Publications by authors named "Yong Guan"

128 Publications

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and learning of college and university students: a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 07 26;11(7):e046428. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Project Management Office, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu, China

Introduction: COVID-19 has a serious impact on people's physical health and mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic forced college and university students to take online classes, which may have bad impacts on students' learning. In addition, the students lost many job opportunities during the pandemic. Faced with employment and study pressure and worried about the epidemic, college and university students were prone to increased overall negative emotion, anxiety and depression. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and learning of college and university students.

Methods And Analysis: We will conduct electronic literature search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Two researchers will independently screen the studies, extract data and assess the quality of the included studies. Any disagreement will be resolved by the third investigator. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and other tools will be used to assess the risk of bias, according to the study design of included studies. OR, risk ratio, mean difference and 95% CI will be considered as the effect size. Heterogeneity between studies will be assessed by subgroup and sensitivity analysis, and publication bias will be detected by funnel plots, Begg's test and Egger's test.

Ethics And Dissemination: This systematic review and meta-analysis involves no patient contact and no interaction with healthcare providers or systems. We will disseminate the findings of this study through the presentation at scientific conferences and publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020201132.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316695PMC
July 2021

Electric-field-assisted non-volatile magnetic switching in a magnetoelectronic hybrid structure.

iScience 2021 Jul 17;24(7):102734. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

Electric-field (E-field) control of magnetic switching provides an energy-efficient means to toggle the magnetic states in spintronic devices. The angular tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of an magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)/PMN-PT magnetoelectronic hybrid indicates that the angle-dependent switching fields of the free layer can decrease significantly subject to the application of an E-field. In particular, the switching field along the major axis is reduced by 59% from 28.0 to 11.5 Oe as the E-field increases from 0 to 6 kV/cm, while the TMR ratio remains intact. The switching boundary angle decreases (increases) for the parallel (antiparallel) to antiparallel (parallel) state switch, resulting in a shrunk switching window size. The non-volatile and reversible 180° magnetization switching is demonstrated by using E-fields with a smaller magnetic field bias as low as 11.5 Oe. The angular magnetic switching originates from competition among the E-field-induced magnetoelastic anisotropy, magnetic shape anisotropy, and Zeeman energy, which is confirmed by micromagnetic simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258860PMC
July 2021

Effect of high-density lipoprotein on penile erection: A cross-sectional study.

Andrologia 2021 Jun 28;53(5):e13979. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Previous studies have shown that elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) could inhibit penile erection, but the relationship between HDL and the erection of the penile tip or base has not been extensively researched. We investigated the effects of HDL on erection of the penile tip and base through a cross-sectional study of 113 patients with erectile dysfunction, using a cut-off score of ≤21 on the International Index of Erectile Function-5. The following patient data were collected: nocturnal penile tumescence; blood pressure; platelet count; platelet distribution width; mean platelet volume; plateletcrit; and levels of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, and low-density lipoprotein. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association between HDL levels and the erection of the penile tip and base. We confirmed that HDL had a beneficial effect on penile erectile function. We also found that when the HDL level exceeded the normal range, the change in HDL had a significant effect on the penile base. In addition, our study did not find any relationship between platelet parameters and erection of the penile tip or penile base.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13979DOI Listing
June 2021

Molybdenum derived from nanomaterials incorporates into molybdenum enzymes and affects their activities in vivo.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 Jun 18;16(6):708-716. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing, China.

Many nanoscale biomaterials fail to reach the clinical trial stage due to a poor understanding of the fundamental principles of their in vivo behaviour. Here we describe the transport, transformation and bioavailability of MoS nanomaterials through a combination of in vivo experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. We show that after intravenous injection molybdenum is significantly enriched in liver sinusoid and splenic red pulp. This biodistribution is mediated by protein coronas that spontaneously form in the blood, principally with apolipoprotein E. The biotransformation of MoS leads to incorporation of molybdenum into molybdenum enzymes, which increases their specific activities in the liver, affecting its metabolism. Our findings reveal that nanomaterials undergo a protein corona-bridged transport-transformation-bioavailability chain in vivo, and suggest that nanomaterials consisting of essential trace elements may be converted into active biological molecules that organisms can exploit. Our results also indicate that the long-term biotransformation of nanomaterials may have an impact on liver metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-021-00856-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Biomimetic inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles from magnesium-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate clusters and polyacrylic acid molecules.

Bioact Mater 2021 Aug 23;6(8):2303-2314. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110016, China.

Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) has been widely found during bone and tooth biomineralization, but the meta-stability and labile nature limit further biomedical applications. The present study found that the chelation of polyacrylic acid (PAA) molecules with Ca ions in Mg-ACP clusters (~2.1 ± 0.5 nm) using a biomineralization strategy produced inorganic-organic Mg-ACP/PAA hybrid nanoparticles with better thermal stability. Mg-ACP/PAA hybrid nanoparticles (~24.0 ± 4.8 nm) were pH-responsive and could be efficiently digested under weak acidic conditions (pH 5.0-5.5). The internalization of assembled Mg-ACP/PAA nanoparticles by MC3T3-E1 cells occurred through endocytosis, indicated by laser scanning confocal microscopy and cryo-soft X-ray tomography. Our results showed that cellular lipid membranes remained intact without pore formation after Mg-ACP/PAA particle penetration. The assembled Mg-ACP/PAA particles could be digested in cell lysosomes within 24 h under weak acidic conditions, thereby indicating the potential to efficiently deliver encapsulated functional molecules. Both the and results preliminarily demonstrated good biosafety of the inorganic-organic Mg-ACP/PAA hybrid nanoparticles, which may have potential for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841502PMC
August 2021

Effect of prostate volume on f/tPSA value: A cross-sectional study.

