Publications by authors named "Yong Tan"

269 Publications

Inventory pooling decisions under demand scenarios in times of COVID-19.

Comput Ind Eng 2021 Nov 9;161:107591. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Accounting, Finance, and Economics, Huddersfield Business School, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH, UK.

Governments have been challenged to provide timely medical care to face the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this research is to propose a novel inventory pooling model to help determine order sizes and safety inventories in local hospital warehouses. The current study attempts to portray the availability of pharmaceutical items in public hospitals facing COVID-19 challenges. Different from previous studies, this research builds upon the consecrated theory of inventory pooling, extending it to pandemic circumstances where the intractability of kurtosis and skewness in inventory models are critical issues for making sure that medicines have high availability at a low cost. These effects on the total cost of inventory are explored and compared to a supply system with no consolidation. A continuous-review model is assumed with allocation rules for centralization and regular transshipment given different skewness and kurtosis structures for the demand, describing them by the copula method. This method models a multivariate demand considering that the marginal distributions of the demand can be specified by the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape, which offers advantages to model demands considering virtually any marginal statistical distribution. Numerical simulations and an illustrative example show that distributions of demands with more negative skewness and high kurtosis favor to a greater extent obtaining lower total costs with regular supply transshipment systems. Our study points out important considerations for supply chain decision makers when having demands with skewness and kurtosis patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2021.107591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423939PMC
November 2021

Tunable Optical Diffusers Based on the UV/Ozone-Assisted Self-Wrinkling of Thermal-Cured Polymer Films.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 30;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Ferro & Piezoelectric Materials and Devices, Faculty of Physics & Electronic Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China.

Tunable optical diffusers have attracted attention because of the rapid development of next generation stretchable optoelectronics and optomechanics applications. Flexible wrinkle structures have the potential to change the light path and tune the diffusion capability, which is beneficial to fabricate optical diffusers. The generation of wrinkles usually depends on an external stimulus, thus resulting in complicated fabricating equipment and processes. In this study, a facile and low-cost method is proposed to fabricate wrinkle structures by the self-wrinkling of thermal-cured polymer for tunable optical diffusers. The uncured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) precursors were exposed to UV/ozone to obtain hard silica layers and then crosslinked via heating to induce the wrinkle patterns. The wrinkle structures were demonstrated as strain-dependent tunable optical diffusers and the optical diffusion of transmitted light via the deformable wrinkle structures was studied and adjusted. The incident light isotropically diffused through the sample at the initial state. When the wrinkle structures deformed, it showed a more pronounced isotropic optical diffusion with uniaxial tensile strain. The optical diffusion is anisotropical with a further increase in uniaxial tensile strain. The proposed method of fabricating wrinkles by UV/ozone-assisted self-wrinkling of thermal-cured polymer films is simple and cost-effective, and the obtained structures have potential applications in tunable optical diffusers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21175820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434521PMC
August 2021

Heterologous expression of cyanobacterial gas vesicle proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Biotechnol J 2021 Sep 9:e2100059. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

NUS Synthetic Biology for Clinical and Technological Innovation (SynCTI), National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Given the potential applications of gas vesicles (GVs) in multiple fields including antigen-displaying and imaging, heterologous reconstitution of synthetic GVs is an attractive and interesting study that has translational potential. Here, we attempted to express and assemble GV proteins (GVPs) into GVs using the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We first selected and expressed two core structural proteins, GvpA and GvpC from cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae and Planktothrix rubescens, respectively. We then optimized the protein production conditions and validated GV assembly in the context of GV shapes. We found that when two copies of anaA were integrated into the genome, the chromosomal expression of AnaA resulted in GV production regardless of GvpC expression. Next, we co-expressed chaperone-RFP with the GFP-AnaA to aid the AnaA aggregation. The co-expression of individual chaperones (Hsp42, Sis1, Hsp104, and GvpN) with AnaA led to the formation of larger inclusions and enhanced the sequestration of AnaA into the perivacuolar site. To our knowledge, this represents the first study on reconstitution of GVs in S. cerevisiae. Our results could provide insights into optimizing conditions for heterologous protein production as well as the reconstitution of other synthetic microcompartments in yeast. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT AND LAY SUMMARY: Expression of cyanobacterial genes gvpA and gvpC encoding for gas vesicle proteins enables gas vesicle production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The co-expressed chaperones such as Hsp42, Sis1, Hsp104, and GvpN aid in gas vesicle proteins' aggregation that can facilitate the gas vesicle assembly. This work provides valuable insights into optimizing heterologous protein production and the reconstitution of synthetic microcompartments in yeast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.202100059DOI Listing
September 2021

Chromosome-level genome assembly of Gynostemma pentaphyllum provides insights into gypenoside biosynthesis.

DNA Res 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

College of Pharmacy, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530200, China.

Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is an economically valuable medicinal plant belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family that produces the bioactive compound gypenoside. Despite several transcriptomes having been generated for G. pentaphyllum, a reference genome is still unavailable, which has limited the understanding of the gypenoside biosynthesis and regulatory mechanism. Here, we report a high-quality G. pentaphyllum genome with a total length of 582 Mb comprising 1,232 contigs and a scaffold N50 of 50.78 Mb. The G. pentaphyllum genome comprised 59.14% repetitive sequences and 25,285 protein-coding genes. Comparative genome analysis revealed that G. pentaphyllum was related to Siraitia grosvenorii, with an estimated divergence time dating to the Paleogene (∼48 million years ago). By combining transcriptome data from seven tissues, we reconstructed the gypenoside biosynthetic pathway and potential regulatory network using tissue-specific gene co-expression network analysis. Four UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), belonging to the UGT85 subfamily and forming a gene cluster, were involved in catalyzing glycosylation in leaf-specific gypenoside biosynthesis. Furthermore, candidate biosynthetic genes and transcription factors involved in the gypenoside regulatory network were identified. The genetic information obtained in this study provides insights into gypenoside biosynthesis and lays the foundation for further exploration of the gypenoside regulatory mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dnares/dsab018DOI Listing
September 2021

Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Report of Five Cases and a Review of the Literature.

