Publications by authors named "Yong Li"

4,539 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Self-Detachment and Subsurface Densification of Dealloyed Nanoporous Thin Films.

Nano Lett 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Institute of Materials Physics and Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, 21073 Hamburg, Germany.

Experiment shows thin films of dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) spontaneously detaching from massive gold base layers. NPG can also densify near its external surface. This is naturally reproduced by kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation of dealloying and coarsening and so appears generic for nanoscale network materials evolving by surface diffusion. Near the porous layer's external surface and near its interface with the base layer, gradients in the depth-profile of a laterally averaged mean surface curvature provide driving forces for diffusion and cause divergences of the net fluxes of matter, leading to accretion/densification or to erosion/disconnection. As a toy model, the morphology evolution of substrate-supported nanopillars by surface diffusion illustrates and confirms our considerations. Contrary to cylindrical nanowires, the ligaments in nanoporous materials exhibit pre-existing gradients in the mean curvature. The Plateau-Rayleigh long-wavelength stability criterion is then not applicable and the disconnection accelerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c02666DOI Listing
August 2022

Targeting FAPα-expressing hepatic stellate cells overcomes resistance to anti-angiogenics in colorectal cancer liver metastasis models.

J Clin Invest 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Vessel co-option has been demonstrated to mediate colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM) resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. The current mechanisms underlying vessel co-option have mainly focused on the "hijacker" tumor cells, whereas the function of the "hijackee" sinusoidal blood vessels has not been explored. Here, we found that the occurrence of vessel co-option in bevacizumab-resistant CRCLM xenografts was associated with increased expression of fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAPα) in the co-opted hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which was dramatically attenuated in HSC-specific conditional Fap-knockout mice bearing CRCLM allografts. Mechanistically, bevacizumab treatment induced hypoxia to upregulate the expression of fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1 (FGFBP1) in tumor cells. Gain- or loss-of-function experiments revealed that the bevacizumab-resistant tumor cell-derived FGFBP1 induced FAPα expression by enhancing the paracrine FGF2-FGFR1-ERK1/2-EGR1 signaling pathway in HSCs. FAPα promoted CXCL5 secretion in HSCs, which activated CXCR2 to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These findings were further validated in CRCLM patient-derived tumor tissues. Targeting FAPα+ HSCs effectively disrupted the co-opted sinusoidal blood vessels and overcame bevacizumab resistance. Our study highlights the role of FAPα+ HSCs in vessel co-option and provides an effective strategy to overcome the vessel co-option-mediated bevacizumab resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI157399DOI Listing
August 2022

An affordable approach to classifying type 2 diabetes based on fasting plasma glucose, TyG index and BMI: a retrospective cohort study of NHANES Data from 1988 to 2014.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2022 Aug 10;14(1):113. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

College of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China.

Background: The β-cell function and insulin resistance required by existing methods of classifying type 2 diabetes are not routinely adopted in most medical institutions of developing countries and regions. This study aims to propose a novel, affordable classification approach and evaluate its predictive ability for several health and mortality outcomes, including cardiovascular health (CVH), retinopathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), advanced liver fibrosis, and mortality caused by all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer.

Methods: Based on 4060 participants with diabetes (aged ≥ 30 at the time of diagnosis) selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III & 1999-2014, we proposed a novel, but simple classification approach based on the threshold of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and body mass index (BMI). We used logistic regression model to assess its predictability for diabetes complications, and Cox regression model to estimate the mortality risks.

Results: By utilizing this approach, we characterized the subjects into four subgroups: subgroup A (obesity-related), which accounts for 37% of the total, subgroup B (age-related), 38%, subgroup C (insulin resistance), 20%, and subgroup D (severe insulin deficiency), 5%. Subjects in subgroup D had a higher risk of retinopathy, in subgroup B had a lower risk of poor cardiovascular health, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and advanced liver fibrosis, in subgroup C had a higher risk of all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: This study proposes an affordable and practical method for classifying patients with type 2 diabetes into different subgroups, with a view to yield a high predictability of patient outcomes and to assist clinicians in providing better treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-022-00883-0DOI Listing
August 2022

The Integration of Legal Education and Mental Health Education of College Students in the Contemporary Network Environment Facing the Cultivation of Civic Awareness.

J Environ Public Health 2022 30;2022:4858156. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 10029, China.

Since the world entered the era of network information, the influence of the Internet has been expanding day by day, and today's college students are deeply affected by the network environment, which has also brought unprecedented challenges to the moral education work of colleges and universities. The rule of law education for college students is a key point for the comprehensive implementation of the strategy of governing the country by law. How to enhance the effectiveness and recognition of the rule of law education for college students has become an important task of higher education. Therefore, strengthening the legal education of college students is not only an inevitable choice to fully implement the rule of law but also a realistic requirement to improve the level of higher education and realize the all-round development of college students. College students' mental health education is an important part of the talent training system of colleges and universities, and in-depth exploration of the ideological and political laws of college students' mental health education courses is an inevitable requirement for implementing the fundamental task of Lide Shuren. College students' mental health education courses must be integrated into the ideological and political concepts of the curriculum, reflect the political orientation of ideological and political work, embody the law of educating people with morality as the first, and embody the practical purpose of psychology to pay attention to personality improvement. It is necessary to optimize the content of education and teaching, excavate the elements of ideological politics in the curriculum, enrich the resources of ideological politics in the curriculum, and explore a new way of reforming the ideological and political education curriculum for college students from the aspects of deeply planting family and national feelings, enhancing political identity, strengthening cultural self-confidence, cultivating Chinese temperament, clarifying the meaning of life, strengthening mission responsibility, enhancing civic awareness, and developing law-abiding habits. Strictly regulate the behavior of contemporary college students in the online environment, give full play to the role of legal education, and reduce the incidence of online incidents such as online fraud and cyber violence. This paper puts forward some problems in the current legal education of college students in China and points out the root causes of these problems. Methods for structural reform and advanced cultural construction based on social development are proposed. From a strategic point of view, it is believed that only by managing the reform of legal education and cultivating civic awareness can we completely solve various contradictions and problems among college students in the network environment and pave the way for the development of college students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4858156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9356843PMC
August 2022