Andrologia 2021 Mar 25;53(2):e13851. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, China.

Previous studies have suggested that there is a positive correlation between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and prostate volume (PV). A better understanding of the possible influence of PV on a ratio of free to total PSA (f/tPSA) may improve the diagnostic value of the prostate disease. The study group consisted of 342 men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). All patients underwent urinary tract ultrasonography and had tests carried out on PSA, serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and blood pressure. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations between prostate volume and f/tPSA value. We found no obvious relationship between prostate volume and f/tPSA value when PSA >10 ng/ml but did observe a positive correlation when 4 ng/ml < PSA < 10 ng/ml (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.0012; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0009-0.0248). With increasing prostate volume, multivariate analysis showed an obvious increase in f/tPSA value (HR: 0.0011; 95% CI: 0.0007-0.0015) (p ≤ .0001). We confirmed that prostate volume could affect the f/tPSA levels in serum. There was an obvious positive correlation between prostate volume and f/tPSA level when PSA levels were between 4 and 10ng/dl. There was no significant correlation between prostate volume and f/tPSA value when PSA >10 ng/ml.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13851DOI Listing
March 2021

Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent predictor of chemoradiotherapy-related esophageal fistula in esophageal cancer patients.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(18):1163

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Background: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are all markers of systemic inflammation response. The role of systemic inflammation in the development of esophageal fistula (EF) has yet to be defined. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of hematologic measures of inflammation and to set up a predictive model.

Methods: The data of esophageal cancer (EC) patients who received chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in our institution between January, 2015 and January, 2018 were retrospectively collected. The NLR, PLR, and MLR of these enrolled patients were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find the independent risk factors of EF. Moreover, a nomogram model was developed to predict the probability of fistula occurring in EC patients.

Results: For PLR, the optimal cut-off value was 153. Patients with PLR >153 had a higher probability of developing fistula than those with PLR ≤153 (P<0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that esophageal stenosis, ulcerative tumor, and PLR were independent factors for EF. Subsequently, a novel nomogram was set up with the C-index of 0.77 to predict the risk of developing EF in EC patients who received CRT.

Conclusions: PLR is an independent predictive indicator for EC patients who receive CRT. These findings will help to facilitate individual risk stratification for the development of EF in patients with EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576074PMC
September 2020

The efficacy and safety of simultaneous integrated dose reduction in clinical target volume with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(18):1160

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Background: Compelling research to explore the effectiveness of simultaneous integrated dose reduction in clinical target volume (CTV) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIR-IMRT) for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are limited. This study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy and treatment-related toxicity between SIR-IMRT and conventional IMRT (C-IMRT) in the treatment of ESCC.

Methods: From March 2010 to September 2016, the clinical data of 257 patients with ESCC who received definitive IMRT in the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 137 patients received C-IMRT with a prescribed dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions for planning target volume (PTV), while 120 patients received SIR-IMRT with a prescribed dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions for the planning gross tumor volume (PGTV) and a prescribed dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions for PTV. All of the patients received definitive IMRT with elective nodal irradiation. Locoregional control, survival, treatment toxicity and dose to organs at risk (OAR) were compared between the groups.

Results: Patients who received SIR-IMRT showed a similar locoregional failure rate compared to the C-IMRT group (27.5% versus 29.9%, P=0.668). The 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 71.5%, 44.3%, 44.3% 77.9%, 52.1%, 32.9% in the C-IMRT and SIR-IMRT groups, respectively (P=0.825). No significant differences were observed in PFS and LRRFS between the two groups (P=0.880 and P=0.216, respectively). The dose of lung V30 and the maximum dose of spinal cord in the C-IMRT group were significantly higher than those in the SIR-IMRT group (P=0.013, P=0.047). The incidence of acute radiation esophagitis was significantly lower in the SIR-IMRT group (P=0.046), although no statistical difference was observed in the incidence of acute severe adverse events between the two groups.

Conclusions: SIR-IMRT offers an effective and safe option for patients with unresectable ESCC who receive definitive RT. Further prospective and larger sample size studies are warranted to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576073PMC
September 2020

Annual report of the esophageal cancer radiation group of the Department of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(18):1156

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Background: This report describes the clinical work in esophageal cancer radiation group at the Department of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital (TJMUCH).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with esophageal cancer who received radiotherapy (RT) at TJMUCH during the 5-year period between 2015 and 2019, including RT procedures, RT methods, treatment types, treatment outcomes and complications, and clinical trials.