Int J Gen Med 2021 13;14:4479-4483. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Haematology, The Taicang Hospital Affiliated of Soochow University, Taicang, 215400, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) complicated with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) by analyzing the clinical characteristics of five such patients.

Methods: This paper summarizes the clinical manifestations and hematological indexes of five patients with ITP complicated with pulmonary embolism.

Results: In this study, the incidence of ITP complicated with PTE was 2.75%. All five cases were elderly patients with nonspecific clinical manifestations. Platelet counts were different when PTE occurred. The time from the diagnosis of ITP to the occurrence of PTE was from 5 to 24 months, with an average of 12.8 months. There was no significant change in hemoglobin, white blood cell levels, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen levels, or the international normalized ratio. Four patients had significantly increased D-dimer levels, while D-dimer was only slightly increased in one patient. Antithrombin (AT) was significantly decreased in four cases (less than 70%), and C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased in all five cases.

Conclusion: PTE may be related to AT and CRP in patients with ITP, which is of great clinical significance to the diagnosis and treatment of ITP complicated with PTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S323146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370587PMC
August 2021

Micro RNAs and the biological clock: a target for diseases associated with a loss of circadian regulation.

Afr Health Sci 2020 Dec;20(4):1887-1894

Reproductive medicine department, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Background: Circadian clocks are self-sustaining oscillators that coordinate behavior and physiology over a 24 hour period, achieving time-dependent homeostasis with the external environment. The molecular clocks driving circadian rhythmic changes are based on intertwined transcriptional/translational feedback loops that combine with a range of environmental and metabolic stimuli to generate daily internal programing. Understanding how biological rhythms are generated throughout the body and the reasons for their dysregulation can provide avenues for temporally directed therapeutics.

Summary: In recent years, microRNAs have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of the circadian clock, particularly in Drosophila, but also in some small animal and human studies. This review will summarize our current understanding of the role of miRNAs during clock regulation, with a particular focus on the control of clock regulated gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v20i4.46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351835PMC
December 2020

Structure of a Minimal α-Carboxysome-Derived Shell and Its Utility in Enzyme Stabilization.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (NUS), 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597.

Bacterial microcompartments are proteinaceous shells that encase specialized metabolic processes in bacteria. Recent advances in simplification of these intricate shells have encouraged bioengineering efforts. Here, we construct minimal shells derived from the α-carboxysome, which we term Cso-shell. Using cryogenic electron microscopy, the atomic-level structures of two shell forms were obtained, reinforcing notions of evolutionarily conserved features in bacterial microcompartment shell architecture. Encapsulation peptide sequences that facilitate loading of heterologous protein cargo within the shells were identified. We further provide a first demonstration in utilizing minimal bacterial microcompartment-derived shells for hosting heterologous enzymes. Cso-shells were found to stabilize enzymatic activities against heat shock, presence of methanol co-solvent, consecutive freeze-thawing, and alkaline environments. This study yields insights into α-carboxysome assembly and advances the utility of synthetic bacterial microcompartments as nanoreactors capable of stabilizing enzymes with varied properties and reaction chemistries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c00533DOI Listing
August 2021

Research progress in lncRNA and its action as ceRNA in ovarian function as well as the relevant diseases.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Jul;46(7):745-752

Department of Gynecology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023.

Long chain non-encoding RNA (lncRNA) can affect gene expression through transcription, post transcriptional regulation and epigenetic modification, and it is involved in regulating ovarian physiological function. LncRNA, as a competitive endogenous RNA, can affect the expression of target gene mRNA by competitively binding microRNA (miRNA), which are called lncRNA/miRNA/mRNA regulatory network. It plays an important role in the regulation of ovarian physiological function and the occurrence and development of ovarian reproductive disorders, expecting to become a new target and diagnostic index for the treatment of reproductive disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2021.200622DOI Listing
July 2021

Neuritin Protein Expression Is Positively Correlated with Neurite Outgrowth Induced by the Tiger Milk Mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Agaricomycetes), in PC12 Cells.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2021 ;23(6):1-11

Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Mushroom Research Centre, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Neuritin is important in neuritogenesis, neurite arborization, and neurite extension. Lignosus rhinocerotis sclerotia extracts and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been well documented to possess positive neurite stimulatory effects. However, the correlation of neuritin expression with neurite outgrowth of L. rhinocerotis and NGF cotreatment of PC12 cells remains unknown. Thus, the present study investigated neuritin expression in PC12 cells treated with 5 ng/mL of NGF and L. rhinocerotis extracts (20-1280 μg/mL) concurrently for 48 h. The neurite outgrowth score was quantitated, and total protein was harvested for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was a significant difference (P = 0.051) in neuritin protein abundance in 640 μg/mL of L. rhinocerotis aqueous cotreatment with 5 ng/mL of NGF-treated cells (5 ± 0.39 ng/mL) and 50 ng/mL of NGF-treated PC12 cells (5 ± 0.48 ng/mL) compared to untreated cells (1.9 ± 0.65 ng/ mL), with an average neurite length of 98 ± 3.66, 106 ± 3.00, and 73 ± 4.79 μm, respectively. Expression of microtubule element β3 tubulin was increased in PC12 cells treated with 50 ng/mL of NGF (3.5 ± 0.21-fold) and also cells cotreated with 640 μg/mL of extract and 5 ng/mL of NGF (4.9 ± 0.29-fold) compared to untreated cells. Upregulation of β3 tubulin expression in this study confirmed the elongation of PC12 cell processes. Correlation analysis showed that neuritin protein abundance is positively proportional to the average neurite length in PC12 cells cotreated with L. rhinocerotis extract and 5 ng/mL of NGF. This study highlights that neuritin modulation is involved in neurite outgrowth induced by L. rhinocerotis treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that tiger milk mushroom extracts induce neuritin expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038578DOI Listing
January 2021

Ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics of liquid water revealed by terahertz-induced transient birefringence.

Light Sci Appl 2020 Aug 4;9(1):136. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 14627, USA.

The fundamental properties of water molecules, such as their molecular polarizability, have not yet been clarified. The hydrogen bond network is generally considered to play an important role in the thermodynamic properties of water. The terahertz (THz) Kerr effect technique, as a novel tool, is expected to be useful in exploring the low-frequency molecular dynamics of liquid water. Here, we use an intense and ultrabroadband THz pulse (peak electric field strength of 14.9 MV/cm, centre frequency of 3.9 THz, and bandwidth of 1-10 THz) to resonantly excite intermolecular modes of liquid water. Bipolar THz field-induced transient birefringence signals are observed in a free-flowing water film. We propose a hydrogen bond harmonic oscillator model associated with the dielectric susceptibility and combine it with the Lorentz dynamic equation to investigate the intermolecular structure and dynamics of liquid water. We mainly decompose the bipolar signals into a positive signal caused by hydrogen bond stretching vibration and a negative signal caused by hydrogen bond bending vibration, indicating that the polarizability perturbation of water presents competing contributions under bending and stretching conditions. A Kerr coefficient equation related to the intermolecular modes of water is established. The ultrafast intermolecular hydrogen bond dynamics of water revealed by an ultrabroadband THz pump pulse can provide further insights into the transient structure of liquid water corresponding to the pertinent modes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00370-zDOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 21:1-17. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Masaryk University, Brno, The Czech Republic.

This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on insulin resistance (IR), lipid profiles, anthropometric indices, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We searched 8 databases from their inception until 1st October, 2020. The effect sizes were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Subgroup analyses were undertaken for further identification of effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, based on the following aspects: (1) type of intervention (probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics); (2) study duration (≥ 12 weeks or < 12 weeks); (3) number of probiotic strains (multi strains or single strain); (4) probiotic dose (≥ 2 × 10 colony-forming units [CFU] or < 2 × 10 CFU). A total of 17 eligible RCTs with 1049 participants were included. Results showed that probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic intake decreased fasting plasma glucose (SMD, -1.35; 95% CI, -2.22 to -0.49;  = 0.002), fasting insulin (SMD, -0.68; 95% CI, -1.08 to -0.27;  = 0.001), homeostatic model of assessment for IR (SMD, -0.73; 95% CI, -1.15 to -0.31;  = 0.001), triglycerides (SMD, -0.85; 95% CI, -1.59 to -0.11;  = 0.024), total cholesterol (SMD, -1.09; 95% CI, -1.98 to -0.21;  = 0.015), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (SMD, -0.84; 95% CI, -1.64 to -0.03;  = 0.041), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (SMD, -0.44; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.18;  = 0.001), and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (SMD, 2.00; 95% CI, - 0.79 to 3.22;  = 0.001). However, probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplements did not affect anthropometric indices, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CRP levels. Subgroup analysis showed that probiotic or prebiotic might be the optimal choice for ameliorating IR or lipid profiles, respectively. Additionally, the effect was positively related to courses and therapeutical dose. Overall, the meta-analysis demonstrates that probiotic, prebiotic, or synbiotic administration is an effective and safe intervention for modifying IR and lipid profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1951155DOI Listing
July 2021

Weight changes in hypertensive patients with phlegm-dampness syndrome: an integrated proteomics and metabolomics approach.

Chin Med 2021 Jul 7;16(1):54. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute of Integrated Bioinformedicine & Translational Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China.

Background: Hypertension (HTN) patients who have phlegm-dampness syndrome (PDS) tend to be obese and have worse outcomes. However, the association of body weight (BW) changes and mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of HTN-PDS are not well elucidated. This study aims to identify the longitudinal observations associated with the circulating markers discriminating BW changes of individuals with HTN-PDS.

Methods: An integrative approach relying on metabolomics and proteomics was applied to serum samples from HTN-PDS patients in a prospective cohort to identify the plausible mechanistic pathways underpinning HTN-PDS pathophysiology. Study participants were determined to have experienced a weight change if they showed a 5%-15% increase/reduction in BW at the end of the follow-up period. The joint pathway analysis and network analysis were performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA®) on the serum samples obtained from the participants over the period.

