Publications by authors named "Yong Hyun Kim"

298 Publications

Characterization of aerosols produced during shampoo use and harmful chemicals in shampoo aerosols.

Environ Res 2021 Aug 31;204(Pt A):111957. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Inhalation Toxicology Center for Airborne Risk Factor, Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT), Jeongeup, 56212, Republic of Korea; Humidifier Disinfectant Health Center, Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT), Jeongeup, 56212, Republic of Korea; Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To declare a shampoo toxicologically safe, one should evaluate the hazards posed by the inhalation of aerosols produced during its use. Herein, tap water was sprayed into a shampoo-filled plastic container to investigate the formation of shampoo aerosols and the possibility of their inhalation. The aerosols thus obtained had higher mass concentrations (geometric mean = 5779 μg m (PM) and 2249 μg m (PM)) than water aerosols (geometric mean = 927 μg m (PM) and 476 μg m (PM)). In particular, shampoo aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm, which can penetrate the alveoli when inhaled, had the highest mass concentration (geometric mean = 2000 μg m). The volatile organic compounds contained in shampoo aerosols featured alcohol and ether groups attached to dodecane and tetradecane backbones; these compounds were generated by the thermal decomposition of surfactants (i.e., lauryl and laureth sulfates) during instrumental analysis. The acquired data suggest that inhalation exposure and chronic inhalation toxicity evaluations should be performed for various shampoo usage conditions to ensure inhalation safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111957DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of asthma comorbidity with poor prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019.

World Allergy Organ J 2021 Aug 16;14(8):100576. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.

Background: While global health agencies have listed asthma as a vulnerability for severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the evidence supporting this is scarce.

Methods: A nationwide cohort study was conducted using the validated Korean national health insurance claim data of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 1 and April 8, 2020. Asthma comorbidity was determined using a diagnosis code assigned by the physician and the prescription of asthma-related medications. The clinical course of COVID-19 was classified into 3 severity grades according to the requirements for oxygen supply and mechanical ventilation. We also evaluated the association of asthma with overall and in-hospital mortality of COVID-19.

Results: Asthma morbidity was a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 (grade 2 requiring oxygen supply) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.341, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.051-1.711, P = 0.018) and grade 3 requiring mechanical ventilation or leading to death (aOR = 1.723, 95% CI: 1.230-2.412, P = 0.002) multinomial logistic regression adjusting co-risk factors. Asthma was also significantly associated with mortality of COVID-19 (aOR = 1.453, 95% CI: 1.015-2.080, P = 0.041) and was revealed to have a shorter time to in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Patients with recent asthma exacerbation showed more severe COVID-19 of grade 3 (OR = 7.371, 95% CI: 2.018-26.924, P = 0.003) and higher mortality (OR = 9.208, 95% CI: 2.597-32.646, P < 0.001) in univariable analysis, but the statistical significance was not found in multivariable analysis.

Conclusion: Asthma morbidity was associated with severity and mortality of COVID-19. Patients with asthma should pay more attention to avoid worsening of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364802PMC
August 2021

Multicolor imaging for detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defect in myopic eyes with glaucoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 25. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic performance of multicolor imaging for detection of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect in myopic eyes with glaucoma.

Design: Comparative diagnostic analysis.

Methods: A total of 150 myopic eyes of 138 patients (< -1.00 D, or axial length > 24 mm) underwent multicolor imaging by Spectralis® optical coherence tomography (OCT; Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany). Two independent observers graded the RNFL visibility score and determined the location of RNFL defect on each image. Readings were taken from the superior and inferior areas. The diagnostic performances of multicolor, green-reflectance, and blue-reflectance images for detection of RNFL defect were compared with those of conventional fundus and red-free RNFL photographs.

Results: The interobserver agreement on RNFL visibility score was high: substantial for fundus and RNFL photographs, multicolor and green-reflectance images, and perfect for blue-reflectance images. The interobserver agreement on location of RNFL defect was better when using multicolor imaging than when using conventional photography. The green-reflectance image (2.89 ± 0.31) showed the highest RNFL visibility score, followed by blue-reflectance (2.88 ± 0.32) and multicolor (2.57 ± 0.63) images. The sensitivity of multicolor imaging (94.9%, 93.2%, and 91.5% for green-reflectance, blue-reflectance, and multicolor images, respectively) was significantly higher than that of fundus photography (83.1%) for detection of superotemporal RNFL defect (all P < 0.05). For inferotemporal defect, it was significantly higher than those of fundus and RNFL photographs (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Multicolor imaging can visualize myopic eyes' glaucomatous RNFL defects that are indistinguishable on conventional photography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2021.07.022DOI Listing
July 2021

Mitigating the Undesirable Chemical Reaction between Organic Molecules for Highly Efficient Flexible Organic Photovoltaics.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 7;8(14):2100865. Epub 2021 May 7.

Surface Materials Division Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS) Changwon-daero 797 Changwon 51508 Republic of Korea.