Results: In 2015-2019, 1,464 patients with esophageal cancer received RT at the Department of Radiotherapy, TJMUCH. Of these, 1,176 patients received definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT), 100 received preoperative neoadjuvant CRT, 120 received postoperative adjuvant RT, 49 received post-relapse RT, and 19 received palliative RT for advanced esophageal cancer. Among the patients who received definitive CRT, the incidences of grade 2 and higher radiation esophagitis, radiation pneumonitis, and leukopenia were 19.4%, 3.6%, and 19.7%, respectively; the incidences of grade 3-4 radiation esophagitis, radiation pneumonitis, and leukopenia were 9.4%, 1.2%, and 5.4%, respectively; no grade 5 acute adverse events were observed. Esophageal fistula was the major side effect during the advanced stage of RT. In 2015-2018, 44 patients (5%, 44/846) developed esophageal fistula; of these, 34 cases occurred after RT, and 10 cases occurred during RT. The overall survival was based on the data of 544 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent definitive RT at TJMUCH between March 2010 and September 2016. The median follow-up time was 21.6 months. The median survival was 19.6 months; and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 69.4%, 37.2%, and 32.3%, respectively. In 2015-2019, approximately 201 patients participated in different prospective clinical trials.

Conclusions: RT is a crucial and effective treatment for esophageal cancer. Standardized treatment procedures, multidisciplinary cooperation, are the foundations for good treatment effects. Many promising ongoing clinical trials will be helpful to improve the prognosis and survival of esophageal cancer patients in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576091PMC
September 2020

Predictive value of EGF and uPAR for chemoradiotherapy response and survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(18):1152

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Background: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) plays a central role in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, no effective biomarkers have been identified for predict CRT sensitivity and prognosis of patients with ESCC. The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine profiles of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in 68 ESCC patients, and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers.

Methods: This pilot study enrolled 68 patients who received neoadjuvant CRT followed by radical surgery or definitive CRT between 2015 and 2017. Serum specimen was obtained from each patient before treatment and at the time of administration of total doses of 40 Gy. Cytokines expression analyses were performed in pre- and post-treatment serum using human cytokine antibody arrays which contained 120 known tumor-related cytokines.

Results: Seven differentially expressed cytokines identified by cytokine antibody arrays in pre- and post-treatment serum from 4 patients with CRT sensitivity and 4 patients with CRT resistance. Of these, up-regulation of EGF and uPAR in serum at the doses of 40 Gy were associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The predictive value of EGF and uPAR were further assessed in a second set of 60 ESCCs. A total of 68 patients enrolled in this study. The median follow-up duration of these patients was 15.87 months (range, 6.21-23.85 months). Cox multivariate survival analyses revealed that high uPAR ratio after CRT independently predicted progression-free survival (PFS) (HR =3.999, 95% CI: 1.503-10.639, P=0.006) and patients with elevated levels of EGF after CRT exhibited significantly worse overall survival (OS) (HR =2.574, 95% CI: 1.046-6.335, P=0.040). Of note, uPAR expression was significantly positive correlation with EGF expression in pre- and post-treatment serum (P=0.0001, P=0.0038). Patients with both high EGF and uPAR ratios had an inferior PFS and OS, compared to patients with a high EGF ratio only or uPAR ratio only or neither (1-year PFS rate 44.2% 61.4%, 1-year OS rate 64.2% 83.4%, P=0.033 and 0.029, respectively).

Conclusions: The levels of EGF and uPAR in serum are reliable and predictive biomarkers for survival in ESCC patients. Further prospective validation in larger independent cohorts is necessary to fully assess its predictive power. We present the following article in accordance with the REMARK reporting checklist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576018PMC
September 2020

Role of clip markers placed by endoscopic ultrasonography in contouring gross tumor volume for thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: one prospective study.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(18):1144

Department of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Preventing and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Background: We aimed to analyze the value of metal clip markers guided and placed by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) for thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Methods: From September 2016 to September 2018, patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital were recruited in the prospective trial, NCT02959385. They underwent titanium clips placement on tumor superior and inferior boundaries under EUS by a single expert endosonographer before radiotherapy computed tomography (CT) simulation. According to the clip markers, the reference GTVs were contoured by one experienced radiation oncologist. With the help of the Eclipse treatment planning system, clip markers on CT were concealed. Afterward, two other radiation oncologists with expertise in esophageal cancer delineated GTVs, defined as conventional GTVs, based on endoscopy and barium radiography findings. The two GTVs were compared and analyzed. Subgroup analysis was conducted in different T stage [early (T1 + T2) . advanced (T3 + T4)], focus location (upper . middle . lower segment), and tumor length (<5 . >5 cm) groups.

Results: The trial recruited 55 patients with 60 thoracic esophageal cancer foci. A total of 111 titanium clips were guided and implanted by EUS. Before CT simulation, two titanium clips at two foci fell off. After the procedure, no case of intolerable esophageal pain, hemorrhage, or perforation occurred. Compared to reference GTVs', discrepancies of conventional GTVs' superior borders were 0.91±0.82 cm (P<0.001), while differences of inferior borders were 0.74±0.63 cm (P<0.001). On the contrary, conventional GTVs' lengths were not significantly different from reference GTVs' with discrepancies 0.08±1.30 cm (P=0.64). Regardless of T stage, tumor location, and tumor length, conventional GTVs' superior and inferior borders were significantly different from reference GTVs', while GTVs' lengths differed insignificantly.