Results: The study involved 22 HTN-PDS patients who were overweight initially and were able to lose enough weight and 24 HTN-PDS individuals who developed overweight from normal BMI during a one-year follow-up. Our analysis suggested three types of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were altered. PC (22:2(13Z,16Z)/24:1(15Z)) and LysoPC (16:1(9Z)) were decreased in Queryweight gain samples, whereas the levels of PC (14:0/16:0) were increased in weight loss samples. The metabolomic analysis suggested 24 metabolites associated with HTN-PDS. Of them, 13 were up-regulated and 11 were down-regulated. The two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) identified 45 phosphorylated proteins got altered in the HTN-PDS patients, wherein 23 were up-regulated and 22 were down-regulated. Integrated proteomic and metabolomics analyse acknowledged biomarkers PC, Complement C3, C4a/C4b, A2M and SERPINF1 as strong predictors for BW changes in HTN-PDS patients.

Conclusion: The combined serum proteomic and metabolomic profiling reveals a link between BW change and the complement system activity, altered phosphatidylcholine metabolism in HTN-PDS patients. Future studies with larger cohorts are required to strengthen and validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00462-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265088PMC
July 2021

A scaffolded approach to unearth potential antibacterial components from epicarp of Malaysian Nephelium lappaceum L.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 5;11(1):13859. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Sunway University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance have been of serious concern to human health and the management of bacterial infectious diseases. Effective treatment of these diseases requires the development of novel therapeutics, preferably free of side effects. In this regard, natural products are frequently conceived to be potential alternative sources for novel antibacterial compounds. Herein, we have evaluated the antibacterial activity of the epicarp extracts of the Malaysian cultivar of yellow rambutan fruit (Nephelium lappaceum L.) against six pathogens namely, Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. Among a series of solvent extracts, fractions of ethyl acetate and acetone have revealed significant activity towards all tested strains. Chemical profiling of these fractions, via HPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS, has generated a library of potentially bioactive compounds. Downstream virtual screening, pharmacological prediction, and receptor-ligand molecular dynamics simulation have eventually unveiled novel potential antibacterial compounds, which can be extracted for medicinal use. We report compounds like catechin, eplerenone and oritin-4-beta-ol to be computationally inhibiting the ATP-binding domain of the chaperone, DnaK of P. aeruginosa and MRSA. Thus, our work follows the objective to propose new antimicrobials capable of perforating the barrier of resistance posed by both the gram positives and the negatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92622-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257635PMC
July 2021

Bioinformatics Analysis of ceRNA Network Related to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

Authors:
Yuanqi Li Yong Tan

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 9;2021:9988347. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China.

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is caused by the hormonal environment in utero, abnormal metabolism, and genetics, and it is common in women of childbearing age. A large number of studies have reported that lncRNA is important to the biological process of cancer and can be used as a potential prognostic biomarker. Thus, we studied lncRNAs' roles in PCOS in this article.

Methods: We obtained mRNAs', miRNAs', and lncRNAs' expression profiles in PCOS specimens and normal specimens from the National Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Comprehensive Center database. The EdgeR software package is used to distinguish the differentially expressed lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs. Functional enrichment analysis was carried out by the clusterProfiler R Package, and the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction ceRNA network was built in Cytoscape plug-in BiNGO and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integration Discovery (DAVID), respectively.

Results: We distinguished differentially expressed RNAs, including 1087 lncRNAs, 14 miRNAs, and 566 mRNAs in PCOS. Among them, 410 lncRNAs, 11 miRNAs, and 185 mRNAs were contained in the ceRNA regulatory network. The outcomes from Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the differentially expressed mRNAs (DEMs) were mainly enriched in response to the maternal process involved in female pregnancy, morphogenesis of embryonic epithelium, and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis data showed that DEMs were primarily enriched in pathways related to the TGF- signaling pathway, Type I diabetes mellitus, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. In addition, we chose NONHSAT123397, ENST00000564619, and NONHSAT077997 as key lncRNAs due to their high bearing on PCOS.

Conclusion: ceRNA networks play an important role in PCOS. The research indicated that specific lncRNAs were related to PCOS development. NONHSAT123397, ENST00000564619, and NONHSAT077997 could be regarded as potential diagnostic mechanisms and biomarkers for PCOS. This discovery might provide more effective and more novel insights into the mechanisms of PCOS worthy of further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9988347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208863PMC
June 2021

Identification of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis-Related R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors in (Champ. ex Benth.) Schot Using Transcriptome-Based Gene Coexpression Analysis.

Int J Genomics 2021 25;2021:9939403. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Pharmacy, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

The R2R3-MYB family is one of the largest plant transcription factor (TF) families playing vital roles in defense, plant growth, and secondary metabolism biosynthesis. Although this gene family has been studied in many species, isoflavonoid biosynthesis-related R2R3-MYB TFs in (Champ. ex Benth.) Schot, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, are poorly understood. Here, a total of 101 R2R3-MYB TFs were identified from transcriptome dataset. 25 clades divided into five functional groups were clustered based on the sequence similarity and phylogenetic tree. Conserved motifs and domain distribution, expression patterns, and coexpression networks were also employed to identify the potential R2R3-MYB TFs in the regulation of isoflavonoid biosynthesis. evaluation showed that the deduced R2R3-CsMYB proteins contain highly conserved R2R3 repeat domain at the N-terminal region, that is the signature motif of R2R3-type MYB TFs. Eight potential TFs (, , , , , , , and ) had high degrees of coexpression with four key isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes (, , , and ), in which as a potential regulator possessed the highest degree. HPLC analysis showed that formononetin and maackiain contents were significantly increased during the development of tuberous roots, which might be controlled by both related R2R3-CsMYBs and structural genes involved in the isoflavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transcriptome data were further validated by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis, and similar expression profiles between TFs and key structural genes were identified. This study was the first step toward the understanding of the R2R3-MYB TFs regulating isoflavonoid biosynthesis in . The results will provide information for further functional analysis and quality improvement through genetic manipulation of these potential R2R3-CsMYB genes in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9939403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174187PMC
May 2021

Multivalency transforms SARS-CoV-2 antibodies into ultrapotent neutralizers.