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) feature excellent device performance and device stability. However, they are facing problems when the amine-rich polyelectrolytes are used as cathode interfacial layers. In this work, a small molecule, ethanedithiol (EDT) at the polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE)/active layer interface is inserted for mitigating the undesirable reaction between amine-rich groups and electron-acceptor moieties in NFA. The main role of EDT is to passivate the PEIE surface and prevent electron flow to NFA and the unwanted reaction can be mitigated. It improves the performance of OPV devices by reducing the work function, decreasing trap-assisted recombination, and improving electron-mobility. As a result, the flexible device with the PEIE interfacial layer with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.20% can be improved to 10.11% after the inclusion of EDT. Moreover, EDT-modified device can retain 98.18% after it is bent for 200 cycles and can maintain 80.83% of its initial PCE under continuous light illuminated in ambient conditions without any encapsulation. Based on these findings, the proposed strategy constitutes a crucial step toward highly efficient flexible OPVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292892PMC
July 2021

Tailored growth of single-crystalline InP tetrapods.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 22;12(1):4454. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Energy Science and Center for Artificial Atoms, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Despite the technological importance of colloidal covalent III-V nanocrystals with unique optoelectronic properties, their synthetic process still has challenges originating from the complex energy landscape of the reaction. Here, we present InP tetrapod nanocrystals as a crystalline late intermediate in the synthetic pathway that warrants controlled growth. We isolate tetrapod intermediate species with well-defined surfaces of (110) and ([Formula: see text]) via the suppression of further growth. An additional precursor supply at low temperature induces [Formula: see text]-specific growth, whereas the [110]-directional growth occurs over the activation barrier of 65.7 kJ/mol at a higher temperature, thus finalizes into the (111)-faceted tetrahedron nanocrystals. We address the use of late intermediates with well-defined facets at the sub-10 nm scale for the tailored growth of covalent III-V nanocrystals and highlight the potential for the directed approach of nanocrystal synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24765-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298524PMC
July 2021

Incremental value of QT interval for the prediction of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain.

Sci Rep 2021 05 18;11(1):10513. Epub 2021 May 18.

Division of Cardiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Identification of obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD) in patients with chest pain is a clinical challenge. The value of corrected QT interval (QTc) for the prediction of OCAD has yet to be established. We consecutively enrolled 1741 patients with suspected angina. The presence of obstructive OCAD was defined as ≥ 50% diameter stenosis by coronary angiography. The pre-test probability was evaluated by combining QTc prolongation with the CAD Consortium clinical score (CAD2) and the updated Diamond-Forrester (UDF) score. OCAD was detected in 661 patients (38.0%). QTc was longer in patients with OCAD compared with those without OCAD (444 ± 34 vs. 429 ± 28 ms, p < 0.001). QTc was increased by the severity of OCAD (P < 0.001). QTc prolongation was associated with OCAD (odds ratio (OR), 2.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.81-2.85). With QTc, the C-statistics increased significantly from 0.68 (95% CI 0.66-0.71) to 0.76 (95% CI 0.74-0.78) in the CAD2 and from 0.64 (95% CI 0.62-0.67) to 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.77) in the UDF score, respectively. QT prolongation predicted the presence of OCAD and the QTc improved model performance to predict OCAD compared with CAD2 or UDF scores in patients with suspected angina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90133-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131710PMC
May 2021

Tip-Induced Strain Engineering of a Single Metal Halide Perovskite Quantum Dot.

ACS Nano 2021 May 14;15(5):9057-9064. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.

Strain engineering of perovskite quantum dots (pQDs) enables widely tunable photonic device applications. However, manipulation at the single-emitter level has never been attempted. Here, we present a tip-induced control approach combined with tip-enhanced photoluminescence (TEPL) spectroscopy to engineer strain, bandgap, and the emission quantum yield of a single pQD. Single CsPbBrI pQDs are clearly resolved through hyperspectral TEPL imaging with ∼10 nm spatial resolution. The plasmonic tip then directly applies pressure to a single pQD to facilitate a bandgap shift up to ∼62 meV with Purcell-enhanced PL increase as high as ∼10 for the strain-induced pQD. Furthermore, by systematically modulating the tip-induced compressive strain of a single pQD, we achieve dynamical bandgap engineering in a reversible manner. In addition, we facilitate the quantum dot coupling for a pQD ensemble with ∼0.8 GPa tip pressure at the nanoscale estimated theoretically. Our approach presents a strategy to tune the nano-opto-electro-mechanical properties of pQDs at the single-crystal level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c02182DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical significance of microbial colonization identified by initial bronchoscopy in patients with lung cancer requiring chemotherapy.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):1306-1314

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: There are limited data on the association between bronchial colonization and respiratory infections in people with lung cancer requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy. We investigated whether bronchial colonization in initial bronchoscopy specimens can predict the development of pneumonia after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.

Methods: Four hundred thirteen patients with lung cancer included in the Catholic Medical Center lung cancer registry were enrolled from March 2015 to August 2018. Demographic data, microbiology results, development of pneumonia after chemotherapy, and clinical information about lung cancer were analyzed retrospectively.

Results: A total of 206 lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy were included in the analysis. Forty patients (19.4%) had positive results for the bronchial washing culture during the initial evaluation of lung cancer. The most common organisms were (n=14) and (n=6) in the surveillance culture, and (n=12) and (n=8) at the time of pneumonia development. Eighty-nine patients (43.2%) had pneumonia after chemotherapy, but the occurrence of pneumonia did not differ according to the colonization. There were no patients for whom the initial isolated organism was a causative microbe for the development of pneumonia after or during chemotherapy. The pneumonia group had poorer prognosis than the non-pneumonia group (378 705 days, P=0.0004).

