Publications by authors named "Yong Qiu"

669 Publications

Does the Level of Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy Affect the Surgical Outcomes in Ankylosing Spondylitis-Related Thoracolumbar Kyphosis With the Same Curve Pattern?

Global Spine J 2021 Mar 2:2192568220980716. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Spine Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objective: To investigate the effect of pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) level on the surgical outcomes in ankylosing spondylitis-related thoracolumbar kyphosis with the same curve pattern.

Methods: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis, who underwent 1-level lumbar PSO between March 2006 and June 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. Criteria for curve-matched thoracolumbar kyphosis were: (1) have same level of preoperative apex (pre-apex); (2) have similar global kyphosis (GK, the angle between the superior/inferior endplate of the maximally tilted upper and lower end vertebra) (the difference of GK less than 15˚). The radiographic parameters measured were sagittal vertical axis (SVA, the horizontal distance between the C7 plumb line and the posterosuperior corner of the S1), GK, thoracic kyphosis (TK, the angle between the T5 superior endplate and the T12 inferior endplate), lumbar lordosis (LL, the angle between the L1 and S1 superior endplate), sacral slope (SS, the angle between the sacral endplate and the horizontal line), pelvic tilt (PT, the angle between the vertical and the line joining the midpoint of the sacral plate and hip axis), and pelvic incidence (PI, the angle between the line vertical to the superior margin of S1 and the line connecting the sacral plate midpoint with the hip joint axis). All of these parameters and health-related quality of life (HRQoL, evaluated by preoperative and the last follow-up questionnaires including ODI and VAS) scores were collected before surgery and at the last follow-up. According to their osteotomy level, patients were devided into 2 sub-groups (L1 group and L2 group), and differences of these mentioned parameters between 2 groups were compared.

Results: 26 curve-matched patients were recruited with a mean follow-up of 37.2 months. All patients improved significantly after surgery in HRQoL scores (VAS 1.6 vs 5.4, < 0.001; ODI 11.9 vs 26.4, < 0.001). Except for TK and PI, those radiographic parameters were also observed to be significantly changed after surgery. Compared to L2 group, PSO at L1 may have larger correction of TK (ΔTK -6.8 vs -0.3°, = 0.164), PI (ΔPI -7.4 vs -0.7°, = 0.364) and smaller correction of SVA (ΔSVA -105.3 vs -128.5 mm, = 0.096), LL (ΔLL -31.1 vs -43.0°, = 0.307) and SS (ΔSS 6.9 vs 12.2°, = 0.279) but had no statistical significance.

Conclusion: The results of this investigation showed that in AS-related thoracolumbar kyphosis patients with the same curve pattern, the different levels of osteotomy had little effect on the improvement of surgical outcomes. However, osteotomy at L2 is more likely to obtain a larger correction of SVA compared to osteotomy at L1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220980716DOI Listing
March 2021

When Can One-level Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy Obtain Satisfied Outcomes for Severe Thoracolumbar Kyphosis with Global Kyphosis ≥80° in Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Comparison with Two-level Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Mar;46(6):E374-E383

Spine Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to make a thorough comparison of clinical and radiographic outcomes between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with severe kyphosis who underwent one- or two-level pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) and to determine the indications of one-level PSO.

Summary Of Background Data: Traditionally, one-level PSO was considered being able to obtain 35° to 40° correction. However, in our practice, one-level PSO might achieve satisfied clinical and radiographic outcomes in AS patients with severe thoracolumbar kyphosis defined as global kyphosis (GK) ≥80°.

Methods: Fifty-five AS-related severe thoracolumbar kyphosis patients undergoing one- or two-level PSO from January 2007 to November 2016 were reviewed. The radiographic parameters included thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), GK, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), pelvic incidence (PI), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and femoral obliquity angle (FOA). Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).

Results: The mean follow-up period was 39.7 ± 20.2 months (range, 24-120 months). Patients who underwent one-level PSO have significantly smaller preoperative GK, SVA, FOA, and larger preoperative LL and SS compared to those who underwent two-level PSO (P < 0.05). The optimal cutoff points of preoperative radiographic parameters for selecting one-level PSO were: GK <94°, SVA <18.0 cm, and LL <18°. No significant difference was observed between the two groups with regard to preoperative ODI and VAS (P > 0.05), and the improvement of ODI and VAS (P > 0.05). Significantly more operative time, blood loss, and fusion levels were found in two-level PSO group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: One-level PSO might be appropriate for selected severe AS-related kyphosis patients with GK <94°, SVA <18.0 cm, and LL <18°. This finding might be beneficial for surgical decision-making in performing one-level PSO, a relatively less risky procedure, to reconstruct the ideal sagittal alignment in AS patients with severe thoracolumbar kyphosis.Level of Evidence: 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003800DOI Listing
March 2021

Patient-Reported Outcomes After Complex Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: 5-Year Results of the Scoli-Risk-1 Study.

Global Spine J 2021 Feb 9:2192568220988276. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Study Design: Prospective cohort.

Objective: To prospectively evaluate PROs up to 5-years after complex ASD surgery.

Methods: The Scoli-RISK-1 study enrolled 272 ASD patients undergoing surgery from 15 centers. Inclusion criteria was Cobb angle of >80°, corrective osteotomy for congenital or revision deformity, and/or 3-column osteotomy. The following PROs were measured prospectively at intervals up to 5-years postoperative: ODI, SF36-PCS/MCS, SRS-22, NRS back/leg. Among patients with 5-year follow-up, comparisons were made from both baseline and 2-years postoperative to 5-years postoperative. PROs were analyzed using mixed models for repeated measures.

Results: Seventy-seven patients (28.3%) had 5-year follow-up data. Comparing baseline to 5-year data among these 77 patients, significant improvement was seen in all PROs: ODI (45.2 vs. 29.3, < 0.001), SF36-PCS (31.5 vs. 38.8, < 0.001), SF36-MCS (44.9 vs. 49.1, = 0.009), SRS-22-total (2.78 vs. 3.61, < 0.001), NRS-back pain (5.70 vs. 2.95, < 0.001) and NRS leg pain (3.64 vs. 2.62, = 0.017). In the 2 to 5-year follow-up period, no significant changes were seen in any PROs. The percentage of patients achieving MCID from baseline to 5-years were: ODI (62.0%) and the SRS-22r domains of function (70.4%), pain (63.0%), mental health (37.5%), self-image (60.3%), and total (60.3%). Surprisingly, mean values ( > 0.05) and proportion achieving MCID did not differ significantly in patients with major surgery-related complications compared to those without.

Conclusions: After complex ASD surgery, significant improvement in PROs were seen at 5-years postoperative in ODI, SF36-PCS/MCS, SRS-22r, and NRS-back/leg pain. No significant changes in PROs occurred during the 2 to 5-year postoperative period. Those with major surgery-related complications had similar PROs and proportion of patients achieving MCID as those without these complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220988276DOI Listing
February 2021

Determining the association between the radiographic parameters and the SRS-22 scores in Chinese female patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: does curve pattern matter?