Nat Commun 2021 06 16;12(1):3661. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Program in Molecular Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, has caused a global pandemic. Antibodies can be powerful biotherapeutics to fight viral infections. Here, we use the human apoferritin protomer as a modular subunit to drive oligomerization of antibody fragments and transform antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 into exceptionally potent neutralizers. Using this platform, half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) values as low as 9 × 10 M are achieved as a result of up to 10,000-fold potency enhancements compared to corresponding IgGs. Combination of three different antibody specificities and the fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain on a single multivalent molecule conferred the ability to overcome viral sequence variability together with outstanding potency and IgG-like bioavailability. The MULTi-specific, multi-Affinity antiBODY (Multabody or MB) platform thus uniquely leverages binding avidity together with multi-specificity to deliver ultrapotent and broad neutralizers against SARS-CoV-2. The modularity of the platform also makes it relevant for rapid evaluation against other infectious diseases of global health importance. Neutralizing antibodies are a promising therapeutic for SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23825-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209050PMC
June 2021

[The Effect and Mechanism of Hyperin on Ovarian Reserve of Tripterygium Glycosides-Induced POI Mice].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 May;52(3):458-466

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine/Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of hyperin on the improvement of ovarian reserve of tripterygium glycosides (TG)-induced primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in mice.

Methods: Adult female BALB/c mice were used as research subjects and were randomly assigned to the control group, POI model group and hyperin treatment group, with 40 mice in each group. TG was given at 40 mg/kg twice a day by gavage for 2 weeks to create the POI mouse model. Mice in the hyperin treatment group were given hyperin at 75 mg/(kg·d) by gavage for 4 weeks after the model was established. The body mass of the mice was weighed and the gonadal index was calculated. Ovarian histological changes were observed by HE staining, and the number of follicles at all levels was calculated. Serum estradiol (E ), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were assessed with ELISA. The mRNA and protein levels of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Caspase3, Bcl-2 and Bax in ovarian granulosa cells were measured by RT-qPCR and Western blot. The protein levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-hydroxy kinase (p-PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) were measured by Western blot. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in granulosa cells were determined by H2DCFDA. The apoptosis of granulosa cells was examined by TUNEL assay.

Results: Compared with mice in the POI model group, the body mass and gonadal index of hyperin-treated mice increased (all <0.05). The pathological damage of the ovary decreased, and the number of follicles at all levels and corpora lutea increased (all <0.05). Serum E , AMH, SOD and CAT levels increased, and FSH level decreased (all <0.05). At the molecular level, the expression of Nrf-2, HO-1, p-PI3K, p-Akt and Bcl-2 in ovarian granulosa cells increased, while the expression of Caspase3 and Bax decreased (all <0.05). ROS level decreased ( <0.05). TUNEL assay showed reduced apoptosis of granulosa cells ( <0.05).

Conclusion: Hyperin improved ovarian reserve in TG-induced POI mice through Nrf-2/HO-1antioxidant stress response and the anti-apoptotic effect of PI3K/Akt pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20210560103DOI Listing
May 2021

Novel capsid binder and PI4KIIIbeta inhibitors for EV-A71 replication inhibition.

Sci Rep 2021 05 6;11(1):9719. Epub 2021 May 6.

Collaborative and Translation Unit for HFMD, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore.

The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious viral illness generally manifests as a mild disease in young children and immunocompromised adults. It has however emerged as a significant public health threat in recent years as outbreaks have been occurring regularly, especially in the Asia-Pacific. The disease can result from infections by a wide variety of human enteroviruses, particularly, Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has garnered more attention due to its association with severe disease in infected patients. Despite the potential to result severe neurological complications or even fatality, there is currently no effective antiviral for treatment of EV-A71 infections and the only vaccines available are restricted to distribution in China. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of two candidate antiviral compounds active against EV-A71, a viral capsid inhibitor (G197) and a novel host-targeting phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta inhibitor (N373) which, especially when used in combination, can significantly improve the survival and pathology of infected mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89271-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102518PMC
May 2021

Fabrication of 3D-Printed Ceramic Structures for Portable Solar Desalination Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 6;13(19):23220-23229. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Block EA, Singapore 117575, Singapore.

This paper proposes the fabrication process of the first fully 3D-printed ceramic core structures for portable solar desalination devices optimized to tackle water scarcity from an energy and sustainability perspective. Robocasting, a 3D printing technique, is utilized to fabricate a fully ceramic structure of an integrated solar absorber/thermal insulator/water transporter based on the two-layered structure of modified graphene on silica ([email protected]) and the porous silica structure. Robocasting has demonstrated its flexibility in tailoring structural designs, combining nanopores and microchannels that exhibit uniform water transport delivery and thermal insulation. This portable device can be used immediately to collect fresh drinking water without an additional setup. It possesses a water evaporation rate of 2.4 kg m h with a drinking water production capacity of 0.5 L m h. This novel device has shown excellent ion rejection ability, with the collected water meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04209DOI Listing
May 2021

Phase transition-induced changes in the Raman properties of DMSO/benzene binary systems.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr;23(15):9211-9217

School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, 130022, China.