Pan-cancer analysis of the FAM83 family and its association with prognosis and tumor microenvironment.

Front Genet 2022 22;13:919559. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Family with sequence similarity 83 (FAM83) is a newly identified family of oncogenes whose members play important roles in signaling and cancer progression. However, a thorough understanding of the FAM83 family in tumors is still lacking. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression levels of the FAM83 family across cancers and patient prognoses using bioinformatics methods. We found that the expression levels of FAM83 family genes were upregulated in most tumors, and importantly, high expression levels of FAM83 family genes were related to poor prognosis in most tumors. In addition, we analyzed the relationship of FAM83 family genes with immune subtypes and the tumor microenvironment (TME). The results showed that FAM83 family genes were significantly associated with immune infiltrative subtypes and to varying degrees with the level of stromal cell infiltration and tumor stem cells. Finally, our study also showed the relationship between FAM83 family genes and drug sensitivity. Therefore, this pan-cancer analysis demonstrates the critical role of FAM83 family genes in tumor development and provides new clues for therapeutic strategies for cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.919559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353330PMC
July 2022

Intravascular treatment for abnormal catheter positioning of port-a-cath system in the subclavian vein: A single-center study.

J Interv Med 2022 May 21;5(2):103-110. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Shenzhen People's Hospital (Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology), Shenzhen, China.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the incidence of abnormal catheter positioning and the effectiveness and safety of intravascular adjustment or removal of abnormally positioned catheters through percutaneous punctures.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 58 patients with abnormal catheter positioning, treated between January 2009 and June 2019. Intravascular adjustment of the migrated catheters and removal of the fractured catheters were performed through percutaneous puncture using a pigtail catheter, cobra catheter, and gooseneck snare.

Results: Of the 58 cases, there were 23 cases of catheter migration and 35 cases of catheter fracture. The incidence of abnormal catheter positioning was 3.0%, corresponding to 1.2% migrations and 1.8% fractures. Among the 23 cases of migration, 1 case did not require adjustment and another underwent unsuccessful adjustment. The rate of successful adjustment of migrated catheters was 91.3%, whereas the rate of successful removal of fractured catheters was 100%. No surgery-related complications were observed either immediately or during the 1-month follow-up period.

Conclusions: This study showed that the incidence of abnormal catheter positioning is low. Intravascular techniques used for the adjustment or removal of abnormally placed catheters are safe, efficient, and minimally invasive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jimed.2022.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9349021PMC
May 2022

Tuning crystal-phase of bimetallic single-nanoparticle for catalytic hydrogenation.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 5;13(1):4559. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, China.

Bimetallic nanoparticles afford geometric variation and electron redistribution via strong metal-metal interactions that substantially promote the activity and selectivity in catalysis. Quantitatively describing the atomic configuration of the catalytically active sites, however, is experimentally challenged by the averaging ensemble effect that is caused by the interplay between particle size and crystal-phase at elevated temperatures and under reactive gases. Here, we report that the intrinsic activity of the body-centered cubic PdCu nanoparticle, for acetylene hydrogenation, is one order of magnitude greater than that of the face-centered cubic one. This finding is based on precisely identifying the atomic structures of the active sites over the same-sized but crystal-phase-varied single-particles. The densely-populated Pd-Cu bond on the chemically ordered nanoparticle possesses isolated Pd site with a lower coordination number and a high-lying valence d-band center, and thus greatly expedites the dissociation of H over Pd atom and efficiently accommodates the activated H atoms on the particle top/subsurfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32274-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355964PMC
August 2022

Application of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Chinese Expert Consensus.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 19;9:877237. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Nephrology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem, and cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in patients with CKD. The incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular events during the early stages of CKD increases significantly with a decline in renal function. More than 50% of dialysis patients die from cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, developing effective methods to control risk factors and improve prognosis is the primary focus during the diagnosis and treatment of CKD. For example, the SPRINT study demonstrated that CKD drugs are effective in reducing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events by controlling blood pressure. Uncontrolled blood pressure not only increases the risk of these events but also accelerates the progression of CKD. A co-crystal complex of sacubitril, which is a neprilysin inhibitor, and valsartan, which is an angiotensin receptor blockade, has the potential to be widely used against CKD. Sacubitril inhibits neprilysin, which further reduces the degradation of natriuretic peptides and enhances the beneficial effects of the natriuretic peptide system. In contrast, valsartan alone can block the angiotensin II-1 (AT1) receptor and therefore inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These two components can act synergistically to relax blood vessels, prevent and reverse cardiovascular remodeling, and promote natriuresis. Recent studies have repeatedly confirmed that the first and so far the only angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril/valsartan can reduce blood pressure more effectively than renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and improve the prognosis of heart failure in patients with CKD. Here, we propose clinical recommendations based on an expert consensus to guide ARNI-based therapeutics and reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.877237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343998PMC
July 2022

Determination of 19 Fragrance Allergens in Paper Household Goods by Solid-Liquid Extraction-Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction-GC-MS.