Br J Neurosurg 2021 Jan 25:1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Spine Surgery, Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes have been shown to be correlated with radiographic parameter of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A recent study suggested that curve patterns might play a role in assessing the influence of deformity on patient's reported outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between radiographic parameters and SRS-22 questionnaire outcomes in female patients with adolescent AIS among the Chinese population based on five curve patterns. The radiographic data and SRS-22 questionnaires of 259 female AIS patients were reviewed. Radiographic measurements included: Cobb angle of the major curve, T1 tilt angle, apical vertebral rotation, apical vertebral translation (AVT), thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Curve patterns included single thoracic (T), single thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL), double thoracic (DT), double major (DM), and triple major (TM). The correlation between radiographic measurements and each domain in SRS-22 was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The curve magnitude and AVT of the major curve were found to be significantly correlated with the self-image domain in all cases (Cobb angle: = -0.426,  = 0.002; AVT: = -0.281, =0.006) and in all curve patterns except for TM. Compared to other groups, the TM group had a significantly larger major curve than the DT group and TL group ( ≤ 0.004). In TM group, the self-image scores were lower than TL group ( =0.018), and the function scores were lower than that in T, TL ( < 0.001) and DM groups ( =0.013). In the DT group, the T1 tilt was significantly correlated with the self-image domain ( = -0.376,  =0.004). In the T group, coronal curve magnitude was significantly correlated with function domain ( = -0.397,  < 0.001). Our findings suggested curve patterns should be considered in evaluating the correlations between radiographic parameters and SRS-22 outcomes in patients with AIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2021.1875396DOI Listing
January 2021

Optimal Reconstruction of Sagittal Alignment According to Global Alignment And Proportion Score Can Reduce Adjacent Segment Degeneration After Lumbar Fusion.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Feb;46(4):E257-E266

Spine Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Global Alignment and Proportion (GAP) score to predict the occurrence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion surgery for lumbar degenerative diseases.

Summary Of Background Data: The recently developed GAP score was applied to predict postoperative complications for adult spinal deformity, as well as to facilitate future outcome-based research on optimal treatment for various spinal conditions. However, it remains unclear whether reconstruction of alignment according to GAP score can reduce the ASD rates.

Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed 126 consecutive patients who had undergone lumbar fusion and had been followed over 2 years. Pre- and postoperative radiographs and MRI were analyzed for ASD. GAP scores were calculated based on the early postoperative spinopelvic parameters. Cochran-Armitage test of trend was performed to investigate the association between GAP score and the occurrence of ASD. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to analyze the predictive accuracy of the GAP score for ASD.

Results: Radiographical ASD (R-ASD) and symptomatic ASD (S-ASD) were diagnosed in 44 (34.9%) patients and in 13 (10.3%) patients, respectively. The patients with a proportioned spinopelvic state according to the GAP score had significantly lower rates of ASD (R-ASD and S-ASD) or S-ASD than those with a moderately or severely disproportioned spinopelvic state. The area under curve for the GAP score predicting ASD and S-ASD was 0.691 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.596∼0.785, P < 0.01) and 0.865 (95% CI: 0.771∼0.958, P < 0.01), respectively.

Conclusion: Our study revealed a significant association between postoperative GAP score and occurrence of ASD after lumbar fusion surgery. Setting surgical goals according to the GAP score may help reduce the occurrence of ASD, especially for S-ASD.Level of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003761DOI Listing
February 2021

Classification of neurofibromatosis-related dystrophic or nondystrophic scoliosis based on image features using Bilateral CNN.

Med Phys 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Spine Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Purpose: We developed a system that can automatically classify cases of scoliosis secondary to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1-S) using deep learning algorithms (DLAs) and improve the accuracy and effectiveness of classification, thereby assisting surgeons with the auxiliary diagnosis.

Methods: Comprehensive experiments in NF1 classification were performed based on a dataset consisting 211 NF1-S (131 dystrophic and 80 nondystrophic NF1-S) patients. Additionally, 100 congenital scoliosis (CS), 100 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients, and 114 normal controls were used for experiments in primary classification. For identification of NF1-S with nondystrophic or dystrophic curves, we devised a novel network (i.e., Bilateral convolutional neural network [CNN]) utilizing a bilinear-like operation to discover the similar interest features between whole spine AP and lateral x-ray images. The performance of Bilateral CNN was compared with spine surgeons, conventional DLAs (i.e., VGG-16, ResNet-50, and Bilinear CNN [BCNN]), recently proposed DLAs (i.e., ShuffleNet, MobileNet, and EfficientNet), and Two-path BCNN which was the extension of BCNN using AP and lateral x-ray images as inputs.

Results: In NF1 classification, our proposed Bilateral CNN with 80.36% accuracy outperformed the other seven DLAs ranging from 61.90% to 76.19% with fivefold cross-validation. It also outperformed the spine surgeons (with an average accuracy of 77.5% for the senior surgeons and 65.0% for the junior surgeons). Our method is highly generalizable due to the proposed methodology and data augmentation. Furthermore, the heatmaps extracted by Bilateral CNN showed curve pattern and morphology of ribs and vertebrae contributing most to the classification results. In primary classification, our proposed method with an accuracy of 87.92% also outperformed all the other methods with varied accuracies between 52.58% and 83.35% with fivefold cross-validation.

Conclusions: The proposed Bilateral CNN can automatically capture representative features for classifying NF1-S utilizing AP and lateral x-ray images, leading to a relatively good performance. Moreover, the proposed method can identify other spine deformities for auxiliary diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14719DOI Listing
January 2021

Both structural damage and inflammation of the lumbar spine contribute to the sagittal imbalance in ankylosing spondylitis patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jan;11(1):362-370

Department of Spine Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Background: The relationship between structural damage and inflammation of the spine and the sagittal imbalance in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between structural damage and inflammation of the lumbar spine and the sagittal imbalance in AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis.

Methods: Forty-five AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis were retrospectively reviewed. Six sagittal spinal parameters, including the C7 tilt (C7T), spino-sacral angle (SSA), global kyphosis (GK), the sagittal vertical axis (SVA), thoracic kyphosis (TK), and lumbar lordosis (LL), were measured. Structural damage of the lumbar spine was assessed by the modified Stoke AS Spine Score (mSASSS) on radiographs. Lumbar spinal inflammation was evaluated by the AS spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity (ASspiMRI-a) on MRI. Correlation analysis was performed using the paired sample -test. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to analyze the contributions of mSASSS and ASspiMRI-a to the sagittal parameters.

Results: The average values of the sagittal parameters C7T, SSA, GK, SVA, TK, and LL were 68.1°, 80.1°, 77.3°, 168.7 mm, 47.7°, and -0.7°, respectively. The average mSASSS and ASspiMRI-a scores were 9.8 and 10.8, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the mSASSS and ASspiMRI-a were correlated with C7T, SSA, SVA, and LL (the Spearman correlation coefficients were -0.439, -0.390, 0.424, and 0.530 for mSASSS; -0.406, -0.402, 0.378, and 0.486 for ASspiMRI-a; P<0.05). The C7T, SSA, and SVA were significantly correlated with LL (r=-0.696, -0.779, and 0.633, respectively; P<0.05). There was a weak correlation between the mSASSS and ASspiMRI-a (β=0.299, P=0.046). The multivariable regression models indicated that the sagittal imbalance was determined to a greater extent by the mSASSS than ASspiMRI-a (the β values were -1.550 -0.649 for C7T, -1.865 -1.231 for SSA, 9.161 3.823 for SVA, and 3.128 1.717 for LL).