Conclusions: This study confirmed that EUS-placed titanium clips could correct contouring of GTVs in thoracic esophageal cancer in different T stages, tumor locations, and lengths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576083PMC
September 2020

Routine first-trimester ultrasound screening using a standardized anatomical protocol.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 04 27;224(4):396.e1-396.e15. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Shenzhen Maternity & Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background: First-trimester ultrasound scans were introduced to China for nearly 20 years. The ability of first-trimester ultrasound screening to detect different malformations was variable. A recent systematic review concluded that the use of a standardized anatomic protocol was the most crucial factor to improve the sensitivity of first-trimester ultrasound screening for anomalies. Standardized sectional scans have long been used for routine anatomy screening during the second trimester. However, during the first trimester, most of the previous studies have described the observation of anatomic structures but have not specified clearly the standard sectional views.

Objective: We aimed to determine the performance of routine first-trimester scans using a standardized anatomic protocol for detecting structural abnormalities in China.

Study Design: This was a large retrospective study involving 59,063 sequential unselected pregnancies. Scans at 11 to 13 weeks were performed in a single center during a 7-year span. All fetuses were examined following a predefined protocol for standardized views.

Results: From October 2008 to December 2015, first-trimester scans were performed in 53,349 pregnant women with available outcome. Of these, there were 1578 (3%) pregnancies that presented with at least 1 fetal structural abnormality. The detection rate for first-trimester screening was 43.1% (95% confidence interval, 40.6%-45.5%). Routine first-trimester scans detected 95.6% of abdominal wall defects, 66.3% of nervous system defects, 33.8% of limbs and skeleton malformations, 30.8% of facial abnormalities, 21.2% of urogenital abnormalities, 18.4% of thoracic and lung abnormalities, and 4.1% of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities. During the first trimester, 37.7% of cardiac defects were identified and included 57.9% of major cardiac defects and 2.6% of mild cardiac defects. A robust high detection rate for anencephaly, exencephaly, cephalocele, holoprosencephaly, exomphalos, gastroschisis, Pentalogy of Cantrell, sirenomelia, and body stalk anomaly was achieved during routine first-trimester scans.

Conclusion: A standardized anatomic protocol is advised when performing routine first-trimester ultrasound screening. It is recommended that screening for severe structural abnormalities should be extended to the first trimester.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.10.037DOI Listing
April 2021

Directly observing intracellular nanoparticle formation with nanocomputed tomography.

Sci Adv 2020 Oct 23;6(43). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Hefei National Laboratory of Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

Directly observing intracellular nanostructure formation remains challenging. In this work, using a rationally designed small-molecule 4-nitrobenzyl carbamate-Cys(SEt)-Asp-Asp-Phe(iodine)-2-cyano-benzothiazole (NBC-Iod-CBT), we directly observed intracellular nanoparticle formation with nanocomputed tomography (nano-CT). In vitro, upon glutathione reduction and nitroreductase (NTR) cleavage, NBC-Iod-CBT undergoes a CBT-Cys click condensation reaction to self-assemble nanoparticles Iod-CBT-NPs with an average linear absorption coefficient (LAC) value of 0.182 ± 0.078 μm to x-ray. Nano-CT imaging of the NBC-Iod-CBT-treated, NTR-overexpressing HeLa cells showed the existence of Iod-CBT-NPs in their cytoplasm with an average LAC value of 0.172 ± 0.032 μm We anticipate that our strategy could help people to deeply understand the formation mechanism of intracellular nanostructures in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba3190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608822PMC
October 2020

Comparison of RigiScan and penile color duplex ultrasound in evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

Ann Palliat Med 2020 Sep 7;9(5):2988-2992. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, China.

Background: Whether RigiScan could distinguish psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction (ED) is still a matter of controversy. So this study was aimed to investigate the function of RigiScan in the diagnosis of ED, and compare it with that of pharmacopenile color doppler ultrasonography (PCDU).

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. All patients should be performed IIEF-5 questionnaire, blood test, RigiScan, PCDU, Neurophysiological tests. Golden standard: one patient was diagnosed as organic ED when any of the following tests was abnormal, including sex hormone, PCDU and neurological tests. Student t test, Kappa test and ROC analyses was used to analyze the difference between RigiScan and PCDU. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 25.0 and EmpowerStats software.

Results: According to the standard: 70 patients (35.4%) were detected abnormal responses to intracavernous injection in PCDU and normal responses in 128 cases (64.6%). RigiScan had a significant but weak positive correlation with PCDU test (kappa value =0.361, P<0.01). In the ROC analyses, RigiScan was better in sensitivity (0.8603 vs. 0.5147). In the patients revealed organic lesions by RigiScan, 61 of 119 (51.3%) patients were detected abnormal responses by PCDU.

Conclusions: RigiScan was the preferential choice in distinguishing psychogenic ED from organic ED. PCDU could not replace RigiScan by now. But PCDU was the preferential choice in ED with vascular lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-507DOI Listing
September 2020

Highly Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery Assisted by Redox-Mediated Catalysis.