The Raman spectra of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)/benzene binary mixtures were studied by decreasing the temperature from 333 K to 263 K with the aim to reveal the molecular interaction properties during phase transition. The intensity of the Raman band for benzene at 992 cm-1 showed an increasing trend in the liquid and solid phases, while it exhibited a highly decreasing trend during the liquid-solid phase transition. The potential energy was calculated to study the effect of intermolecular interaction distance between DMSO and benzene on Raman intensity. The observations indicated that the blueshift of the low-frequency bands of DMSO was significantly different from the redshift of its high-frequency bands. The hydrogen bond generated between DMSO and benzene was well formed in the binary systems. This interaction inducing an enhanced hydrogen bond between the binary systems and attenuated C-H bonds led to opposite Raman shift variations with decreasing temperature. The Raman bands of DMSO at 1425 cm-1, 2899 cm-1, and 2992 cm-1 each split into two peaks after phase transition. The splitting of the Raman bands of DMSO at 1417 cm-1, 2895 cm-1, and 2982 cm-1 cropped up as the temperature dropped to the transformation point of 288 K. This is attributed to the phase transition-induced latent def.(C7) atomic vibrations corresponding to the individual methyl groups of DMSO. The implications of these analyses are expected to be helpful to understand the effect of phase transition on the Raman properties of binary solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00627dDOI Listing
April 2021

Deciphering Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Corresponding Genetic and Metabolic Dysregulation in Psoriasis Patients Using Metagenomics Sequencing.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 1;11:605825. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Increasing evidence has shown that alterations in the intestinal microbiota play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The existing relevant studies focus on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, but in-depth research on gene functions and comprehensive identification of microbiota is lacking.

Objectives: To comprehensively identify characteristic gut microbial compositions, genetic functions and relative metabolites of patients with psoriasis and to reveal the potential pathogenesis of psoriasis.

Methods: DNA was extracted from the faecal microbiota of 30 psoriatic patients and 15 healthy subjects, and metagenomics sequencing and bioinformatic analyses were performed. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, cluster of orthologous groups (COG) annotations, and metabolic analyses were used to indicate relative target genes and pathways to reveal the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

Results: Compared with healthy individuals, the gut microbiota of psoriasis patients displayed an alteration in microbial taxa distribution, but no significant difference in microbial diversity. A distinct gut microbial composition in patients with psoriasis was observed, with an increased abundance of the phyla , and and genera , , and and a decreased abundance of the phyla and and genera , and . A total of 134 COGs were predicted with functional analysis, and 15 KEGG pathways, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, WNT signaling, apoptosis, bacterial secretion system, and phosphotransferase system, were significantly enriched in psoriasis patients. Five metabolites, hydrogen sulfide (HS), isovalerate, isobutyrate, hyaluronan and hemicellulose, were significantly dysregulated in the psoriatic cohort. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota, enriched pathways and dysregulated metabolites are relevant to immune and inflammatory response, apoptosis, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway, gut-brain axis and brain-skin axis that play important roles in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

Conclusions: A clear dysbiosis was displayed in the gut microbiota profile, genetic functions and relative metabolites of psoriasis patients. This study is beneficial for further understanding the inflammatory pathogenesis of psoriasis and could be used to develop microbiome-based predictions and therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.605825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047475PMC
June 2021

Honokiol exerts protective effects on neural myelin sheaths after compressed spinal cord injury by inhibiting oligodendrocyte apoptosis through regulation of ER-mitochondrial interactions.

J Spinal Cord Med 2021 Apr 8:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Medical College, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of honokiol on demyelination after compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI) and it's possible mechanism.

Design: Animal experiment study.

Setting: Institute of Neuroscience of Chongqing Medical University.

Interventions: Total of 69 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group (n=15), honokiol group (n=27) and vehicle group (n=27). After established CSCI model by a custom-made compressor successfully, the rats of sham group were subjected to the limited laminectomy without compression; the rats of honokiol group were subjected to CSCI surgery and intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg honokiol; the rats of vehicle group were subjected to CSCI surgery and intraperitoneal injection of an equivalent volume of saline. The locomotor function of each group was assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale. The pathological changes of myelinated nerve fibers of spinal cord in 3 groups were detected by osmic acid staining and transmission electron microcopy (TME). Immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to research the experessions of active caspase-3, caspase-12, cytochrome C and myelin basic protein (MBP) respectively.

Results: In the vehicle group, the rats became paralyzed and spastic after injury, and the myelin sheath became swollen and broken down along with decreased number of myelinated nerve fibers. Western blot analysis manifested that active caspase-3, caspase-12 and cytochrome C began to increase 1 d after injury while the expression of MBP decreased gradually. After intervened with honokiol for 6 days, compared with the vehicle group, the locomotor function and the pathomorphological changes of myelin sheath of the CSCD rats were improved with obviously decreased expression of active caspase-3, caspase-12 and cytochrome C.

Conclusions: Honokiol may improve locomotor function and protect neural myelin sheat from demyelination via prevention oligodendrocytes (OLs) apoptosis through mediate endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria pathway after CSCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2021.1890878DOI Listing
April 2021

[Influence of Dingkun Dan Combined with Estradiol Valerateon Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathway in Rats with Thin Endometrium with Kidney-Yang Deficiency].

Authors:
Juan Zheng Yong Tan

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):235-240

Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China.