J AOAC Int 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 China.

Background: Fragrance allergens (FAs) refer to these volatile or semi-volatile fragrance compounds that can induce sensitization, and they are widely used in household goods.

Objective: In this work, a method combining solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed and applied in the analysis of 19 FAs (including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters and phenols) in paper household goods.

Method: The samples (infant or personal paper hygiene products) were cut into small pieces, and underwent SLE with methanol as solvent. The supernatant was taken, and ultrapure water, sodium chloride and trichloromethane (extractant) were added, which was mixed with vortex. After centrifugation, the bottom chloroform layer was taken for GC-MS detection.

Results: Under optimized conditions, a good linearity was achieved (r ≥ 0.9985) in the range of 0.01-128.0 mg/kg with relative standard deviations lower than 15%. The method showed limits of detection (LODs) within the range of 0.96-12.0 µg/kg and recoveries from 70.6% to 128.9% except furfuryl alcohol with low recoveries (53.8-64.6%). Twenty kinds of paper household goods samples were analyzed by this method, nine FAs were detected. The linalool detected in one sample was more than 10 mg/kg, and the contents of other analytes in this sample and all analytes in other samples were less than 10 mg/kg.

Conclusion: The performance evaluation of the method met the requirements of the analysis of trace components. The established method was successfully applied to the detection of FAs in paper household goods samples. The proposed method could provide a basis for the establishment of relevant detection standards in the future.

Highlights: The LODs were found between 0.96-12.0 µg/kg. A simple, economical and sensitive method was established for the determination of 19 FAs in paper household goods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jaoacint/qsac093DOI Listing
August 2022

A Case of Löffler Endocarditis Complicated with Listeria Sepsis.

Anatol J Cardiol 2022 08;26(8):665-667

Department of Renal Medicine, Fifth People's Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/AnatolJCardiol.2022.1342DOI Listing
August 2022

TP53 mutation detected in circulating exosomal DNA is associated with prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cancer Biol Ther 2022 Dec;23(1):439-445

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Exosome DNA (exoDNA) can be used for liquid biopsy. This study was the first to use droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to detect tumor-specific mutations in exoDNA and to evaluate the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. 60 HCC patients were enrolled in the study. We used ddPCR to detect c.747 G > T mutation in TP53 gene. We analyzed the correlation between detectable mutation in exoDNA and clinicopathologic characteristics using Multivariate logistics regression analysis. We performed Cox regression to assess the correlation between mutation frequency (mutant droplets/total droplets, MD/TD) and prognostic. We found that 48 of 60 patients had c.747 G > T mutation in TP53 gene in exoDNA (80.0%). We found that detectable mutation in exoDNA and age were associated with microvascular invasion (MVI) (P < .01). The ROC curve analysis revealed that the best cutoff value of mutation frequency to predict MVI was 67% (sensitivity 48.15%, specificity 93.94%,), the corresponding AUC was 0.761 (95%CI, 0.640-0.866; P < .01). Furthermore, we found that patients suffered high-frequency mutation (>67%) had shorted median recurrence-free survival (RFS) with 63 days (range, 53-202 days), compared with 368 days (range, 51-576 days) for patients with low-frequency mutation (<67%) (HR:4.61; 95% CI, 1.70-12.48; P = 0 .003). We also found that high-frequency mutation was associated with poor prognosis though patients had better pathological characteristics, such as AFP (<400 ng/mL), Liver cirrhosis (Negative), Tumor thrombus (Negative), Tumor numbers (Single) and Post-operation TACE (Executed). We provided evidence that the mutations in exoDNA might be used to predict patients with poor RFS. TP53: Tumor protein p53; ExoDNA: Exosomal DNA; HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma; ddPCR: Droplet digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR); MD/TD: The ratio of mutant droplets/total droplets; AFP: Alpha-fetoprotein; MVI: Microvascular invasion; RFS: Recurrence-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2022.2094666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354767PMC
December 2022

Identification of Ferroptosis-Associated Long Noncoding RNA Prognostic Model and Tumor Immune Microenvironment in Thyroid Cancer.

J Immunol Res 2022 20;2022:5893998. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Wuhan Fourth Hospital, Wuhan 430033, China.

Background: Thyroid cancer (TC) is a rapidly increasing incidence of endocrine malignancies, occupying 3% of new cancer incidence, of which 10% has a heterogeneous prognosis. Ferroptosis is a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis, which involves antitumor drug-related research. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) could affect cancer prognosis by regulating the ferroptosis; thus, ferroptosis-associated lncRNAs are emerging as prospective biomarkers for cancer therapy and prognosis. However, the prognostic factors of ferroptosis-associated lncRNAs in this solid tumor and their mechanisms remain unknown.