Conclusions: Both structural damage and inflammation of the lumbar spine contributed to the sagittal imbalance in AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis. In the late stages of AS, the sagittal imbalance was more attributable to the structural damage than the inflammation of the lumbar spine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-19-990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719924PMC
January 2021

Incidence, Management and Outcome of Delayed Deep Surgical Site Infection Following Spinal Deformity Surgery: 20-Year Experience at a Single Institution.

Global Spine J 2020 Dec 30:2192568220978225. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Spine Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objectives: To investigate the incidence, management and outcome of delayed deep surgical site infection (SSI) after the spinal deformity surgery.

Methods: This study reviewed 5044 consecutive patients who underwent spinal deformity corrective surgery and had been followed over 2 years. Delayed deep SSI were defined as infection involving fascia and muscle and occurring >3 months after the initial procedure. An attempt to retain the implant were initially made for all patients. If the infection failed to be eradicated, the implant removal should be put off until solid fusion was confirmed, usually more than 2 years after the initial surgery. Radiographic data at latest follow-up were compared versus that before implant removal.

Results: With an average follow-up of 5.3 years, 56 (1.1%) patients were diagnosed as delayed deep SSI. Seven (12.5%) patients successfully retained instrumentation and there were no signs of recurrence during follow-up (average 3.4 years). The remaining patients, because of persistent or recurrent infection, underwent implant removal 2 years or beyond after the primary surgery, and solid fusion was detected in any case. However, at a minimum 1-year follow-up (average 3.9 years), an average loss of 9° in the thoracic curve and 8° in the thoracolumbar/lumbar curves was still observed.

Conclusions: Delayed deep SSI was rare after spinal deformity surgery. To eradicate infection, complete removal of implant may be required in the majority of delayed SSI. Surgeons must be aware of high likelihood of deformity progression after implant removal, despite radiographic solid fusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220978225DOI Listing
December 2020

Position related Change of Pelvic Incidence Depends on the Non-fused Sacroiliac Joint in Patients With Degenerative Spinal Diseases.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Dec 17;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Spine Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Study Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study.

Objective: This study aims to determine whether the sacroiliac (SI) joint motion correlated to pelvic incidence (PI) change from standing to supine position in patients with degenerative spinal diseases.

Summary Of Background Data: PI was found an unstable parameter after adolescence as the fixed nature of PI was challenged by several studies. The SI joint has been shown to have some motion, age-related degenerative changes of cartilage and SI ligaments contribute to SI joint instability.

Methods: The study contains both specimen study and radiographic study. One human specimen was acquired, on which PI was measured with different sacrum-ilium positions. In radiographic study, patients with old thoracolumbar fracture, lumbar disc herniation, stenosis, and spondylolisthesis were included. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients were also included as control group. PI was measured on standing x-rays and scanogram of computed tomography images in supine position.

Results: Specimen study result revealed that SI motion would lead to the change of PI with fixed pelvic thickness. In radiographic study, 101 patients with different etiology and 30 AS patients were included. After stratifying into different age groups, standing PI was significantly larger than supine PI in each age groups (P = 0.002, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). In patients with degenerative diseases, PI was significantly larger on standing position than that on supine position. ΔPI showed no significant difference across etiologies. However, in AS patients, standing PI and supine PI revealed no significant difference (P = 0.528).

Conclusion: Mobile SI joint may be the cause of increased PI in the aging spine. The dynamic change of PI is etiology-independent if the SI joint was not fused. Older patients have greater position-related change of PI.Level of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003884DOI Listing
December 2020

Using Satellite Rod Technique in Patients with Severe Kyphoscoliosis Undergoing Three-Column Osteotomy: A Minimum of 2 Years' Follow-up.

Orthop Surg 2021 Feb 14;13(1):83-89. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Spine Surgery, Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Objective: To introduce the satellite rod technique utilized in severe spinal deformity after three-column osteotomy (3CO) and to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes at 2-year follow-up, further discussing its utilization in this particular cohort.

Methods: A total of 32 (19 females and 13 males) with an average age of 32.9 ± 18.3 years from December 2012 to March 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographic measurements were performed on standing full-spine anteroposterior and lateral radiographs preoperatively, postoperatively, and at last follow-up. The coronal parameters including Cobb angle and distance between C plumb line and center sacral vertical line (C7PL-CSVL), as well as the sagittal parameters including global kyphosis (GK) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were measured at three time points. The Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire (SRS-22) was fulfilled preoperatively and at each follow-up. Paired t test would be used to determine whether there was a significant difference between time points.

Results: A total of 32 patients were enrolled in this study with mean age of 32.9 ± 18.3 (range, 12 to 66) years old. Twenty patients underwent pedicle subluxation osteotomy (PSO) and 12 patients underwent vertebral column resection (VCR). The pathogenesis of this cohort included neuromuscular scoliosis (11 cases), congenital kyphoscoliosis (seven with hemivertebrae and five with segmentation failure), degenerative spinal deformity (five cases), and thoracolumbar tuberculosis with angular kyphosis (four cases). The post-operative Cobb angle decreased significantly from 49.1° ± 28.0° to 19.0° ± 16.7° with a correction rate of 65.2% ± 21.8%. At final follow-up, the average Cobb angle was 19.4° ± 16.9° and no obvious loss of correction was found. The preoperative, postoperative, and last follow-up C7PL-CSVL were 23.9 ± 14.5 mm, 15.7 ± 11.1 mm, and 12.1 ± 7.4 mm, respectively. Significant postoperative improvement was attained while there was no change observed at last follow-up. Postoperative GK significantly improved from 73.8° ± 28.1° to 23.2° ± 11.7° with the correction rate of 66.0% ± 17.9%. SVA decreased significantly from 42.9 ± 33.9 mm to 24.1 ± 21.1 mm. The average GK and SVA at final follow-up were 22.7° ± 10.1° and 23.5 ± 21.1 mm, respectively and no obvious loss of correction was observed of them during follow-up. In addition, no change or loss of motor or somatosensory evoked potential occurred during surgery. During the follow-up, two malposition screws and one rod breakage were found.

Conclusion: The satellite rod used in patients with severe kyphoscoliosis undergoing 3CO could yield favorable radiological and clinical outcomes. With the utilization of this technique, the coronal and sagittal balance could be well-maintained during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862162PMC
February 2021

Impact of New Motor Deficit on HRQOL after Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Subanalysis from Scoli Risk 1 Prospective Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Study Design: International, multi-center, prospective, longitudinal observational cohort.