Small 2020 Sep 18;16(38):e2003321. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

With good operation flexibility and scalability, vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRBs) stand out from various electrochemical energy storage (EES) technologies. However, traditional electrodes in VRBs, such as carbon and graphite felt with low electrochemical activities, impede the interfacial charge transfer processes and generate considerable overpotential loss, which significantly decrease the energy and voltage efficiencies of VRBs. Herein, by using a facile electrodeposition technique, Prussian blue/carbon felt (PB/CF) composite electrodes with high electrochemical activity for VRBs are successfully fabricated. The PB/CF electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical activity toward VO /VO redox couple in VRB with an average cell voltage efficiency (VE) of 90% and an energy efficiency (EE) of 88% at 100 mA cm . In addition, due to the uniformly distributed PB particles that are strongly bound to the surface of carbon fibers in CF, VRBs with the PB/CF electrodes show much better long-term stabilities compared with the pristine CF-based battery due to the redox-mediated catalysis. A VRB stack consisting of three single cells (16 cm ) is also constructed to assess the reliability of the redox-mediated PB/CF electrodes for large-scale application. The facile technique for the high-performance electrode with redox-mediated reaction is expected to shed new light on commercial electrode design for VRBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202003321DOI Listing
September 2020

Concurrent or Sequential Chemoradiotherapy after 3-4 Cycles Induction Chemotherapy for LS-SCLC with Bulky Tumor.

J Cancer 2020 16;11(17):4957-4964. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, China.

The current study was to compare the efficacy and safety between concurrent and sequential chemoradiotherapy after 3-4 cycles of induction chemotherapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) with bulky tumor. From July 2012 to September 2015, a total of 68 patients with stage IIIA and IIIB SCLC who had completed 3-4 cycles of etoposide plus cisplatin/carboplatin and achieved clinical complete response (cCR) or clinical partial response (cPR) were randomized into the two groups equally. The concurrent group received radiotherapy combined with oral etoposide and cisplatin and the sequential group received sequential chemoradiotherapy. Thoracic radiotherapy was performed using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with 95% PTV 60Gy/30 times. After completing chemoradiotherapy, patients received prophylactic cranial irradiation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and toxicity. The median follow-up time was 63.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.8-75.8). Better PFS and OS were observed in concurrent group (median PFS, 26.0 months [95% CI, 9.0-43.0] versus 13.1 months [95%CI, 9.7-16.6], p=0.023; median OS, 35.0 months [95% CI, 25.4-44.6] versus 22.0 months [95% CI, 17.0-27.1], p=0.015). There was no significant difference in the incidence of radiation esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis between the two groups (p=0.795, p=0.525). This study demonstrated that after the completion of 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy with a remission, concurrent chemoradiotherapy with oral etoposide and cisplatin improved survival compared with sequential chemoradiotherapy in LS-SCLC with bulky tumor. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01745445.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.41136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378916PMC
June 2020

Relationship between penile erection and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone: A retrospective study.

Andrologia 2020 Oct 15;52(9):e13701. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong, China.

Previous studies have found that the ratio of estradiol to testosterone (E2/T ratio) has a negative effect on sexual function, but the relationship between the E2/T ratio and erection of the penis is not clarified. We conducted a retrospective study of 183 patients with erectile dysfunction and 52 healthy men to investigate the relationship between penis base erection and tip erection. All participants underwent nocturnal penile tumescence tests and medical history checks and had relevant biochemical and endocrine indicators measured. The ratio of estradiol to testosterone was calculated. The relationship between E2/T ratio and erectile time of penile tip and penile base was determined by univariate analysis, multivariate analysis and stratification analysis. After adjusting for mixed factors, the results showed that the E2/T ratio had a more significant negative effect on the base of the penis compared with the tip of the penis (Hazard ratio: -4.34 95% CI: -6.52, -2.16 p = .0001). Moreover, when the effective erection time was ≥10 min, the negative effect of E2/T on penile root erection was more obvious (HR ratio: -4.46 95% CI: -6.50, -2.43 p < .0001). In summary, our study demonstrated a negative relationship between E2/T ratio and penile erection, particularly at the root of the penis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13701DOI Listing
October 2020

Regulating the Interfacial Electronic Coupling of Fe N via Orbital Steering for Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis.

Adv Mater 2020 Jul 25;32(26):e1904346. Epub 2020 May 25.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at the Microscale, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, P. R. China.

The capability of manipulating the interfacial electronic coupling is the key to achieving on-demand functionalities of catalysts. Herein, it is demonstrated that the electronic coupling of Fe N can be effectively regulated for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysis by vacancy-mediated orbital steering. Ex situ refined structural analysis reveals that the electronic and coordination states of Fe N can be well manipulated by nitrogen vacancies, which impressively exhibit strong correlation with the catalytic activities. Theoretical studies further indicate that the nitrogen vacancy can uniquely steer the orbital orientation of the active sites to tailor the electronic coupling and thus benefit the surface adsorption capability. This work sheds light on the understanding of the catalytic mechanism in real systems and could contribute to revolutionizing the current catalyst design for HER and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201904346DOI Listing
July 2020

Permanent Antimicrobial Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Prepared by Chemical Bonding with Poly(hexamethylene guanidine).