Methods: The TC lncRNA data were extracted from RNA sequencing files of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Then, we performed a two-cluster analysis and grouped 502 patients with TC in a 7 : 3 ratio. Both the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression and Cox regression analysis were conducted to create and validate the ferroptosis-associated lncRNA prognostic model (Ferr-LPM). Based on the median Ferr-LPM-based risk score (LPM_score) of the training cohort, we categorized patients into high and low LPM_score groups, which were then subjected to prognostic correlation and difference analysis. We also created a nomogram and assessed its predictive ability. Furthermore, immune-related mechanisms were investigated by analyzing the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) and applying algorithms such as CIBERSROT.

Results: We built a highly accurate nomogram to promote the clinical applicability of Ferr-LPM. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) reached above 0.9. Survival analysis suggested that when the Ferr-LPM score was higher, the overall survival (OS) of patients within this group was shorter. Meanwhile, we found a strong association between Ferr-LPM and TIME. Interestingly, the LPM_score was inversely proportional to the tumor purity but positively related to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) response.

Conclusion: We constructed a novel ferroptosis-associated lncRNA nomogram that could highly predict the prognosis of TC patients. Ferroptosis-associated lncRNAs might possess potential functions in regulating TIME, and lncRNAs provide TC patients with new prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5893998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338734PMC
August 2022

The Value of 320-Slice Spiral Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging in Staging and Long-Term Dynamic Evaluation of Breast Cancer.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 21;2022:7442123. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, 075000 Hebei, China.

The value of 320-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging in staging and long-term dynamic evaluation of breast cancer was explored. 120 breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative CT examination and were confirmed by surgery and pathology were selected. All patients underwent preoperative TNM staging of breast cancer, with 120 cases in each stage. According to the results of 320-slice spiral CT, the postoperative pathology and surgical methods were compared and analyzed. CT diagnosis of breast cancer showed that T1 sensitivity was 71% and accuracy was 61%, T2 sensitivity was 74% and accuracy was 64%, T3 sensitivity was 94% and the accuracy was 84%, and the T4 sensitivity was 100% and the accuracy was 91%. The sensitivity of N1 stage was 71%, and the accuracy was 61%; and the sensitivity of N2 ~ N3 stage was 81%, and the accuracy was 76%. There were 7 cases of M1 with distant metastasis, the sensitivity was 71%, and the accuracy was 71%. At T1 stage, blood flow (BF) was 39.2 ± 16.7 mL/min/100 g, blood volume (BV) was 2.66 ± 1.4 mL/100 g, mean transit time (MTT) was 8.16 ± 2.7 s, and permeability surface (PS) was 16.6 ± 9.7 mL/min/100 g. 320-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging technology provided a new diagnostic mode for everyone, which can quantitatively identify breast cancer with multiple parameters, which was of great significance for clinical auxiliary diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7442123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334064PMC
August 2022

A lncRNA fine-tunes salicylic acid biosynthesis to balance plant immunity and growth.

Cell Host Microbe 2022 Aug 30;30(8):1124-1138.e8. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Biotic Interactions, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Constitutive activation of plant immunity is detrimental to plant growth and development. Here, we uncover the role of a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in fine-tuning the balance of plant immunity and growth. We find that a lncRNA termed salicylic acid biogenesis controller 1 (SABC1) suppresses immunity and promotes growth in healthy plants. SABC1 recruits the polycomb repressive complex 2 to its neighboring gene NAC3, which encodes a NAC transcription factor, to decrease NAC3 transcription via H3K27me3. NAC3 activates the transcription of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), a key enzyme catalyzing salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis. SABC1 thus represses SA production and plant immunity via decreasing NAC3 and ICS1 transcriptions. Upon pathogen infection, SABC1 is downregulated to derepress plant resistance to bacteria and viruses. Together, our findings reveal lncRNA SABC1 as a molecular switch in balancing plant defense and growth by modulating SA biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2022.07.001DOI Listing
August 2022

Exogenous Nucleotides Improved the Oxidative Stress and Sirt-1 Protein Level of Brown Adipose Tissue on Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone-8 (SAMP8) Mice.

Nutrients 2022 Jul 7;14(14). Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is of great importance in rodents for maintaining their core temperature via non-shivering thermogenesis in the mitochondria. BAT's thermogenic function has been shown to decline with age. The activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase/sirtuin-1 (AMPK/Sirt-1) is effective in regulating mitochondrial function. Exogenous nucleotides (NTs) are regulatory factors in many biological processes. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which is a derivative of NTs, is widely known as a Sirt-1 activator in liver and muscle, but the effect of NMN and NTs on aging BAT has not been studied before. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NTs on aging senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice. Senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice were set as the model control group and NMN was used as the positive control. Male, 3 month old SAMP8 mice were divided into the SAMP8-normal chow (SAMP8-NC), SAMP8-young-normal chow (SAMP8-young-NC), NMN, NTs-free, NTs-low, NTs-medium, and NTs-high groups for long-term feeding. After 9 months of intervention, interscapular BAT was collected for experiments. Compared to the SAMP8-NC, the body weight and BAT mass were significantly improved in the NT-treated aging SAMP8 mice. NT supplementation had effects on oxidative stress in BAT. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced and that of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly. Meanwhile, the expression of the brown adipocyte markers uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactlvator-1α (PGC-1α), and PR domain zinc finger protein 16 (PRDM16) were upregulated. The upregulated proteins may be activated via the Sirt-1 pathway. Thus, NT supplementation may be helpful to improve the thermogenesis of BAT by reducing oxidative stress and activating the Sirt-1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14142796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9320366PMC
July 2022

Enhanced Energy-Storage Performances in Sodium Bismuth Titanate-Based Relaxation Ferroelectric Ceramics with Optimized Polarization by Tuning Sintering Temperature.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jul 18;15(14). Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Ferroelectric-Related New Energy Materials and Devices, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010, China.