Objective: To assess how new motor deficits affect patient reported quality of life scores after adult deformity surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: Adult spinal deformity surgery is associated with high morbidity, including risk of new post-operative motor deficit. It is unclear what effect new motor deficit has on HRQOL scores.

Methods: Adult spinal deformity patients were enrolled prospectively at 15 sites worldwide. Other inclusion criteria included major Cobb >80 degrees, C7-L2 curve apex, and any patient undergoing 3 column osteotomy. ASIA scores and standard HRQOL scores were recorded pre-op, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 2 years.

Results: 272 complex adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients enrolled. HRQOL scores were worse for patients with lower LEMS scores. Mean HRQOL changes at 6 weeks and 2 years compared to pre-op for patients with motor worsening were: ODI (+12.4 at 6 weeks and -4.7 at 2 years), SF-36v2 physical (-4.5 at 6 weeks and +2.3 at 2 years), SRS-22r (0.0 at 6 weeks and +0.4 at 2 years). Mean HRQOL changes for motor-neutral patients were: ODI (+0.6 at 6 weeks and -12.1 at 2 years), SF-36v2 physical (-1.6 at 6 weeks and +5.9 at 2 years), and SRS-22r (+0.4 at 6 weeks and +0.7 at 2 years). For patients with LEMS improvement, mean HRQOL changes were: ODI (-0.6 at 6 weeks and -16.3 at 2 years), SF-36v2 physical (+1.0 at 6 weeks and +7.0 at 2 years), and SRS-22r (+0.5 at 6 weeks and +0.9 at 2 years).

Conclusion: In the subgroup of deformity patients who developed a new motor deficit, total HRQOLs and HRQOL changes were negatively impacted. Patients with more than 2 points of LEMS worsening had the worst changes, but still showed overall HRQOL improvement at 6 months and 2 years compared to pre-op baseline.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003852DOI Listing
December 2020

Genetic Variants of CHD7 are Associated with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Spine Surgery, the Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Study Design: A case-control association study.

Objectives: To investigate whether CHD7 was associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Chinese Han population and to further explore the functional role of CHD7 in the development of AIS.

Summary Of Background Data: Several studies have explored the association of CHD7 with scoliosis in patients of European descent, while the results were inconsistent. There was a lack of study investigating the association of CHD7 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in Chinese Han population.

Methods: Variants within CHD7 were genotyped in 965 AIS patients and 976 healthy controls. Whole exome sequencing was performed in 96 AIS patients. Paraspinal muscles of 43 AIS patients and 38 LDH patients were collected for the evaluation of the gene expression. Intergroup comparison was performed with the Chi-square test for genotyping data or Student's t-test for tissue expression. The relationship of CHD7 expression with clinical phenotypes was determined by the Pearson correlation.

Result: Variant rs121434341 of CHD7 was significantly associated with AIS. AIS patients were found to have a remarkable higher frequency of allele G when compared with healthy controls (2.89% vs. 1.57%, p = 0.0018), with an OR value of 1.89. A pathogenic mutation affecting normal splicing was identified in a patient. Moreover, the expression level of CHD7 in AIS patients was significantly lower than in the controls (0.0008437 ± 0.00004583 vs. 0.001129 ± 0.00003773, p < 0.001), and CHD7 expression was positively correlated with bone mineral contents (p = 0.036, r = 0.32).

Conclusions: Genetic variants of CHD7 were significantly associated with AIS. Moreover, the decreased expression of CHD7 may be involved in the abnormal bone mass of AIS patients. Further studies are warranted to investigate the functional role of CHD7 in the pathogenesis of AIS.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003857DOI Listing
December 2020

PI and T9-SPI: New Predictive Factors for Increased Kyphosis of the Thoracolumbar Junction in Thoracolumbar/Lumbar Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Front Pediatr 2020 12;8:520086. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Spine Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Studies have demonstrated that there is an increased thoracolumbar junction sagittal Cobb angle (TLJS) in thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. The objectives were to ascertain the correlations between the spinopelvic alignments and TLJS and to explore potential predictive factors for hyperkyphotic TLJS in the sagittal plane in thoracolumbar/lumbar AIS. A total of 114 AIS patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar curve were included. Cobb angle, apical vertebrae rotation (AVR), thoracic kyphosis (TK), TLJS, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), T1-spinopelvic inclination (T1-SPI), and T9-spinopelvic inclination (T9-SPI) were measured. After patients were organized into two subgroups based on TLJS, all parameters were compared between the two groups. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed between the radiologic measurements and TLJS in all patients. There was a significant difference between the non-kyphotic group and kyphotic group in mean Nash-Moe grade, TK, T9-SPI, PI, and SS. Correlation analysis showed that LL, PI, and SS were inversely associated with TLJS. TK, T9-SPI, and Nash-Moe grade were positively related to TLJS. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that TLJS could be predicted by the equation TLJS = -2.322 + 5.585 × Nash-Moe grade + 0.687 × T9-SPI - 0.208 × PI, with an adjusted R of 0.410. TLJS was positively correlated with greater AVR in the coronal plane, greater T9-SPI in the sagittal plane and inversely associated with PI among patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis. Spine surgeons should pay more attention to the degree of AVR, T9-SPI, and PI when dealing with thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis with thoracolumbar junction kyphosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.520086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690645PMC
November 2020

Enhancement of nitrite reduction and enrichment of Methylomonas via conductive materials in a nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation system.

Environ Res 2021 Feb 1;193:110565. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) process has a promising prospect in anaerobic wastewater treatment, utilizing methane as the sole electron source to remove nitrite. However, the metabolic activity of n-damo bacteria is too low for practical application. This study aimed to stimulate n-damo process by introducing conductive nano-magnetite and/or electron shuttle anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), and also set a comparative treatment of adding insulated ferrihydrite. The results showed that the nitrite reduction rate was enhanced the most significantly in treatment with nano-magnetite, approximately 1.6 times higher than that of the control without any supplement. While ferrihydrite application showed an adverse effect on n-damo process. The well-known aerobic methane oxidizer Methylomonas spp. was found to be enriched under n-damo condition with the supplementation of nano-magnetite and/or AQDS, but abundance of n-damo bacteria did not exhibit significant increase. It was hypothesized that Methylomonas spp. could be survived under anaerobic n-damo condition using oxygen produced by n-damo bacteria for the self-growth, and the nitrite reduction could be promoted through the enhancement of microbial interspecies electron transfer triggered by the introduction of conductive materials. It opens a new direction for the stimulation of n-damo activity, which needs more evidences to verify the hypothetic mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110565DOI Listing
February 2021

The contribution of pre-existing spinal pseudarthrosis to the surgical correction for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Dec 28;82(Pt B):219-224. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Spine Surgery, Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