ACS Omega 2020 May 27;5(18):10481-10488. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Biofouling is one of the major obstacles in the application of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane in water and wastewater treatment. Developing antimicrobial PVDF could kill the attached microbe in the initial stage, thus theoretically inhibiting the formation of biofilm and delaying the occurrence of biofouling. However, the leaching of the antimicrobial component and deterioration of antimicrobial properties remain a concern. In this work, an antimicrobial PVDF (PVDF--AGE-PHMG) was developed by chemical bonding PVDF with poly(hexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride) (PHMG). The obtained PVDF--AGE-PHMG was blended with pristine PVDF to prepare an antimicrobial PVDF membrane. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that PHMG was successfully grafted into the PVDF membrane. The morphologies, membrane porosity, water contact angles, antimicrobial properties, mechanical properties, and thermostability of the as-prepared membranes were investigated. When the content of PVDF--AGE-PHMG reached 10.0 wt %, the inhibition rates of both antimicrobial PVDF membrane against and were above 99.99%. Due to the increased hydrophilicity, excellent antimicrobial activity, nonleaching of antimicrobial component, good mechanical properties, and thermostability, the as-prepared PVDF membrane has promising applications in the field of water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c00626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227036PMC
May 2020

A novel method of bilateral patent processus vaginalis ligation in transumbilical single-site multiport laparoscopic orchiopexy.

Int J Med Sci 2020 15;17(8):1043-1047. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of lung cancer surgery, Tianjin medical university general hospital, No.154 Anshan Road, Tianjin 300052, PR China.

To evaluate safety and efficacy of a novel method of bilateral patent processus vaginalis ligation in transumbilical single-site multiport laparoscopic orchiopexy for children. A retrospective study was carried out comparing the novel ligation and conventional ligation performed by a single surgeon between July, 2017-July, 2018. The patients were divided into the novel group (42 cases) and the conventional group (59 cases). In the novel group, transumbilical single-site multiport laparoscopic orchiopexy was performed and the bilateral internal rings was stitched with "8" pattern suture. In the conventional group, the conventional TriPort laparoscopic orchiopexy was performed and purse string suture was used to fix the internal rings. The parameters of operative duration time, postoperative hospital stay; postoperative complications were compared between 2 groups. All operations were successful. No Perioperative period complications were found and all patients were discharged within 4-6 days after operation. There is no statistic difference in the surgery time and hospitalization day. However, there is significant difference in the Pain face scale scores after day 2(1.60±0.73 VS 2.02±0.86). And there is no scar and the satisfactory cosmetic could be seen in scrotum and inguinal area in the novel group. The novel ligation was safety and efficacy. It is relatively easy to perform with smaller scar and less pain. We propose the novel ligation as a more viable treatment option for pediatric cryptorchidism with bilateral patent processus vaginalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.44682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211161PMC
March 2021

Quantitative three-dimensional nondestructive imaging of whole anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2020 May 17;27(Pt 3):753-761. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environments of MOE, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, People's Republic of China.

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle and in nitrogenous wastewater treatment. The anammox bacteria ultrastructure is unique and distinctly different from that of other prokaryotic cells. The morphological structure of an organism is related to its function; however, research on the ultrastructure of intact anammox bacteria is lacking. In this study, in situ three-dimensional nondestructive ultrastructure imaging of a whole anammox cell was performed using synchrotron soft X-ray tomography (SXT) and the total variation-based simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (TV-SART). Statistical and quantitative analyses of the intact anammox bacteria were performed. High soft X-ray absorption composition inside anammoxosome was detected and verified to be relevant to iron-binding protein. On this basis, the shape adaptation of the anammox bacteria response to iron was explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577520002349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285686PMC
May 2020

Raman micro-spectroscopy monitoring of cytochrome c redox state in Candida utilis during cell death under low-temperature plasma-induced oxidative stress.

Analyst 2020 Jun 20;145(11):3922-3930. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of High Magnetic Field and Ion Beam Physical Biology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

Oxidative stress may result in different modes of cell death, such as necrosis, apoptosis and necroptosis. Currently, researchers are still striving to develop efficient tools/methods to distinguish the cell death modes in direct and label-free ways. In this study, we attempted to employ Raman micro-spectroscopy to observe the molecular changes in Candida utilis cells under oxidative stress induced by low-temperature plasma (LTP) and explore the spectroscopic biomarkers for the modes of cell death under oxidative stress. In this research, we confirmed that LTP could impose oxidative stress on the yeast cells, and recorded the changes of Raman signals of cytochrome c in the cells under LTP oxidative stress. Subsequently, we identified the biochemical and morphological characteristic features corresponding to different modes of cell death. Interestingly, we found that LTP under certain conditions could induce oxidative stress which caused the yeast cell death mainly by means of necroptosis, which was verified by Annexin V/PI, HMGB1 location assay and immunoprecipitation assay of the RIP1/RIP3 necrosome. Correspondingly, we also showed that the LTP induced necroptosis, associated with the increase of cytoplasmic Ca and mitochondrial ROS, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of oxidized cytochrome c from the mitochondrion to the cytoplasm, and the destruction of mitochondria in yeast cells. This work has therefore demonstrated that monitoring the redox state of cytochrome c using Raman micro-spectroscopy is very useful for distinguishing the modes of cell death and particularly may unveil the unique necroptosis process of cells under extrinsic oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an00507jDOI Listing
June 2020

Two successful deliveries of healthy children by a young woman diagnosed and treated during induction and relapsed therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2020 Dec 11;26(8):2034-2037. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Introduction: Acute promyelocytic leukemia is an oncologic emergency. The limited cases reported in the literature have led to poor understanding of the safety of management of acute promyelocytic leukemia during pregnancy.