Energy-storage capacitors based on relaxation ferroelectric ceramics have attracted a lot of interest in pulse power devices. How to improve the energy density by designing the structure of ceramics through simple approaches is still a challenge. Herein, enhanced energy-storage performances are achieved in relaxation ferroelectric 0.9 (0.94NaBiTiO-0.06BaTiO)-0.1NaNbO (NBT-BT-NN) ceramics by tuning sintering temperature. The original observation based on Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) presented that the sintering temperature has a key effect on the electrical homogeneousness of the ceramics. It is found that a high electrical homogeneousness can induce quick and active domain switching due to the weakening of the constraint from built-in fields, resulting in a big polarization difference. This work provides a feasible strategy to design high-performance energy-storage ceramic capacitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15144981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325321PMC
July 2022

A Heterologous V-01 or Variant-Matched Bivalent V-01D-351 Booster following Primary Series of Inactivated Vaccine Enhances the Neutralizing Capacity against SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron Strains.

J Clin Med 2022 Jul 18;11(14). Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Zhuhai Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhuhai People's Hospital, Zhuhai Hospital Affiliated with Jinan University, Zhuhai 519000, China.

Immune escape of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and waning immunity over time following the primary series suggest the importance and necessity of booster shot of COVID-19 vaccines. With the aim to preliminarily evaluate the potential of heterologous boosting, we conducted two pilot studies to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the V-01 or a bivalent V-01D-351 (targeting Delta and Beta strain) booster after 5-7 months of the primary series of inactivated COVID-9 vaccine (ICV). A total of 77 participants were enrolled, with 20 participants in the V-01D-351 booster study, and 27, 30 participants in the age stratified participants of V-01 booster study. The safety results showed that V-01 or V-01D-351 was safe and well-tolerated as a heterologous booster shot, with overall adverse reactions predominantly being absent or mild in severity. The immunogenicity results showed that the heterologous prime-boost immunization with V-01 or bivalent V-01D-351 booster induced stronger humoral immune response as compared with the homologous booster with ICV. In particular, V-01D-351 booster showed the highest pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers against prototype SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron BA.1 strains at day 14 post boosting, with GMTs 22.7, 18.3, 14.3 times higher than ICV booster, 6.2, 6.1, 3.8 times higher than V-01 booster (10 μg), and 5.2, 3.8, 3.5 times higher than V-01 booster (25 μg), respectively. The heterologous V-01 booster also achieved a favorable safety and immunogenicity profile in older participants. Our study has provided evidence for a flexible roll-out of heterologous boosters and referential approaches for variant-specific vaccine boosters, with rationally conserved but diversified epitopes relative to primary series, to build herd immunity against the ongoing pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11144164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317108PMC
July 2022

Increased Acetylcholine Levels and Other Brain Effects in 5XFAD Mice after Treatment with 8,14-Dihydroxy Metabolite of Efavirenz.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 11;23(14). Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Efavirenz (EFV), an FDA-approved anti-HIV drug, has off-target binding to CYP46A1, the CNS enzyme which converts cholesterol to 24-hydroxycholesterol. At small doses, EFV allosterically activates CYP46A1 in mice and humans and mitigates some of the Alzheimer's disease manifestations in 5XFAD mice, an animal model. Notably, in vitro, all phase 1 EFV hydroxymetabolites activate CYP46A1 as well and bind either to the allosteric site for EFV, neurotransmitters or both. Herein, we treated 5XFAD mice with 8,14-dihydroxyEFV, the binder to the neurotransmitter allosteric site, which elicits the highest CYP46A1 activation in vitro. We found that treated animals of both sexes had activation of CYP46A1 and cholesterol turnover in the brain, decreased content of the amyloid beta 42 peptide, increased levels of acetyl-CoA and acetylcholine, and altered expression of the brain marker proteins. In addition, male mice had improved performance in the Barnes Maze test and increased expression of the acetylcholine-related genes. This work expands our knowledge of the beneficial CYP46A1 activation effects and demonstrates that 8,14-dihydroxyEFV crosses the blood-brain barrier and has therapeutic potential as a CYP46A1 activator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317559PMC
July 2022

The Ethylene Response Factor ERF5 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in 'Zijin' Mulberry Fruits by Interacting with and Genes.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 9;23(14). Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Industrial Crops Institute of Hubei, Wuhan 430064, China.