Conclusions: Microbial colonization in bronchoscopy specimens was not associated with pneumonia development or mortality after chemotherapy for lung cancer. This finding suggests that testing surveillance culture may not be helpful for predicting pneumonia or improving survival in lung cancer patients with chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024789PMC
March 2021

Recent Progress in Distributed Brillouin Sensors Based on Few-Mode Optical Fibers.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Brillouin scattering is a dominant inelastic scattering observed in optical fibers, where the energy and momentum transfer between photons and acoustic phonons takes place. Narrowband reflection (or gain and loss) spectra appear in the spontaneous (or stimulated) Brillouin scattering, and their linear dependence of the spectral shift on ambient temperature and strain variations is the operation principle of distributed Brillouin sensors, which have been developed for several decades. In few-mode optical fibers (FMF's) where higher-order spatial modes are guided in addition to the fundamental mode, two different optical modes can be coupled by the process of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), as observed in the phenomena called intermodal SBS (two photons + one acoustic phonon) and intermodal Brillouin dynamic grating (four photons + one acoustic phonon; BDG). These intermodal scattering processes show unique reflection (or gain and loss) spectra depending on the spatial mode structure of FMF, which are useful not only for the direct measurement of polarization and modal birefringence in the fiber, but also for the measurement of environmental variables like strain, temperature, and pressure affecting the birefringence. In this paper, we present a technical review on recent development of distributed Brillouin sensors on the platform of FMF's.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21062168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003690PMC
March 2021

The paradoxical response to short-acting bronchodilator administration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):511-520

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Kwangju, South Korea.

Background: There are a few studies about paradoxical bronchodilator response (BDR), which means a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) or forced vital capacity (FVC) after short-acting bronchodilator administration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the effect of paradoxical BDR on the clinical outcomes of COPD patients in South Korea.

Methods: We analyzed the KOrea COpd Subgroup Study team (KOCOSS) cohort data in South Korea between January 2012 and December 2017. BDR was defined as at least a 12% and 200-mL reduction in FEV or FVC after bronchodilator administration.

Results: A total of 1,991 patients were included in this study. A paradoxical BDR was noted in 57 (2.9%) patients and was independently associated with worse dyspnea and poor quality of life. High C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were associated with a paradoxical BDR (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P=0.003). However, paradoxical BDR was not associated with severe acute exacerbations. Pre-bronchodilator FEV (L) showed a higher area under the curve (AUC) for predicting severe acute exacerbations than the post-bronchodilator FEV (L) in the paradoxical BDR group (0.788 0.752).

Conclusion: A paradoxical reduction of FEV or FVC after bronchodilator administration may be associated with chronic inflammation in the airway and independently associated with worse respiratory symptoms and poor quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947541PMC
February 2021

The association between eosinophilic exacerbation and eosinophilic levels in stable COPD.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Mar 2;21(1):74. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Pulmonology, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

Background: Blood eosinophil count may predict treatment response in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during acute exacerbations (AE). However, the ability and thresholds of blood eosinophil counts in stable status to predict eosinophilic AECOPD have not been completely investigated.

Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study performed January 2010 to December 2014. COPD subjects hospitalized with exacerbations, were included. Blood samples were obtained at the time of AE and stable disease at outpatient clinic before or after admission. We identified a blood eosinophil count cut-off point at stable COPD, either taken as a percentage or as absolute value, for identification of eosinophilic exacerbation.

Results: There was significant positive correlation of eosinophil counts between stable COPD and AECOPD. The best cut-off value of blood eosinophil count in stable status for the prediction of eosinophilic COPD exacerbation based on blood eosinophil count ≥ 2% was 300 cells/µL (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.614, P = 0.001, 39% sensitivity, 83.8% specificity). When the eosinophilic COPD exacerbation was based on blood eosinophil count ≥ 300 cells/µL, the best cut-off value of blood eosinophil count in stable status for the prediction of eosinophilic COPD exacerbation was also 300 cells/uL (AUC 0.634, P = 0.046, 45.8% sensitivity, 80.9% specificity).

Conclusions: We demonstrated association between blood eosinophil counts at stable COPD and those with AECOPD. The thresholds of blood counts at stable COPD to predict eosinophilic exacerbations was 300 cells/µL. Further and prospective studies in other populations should validate our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01443-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923497PMC
March 2021

Extremely Stable Luminescent Crosslinked Perovskite Nanoparticles under Harsh Environments over 1.5 Years.