Case Report: Herein is an acute promyelocytic leukemia case of a 22-year-old young pregnant woman who had various social problems. The patient was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia in her the second trimester of her first pregnancy. She was treated with all-trans-retinoic acid with idarubicin and successfully delivered a healthy baby. She completed induction with idarubicin but defaulted her all-trans-retinoic acid, 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate maintenance. She relapsed after one year and was salvaged with all-trans-retinoic acid high dose cytarabine and arsenic trioxide. She went into remission and had autologous stem cells collected and was planned for an autologous stem cell transplant but she defaulted. She relapsed when she was pregnant with her second baby during her third trimester (29+weeks) 10 months later. Salvage chemotherapy with arsenic trioxide, all-trans-retinoic acid and idarubicin was given. Patient underwent an emergency lower segment caesarian section at 31 weeks of pregnancy due to abnormal fetal cardiotocography. A healthy baby was delivered.

Discussion: This drug regimen is controversial during pregnancy owing to the teratogenic effects and fatal retinoic acid syndrome especially in early gestation. In this case, patient was started the induction therapy of all-trans-retinoic acid treatment at her second trimester during her first pregnancy.

Conclusion: Our lady demonstrated the possibility of using all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide and chemotherapy during second and third trimester with successful pregnancy outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078155220915764DOI Listing
December 2020

Selective Entropy Gain-Driven Adsorption of Nanospheres onto Spherical Bacteria Endows Photodynamic Treatment with Narrow-Spectrum Activity.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Apr 25;11(8):2788-2796. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Narrow-spectrum antimicrobials specifically eradicate the target pathogens but suffer from significantly lagging development. Photodynamic therapy eliminates cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon light irradiation but is intrinsically a wide-spectrum modality. We herein converted photodynamic therapy into a narrow-spectrum modality by taking advantage of a previously unnoticed physics recognition pathway. We found that negatively charged nanospheres undergo selective entropy gain-driven adsorption onto spherical bacteria, but not onto rod-like bacteria. This bacterial morphology-targeting selectivity, combined with the extremely limited effective radii of action of ROS, enabled photodynamic nanospheres to kill >99% of inoculated spherical bacteria upon light irradiation and <1% of rod-like bacteria under comparable conditions, indicative of narrow-spectrum activity against spherical bacteria. This work unveils the bacterial morphology selectivity in the adsorption of negatively charged nanospheres and suggests a new approach for treating infections characterized by overthriving spherical bacteria in niches naturally dominated by rod-like bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c00287DOI Listing
April 2020

Limited angle tomography for transmission X-ray microscopy using deep learning.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2020 Mar 13;27(Pt 2):477-485. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Pattern Recognition Lab, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.

In transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) systems, the rotation of a scanned sample might be restricted to a limited angular range to avoid collision with other system parts or high attenuation at certain tilting angles. Image reconstruction from such limited angle data suffers from artifacts because of missing data. In this work, deep learning is applied to limited angle reconstruction in TXMs for the first time. With the challenge to obtain sufficient real data for training, training a deep neural network from synthetic data is investigated. In particular, U-Net, the state-of-the-art neural network in biomedical imaging, is trained from synthetic ellipsoid data and multi-category data to reduce artifacts in filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction images. The proposed method is evaluated on synthetic data and real scanned chlorella data in 100° limited angle tomography. For synthetic test data, U-Net significantly reduces the root-mean-square error (RMSE) from 2.55 × 10 µm in the FBP reconstruction to 1.21 × 10 µm in the U-Net reconstruction and also improves the structural similarity (SSIM) index from 0.625 to 0.920. With penalized weighted least-square denoising of measured projections, the RMSE and SSIM are further improved to 1.16 × 10 µm and 0.932, respectively. For real test data, the proposed method remarkably improves the 3D visualization of the subcellular structures in the chlorella cell, which indicates its important value for nanoscale imaging in biology, nanoscience and materials science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S160057752000017XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064107PMC
March 2020

Effect of estradiol on penile erection: a cross-sectional study.

Transl Androl Urol 2019 Dec;8(6):574-582

Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan 250021, China.

Background: Past studies have shown that elevated estradiol levels could inhibit penile erection, but the relationship between estradiol and erection of the penile tip or base has not been extensively researched.

Methods: We therefore investigated estradiol's effects on the erection of the penile tip and base, with a cross-sectional study of 135 patients with erectile dysfunction (ED), based on scores of ≤21 according to the International Index of Erectile Function-5. All patients were tested for nocturnal penile tumescence, blood pressure (BP), serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E), and testosterone (T). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess associations between estradiol levels and erection at the penile tip and base.