Objective: To explore the influence for combination of Dingkun Dan with estradiol valerateon in treating rats with thin endometrium with Kidney-Yang deficiency based on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Methods: The estrous period 40 rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the model group, the Dingkun Dan group, the estradiol valerateon group and the combination group, with 8 rats in each group. In addition to the normal control group, the rat model of thin endometrium with Kidney-Yang deficiency was established in other groups. The control group used free diet, the model group was given distilled water, the estradiol valerateon group was treated with progynova by gavage at 0.3 mg/(kg·d) , Dingkun Dan group was treated with Dingkun Dan by gavage at 2.26 g/(kg·d), and the combined group was given Dingkun Dan at 2.26 g/(kg·d) on the basis of progynova at 0.3 mg/(kg·d). After 3 estrous cycles, the rats were killed and harvested. HE staining was used to observe histopathologic changes in endometrium. The expression of VEGF in rats endometrium were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of β-catenin, E-cadherin and MMP-9 protein in rat endometrium was detected by Western blot.

Results: Compared with the control group, the uterine cavity was narrowed or enlarged, the endometrium glands and blood vessels were sparse, and the endometrium was thinner significantly in the model group ( <0.01); the levels of VEGF was decreased significantly ( <0.01), while β-catenin, E-cadherin and MMP-9 were increased significantly ( <0.01). Compared with the model group, more endometrial glands, rich intimal vessels, the endometrium were thickened significantly in the 3 treatment groups ( <0.01 or <0.05); the levels of VEGF was increased differently. The protein levels of β-catenin and E-cadherin were significantly decreased in each treatment group ( <0.01), and MMP-9 were significantly decreased in the Dingkun Dan group and in the combination group ( <0.01). Compared with the estradiol valerateon group, the level of β-catenin in Dingkun Dan group was higher, and MMP-9 was lower ( <0.05 or <0.01). The levels of β-catenin and MMP-9 in the combination group were significantly decreased ( <0.01). Compared with the combination group, the levels of β-catenin was increased significantly, while decreased signicantly in Dingkun Dan group ( <0.01 or <0.05).

Conclusion: Dingkun Dan combined with estradiol valerateon can increase the thicken of the endometrium by up-regulation of VEGF, while down-regulate of β-catenin, E-cadherin and MMP-9 in rats with Shen-Yang deficiency and thin endometrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20210160508DOI Listing
March 2021

Genetically Encodable Scaffolds for Optimizing Enzyme Function.

Molecules 2021 Mar 4;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Synthetic Biology for Clinical and Technological Innovation, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456, Singapore.

Enzyme engineering is an indispensable tool in the field of synthetic biology, where enzymes are challenged to carry out novel or improved functions. Achieving these goals sometimes goes beyond modifying the primary sequence of the enzyme itself. The use of protein or nucleic acid scaffolds to enhance enzyme properties has been reported for applications such as microbial production of chemicals, biosensor development and bioremediation. Key advantages of using these assemblies include optimizing reaction conditions, improving metabolic flux and increasing enzyme stability. This review summarizes recent trends in utilizing genetically encodable scaffolds, developed in line with synthetic biology methodologies, to complement the purposeful deployment of enzymes. Current molecular tools for constructing these synthetic enzyme-scaffold systems are also highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961827PMC
March 2021

Granulosa cell ovarian cancer with synchronous multiple bone metastases: case report of extreme rarity.

Tumori 2021 Mar 22:3008916211001438. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Gynaecologic Oncology, St James' University Hospital, Leeds, UK.

Background: Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) of the ovary generally has a good prognosis. Recurrences tend to be late and confined to the abdominopelvis. Bone metastases are extremely rare. We report an extremely rare case of AGCT with synchronous multiple bone metastases and discuss diagnostic procedures and management.

Case Description: A 35-year-old woman presented with abdominal bloating. On the day of surgery, acting on the complaint of right shoulder pain, an X-ray revealed a permeative lesion involving the neck of humerus, suggestive of a metastatic pathologic fracture. The patient underwent a full staging debulking surgery. Further imaging demonstrated multiple bone metastases. Histology confirmed an AGCT of the ovary. Diagnosis was established by a core bone biopsy from the left femur showing cells consistent with those seen with granulosa cell tumor. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with concurrent zoledronic acid as targeted therapy for her bone metastases. Endocrine systemic maintenance treatment was given. The patient rapidly deteriorated and died from her disease at 20 months from the initial diagnosis.

Conclusion: Unpredictable biological behavior and clinical manifestations raise a high degree of suspicion for accurate AGCT diagnosis. Management of bone metastases often warrants input from the multidisciplinary team, and treatment may involve chemotherapy, palliative radiotherapy, or orthopaedic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03008916211001438DOI Listing
March 2021

MRI-based traditional radiomics and computer-vision nomogram for predicting lymphovascular space invasion in endometrial carcinoma.

Diagn Interv Imaging 2021 Jul-Aug;102(7-8):455-462. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital & Chongqing Cancer Institute & Chongqing Cancer Hospital, 400030 Chongqing, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine the capabilities of MRI-based traditional radiomics and computer-vision (CV) nomogram for predicting lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) in patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC).

Materials And Methods: A total of 184 women (mean age, 52.9±9.0 [SD] years; range, 28-82 years) with EC were retrospectively included. Traditional radiomics features and CV features were extracted from preoperative T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images. Two models (Model 1, the radiomics model; Model 2, adding CV radiomics signature into the Model 1) were built. The performance of the models was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) in the training and test cohorts. A nomogram based on clinicopathological metrics and radiomics signatures was developed. The predictive performance of the nomogram was assessed by AUC of the ROC in the training and test cohorts.