Adv Mater 2021 Jan 4;33(3):e2005255. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Engineering Research, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Nano Systems Institute (NSI), BK21 PLUS SNU Materials Division for Educating Creative Global Leaders, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) are a very strong candidate emitter that can meet the high luminescence efficiency and high color standard of Rec.2020. However, the instability of perovskite NPs is the most critical unsolved problem that limits their practical application. Here, an extremely stable crosslinked perovskite NP (CPN) is reported that maintains high photoluminescence quantum yield for 1.5 years (>600 d) in air and in harsher liquid environments (e.g., in water, acid, or base solutions, and in various polar solvents), and for more than 100 d under 85 °C and 85% relative humidity without additional encapsulation. Unsaturated hydrocarbons in both the acid and base ligands of NPs are chemically crosslinked with a methacrylate-functionalized matrix, which prevents decomposition of the perovskite crystals. Counterintuitively, water vapor permeating through the crosslinked matrix chemically passivates surface defects in the NPs and reduces nonradiative recombination. Green-emitting and white-emitting flexible large-area displays are demonstrated, which are stable for >400 d in air and in water. The high stability of the CPN in water enables biocompatible cell proliferation which is usually impossible when toxic Pb elements are present. The stable materials design strategies provide a breakthrough toward commercialization of perovskite NPs in displays and bio-related applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202005255DOI Listing
January 2021

Development of a Simple and Powerful Analytical Method for Formaldehyde Detection and Quantitation in Blood Samples.

J Anal Methods Chem 2020 30;2020:8810726. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Jeonbuk Department of Inhalation Research, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea.

Human beings are easily exposed to formaldehyde (FA) in a living environment. Entry of FA into the human body can have adverse effects on human health, depending on the FA concentration. Thus, a quantitative analysis of FA in blood is necessary in order to estimate its effect on the human body. In this study, a simple and rapid analytical method for the quantitation of FA in blood was developed. The total analysis time, including the pretreatment procedure, was less than 20 min. To ensure a stable analysis, blood samples were stabilized using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, and FA was selectively derivatized using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine as pretreatment procedures. The pretreated samples were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-UV system, which is the most common choice for analyzing small-molecule aldehydes like formaldehyde. Verification of the pretreatment methods (stabilization and derivatization) using FA standards confirmed that the pretreatment methods are highly reliable in the calibration range 0.012-5.761 ng L (slope = 684,898,  = 0.9998, and limit of detection = 0.251 pg·L). Analysis of FA in the blood samples of a Yucatan minipig using the new method revealed an average FA concentration of 1.98 ± 0.34 ng L ( = 3). Blood samples spiked with FA standards were analyzed, and the FA concentrations were found to be similar to the theoretical concentrations (2.16 ± 0.81% difference). The method reported herein can quantitatively analyze FA in blood at a sub-nanogram level within a short period of time and is validated for application in blood analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8810726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787787PMC
December 2020

Impact of Combined Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Status and Systemic Inflammation on Outcome of Advanced NSCLC: Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 14;15:3323-3334. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic inflammatory biomarkers, such as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), have significant association with prognosis. NLR and PLR also predict mortality in patients with COPD alone. A combination of the two parameters may be helpful in a more individualized approach for predicting prognosis in NSCLC.

Methods: Medical records of patients with stage IIIB and IV NSCLC from January 2012 to January 2018 in seven university hospitals were reviewed. Patients were categorized into four subgroups based on pulmonary function test results and cutoffs for NLR or PLR.

Results: A total of 277 patients were evaluated and categorized into non-COPD and COPD groups; 194 patients were in the non-COPD group and 83 patients were in the COPD group. The non-COPD group showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) compared with the COPD group (P = 0.019). Median survival was significantly different between high/low PLR groups (P < 0.001), between high/low NLR groups (P = 0.001), and between high/low c-reactive protein (CRP) groups (P < 0.001). PLR, NLR and CRP showed significant correlations with each other. PLR showed a significant negative linear correlation with FVC (absolute) (r = -0.149, P = 0.015), FVC (%) (r = -0.192, P = 0.002), DLCO (absolute) (r = -0.271, P < 0.001), DLCO (%) (r = -0.139, P = 0.032), and NLR (r = 0.718, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the high PLR, COPD sub-group showed significantly higher risk for mortality (HR 2.066 (1.175-3.633), P = 0.012) compared with the low-PLR non-COPD group. However, COPD-NLR subtype was not an independent predictor for OS.

Conclusion: A combination of COPD status and PLR may be a cost-effective and readily available prognostic marker in patients with advanced NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S274354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753914PMC
June 2021

Longitudinal Changes in Clinical Features, Management, and Outcomes of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 05;18(5):780-787

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul, South Korea.

In recent decades, diagnosis and treatment recommendations for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have changed. In Korea, the average life expectancy has increased, unmet healthcare needs have been reduced, and the number of computed tomographic examinations performed has nearly doubled. The Korean Interstitial Lung Disease Study Group conducted a nationwide cohort study for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, including IPF, and established a registry for IPF. Using study data collected by the study group, this study aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and mortality and analyze the extent to which changes in medication usage affected IPF-associated mortality. The study population included newly diagnosed patients with IPF from a cohort study (January 2002 to September 2008,  = 1,839, 2008 group) and prospective registry (January 2012 to August 2018,  = 1,345, 2018 group). Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression models were used to identify mortality-associated risk factors in each group. The 2018 group was younger, had fewer symptoms, had less honeycombing, underwent more serologic autoimmune marker and pulmonary function tests, had higher oxygen partial pressure and lower carbon dioxide partial pressure values, was less frequently diagnosed by surgical biopsy, and had better survival than the 2008 group. Steroid use and conservative care declined, whereas -acetylcysteine use increased in this group. Antifibrotic agents were used in only the 2018 group. In the 2008 group, -acetylcysteine was associated with lower mortality, whereas conservative care was associated with higher mortality. In the 2018 group, the use of antifibrotic agents was associated with lower mortality, and steroid use was associated with higher mortality. The survival rates in the 2008 and 2018 non-antifibrotic agent subgroups were similar. This study analyzed national IPF cohort data spanning 17 years. In clinical practice, the IPF diagnosis was made earlier, steroid and immunosuppressive agent use was reduced, and antifibrotic agents were administered. The survival of patients with IPF has improved over the decades, and antifibrotic use was consistently associated with improved survival.Clinical trial registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04160715).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202005-451OCDOI Listing
May 2021