Results: We found no obvious relationship between erection time at penile tip and estradiol levels but did observe a negative correlation between base erection time and estradiol level [hazard ratio (HR): ‒0.11; 95% CI: ‒0.80-1.72]. With increasing estradiol concentration, multivariate analysis showed an obvious reduction in base erection time among patients with normal Rigiscan results (HR: ‒0.31; 95% CI: ‒1.63-1.29) (P<0.05) as estradiol concentration increased.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that estradiol inhibits penile erection, particularly at the penile base. Also, when the effective erection time of the penile base lasts longer than 10 min, estradiol has a more obvious inhibitory effect on penile base erection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau.2019.10.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6987613PMC
December 2019

Microenvironment derived from metanephros transplantation inhibits the progression of acute kidney injury in glycerol-induced rat models.

Ren Fail 2020 Nov;42(1):89-97

Key Laboratory for Kidney Regeneration of Shandong Province, Jinan, China.

Embryonic metanephros is the mammalian renal anlagen, which is considered as a potential source for the regeneration of functional whole kidneys. Some studies reported that metanephros implanted into unilateral nephrectomized animals can develop into kidney tissue. However, kidneys are nephrotoxic in renal failure patients, and whether metanephros can grow in nephrotoxic has not been reported. This study aims to investigate the growth of metanephros in acute nephrotoxic environment and analyze the therapeutic effect of metanephros microenvironment on acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI was induced in 200 g Wistar rats by giving intramuscular injections of 50% glycerol (10 mL/kg) in their hind limbs. 45 rats were divided randomly into three groups (control, glycerin, and metanephros). Metanephros group was transplanted two metanephroi (embryonic day 15) into the renal capsule of AKI rats. Glycerin group was AKI rats without transplantation. Control group was untreated. Mature glomeruli and tubules were detected in the grafts in metanephros group, which means that metanephroi can grow into tissues with mature kidney structure under acute nephrotoxic. Then, we assessed the renal function of host rats and found that there were fewer tubular necrosis in metanephros group than glycerin group, and the serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in metanephros group than glycerin group. These results suggested that embryonic metanephroi can grow into tissues with mature kidney structure under acute nephrotoxic, and the graft microenvironment was effective in inhibiting the progression of AKI, which provides a new approach for the treatment of acute renal injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2019.1708393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968583PMC
November 2020

High-Curvature Transition-Metal Chalcogenide Nanostructures with a Pronounced Proximity Effect Enable Fast and Selective CO Electroreduction.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 May 3;59(22):8706-8712. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Division of Nanomaterials & Chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Hefei Science Center of CAS, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

A considerable challenge in the conversion of carbon dioxide into useful fuels comes from the activation of CO to CO or other intermediates, which often requires precious-metal catalysts, high overpotentials, and/or electrolyte additives (e.g., ionic liquids). We report a microwave heating strategy for synthesizing a transition-metal chalcogenide nanostructure that efficiently catalyzes CO electroreduction to carbon monoxide (CO). We found that the cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoneedle arrays exhibit an unprecedented current density of 212 mA cm with 95.5±4.0 % CO Faraday efficiency at -1.2 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE; without iR correction). Experimental and computational studies show that the high-curvature CdS nanostructured catalyst has a pronounced proximity effect which gives rise to large electric field enhancement, which can concentrate alkali-metal cations resulting in the enhanced CO electroreduction efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201912348DOI Listing
May 2020

Precise correlative method of Cryo-SXT and Cryo-FM for organelle identification.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2020 Jan 1;27(Pt 1):176-184. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 42 Hezuohua South Road, Hefei, Anhui 230029, People's Republic of China.

Cryogenic soft X-ray tomography (Cryo-SXT) is ideally suitable to image the 3D sub-cellular architecture and organization of cells with high resolution in the near-native preservation state. Cryogenic fluorescence microscopy (Cryo-FM) can determine the location of a molecule of interest that has been labeled with a fluorescent tag, thus revealing the function of the cells. To understand the relations between the sub-cellular architecture and the function of cells, correlative Cryo-SXT and Cryo-FM was applied. This method required the matching of images of different modalities, and the accuracy of the matching is important. Here, a precise correlative method of Cryo-SXT and Cryo-FM is introduced. The capability of matching images of different modalities with high resolution was verified by simulations and practical experiments, and the method was used to identify vacuoles and mitochondria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577519015194DOI Listing
January 2020

Copper Bis(oxazoline)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Alkynylation of Benzopyrylium Ions.

Chemistry 2020 Feb 28;26(8):1742-1747. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA.

The stereocontrolled construction of biologically relevant chromanones and tetrahydroxanthones has been achieved through the addition of alkynes to benzopyrylium trilfates under the influence of copper bis(oxazoline) catalysis. Excellent levels of enantiocontrol (63-98 % ee) are achieved in the addition of a variety of alkynes to an array of chromenones with a hydrogen in the 2-position. Promising levels of enantiocontrol (54-67 % ee) are achieved in the alkynylation of chromenones with esters in the 2-position, generating tertiary ether stereocenters resembling those frequently found in naturally occurring metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201904822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262874PMC
February 2020
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