The correction of global kyphosis (GK) for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with pre-existing pseudarthrosis were frequently over 45°. Mismatch between kyphosis correction of GK and pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) may be ascribed to contribution of pseudarthrosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate surgical outcomes of PSO away from the level of pseudarthrosis and to elucidate the contribution of pre-existing spinal pseudarthrosis in surgical correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis caused by AS. Eighteen AS patients with pre-existing pseudarthrosis were included. PSO outside the level of pseudarthrosis were performed for all the patients. The average follow-up period were 29 months. Radiographs were analyzed for correction and complications. Significant improvement in all sagittal parameters were found postoperatively without obvious correction loss at the final follow-up. Local kyphosis (LK) improved from 23.88° preoperatively to 12.67° postoperatively with a mean correction of 11.47°. Average correction of per PSO segment, GK and sum of disc wedging within fused region (SDW) were 33.53°, 49.27° and 4.00°, respectively. PSO away from the level of pseudarthrosis, but with posterior instrumentation crossing it was a feasible method and was able to maintain sustained surgical outcomes. Regarding GK correction, PSO accounted for 68.1% while pre-existing pseudarthrosis provided 23.3%, which resulted from anterior column opening postoperatively. Thus, extra kyphosis correction attributed to pre-existing pseudarthrosis should be considered for surgical-decision making to prevent overcorrection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.11.006DOI Listing
December 2020

Assessing the unique characteristics associated with surgical treatment of dystrophic lumbar scoliosis secondary to neurofibromatosis type 1: a single-center experience of more than 10 years.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Nov 20:1-11. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Objective: Dystrophic lumbar scoliosis secondary to neurofibromatosis type 1 (DLS-NF1) may present an atypical, unique curve pattern associated with a high incidence of coronal imbalance and regional kyphosis. Early surgical intervention is complicated and risky but necessary. The present study aimed to assess the unique characteristics associated with the surgical treatment of DLS-NF1.

Methods: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with DLS-NF1 treated surgically at a mean age of 14.4 ± 3.9 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were stratified into three types according to the coronal balance classification: type A (C7 translation < 30 mm), 22 patients; type B (concave C7 translation ≥ 30 mm), 0 patients; and type C (convex C7 translation ≥ 30 mm), 17 patients. Types B and C were considered to be coronal imbalance. The diversity of surgical strategies, the outcomes, and the related complications were analyzed.

Results: The posterior-only approach accounted for 79.5% in total; the remaining 20.5% of patients received either additional anterior supplemental bone grafting (12.8%) to strengthen the fixation or convex growth arrest (7.7%) to reduce growth asymmetry. The lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) being L5 accounted for the largest share (41%), followed by L4 and above (35.9%), the sacrum (15.4%), and the pelvis (7.7%). Type C coronal imbalance was found in 23 patients (59%) postoperatively, and the incidence was significantly higher in the preoperative type C group (14/17 type C vs 9/22 type A, p = 0.020). All the patients with postoperative coronal imbalance showed ameliorative transition to type A at the last visit. The rate of screw malposition was 30.5%, including 9.9% breached medially and 20.6% breached laterally, although no serious neurological impairment occurred. The incidence of rod breakage was 16.1% (5/31) and 0% in patients with the posterior-only and combined approaches, respectively. Four revisions with satellite rods and 1 revision with removal of iliac screw for penetration into the hip joint were performed.

Conclusions: Surgical strategies for DLS-NF1 were diverse across a range of arthrodesis and surgical approaches, being crucially determined by the location and the severity of dystrophic changes. The LIV being L5 or lower involving the lumbosacral region and pelvis was not rare. Additional posterior satellite rods or supplementary anterior fusion is necessary in cases with insufficient apical screw density. Despite a high incidence of postoperative coronal imbalance, improvement of coronal balance was frequently confirmed during follow-up. Neurological impairment was scarce despite the higher rate of screw malposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.SPINE20898DOI Listing
November 2020

Intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring in patients with dystrophic neurofibromatosis type 1 scoliosis.

Somatosens Mot Res 2020 Nov 23:1-6. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Spine Surgery, Nanjing University Medical School Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China.

Objective: To analyse the intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) data in patients with dystrophic neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) associated scoliosis, and to investigate the possible risk factors for failed IONM monitoring.

Methods: Patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion from September 2015 to December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. The latency (P37, N50) and amplitude of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) in bilateral lower extremities, latency and amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEP) in bilateral lower extremities and unilateral upper extremity were recorded. The neurological status, curve pattern, Cobb angle of main curve, vertebral rotatory subluxation and dystrophic features at pre-operation were assessed for each patient. The failed IONM monitoring was defined as no reliable SEP or MEP waveforms of all monitored muscles.

Results: A total of 92 patients (53 M, 39 F) with an average age of 14.1 ± 2.7 years were included. Failed IONM monitoring was identified in 17 patients with overall success rates being 87.0 and 94.6% for SEP and MEP. The average P37 latency, N50 latency, SEP amplitude and MEP latency showed no significant difference between concave and convex sides ( > 0.05 for all). The MEP amplitudes of lower extremities were lower on concave side than convex side (334.5 ± 291.9 µV VS 417.5 ± 380.5 µV,  = 0.030). Higher risk of failed IONM monitoring was found in patients with neurological deficit ( = 0.014) and more dystrophic features ( = 0.002) at pre-operation.

Conclusions: The overall success rates were 87.0% for SEP and 94.6% for MEP in patients with NF1-associated scoliosis. Neurological deficit and more dystrophic features at pre-operation indicated higher risk of failed IONM monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08990220.2020.1850438DOI Listing
November 2020

On the pedicle subtraction osteotomy technique and its modifications during the past two decades: a complementary classification to the Schwab's spinal osteotomy classification.

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 18;9(2):515-528. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Clinique du Dos, Elsan Jean Villar Private Hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: To propose a complementary classification to the Schwab's osteotomy classification that would regroup together under a common umbrella different published pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) variations that are commonly used, to have a common language and complete the spine surgeon's armamentarium when dealing with rigid spinal deformities.

Methods: The 2 general types corresponding to the grades 3 and 4 of the Schwab classification were separated into 6 gradual subtypes (grades 3A, 3B, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4C). The classification is based on the amount of resected pedicle, the inclusion or not of the disc above, and the location of the axis of rotation. Based on the proposed classification, a reliability study was performed using 18 cases that were classified by 8 readers with expertise in the management of adult deformities with the use of osteotomies.

Results: Clinical cases were classified according to the 6 grades proposed in the classification. The intra-rater reliability for the classification was "almost perfect agreement" with a Fleiss kappa coefficient average of 0.92 (range 0.85-1.00). The inter-rater reliability was "almost perfect agreement" with a coefficient average of 0.90 for the 2 readings that were done at an interval of 2 weeks.

Conclusion: The developed classification proved to be reliable and intuitive. It is an original way to display a catalog of different available PSO modifications including the original technique, in a logical and gradual order to help the surgeons in their decisions and show them that between a grade 2 osteotomy and a grade 5 osteotomy, many intermediate options are available. Further work with a treatment algorithm for clinical practice based on the current classification may be developed in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00247-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Sacral Agenesis: A Neglected Deformity That Increases the Incidence of Postoperative Coronal Imbalance in Congenital Lumbosacral Deformities.