Ethylene promotes ripening in fruits as well as the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in plants. However, the question of which ethylene response factors (ERFs) interact with the genes along the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway is yet to be answered. Herein, we conduct an integrated analysis of transcriptomes and metabolome on fruits of two mulberry genotypes ('Zijin', ZJ, and 'Dashi', DS, with high and low anthocyanin abundance, respectively) at different post-flowering stages. In total, 1035 upregulated genes were identified in ZJ and DS, including in the MBW complex and anthocyanin related genes such as . A KEGG analysis suggested that flavonoid biosynthesis and plant hormone signaling transduction pathways were significantly enriched in the upregulated gene list. In particular, among 103 genes, the expression of showed the most positive correlation with the anthocyanin change pattern across both genotypes and in the post-flowering stages, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.93. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and luciferase assay suggested that ERF5 binds to the promoter regions of MYBA and F3H and transcriptionally activates their gene expression. We elucidated a potential mechanism by which ethylene enhances anthocyanin accumulation in mulberry fruits and highlighted the importance of the gene in controlling the anthocyanin content in mulberry species. This knowledge could be used for engineering purposes in future mulberry breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9318412PMC
July 2022

d-Borneol enhances cisplatin sensitivity via p21/p27-mediated S-phase arrest and cell apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells and a murine xenograft model.

Cell Mol Biol Lett 2022 Jul 26;27(1):61. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Background: Cisplatin (CDDP) is commonly used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the appearance of drug resistance greatly hinders its efficacy. Borneol may promote drug absorption; however, synergism between borneol and CDDP in suppressing NSCLC is not clearly understood. Hence, we investigated borneol as a novel chemosensitizer to support chemotherapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects.

Methods: We compared viability after exposure to d-borneol, l-borneol, and synthetic borneol in two NSCLC cell lines, A549 and H460, and selected the most sensitive cells. We then assessed synergy between borneol forms and CDDP in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells, H460/CDDP. Next, we identified effective concentrations and exposure times. Subsequently, we evaluated cell migration via wound healing and cell proliferation via clone formation assay. Then, we focused on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function, cell cycle, apoptosis, and RNA sequencing to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms for synergy. Finally, we used an H460/CDDP xenograft tumor model to verify antitumor activity and safety in vivo. Data were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for multiple datasets or t-test for comparisons between two variables.

Results: d-Borneol was more effective in H460 than A549 cells. d-Borneol combined with CDDP showed greater inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and clone formation in H460/CDDP cells than CDDP alone. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis identified differentially expressed genes enriched in cell cycle pathways. The impact of d-borneol on CDDP chemosensitivity involved arrest of the cell cycle at S phase via p27/p21-mediated cyclinA2/D3-CDK2/6 signaling and activation of intrinsic apoptosis via p21-mediated Bax/Bcl-2/caspase3 signaling. Further, d-borneol ameliorated drug resistance by suppressing levels and activity of P-gp. Cotreatment with d-borneol and CDDP inhibited tumor growth in vivo and reduced CDDP-caused liver and kidney toxicity.

Conclusions: d-Borneol increased the efficacy of cisplatin and reduced its toxicity. This compound has the potential to become a useful chemosensitizer for drug-resistance NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11658-022-00362-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9327246PMC
July 2022

High Conduction Band Inorganic Layers for Distinct Enhancement of Electrical Energy Storage in Polymer Nanocomposites.

Nanomicro Lett 2022 Jul 25;14(1):151. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Ageing, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China.

Dielectric polymer nanocomposites are considered as one of the most promising candidates for high-power-density electrical energy storage applications. Inorganic nanofillers with high insulation property are frequently introduced into fluoropolymer to improve its breakdown strength and energy storage capability. Normally, inorganic nanofillers are thought to introducing traps into polymer matrix to suppress leakage current. However, how these nanofillers effect the leakage current is still unclear. Meanwhile, high dopant (> 5 vol%) is prerequisite for distinctly improved energy storage performance, which severely deteriorates the processing and mechanical property of polymer nanocomposites, hence brings high technical complication and cost. Herein, boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) layers are utilized for substantially improving the electrical energy storage capability of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite. Results reveal that the high conduction band minimum of BNNS produces energy barrier at the interface of adjacent layers, preventing the electron in PVDF from passing through inorganic layers, leading to suppressed leakage current and superior breakdown strength. Accompanied by improved Young's modulus (from 1.2 GPa of PVDF to 1.6 GPa of nanocomposite), significantly boosted discharged energy density (14.3 J cm) and charge-discharge efficiency (75%) are realized in multilayered nanocomposites, which are 340 and 300% of PVDF (4.2 J cm, 25%). More importantly, thus remarkably boosted energy storage performance is accomplished by marginal BNNS. This work offers a new paradigm for developing dielectric nanocomposites with advanced energy storage performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-022-00902-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314523PMC
July 2022

Study on HPLC Fingerprint, Network Pharmacology, and Antifungal Activity of Rumex Japonicus Houtt.

J AOAC Int 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, 130117 China.

Background: Rumex japonicus Houtt (R. japonicus) is mainly used to treat various skin diseases in Southeast Asia. However, there are few researches on its quality evaluation methods and anti-fungal activity.

Objective: To establish the quality control criteria for the effective parts from R. japonicus against psoriasis.

Method: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established for its fingerprint, the similarity evaluation, cluster (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to reveal the differences of those fingerprints among the tested R. japonicus. Network pharmacology analyzed the relationship between the components and psoriasis, revealing the potential targets of R. japonicus. Oxford cup anti-candida albicans experiment was used to verify the antifungal activity of R. japonicus.