Carbonyl Compounds Containing Formaldehyde Produced from the Heated Mouthpiece of Tobacco Sticks for Heated Tobacco Products.

Molecules 2020 Nov 28;25(23). Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Jeonbuk Department of Inhalation Research, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Jeongeup 56212, Korea.

Diverse harmful compounds can be emitted during the heating of tobacco sticks for heated tobacco products (HTPs). In this study, the generation of harmful compounds from the filter, instead of tobacco in tobacco sticks, was confirmed. The heat of a heated tobacco product device can be transferred to the tobacco stick filter, resulting in the generation of harmful compounds from the heated filter. Since the heating materials (tobacco consumable) of the tobacco sticks evaluated in this study were different depending on the brand, the harmful compounds emitted from the heated tobacco stick filters were examined by focusing on the carbonyl compounds, using three different tobacco stick parts. Acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde exhibited the highest concentrations in HTP aerosols produced by heating the tobacco consumable (conventional case) (63.5 ± 18.4 µg/stick and 1.71 ± 0.123 µg/stick, respectively). The aerosols produced by heating tobacco stick filters had higher formaldehyde and acrolein concentrations (0.945 ± 0.214 µg/stick and 0.519 ± 0.379 µg/stick) than the aerosols generated from heated tobacco consumable (0.641 ± 0.092 µg/stick and 0.220 ± 0.102 µg/stick). As such, formaldehyde and acrolein were produced by heating small parts of the mouthpiece of a tobacco stick, regardless of the heated tobacco product brand. In addition, acetone was only detected in the aerosols generated from heated filters (0.580 ± 0.305 µg/stick). Thus, safety evaluations of heated tobacco products should include considerations of the harmful compounds generated by heating tobacco stick mouthpieces for heated tobacco products in addition to those found in heated tobacco product aerosols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730480PMC
November 2020

Fractional structured molybdenum oxide catalyst as counter electrodes of all-solid-state fiber dye-sensitized solar cells.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Feb 12;584:520-527. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Surface Technology Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), 797 Changwondaero, Changwon, Gyeongnam 51508, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

A novel hierarchical solution-processed fractional structured molybdenum oxide (MoO) catalyst is fabricated from tricarbonyltris (propionitrile) molybdenum and used as the counter electrode of all-solid-state fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (S-FDSSC). The Tafel plot results and electrical impedance spectroscopy suggest that the use of the fractional structured MoO catalyst enhances the efficiency of the reduction of I to 3I at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface. Because of the improvements of the short-current circuit and fill factor, the power conversion efficiency of the MoO-modified S-FDSSC improves by 60% compared with that of the reference S-FDSSC. In addition, because of the robust fractional structure of MoO, the MoO-modified S-FDSSC maintains 90% and 95% of efficiency after 350-fold bending and the incident light angle dependency test, respectively. At 65% humidity and at 65 °C, the power conversion efficiency of the MoO-modified device decreases by <20% after 350 h of storage, while that of the reference device drops by more than 70%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.10.003DOI Listing
February 2021

Harnessing the topotactic transition in oxide heterostructures for fast and high-efficiency electrochromic applications.

Sci Adv 2020 Oct 9;6(41). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Mobile oxygen vacancies offer a substantial potential to broaden the range of optical functionalities of complex transition metal oxides due to their high mobility and the interplay with correlated electrons. Here, we report a large electro-absorptive optical variation induced by a topotactic transition via oxygen vacancy fluidic motion in calcium ferrite with large-scale uniformity. The coloration efficiency reaches ~80 cm C, which means that a 300-nm-thick layer blocks 99% of transmitted visible light by the electrical switching. By tracking the color propagation, oxygen vacancy mobility can be estimated to be 10 cm s V near 300°C, which is a giant value attained due to the mosaic pseudomonoclinic film stabilized on LaAlO substrate. First-principles calculations reveal that the defect density modulation associated with hole charge injection causes a prominent change in electron correlation, resulting in the light absorption modulation. Our findings will pave the pathway for practical topotactic electrochromic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb8553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546704PMC
October 2020

Predictive value of free fatty acid levels in embolic stroke of undetermined source: A retrospective observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Oct;99(40):e22465

Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine.