Global Spine J 2020 Nov 18:2192568220970509. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Spine Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objectives: To identify if there is a link between sacral agenesis (SA) and post-operative coronal imbalance in patients with congenital lumbosacral deformities.

Methods: This study reviewed a consecutive series of patients with congenital lumbosacral deformities. They had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. According to different diagnosis, they were divided into SA and non-SA group. Comparison analysis was performed between patients with and without post-operative coronal imbalance and risk factors were identified.

Results: A total of 45 patients (18 in SA group and 27 in non-SA group) were recruited into this study, among whom 33 patients maintained coronal balance while 12 demonstrated postoperative coronal imbalance at last follow-up (14.32 ± 7.67 mm vs 35.53 ± 3.91 mm, P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that preoperative lumbar Cobb angle, immediate postoperative coronal balance distance and diagnosis of SA were significantly different between patients with and without post-operative coronal imbalance (P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that SA was an independent risk factor for postoperative coronal imbalance.

Conclusions: As an independent risk factor for postoperative coronal imbalance, high level of suspicion of SA should be aware in children with congenital lumbosacral deformities. Sufficient bone grafts at sacroiliac joint are recommended for SA patients to prevent postoperative coronal imbalance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220970509DOI Listing
November 2020

Distal Adding-on Phenomenon in Scoliosis Secondary to Chiari Malformation Type I: Incidence and Risk Factors.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Spine Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objective: To investigate the incidence and risk factors for distal adding-on (AO) phenomenon after posterior spinal fusion (PSF) in scoliosis secondary to Chiari malformation type I (CMS) patients with right major thoracic curve.

Summary Of Background Data: Distal AO phenomenon is a common complication observed in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), which is significantly associated with unsatisfactory outcomes. However, few studies specifically focused on the incidence and risk factors of distal AO in CMS.

Methods: Seventy-eight CMS adolescents were included with a minimum of 2-year follow-up after PSF. patients with distal AO at the final follow-up were divided into AO group and those without were No-AO group. The coronal and sagittal parameters were evaluated preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at the last follow-up. Clinical outcome was analyzed using the Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale (CCOS).

Results: Distal AO was observed in 18 of 78 patients (23.1%). Compared with No-AO group, patients with distal AO had significantly lower Risser sign (P = 0.001), more flexibility of lumbar curve (P = 0.021), higher incidence of LIV-LSTV≤0 (P = 0.001), smaller postoperative Cobb angle of lumbar curve (P<0.001), and greater correction rate of lumbar curve (P = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that low Risser sign (Grade 1-2, OR = 5.7, P = 0.029) and LIV-LSTV≤0 (OR = 6.4, P = 0.019) were independent risk factors for distal AO. There was no significant difference of CCOS scores between 2 groups at the final follow-up (P > 0.05 for all).

Conclusion: The incidence of distal AO was 23.1% in CMS patients after PSF. Patients with low Risser sign and LIV-LSTV≤0 were high risk factors for distal AO.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003820DOI Listing
November 2020

Specific white matter connectomic changes in schizophrenia compared with psychotic bipolar disorder.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Jan 2;55:102468. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Psychiatry, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510630, China. Electronic address:

Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) can be clinically confusing. The specific connectomic changes in SZ compared with BDP may lead to a deeper comprehension of the pathophysiological core of SZ. Therefore, this study explored the common and distinct white matter (WM) structural connectomic alterations between these two diseases.

Method: Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 19 drug-naïve patients with first episode SZ, 19 drug-naïve patients with BDP, and 19 healthy controls (HC). A graph theoretical approach was used to assess the brain WM network properties.

Results: Except for the clustering coefficients, no significant differences in the global parameters was found between SZ and BDP. Five brain regions, the right precentral, right post-cingulum, right insula, left superior occipital, and left inferior temporal gyri, showed specific differences in the nodal parameters in SZ compared with BDP and HC. Nine brain regions, the left rectus, left lingual, right inferior parietal, left superior temporal, right precentral, right postcentral, bilateral middle frontal, and right post-cingulum gyri, showed specific differences in the nodal parameters in BDP. Significant correlations between clinical symptoms and connectomic changes were detected in the right insula and left superior occipital gyrus in patients with SZ but in the left lingual gyrus in patients with BDP.

Conclusions: Identifying shared and distinct WM structural networks between SZ and BDP may improve the understanding of the neuroanatomy of mental diseases. Specifically, the insula, the inferior temporal, superior temporal, and the lingual gyri may help to distinguish between SZ and BDP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102468DOI Listing
January 2021

Utility of Natural Sitting Lateral Radiograph in the Diagnosis of Segmental Instability for Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 Oct 30. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Q.-S. Zhou, X. Sun, X. Chen, B.-P. Qian, Z. Zhu, Y. Qiu, Department of Spine Surgery, Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China X. Sun, L. Xu, B-P. Qian, Z. Zhu, Y. Qiu, Department of Spine Surgery, Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, Clinical College of Jiangsu University China.

Background: Segmental instability in patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis is an indication for surgical intervention. The most common method to evaluate segmental mobility is lumbar standing flexion-extension radiographs. Meanwhile, other simple radiographs, such as standing upright radiograph, a supine sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or supine lateral radiograph, or a slump or natural sitting lateral radiograph, have been reported to diagnose segmental instability. However, those common posture radiographs have not been well characterized in one group of patients. Therefore, we measured slip percentage in a group of patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis using radiographs of patients in standing upright, natural sitting, standing flexion, and standing extension positions as well as supine MRI.

Questions/purposes: We asked: (1) Does the natural sitting radiograph have a larger slip percentage than the standing upright or standing flexion radiograph? (2) Does the supine sagittal MRI reveal a lower slip percentage than the standing extension radiograph? (3) Does the combination of the natural sitting radiograph and the supine sagittal MRI have a higher translational range of motion (ROM) and positive detection rate of translational instability than traditional flexion-extension mobility using translational instability criteria of greater than or equal to 8%?

Methods: We retrospectively performed a study of 62 patients (18 men and 44 women) with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis at L4 who planned to undergo a surgical intervention at our institution between September 2018 and June 2019. Each patient underwent radiography in the standing upright, standing flexion, standing extension, and natural sitting positions, as well as MRI in the supine position. The slip percentage was measured three times by single observer on these five radiographs using Meyerding's technique (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.88 [95% CI 0.86 to 0.90]). Translational ROM was calculated by absolute values of difference between two radiograph positions. Based on the results of comparison of slip percentage and translational ROM, we developed the diagnostic algorithm to evaluate segmental instability. Also, the positive rate of translational instability using our diagnostic algorithms was compared with traditional flexion-extension radiographs.