Results: HPLC was developed for R. japonicus fingerprint by optimizing for 10 batches of quinquennial R. japonicus from different habitats, the 18 common peaks were identified with 10 characteristic peaks such as rutin, quercetin, aloe-emodin, nepodin, emodin, musizin-8-O-β-D-glucoside, chrysophanol, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and aloin, respectively; The network pharmacology-based analysis showed a high correlation between R. japonicus and psoriasis, revealing the potential targets of R. japonicus. The oxford cup anti-candida albicans experiment displayed a significant activity response to emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and the ethyl acetate fraction of R. japonicus acidic aqueous extract.

Conclusions: A new and optimized HPLC method was created, the research provides an experimental basis for the development of effective drugs related to candida albicans.

Highlights: The fingerprint of R. japonicus was organically combined with network pharmacology to further clarify its criteria for quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jaoacint/qsac079DOI Listing
July 2022

Long COVID and its Management.

Int J Biol Sci 2022 11;18(12):4768-4780. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Centre of Reproduction, Development & Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China.

The pandemic of COVID-19 is the biggest public health crisis in 21 Century. Besides the acute symptoms after infection, patients and society are also being challenged by the long-term health complications associated with COVID-19, commonly known as long COVID. While health professionals work hard to find proper treatments, large amount of knowledge has been accumulated in recent years. In order to deal with long COVID efficiently, it is important for people to keep up with current progresses and take proactive actions on long COVID. For this purpose, this review will first introduce the general background of long COVID, and then discuss its risk factors, diagnostic indicators and management strategies. This review will serve as a useful resource for people to understand and prepare for long COVID that will be with us in the foreseeable future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.75056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9305273PMC
July 2022

Origin and Genesis of the Permain Hydrocarbon in the Northeast of the Dongdaohaizi Depression, Junggar Basin, China.

ACS Omega 2022 Jul 5;7(28):24157-24173. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

School of Geoscience and Technology, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China.

Dongdaohaizi area is an important hydrocarbon-rich depression in the Junggar Basin. Early resource evaluation has revealed that it has superior hydrocarbon generation conditions. No major exploration breakthrough has been observed in the hydrocarbon from the Permian Pingdiquan Formation source rocks, which are widely distributed and have a large sedimentary thickness. The unclear recognition of the genesis, the sources, and the hydrocarbon evolution history of the formation seriously restricted further exploration and development. Sixty-four samples were acquired during the study, consisting of 30 source rocks, 13 crude oil samples, and 21 natural gas samples. Studying the geochemical characteristics of the source rock extract and the surrounding structural crude oil in the Dongdaohaizi Depression, the differences in the stable carbon isotope, the biomarker compound, and the molecular relative composition of the three sets of main source rock products in the research fields are summarized. The results reflect that the drying coefficient of natural gas in the study area is generally low, and the fractional distillation value of methane and ethane is 0.32, which is most likely due to the loss of oil and gas migration and the mixing of different types of natural gases. The carbon isotope value is relatively low, with the Pr/Ph being generally less than 3.0. The content of sterane C is the highest in the relative composition of steranes, followed by the content of sterane C, which together account for more than 80% of the total sterane content, and then followed by a lower content of C sterane, accounting for only 5-20% of the total content, which generally conforms to the characteristics of Permian Pingdiquan Formation source rock products. The carbon isotope value of crude oil ranges from -30.94 to -28.31‰, which is different from the characteristics of typical Permian source rocks (values range from -34.49 to -28.21‰), while it is related to typical Carboniferous products (values range from -29.98 to -24.1‰), indicating that small amounts of Carboniferous source rock products were mixed in different degrees in the Dinan fault area. According to the distribution law of oil and gas, the geochemical characteristics and hydrocarbon sources were considered the oil source in the east of the Dongdaohaizi Depression, mainly from the source rocks of the Permian Pingdiquan Formation. The products of the peak period of hydrocarbon generation in the source rocks of the Pingdiquan Formation have not been transported to the high structural positions on a large scale to form reservoirs. They may still exist in the deep part of the Depression and the slope area. The low-amplitude structural and lithologic traps in the slope area of the Dongdahaizi Depression are promising targets for finding the products of the peak period of hydrocarbon generation. This is of great significance to reveal the Permain hydrocarbon evolution in the Junggar Basin and guide further research on the oil-source correlation of natural gas from the paleo-strata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c00725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9301646PMC
July 2022

Single-nucleus chromatin accessibility and RNA sequencing reveal impaired brain development in prenatally e-cigarette exposed neonatal rats.

iScience 2022 Aug 30;25(8):104686. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Center for Genomics, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, 11021 Campus St., Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

Although emerging evidence reveals that vaping alters the function of the central nervous system, the effects of maternal vaping on offspring brain development remain elusive. Using a well-established exposure model, we performed single-nucleus ATAC-seq (snATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) on prenatally e-cigarette-exposed rat brains. We found that maternal vaping distorted neuronal lineage differentiation in the neonatal brain by promoting excitatory neurons and inhibiting lateral ganglionic eminence-derived inhibitory neuronal differentiation. Moreover, maternal vaping disrupted calcium homeostasis, induced microglia cell death, and elevated susceptibility to cerebral ischemic injury in the developing brain of offspring. Our results suggest that the aberrant calcium signaling, diminished microglial population, and impaired microglia-neuron interaction may all contribute to the underlying mechanisms by which prenatal e-cigarette exposure impairs neonatal rat brain development. Our findings raise the concern that maternal vaping may cause adverse long-term brain damage to the offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9304611PMC
August 2022