The present study aimed to investigate the predictive value of free fatty acid (FFA) in embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) according to the presence of potential embolic sources (PES) after extensive etiologic evaluation.This was a retrospective observational study based on a single-center registry from January 2011 to July 2017. Stroke subtypes were determined through laboratory findings, brain, and angiographic imaging, carotid ultrasonography, transthoracic echocardiography, and 24-hour Holter monitoring. If ESUS was suspected, transesophageal echocardiography was additionally performed. Patients were classified into ESUS with PES and ESUS without PES. PES included mitral annular calcification, mitral valve prolapse, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, spontaneous echo contrast, ventricular aneurysm, and high-risk plaques of aortic arch, or carotid bulb. We compared clinical and laboratory findings between the two groups.Of a total of 110 ESUS patients, 61 patients (55.5%) had no PES. Patients with ESUS without PES had higher levels of serum FFA, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and left atrial (LA) enlargement compared with those of ESUS with PES. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the FFA level, DBP, and LA volume index were associated with ESUS without PES [odds ratio (OR) 1.038, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.019-1.058 for FFA/10 μEq/L, OR 1.414, 95% CI 1.037-1.928 for DBP/10 mm Hg, and OR 1.073, 95% CI 1.009-1.141 for LA volume index].Higher levels of FFA, DBP, and LA volume index are associated with ESUS without PES, highlighting the need to identify the role of these markers in ESUS through further large-scale, multi-center and prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7535631PMC
October 2020

Effect of body mass index and abdominal obesity on mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention: a nationwide, population-based study.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 03 25;36(Suppl 1):S90-S98. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Korea.

Background/aims: We investigated the impact of obesity on the clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: We included South Koreans aged > 20 years who underwent the Korean National Health Screening assessment between 2009 and 2012. Obesity was defined using the body mass index (BMI), according to the World Health Organization's recommendations. Abdominal obesity was defined using the waist circumference (WC), as defined by the Korean Society for Obesity. The odds and hazard ratios in all-cause mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates. Patients were followed up to the end of 2017.

Results: Among 130,490 subjects who underwent PCI, the mean age negatively correlated with BMI. WC, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels correlated with the increased BMI. The mortality rates were higher in the lower BMI and WC groups than the higher BMI and WC groups. The non-obese with abdominal obesity group showed a mortality rate of 2.11 per 1,000 person-years. Obese with no abdominal obesity group had the lowest mortality rate (0.88 per 1,000 person-years). The mortality showed U-shaped curve with a cut-off value of 29 in case of BMI and 78 cm of WC.

Conclusion: The mortality showed U-shaped curve and the cut-off value of lowest mortality was 29 in case of BMI and 78 cm of WC. The abdominal obesity may be associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients who underwent PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2020.099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009155PMC
March 2021

Protective Effects of Statin and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker in a Rat Model of Doxorubicin- and Trastuzumab-Induced Cardiomyopathy.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020 10 7;33(10):1253-1263. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Division of Cardiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Chemotherapy has led to improved survival in patients with breast cancer; however, it is associated with an increased risk of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. We investigated the protective effects of rosuvastatin and candesartan, alone and in combination, in a doxorubicin- and trastuzumab-induced rat model of cardiomyopathy.

Methods: Forty-two rats were allocated into six groups (G1-G6): G1, control; G2, doxorubicin only; G3, doxorubicin + trastuzumab; G4, doxorubicin + trastuzumab + rosuvastatin; G5, doxorubicin + trastuzumab + candesartan; and G6, doxorubicin + trastuzumab + rosuvastatin + candesartan. Doxorubicin and trastuzumab were sequentially administered for 28 days. Left ventricular end-systolic dimension and longitudinal strain (LS) were assessed via echocardiography. Left ventricular (LV) performance was evaluated using a microcatheter in the LV apex on day 28. Blood for biomarker analysis was collected from the inferior vena cava before sacrifice.

Results: Doxorubicin in combination with trastuzumab increased the LV end-systolic dimension but worsened LS compared with the control group (all P < .05). The level of C-reactive protein was lower in the rosuvastatin treatment group (P = .007) than in the controls but not in the candesartan treatment group. Both rosuvastatin and candesartan attenuated the increase in glutathione. Candesartan treatment improved +dP/dt (P = .011), whereas rosuvastatin did not. In the combination treatment group, the worsening of LS was significantly attenuated compared with that in either the rosuvastatin or candesartan group (all P < .05).

Conclusions: In a rat model of doxorubicin- and trastuzumab-induced cardiomyopathy, rosuvastatin alleviated systemic inflammation, while candesartan improved LV performance. Combination therapy with rosuvastatin and candesartan demonstrated additional preventive effects on myocardial strain. The protective mechanisms of rosuvastatin and candesartan appear to be different but complementary in chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.05.021DOI Listing
October 2020

Age-stratified anti-tuberculosis drug resistance profiles in South Korea: a multicenter retrospective study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 23;20(1):446. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 56, Dongsu-ro, Bupyeong-gu, Incheon, 21431, Republic of Korea.

Background: The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major healthcare concern worldwide. Here, we analyzed age-related trends in DR-TB rates in South Korea.

Methods: Drug susceptibility test results were collected from patients with culture-confirmed TB between 2015 and 2018 from eight university-affiliated hospitals. Patients were divided into three subgroups: younger (15-34 years), middle (35-59 years), and older (≥60 years) to compare drug-resistance patterns. To evaluate trends in age-stratified drug-resistance, chi-square test for linear trends was performed.

