12):182. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Chengdu Institute of Biology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Lactate are proved to be attractive electron donor for the production of n-caproic acid (CA) that is a high value-added fuel precursor and chemical feedstock, but little is known about molecular mechanism of lactate transformation. In the present study, the gene for L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC.1.1.1.27) from a Ruminococcaceae strain CPB6 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with plasmid pET28a. The recombinant LDH exhibited molecular weight of 36-38 kDa in SDS-PAGE. The purified LDH was found to have the maximal oxidation activity of 29.6 U/mg from lactate to pyruvate at pH 6.5, and the maximal reduction activity of 10.4 U/mg from pyruvate to lactate at pH 8.5, respectively. Strikingly, its oxidative activity predominates over reductive activity, leading to a 17-fold increase for the utilization of lactate in E. coli/pET28a-LDH than E. coli/pET28a. The CPB6 LDH gene encodes a 315 amino acid protein sharing 42.19% similarity with Clostridium beijerinckii LDH, and lower similarity with LDHs of other organisms. Significant difference were observed between the CPB6 LDH and C. beijerinckii and C. acetobutylicum LDH in the predicted tertiary structure and active center. Further, X-ray crystal structure analysis need to be performed to verify the specific active center of the CPB6 LDH and its role in the conversion of lactate into CA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-020-02958-4DOI Listing
November 2020

White matter hyperintensities and the progression from mild parkinsonian signs to parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 12 12;96:267-276. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the impact of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on the progression from mild parkinsonian signs (MPS) to parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease (PD). Participants with MPS completed 5 years of follow-up. WMHs were divided into periventricular WMHs and deep WMHs according to magnetic resonance imaging scans. The diagnosis of MPS, parkinsonism, and PD was based on the motor portion of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the association between WMHs and MPS progression. Of the 636 participants, 166 (26.1%) with MPS developed parkinsonism and PD after follow-up. After adjusting for potential factors, severe WMHs were associated with an increased risk of MPS progression, moderate and severe periventricular WMHs and severe deep WMHs were associated with the risk of MPS progression, and severe WMHs were associated with the progression of gait/balance impairment, bradykinesia, and rigidity. Additionally, participants treated for vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia had a lower risk of MPS progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.08.005DOI Listing
December 2020
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