Experimental evidence for the impact of phages on mineralization of soil-derived dissolved organic matter under different temperature regimes.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 21:157517. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Key Laboratory of Biotechnology in Plant Protection of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China. Electronic address:

Microbial mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in regulating C and nutrient cycling. Viruses are the most abundant biological agents on Earth, but their effect on the density and activity of soil microorganisms and, consequently, on mineralization of DOM under different temperatures remains poorly understood. To assess the impact of viruses on DOM mineralization, we added soil phage concentrate (active vs. inactive phage control) to four DOM extracts containing inoculated microbial communities and incubated them at 18 °C and 23 °C for 32 days. Infection with active phages generally decreased DOM mineralization at day one and showed accelerated DOM mineralization later (especially from day 5 to 15) compared to that with the inactivated phages. Overall, phage infection increased the microbially driven CO release. Notably, while higher temperature increased the total CO release, the cumulative CO release induced by phage infection (difference between active phages and inactivated control) was not affected. However, higher temperatures advanced the response time of the phages but shortening its active period. Our findings suggest that bacterial predation by phages can significantly affect soil DOM mineralization. Therefore, higher temperatures may accelerate host-phage interactions and thus, the duration of C recycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157517DOI Listing
July 2022

A sustainable closed-loop method of selective oxidation leaching and regeneration for lithium iron phosphate cathode materials from spent batteries.

J Environ Manage 2022 Jul 19;319:115740. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Sino-Platinum Metals Resources (Yimen) Co. Ltd., Yuxi, 651100, Yunnan, China.

A sustainable closed-loop method for recovering waste lithium iron phosphate batteries is developed in this paper. Li was selectively leached from cathode materials in a system of NaHSO and HO. Under the optimal conditions of leaching temperature of 65 °C, 1.1 times molar quantity NaHSO, 2 vol% HO, solid-liquid ratio of 100 g/L and leaching time of 15 min, the leaching efficiency of Li can reach 99.84%, while Fe is only 0.048%. Meanwhile, XRD, FTIR, XPS and TEM analysis were carried out to explore the conversion mechanism in the oxidation leaching process of the original raw and leaching products. Li in the filtrate was precipitated with NaCO and converted into LiCO. The precipitated salty wastewater can be converted into leaching agent for recycling by adding a certain amount of sulfuric acid. The recycled products are used to synthesize LiFePO materials, and regenerated LiFePO materials show good electrochemical properties. The discharge capacity displays 141.3 mAhg at 1C, with the capacity retention rate of 99.4% after 200 cycles. This study provides a sustainable closed-loop process for recycling and reuse of waste LiFePO batteries, which promotes resource conservation and environmental protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115740DOI Listing
July 2022

Response to letter entitled: Re: 'Adjuvant stereotactic body radiotherapy after marginal resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with micro-vascular invasion: A randomized controlled trial'.

Eur J Cancer 2022 Jul 18. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Hepatology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2022.06.022DOI Listing
July 2022

Genetic and Pathogenic Characterization of Avian Influenza Virus in Migratory Birds between 2015 and 2019 in Central China.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jul 12:e0165222. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, CAS Center for Influenza Research and Early Warning, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Active surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in wetlands and lakes is important for exploring the gene pool in wild birds. Through active surveillance from 2015 through 2019, 10,900 samples from wild birds in central China were collected, and 89 AIVs were isolated, including 2 subtypes of highly pathogenic AIV and 12 of low-pathogenic AIV; H9N2 and H6Ny were the dominant subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates demonstrated that extensive intersubtype reassortments and frequent intercontinental gene exchange occurred in AIVs. AIV gene segments persistently circulated in several migration seasons, but interseasonal persistence of the whole genome was rare. The whole genomes of one H6N6 and polymerase basic 2 (PB2), polymerase acidic (PA), hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), M, and nonstructural (NS) genes of one H9N2 virus were found to be of poultry origin, suggesting a spillover of AIVs from poultry to wild birds. Importantly, one H9N2 virus only bound to human-type receptor, and one H1N1, four H6, and seven H9N2 viruses possessed dual receptor-binding capacity. Nineteen of 20 representative viruses tested could replicate in the lungs of mice without preadaptation, which poses a clear threat of infection in humans. Together, our study highlights the need for intensive AIV surveillance. Influenza virus surveillance in wild birds plays an important role in the early recognition and control of the virus. However, the AIV gene pool in wild birds in central China along the East Asian-Australasian flyway has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a 5-year AIV active surveillance in this region. Our data revealed the long-term circulation and prevalence of AIVs in wild birds in central China, and we observed that intercontinental gene exchange of AIVs is more frequent and continuous than previously thought. Spillover events from poultry to wild bird were observed in H6 and H9 viruses. In addition, in 20 representative viruses, 12 viruses could bind human-type receptors, and 19 viruses could replicate in mice without preadaption. Our work highlights the potential threat of wild bird AIVs to public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.01652-22DOI Listing
July 2022
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