Results: Among enrolled native patients aged ≥15 years, 4.1% (179/4417), 1.2% (53/4417) and 7.2% (316/4417) were multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), rifampicin-mono-resistant TB (RR-TB), and isoniazid-mono-resistant TB (Hr-TB), respectively. Proportions of Hr-TB cases were 5.4% (40/734), 7.2% (114/1593), and 7.8% (162/2090) in the younger, middle and older age groups, respectively. MDR/RR-TB case rates decreased significantly with age from 8.6% (63/734) in younger age group to 3.3% (68/2090) in older age group. Fluoroquinolone resistance was highest among second-line drugs, and there were no differences in resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs among the three age groups.

Conclusions: The number of MDR/RR-TB cases was highest in young patients. Effective public health interventions should include increased focus on rifampicin resistance in young patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05157-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310538PMC
June 2020

Development of a standardized new cigarette smoke generating (SNCSG) system for the assessment of chemicals in the smoke of new cigarette types (heat-not-burn (HNB) tobacco and electronic cigarettes (E-Cigs)).

Environ Res 2020 06 20;185:109413. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Toxicology Evaluation, Konyang University, Daejeon, 35365, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To systematically regulate new types of cigarettes for which their safety has yet to be verified, such as heat-not-burn (HNB) products and electronic cigarettes (E-Cigs), the identification of chemicals in the new cigarette smoke is necessary. However, this is challenging due to the large number of new cigarette types and their different vaporization approaches. To address this issue, we herein report the development of a standardized new cigarette smoke generating (SNCSG) system based on heating-temperature control, which is able to generate smoke for all types of new cigarettes. Validation of the developed system was also carried out through analysis of the carbonyl compounds (e.g., formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the new cigarette smoke of HNB products and E-Cigs generated by the SNCSG system under different heating temperatures. The analytical results were used to validate the SNCSG system by comparison with those of previous studies. In all new cigarette smoke samples, the formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations increased dramatically upon increasing the heating temperatures, especially over the reference heating range of each HNB device (mean concentration (μg/cigarette, n = 5 (HNB and E-Cig samples)): formaldehyde = 0.373-5.841 (250-320 °C), and acetaldehyde = 0.088-27.60 (250-320 °C). In the case of the HNB samples, the concentration differences determined by the heating temperatures of the tobacco stick were statistically significant, with p-values (ANOVA) of 1.85E-10 (formaldehyde) and 1.73E-08 (acetaldehyde). In the majority of smoke samples, acrolein and propionaldehyde were detected under relatively high heating temperature conditions (>250 °C) at 0.50 ± 1.76 μg/(cigarette or 10 μL), while acetone was detected under low heating temperature conditions (<250 °C) at 0.09 ± 0.17 μg/(cigarette or 10 μL). These results indicate that the developed SNCSG system could be suitable for application in the regulation of new types of cigarettes, regardless of the cigarette type and heating approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109413DOI Listing
June 2020

Degree of Permanent Densification in Oxide Glasses upon Extreme Compression up to 24 GPa at Room Temperature.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Apr 31;11(8):2917-2924. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

During the decompression of plastically deformed glasses at room temperature, some aspects of irreversible densification may be preserved. This densification has been primarily attributed to topological changes in glass networks. The changes in short-range structures like cation coordination numbers are often assumed to be relaxed upon decompression. Here the NMR results for aluminosilicate glass upon permanent densification up to 24 GPa reveal noticeable changes in the Al coordination number under pressure conditions as low as ∼6 GPa. A drastic increase in the highly coordinated Al fraction is evident over only a relatively narrow pressure range of up to ∼12 GPa, above which the coordination change becomes negligible up to 24 GPa. In contrast, Si coordination environments do not change, highlighting preferential coordination transformation during deformation. The observed trend in the coordination environment shows a remarkable similarity to the pressure-induced changes in the residual glass density, yielding a predictive relationship between the irreversible densification and the detailed structures under extreme compression. The results open a way to access the nature of plastic deformation in complex glasses at room temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c00709DOI Listing
April 2020

Progress in Computational and Machine-Learning Methods for Heterogeneous Small-Molecule Activation.

Adv Mater 2020 Sep 20;32(35):e1907865. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

The chemical conversion of small molecules such as H , H O, O , N , CO , and CH to energy and chemicals is critical for a sustainable energy future. However, the high chemical stability of these molecules poses grand challenges to the practical implementation of these processes. In this regard, computational approaches such as density functional theory, microkinetic modeling, data science, and machine learning have guided the rational design of catalysts by elucidating mechanistic insights, identifying active sites, and predicting catalytic activity. Here, the theory and methodologies for heterogeneous catalysis and their applications for small-molecule activation are reviewed. An overview of fundamental theory and key computational methods for designing catalysts, including the emerging data science techniques in particular, is given. Applications of these methods for finding efficient heterogeneous catalysts for the activation of the aforementioned small molecules are then surveyed. Finally, promising directions of the computational catalysis field for further outlooks are discussed, focusing on the challenges and opportunities for new methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201907865DOI Listing
September 2020

Pulmonary Vein Enlargement as an Independent Predictor for New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

J Clin Med 2020 Feb 2;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 2.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 15355, Korea.