Results: The natural sitting radiograph revealed a larger mean slip percentage than the standing upright radiograph (21% ± 7.4% versus 17.7% ± 8.2%; p < 0.001) and the standing flexion radiograph (21% ±7.4% versus 18% ± 8.4%; p = 0.002). The supine sagittal MRI revealed a lower slip percentage than the standing extension radiograph (95% CI 0.49% to 2.8%; p = 0.006). The combination of natural sitting radiograph and the supine sagittal MRI had higher translational ROM than the standing flexion and extension radiographs (10% ± 4.8% versus 5.4% ± 3.7%; p < 0.001). More patients were diagnosed with translational instability using the combination of natural sitting radiograph and supine sagittal MRI than the standing flexion and extension radiographs (61% [38 of 62] versus 19% [12 of 62]; odds ratio 3.9; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our results indicate that a sitting radiograph reveals high slip percentage, and supine sagittal MRI demonstrated a reduction in anterolisthesis. The combination of natural sitting and supine sagittal MRI was suitable to the traditional flexion-extension modality for assessing translational instability in patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001542DOI Listing
October 2020

Preoperative Halo-Gravity Traction for Patients with Severe Focal Kyphosis in the Upper Thoracic Spine: A Safe and Effective Alternative for Three-Column Osteotomy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Mar;46(5):307-312

Department of Spine Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Study Design: Retrospective review.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of preoperative Halo-gravity traction (HGT) in the treatment of severe focal kyphosis in the upper thoracic spine (UTS), and to propose the indications that HGT could serve as an alternative for three-column osteotomy (3CO) among these patients.

Summary Of Background Data: The HGT has been proven to be effective for severe kyphoscoliosis secondary to multiple etiologies. However, the safety and efficacy of HGT in severe focal kyphosis in UTS was still unclear.

Methods: Patients with focal kyphosis in UTS undergoing HGT and without 3CO operation were reviewed. The sagittal focal kyphosis was measured at pre-, posttraction, and postoperation. The neurologic function at pretraction, posttraction, and postoperation were assessed according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grading. The complications during HGT, operation, and follow-up were recorded. The comparison between pretraction and posttraction was performed using paired samples t test.

Results: A total of 19 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 13.2 ± 5.8 years. The average duration of HGT was 62.6 ± 8.4 days, during which the average kyphosis decreased from 95.3 ± 16.4° to 64.1 ± 19.2° (P < 0.001). After HGT, the ASIA grade improved from C to D in three patients and from C to E in three patients, from D to E in seven patients, from B to D in one patient. No deterioration in neurologic function was observed during HGT. The neurological status in one patient improved from ASIA C at pretraction to ASIA E at postoperation, but deteriorated to C at 4 years follow-up.

Conclusion: Preoperative HGT could help to correct deformity and improve neurological deficit. 3CO procedure might be unnecessary in patients with severe focal kyphosis in UTS with the utilization of HGT.Level of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003782DOI Listing
March 2021

Novel Mutations in UTS2R are Associated with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in the Chinese Population.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Mar;46(5):E288-E293

Department of Spine Surgery, the Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Study Design: A case-control study.

Objectives: To investigate the association of urotensin II (UTS2) signals with the susceptibility of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in the Chinese Han population.

Summary Of Background Data: Dysregulated UTS2 signals induced by impaired cerebrospinal fluid flow have been implicated in the development of idiopathic scoliosis through studies on zebrafish. Furthermore, mutations in urotensin II receptor (UTS2R) were reported to cause severe scoliosis in zebrafish. In spite of the evidence presented in animal models, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the role of UTS2 signaling related genes in AIS.

Methods: In the discovery stage, exons of UTS2, UTS2R, and UTS2D were sequenced for 200 AIS patients and 200 healthy controls. Newly identified mutations were further genotyped in another independent cohort of 1000 AIS patients and 1000 controls by allelic-specific multiple ligase detection reactions. Gene expression analysis was performed in 36 AIS patients and 36 age-matched congenital scoliosis patients. The Chi-square test was used to compare the genotyping data between the groups. Gene expression analysis was compared with the Student t test.

Results: Association between two novel mutations (rs11654140, c.51T > C; rs568196624, c.1146C > G) and the development of AIS was identified. Allele C of rs11654140 and allele G of rs568196624 were significantly associated with the risk of AIS (1.5% vs. 0.5%, odds ratio = 3.02, P = 0.01 for rs11654140; 1.41% vs. 0.58%, odds ratio = 2.29, P = 0.04 for rs568196624). The mRNA expression of UTS2R in the AIS group was significantly higher as compared with that in the control group (0.059 ± 0.015 vs. 0.035 ± 0.013, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Rare mutations in UTS2R were significantly associated with AIS. Expression of UTS2R was significantly increased in AIS patients. The role of UTS2 signaling in the development of AIS is worthy of further investigation.Level of Evidence: N/A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003786DOI Listing
March 2021

Are Higher Global Alignment and Proportion Scores Associated With Increased Risks of Mechanical Complications After Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery? An External Validation.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 02;479(2):312-320

K. Y. H. Kwan, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

Background: The Global Alignment and Proportion (GAP) score, based on pelvic incidence-based proportional parameters, was recently developed to predict mechanical complications after surgery for spinal deformities in adults. However, this score has not been validated in an independent external dataset.

Questions/purposes: After adult spinal deformity surgery, is a higher GAP score associated with (1) an increased risk of mechanical complications, defined as rod fractures, implant-related complications, proximal or distal junctional kyphosis or failure; (2) a higher likelihood of undergoing revision surgery to treat a mechanical complication; and (3) is a lower (more proportioned) GAP score category associated with better validated outcomes scores using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and the Short Form-36 questionnaires?

Methods: A total of 272 patients who had undergone corrective surgeries for complex spinal deformities were enrolled in the Scoli-RISK-1 prospective trial. Patients were included in this secondary analysis if they fulfilled the original inclusion criteria by Yilgor et al. From the original 272 patients, 14% (39) did not satisfy the radiographic inclusion criteria, the GAP score could not be calculated in 14% (37), and 24% (64) did not have radiographic assessment at postoperative 2 years, leaving 59% (159) for analysis in this review of data from the original trial. A total of 159 patients were included in this study,with a mean age of 58 ± 14 years at the time of surgery. Most patients were female (72%, 115 of 159), the mean number of levels involved in surgery was 12 ± 4, and three-column osteotomy was performed in 76% (120 of 159) of patients. The GAP score was calculated using parameters from early postoperative radiographs (between 3 and 12 weeks) including pelvic incidence, sacral slope, lumbar lordosis, lower arc lordosis and global tilt, which were independently obtained from a computer software based on centralized patient radiographs. The GAP score was categorized as proportional (scores of 0 to 2), moderately disproportional (scores of 3 to 6), or severely disproportional (scores higher than 7 to 13). Receiver operating characteristic area under curve (AUC) was used to assess associations between GAP score and risk of mechanical complications and risk of revision surgery. An AUC of 0.5 to 0.7 was classified as "no or low associative power", 0.7 to 0.9 as "moderate" and greater than 0.9 as "high". We analyzed differences in validated outcome scores between the GAP categories using Wilcoxon rank sum test.