Results: For predicting LVSI, the AUC values of Model 1 in the training and test cohorts were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.702-0.889; accuracy: 65.9%; sensitivity: 88.8%; specificity: 57.8%) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.585-0.914; accuracy: 69.5%; sensitivity: 85.7%; specificity: 62.5%), respectively. The AUC values of Model 2 in the training and test cohorts were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.875-0.991; accuracy: 94.9%; sensitivity: 91.6%; specificity: 96.0%) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.666-0.962; accuracy: 71.7%; sensitivity: 92.8%; specificity: 62.5%), respectively. The discriminative ability of Model 2 was significantly improved compared to Model 1 (Net Reclassification Improvement [NRI]=0.21; P=0.04). Based on histologic grade, FIGO stage, Rad-score and CV-score, AUC values of the nomogram to predict LVSI in the training and test cohorts were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.955-1; accuracy: 91.6%; sensitivity: 91.6%; specificity: 96.0%) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.823-1; accuracy: 91.3%; sensitivity: 78.5%; specificity: 96.8%), respectively.

Conclusions: MRI-based traditional radiomics and computer-vision nomogram are useful for preoperative risk stratification in patients with EC and may facilitate better clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2021.02.008DOI Listing
August 2021

Paeoniflorin attenuates DHEA-induced polycystic ovary syndrome via inactivation of TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway .

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 02 26;13(5):7084-7095. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmacy, The First People's Hospital of Nantong, Nan Tong 226001, Jiangsu, PR China.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrine disorders which are involved in complicated and unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Paeoniflorin (PAE) plays a significant anti-fibrotic role according to previous studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of PAE on ovarian fibrosis and its underlying mechanism in PCOS development. An animal model of PCOS was established by subcutaneous injection of 60mg/kg/d dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for 35 consecutive days. Rats in PAE-L, PAE-M and PAE-H groups were administrated by gavage with PAE (20, 40, 80 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks. Our results indicated that DHEA-induced PCOS rats showed similar phenotypes with PCOS patients. PAE could significantly block the DHEA-induced decline of ovary weight and organ coefficient, shorten the prolonged diestrus period, and regulate the irregular estrous cycle of PCOS rats. Moreover, PAE regulated reproductive hormone levels and improved ovarian fibrosis induced by DHEA. PAE treatment could also reduce the expression levels of TGF-β1 and Smad3, and increase the expression levels of Smad7 and MMP2. In conclusion, PAE significantly attenuated the ovarian fibrosis in PCOS, which could be mediated by TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway. Herein, PAE can be used for the treatment of ovarian fibrosis in PCOS progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993663PMC
February 2021

Hotel Performance in the UK: The Role of Information Entropy in a Novel Slack-Based Data Envelopment Analysis.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Jan 31;23(2). Epub 2021 Jan 31.

COPPEAD Graduate Business School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-901, Brazil.

Previous hotel performance studies neglected the role of information entropy in feedback processes between input and output management. This paper focuses on this gap by exploring the relationship between hotel performance at the industry level and the capability of learning by doing and adopting best practices using a sample of 153 UK hotels over a 10-year period between 2008-2017. Besides, this research also fills a literature gap by addressing the issues of measuring hotel performance in light of negative outputs. In order to achieve this, we apply a novel Modified slack-based model for the efficiency analysis and Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator to examine the influence of entropy related variable on efficiency score. The Results indicate that less can be learnt from inputs than from outputs to improve efficiency levels and resource allocation is more balanced than cash flow and liquidity. The findings suggest that market dynamics explains the cash flow generation potential and liquidity. We find that market conditions are increasingly offering the opportunities for learning and improving hotel efficiency. The results report that the distinctive characteristic of superior performance in hotel operations is the capability to match the cash flow generation potential with market opportunities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23020184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910884PMC
January 2021

Magnifying endoscopy in detecting early gastric cancer: A network meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(3):e23934

Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Conventional white-light imaging endoscopy (C-WLI) had a significant number of misdiagnosis in early gastric cancer (EGC), and magnifying endoscopy (ME) combined with different optical imaging was more accurate in the diagnosis of EGC. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of ME and compare the accuracy of ME with different optical imaging in detecting EGC.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. Pair-wise meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of ME, and Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to combine direct and indirect evidence and estimate the relative effects.

Results: Eight prospective studies were identified with a total of 5948 patients and 3 optical imaging in ME (ME with WLI (M-WLI), ME with narrow-band imaging (M-NBI), and ME with blue laser imaging (M-BLI)). Pair-wise meta-analysis showed a higher accuracy of ME than C-WLI (OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 1.68∼5.25). In network meta-analysis, both M-NBI and M-BLI were more accurate than M-WLI (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 2.13∼3.13; OR: 3.13, 95% CI: 1.85∼5.71). There was no significant difference between M-NBI and M-BLI.

Conclusion: ME was effective in improving the detecting rate of EGC, especially with NBI or BLI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837915PMC
January 2021

Dysregulation of the gut-brain-skin axis and key overlapping inflammatory and immune mechanisms of psoriasis and depression.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 1;137:111065. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Dermatological Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100010, China. Electronic address:

The occurrence, progression and recurrence of psoriasis are thought to be related to mood and psychological disorders such as depression. Psoriasis can lead to depression, and depression, in turn, exacerbates psoriasis. No specific mechanism can explain the association between psoriasis and depression. The gut-brain-skin axis has been used to explain correlations among the gut microbiota, emotional states and systemic and skin inflammation, and this axis may be associated with overlapping mechanisms between psoriasis and depression. Therefore, in the context of the gut-brain-skin axis, we systematically summarized and comparatively analysed the inflammatory and immune mechanisms of psoriasis and depression and illustrated the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the gut microbiota. This review provides a theoretical basis and new targets for the treatment of psoriasis and depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111065DOI Listing
May 2021
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