Pulmonary vein (PV) enlargement is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the predictive value of PV volume for new-onset AF has not been determined. We retrospectively assessed and enrolled non-AF subjects who underwent echocardiography and cardiac CT angiography (CCTA) around the same time and evaluated the development of AF longitudinally. PV volume was assessed by estimating the three-dimensional CCTA-derived mid-diastolic PV volume from the ostium to tertiary branches. Overall, 1105 subjects were enrolled. Among them, 29 developed AF during a mean follow-up of 4.28 ± 3.08 years after baseline CCTA and echocardiography. The AF group had a higher proportion of older aged subjects, a higher ratio of early mitral flow velocity (E) to early mitral annular tissue velocity (Em), higher Em, and larger left atrial (LAVI) and PV (PVVI) volume indices. PVVI was independently associated with male sex, left ventricular dimension, E/Em and LAVI. AF incidence increased markedly across each baseline PVVI tertile (2.2%, 5.1%, and 10.8%). In the multivariate Cox model, increased PVVI was independently associated with new-onset AF (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.401, 4.931-6.193, = 0.007). Based on the analysis of multimodal cardiac imaging, our results provide mechanistic insights into PV remodeling and its potential role as a link between diastolic dysfunction and developing AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074413PMC
February 2020

Association between Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Mortality in Patients with Septic Shock.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Feb 3;35(4):e24. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, Korea.

Background: The impact of myocardial damage on the prognosis of patients with septic shock is not clearly elucidated because complex hemodynamic changes in sepsis obscure the direct relationship. We evaluated left ventricular (LV) conditions that reflect myocardial damage independently from hemodynamic changes in septic shock and their influence on the prognosis of patients.

Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 208 adult patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and underwent echocardiography within 7 days from the diagnosis of septic shock. Patients who were previously diagnosed with structural heart disease or coronary artery disease were excluded. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was divided into four categories: normal, ≥ 50%; mild, ≥ 40%; moderate, ≥ 30%; and severe dysfunction, < 30%. Wall motion impairment was categorized into the following patterns: normal, diffuse, ballooning, and focal.

Results: There were 141 patients with normal LVEF. Among patients with impaired LV wall motion, the diffuse pattern was the most common (34 patients), followed by the ballooning pattern (26 patients). Finally, 102 patients died, and in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with severe LV systolic dysfunction (hazard ratio [HR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-3.75; = 0.039) and in patients with diffuse pattern of LV wall motion impairment (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.19-4.36; = 0.013) than in those with a normal LV systolic function.

Conclusion: Severe LV systolic dysfunction and diffuse pattern of LV wall motion impairment significantly affected in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock. Conventional echocardiographic evaluation provides adequate information on the development of myocardial damage and accurately predicts the prognosis of patients with septic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995811PMC
February 2020

Origin of the Stability and Transition from Anionic to Cationic Surface Ligand Passivation of All-Inorganic Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Feb 10;11(3):652-658. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Physics , Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) , Daejeon 34141 , Republic of Korea.

Recently, the structural stability of all-inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals has been significantly enhanced. To understand the enhancement, we developed surface-passivation models for cubic CsPbBr nanocrystals with anionic (oleate) and cationic (oleylammonium) organic ligands based on first-principles calculations and nuclear magnetic resonance investigations. We propose that the (100) surface is initially terminated with oleate ligand complexes on PbBr(100) surfaces. Also, the ligand transition to oleylammonium on the Pb-rich surfaces is expected due to the addition of metal halides (ZnBr) during colloidal synthesis. The significant improvement in the structural stability of the cationic ligand-passivated CsPbBr nanocrystals was attributed to the suppressed exposure of the merging-vulnerable (110) surface, caused by the large difference in formation energy between the ligand-passivated (100) and Br-passivated (110) surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b03600DOI Listing
February 2020

Cross-Species Transmission of Swine Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 to Rabbits.

Viruses 2020 01 2;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a quasi-enveloped, positive-sense single stranded RNA virus. HEV continually expands the host ranges across animal species. In this study, the possibility of cross-species infection with swine HEV-3 was investigated using rabbits. A total of fourteen 8-week old, specific pathogen-free rabbits were divided into three experimental groups. Four rabbits were used as negative controls, four rabbits were infected with rabbit HEV as positive controls, and six rabbits were inoculated with swine HEV-3. HEV RNA were detected from serum and fecal samples after viral challenge. The levels of anti-HEV antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-α), and liver enzymes (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases) were determined in serum samples. Histopathological lesions were examined in liver tissues. Viral RNA and anti-HEV antibodies were identified in rabbits inoculated with swine HEV-3 demonstrating positive infectivity of the virus. However, pro-inflammatory cytokine and liver enzyme levels in serum were not significantly elevated, and only mild inflammatory lesions were detected in the liver tissues of rabbits infected with swine HEV-3. These results suggest that swine HEV-3 can engage in cross-species transmission to rabbits, but causes only mild inflammation of the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12010053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019366PMC
January 2020
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