Results: At a minimum of 2 years' follow-up, a higher GAP score was not associated with increased risks of mechanical complications (AUC = 0.60 [95% CI 0.50 to 0.70]). A higher GAP score was not associated with a higher likelihood of undergoing a revision surgery to treat a mechanical complication (AUC = 0.66 [95% 0.53 to 0.78]). However, a moderately disproportioned GAP score category was associated with better SF-36 physical component summary score (36 ± 10 versus 40 ± 11; p = 0.047), better SF-36 mental component summary score (46 ± 13 versus 51 ± 12; p = 0.01), better SRS-22 total score (3.4 ± 0.8 versus 3.7 ± 0.7, p = 0.02) and better ODI score (35 ± 21 versus 25 ± 20; p = 0.003) than severely disproportioned GAP score category.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this external validation study, we found that alignment targets based on the GAP score alone were not associated with increased risks of mechanical complications and mechanical revisions in patients with complex adult spinal disorders. Parameters not included in the original GAP score needed to be considered to reduce the likelihood of mechanical complications.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899533PMC
February 2021

Quality of Life During Pregnancy, Caesarean Section Rate, and Anesthesia in Women with a History of Anterior Correction Surgery for Lumbar Scoliosis: A Case-Control Study.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Oct 17;26:e926960. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Spine Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND This study investigated the prevalence and severity of low back pain (LBP), caesarean section (C-section) rate, and the anesthesia approaches among lumbar scoliosis patients undergoing anterior correction surgery, and compared them with a healthy control cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS The inclusion criteria for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients were: presence of lumbar scoliosis, history of 1 or more pregnancies after surgery, and underwent anterior-only surgery. Healthy women with a history of 1 pregnancy were included as the control group. We recorded the type of delivery, neonatal birth weight, and perinatal complications. The quality of life was also evaluated. RESULTS New-onset LBP was reported in 65.6% of AIS patients, significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.001). C-section was performed in 11 scoliosis patients (34.4%) and 25 healthy controls (31.25%), and the rates were not significantly different between groups (P=0.75). No serious perinatal complications were reported in either group. General anesthesia was used for all C-section AIS patients. The rate of successful neuraxial anesthesia in the control group was significantly higher (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Compared with the healthy control group, lumbar AIS patients did not experience a higher risk of perinatal complications or C-section rate after anterior surgical correction, but general anesthesia was more commonly used than neuraxial regional anesthesia. LBP was more frequently observed in the post-operative AIS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.926960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577072PMC
October 2020

Risk factors for postoperative coronal decompensation in adult lumbar scoliosis after posterior correction with osteotomy.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020 Oct 15. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Spine Surgery, Drum Town Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Zhongshan Road 321, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Introduction: To determine potential risk factors for postoperative coronal imbalance following posterior osteotomy for adult scoliosis.

Materials And Methods: A total of 74 patients underwent osteotomy for rigid adult lumbar scoliosis. A group of 20 patients with postoperative coronal imbalance was identified. Clinical data and surgical strategies were compared to determine the risk factors, including age, gender, etiology, Cobb angle, preoperative coronal balance distance, direction of preoperative imbalance, T1 tilt, tilt of upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), UIV translation, location of UIV (T6 above or below), fusion to L5 or S1, lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) tilt, LIV rotation, screw density, osteotomy procedure (PSO or SPOs) and use of iliac screws.

Results: Comparison between patients with and without postoperative coronal imbalance showed that postoperative coronal imbalance occurred in older patients and those with degenerative scoliosis as the etiology, UIV above T6, preoperative LIV rotation, preoperative LIV tilt and preoperative coronal imbalance towards the convex side and who underwent Smith-Petersen osteotomy. All seven parameters were included in the logistic regression analysis. UIV above T6 (P = 0.010), LIV rotation (P = 0.012) and preoperative coronal imbalance towards the convex side (P = 0.005) were identified as risk factors for postoperative coronal imbalance after osteotomy.

Conclusions: Patients with preoperative coronal imbalance towards the convex side (UIV above T6) and LIV rotation were more likely to develop coronal imbalance than those without risk factors. Older patients and those with degenerative scoliosis were also at a relatively higher risk of postoperative coronal imbalance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-020-03633-xDOI Listing
October 2020

Potential Risk of Thoracic Aorta Injury from Excessively Long Right Pedicle Screws in Patients with Left Thoracic Scoliosis: A Computed Tomography Image Study.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jan 9;145:e177-e183. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Spine Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We sought to investigate the changed position of thoracic aorta relative to spine in patients with left thoracic scoliosis and to analyze the potential risks of thoracic aorta injury from pedicle screw insertion in these patients.

Methods: Twenty patients with left thoracic scoliosis (Group A) and 15 normal subjects with a straight spine (Group B) were included. Axial computed tomography images from T5 to T12 of all these subjects were obtained to measure the aorta-vertebral angle. The percentages of thoracic aorta located anteriorly to the screw trajectory were calculated on both the left and right sides.

Results: The average aorta-vertebral angle in Group A was significantly larger than that in Group B at each level (P < 0.05) except T5. In Group A, both left and right pedicle screws might pose threats to the thoracic aorta. The percentages of aortas at risk from the right pedicle screw were high in the apical region. However, in Group B, only the left pedicle screw might pose threats to the aorta. No aorta was found to be at risk of injury from right pedicle screw insertion in Group B.

Conclusions: The thoracic aorta often lies anteriorly to the left pedicle screw trajectory in normal subjects, especially in the lower thoracic region. However, the thoracic aorta moves to the right side in patients with left thoracic scoliosis, making a large proportion of patients at risk of injury from right pedicle screw insertion in the apical region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.09.171DOI Listing
January 2021

Surgical Releasing for Severe and Rigid Scoliosis: Posterior Approach is Better than Anterior Approach.

Clin Spine Surg 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Spine Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000001086DOI Listing
October 2020

Bioinformatics Analysis of Genes and Mechanisms in Postherpetic Neuralgia.

Pain Res Manag 2020 24;2020:1380504. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Anesthesiology Department, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Dahua Road, Dong Dan, Beijing 100730, China.

Objective: Elderly patients are prone to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which may cause anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders and reduce quality of life. As a result, the life quality of patients was seriously reduced. However, the pathogenesis of PHN has not been fully elucidated, and current treatments remain inadequate. Therefore, it is important to explore the molecular mechanism of PHN.

Methods: We analyzed the GSE64345 dataset, which includes gene expression from the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of PHN model rats. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and analyzed by Gene Ontology. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. The miRNA associated with neuropathic pain and inflammation was found in miRNet. Hub genes were identified and analyzed in Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). miRNA-mRNA networks associated with PHN were constructed.

Results: A total of 116 genes were up-regulated in the DRG of PHN rats, and 135 genes were down-regulated. Functional analysis revealed that variations were predominantly enriched for genes involved in neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions, the Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and calcium channel activity. Eleven and thirty-one miRNAs associated with neuropathic pain and inflammation, respectively, were found. Eight hub genes (S1PR1, OPRM1, PDYN, CXCL3, S1PR5, TBX5, TNNI3, MYL7, PTGDR2, and FBXW2) associated with PHN were identified.

Conclusions: Bioinformatics analysis is a useful tool to explore the mechanism and pathogenesis of PHN. The identified hub genes may participate in the onset and development of PHN and serve as therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1380504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532419PMC
September 2020