Publications by authors named "Yong Cheng"

528 Publications

Serum Untargeted Metabolomics Reveal Potential Biomarkers of Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy in Asians.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 9;9:871291. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People's Hospital, Eye Diseases and Optometry Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Therapy of Retinal and Choroid Diseases, College of Optometry, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

To reveal molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asians and facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets through untargeted metabolomics. To determine the differences in serum metabolites and metabolic pathways between different stages of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and proliferative DR (PDR) and non-proliferative DR (NPDR) and identify differential metabolites between T2DM and DR (NPDR and PDR) patients. This prospective observational registration study described the differential metabolites between 45 T2DM patients and 15 control cases with no significant differences in clinical characteristics. Their biospecimens and clinical information were collected and recorded in their medical reports. DR phenotypes of the subjects were verified by retina specialists. Serum metabolites were analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry with liquid chromatography. Untargeted metabolomics was performed on serum samples from 15 T2DM patients, 15 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients, 15 proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients, and 15 diabetic controls. Discriminatory metabolic features were identified through partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and generalized linear regression models. Through untargeted metabolomics, 931 features (523 in positive and 408 in negative modes) with 102 common metabolites highly relevant to the presence of DR were detected. In the adjusted analysis, 67 metabolic features differed significantly between T2DM and NPDR patients. Pathway analysis revealed alterations in metabolisms of amino acids and fatty acids. Glutamate, phosphatidylcholine, and 13-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid (13-PHODE) were key contributors to these pathway differences. A total of 171 features distinguished PDR patients from T2DM patients, and pathway analysis revealed alterations in amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. Aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, ornithine, N-acetyl-l-glutamate, N-acetyl-l-aspartate, citrate, succinate, N-(L-arginino)succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, 13-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid, methionine, lysine, threonine, phenylalanine, N(pi)-methyl-l-histidine, phosphatidylcholine, and linoleate were major contributors to the pathway differences. Between NPDR patients and PDR patients, there were 79 significant differential metabolites. Enrichment pathway analysis showed changes in amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, pantothenate, and CoA biosynthesis. Aspartate, glutamine, N-acetyl-l-glutamate, N-acetyl-l-aspartate, pantothenate, dihomo-gamma-linolenate, docosahexaenoic acid, and icosapentaenoic acid were key factors for the differences of these pathways. This study demonstrated that the pathways of arginine biosynthesis metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, as well as d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, were dysregulated in DR patients of the Asian population. Increased levels of glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, N-acetyl-l-glutamate, and N-acetyl-l-aspartate and decreased levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenate, docosahexaenoic, and icosapentaenoic were considered as the metabolic profile that could distinguish PDR from NPDR in Asians. Phosphatidylcholine and 13-PHODE were identified as two major novel metabolite markers in advanced stages of DR in our study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.871291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9224596PMC
June 2022

Mitigating the Surface Reconstruction of Ni-Rich Cathode P2-Type Mn-Rich Oxide Coating for Durable Lithium Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Ni-rich materials have received widespread attention as one of the mainstream cathodes in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. However, Ni-rich cathodes suffer from severe surface reconstruction in a high delithiation state, constraining their rate capabilities and life span. Herein, a novel P2-type NaNiMnO (NNMO) is rationally selected as the surficial modification layer for LiNiCoMnO (NCM811) cathode, which undergoes a spontaneous Na-Li exchange reaction to form an O2-type LiNiMnO (LNMO) layer revealed by combining X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Owing to the specific oxygen stacking sequence, O2-type LNMO significantly prevents the initial layered structure of NCM811 from transforming to the spinel or rock-salt phases during cycling, thus effectively maintaining the integral surficial structure and the Li diffusion channels of NCM811. Eventually, the [email protected] electrode yields enhanced thermal stability, outstanding rate performance, and long cycling stability with 80% capacity retention after 294 cycles at 200 mA g, and its life span is further extended to 531 cycles while enhancing the mechanical stability of the bulk material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c06264DOI Listing
June 2022

MSTN modification in goat mediated by TALENs and performance analysis.

Yi Chuan 2022 Jun;44(6):531-542

Department of Basic Medicine, School of Health and Nursing, Wuxi Taihu University, Wuxi 214000, China.

Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and development. It can inhibit the proliferation of myoblasts and serve as an important candidate gene for animal breed improvement. Mutations of the MSTN gene can cause extensive skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy, resulting in "double muscle" symptoms. This leads to reduction of animal fat differentiation and increase of muscle content, thereby meeting the demand for quality consumption of animal meat in the market. In order to obtain a double-muscle phenotype using mutant MSTN gene in cloned goat, the goat MSTN gene was target-modified by TALENs. In this study, the TALENs expression vector was designed and constructed in the first exon sequence of the goat MSTN gene, which was then transfected into the goat fetal fibroblasts. The resistant cell lines were obtained by puromycin selection, and the cell lines with the MSTN gene mutations were analyzed by PCR and gene sequencing, thereby identifying the mutation type(s). The MSTN gene mutant cell lines were used as the nuclear donor cells in somatic cell nuclear transfer procedures in goats, and The morphological structure of the muscle tissue of the goats with MSTN gene mutations was analyzed by tissue section. The body weight of the cloned goats were monitored at different months of age, which provided the growth trend of their weight at different developmental stages. The results show that a total of 109 MSTN gene mutant cell lines were obtained. The mutation efficiency was 79.0% (109/138), of which 46 were biallelic mutations, accounting for 33.3% (46/138) of the total cell lines. Four MSTN gene mutant cell lines (1 biallelic homozygous mutation, 3 non-homozygous mutations) with good growth status were selected for somatic cell nuclear transfer in 12 recipients, of which 4 were pregnant by B-ultrasound at 30 days, indicating the a 33.3% (4/12) pregnancy rate. Two cloned goats were born at the end of the pregnancy. Sequencing analysis showed that there was no mutation in one allele of the M-1 cloned lamb, and the other allele harbored a 3 bp-deletion. The M-2 cloned lamb harbored a 1 bp base insertion in one allele of the MSTN gene, and a deletion of 13 bp in the other allele, resulting in mutations in both alleles and the loss of the protein-coding sequence of MSTN after the mutation site. In addition, the muscle fibers of cloned M-1 goats are tightly arranged and thick, and their monthly body weight is higher than that of normal wild-type goats. However, it is still consistent with the growth trend of normal wild-type goats and the M-1 goats can develop into healthy adults. In summary, this study showed that goat fetal fibroblasts with the multiple MSTN gene mutations were successfully obtained by TALENs technology, and cloned goats with mutant MSTN genes could be generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer method, thereby providing a technical foundation for the cultivation of the "double muscle" phenotype goats, and serving as a reference method for the preparation of other transgenic animals in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.22-011DOI Listing
June 2022

Mangiferin Alleviates Postpartum Depression-Like Behaviors by Inhibiting MAPK Signaling in Microglia.

Front Pharmacol 2022 3;13:840567. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Center on Translational Neuroscience, College of Life and Environmental Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China.

Postpartum depression (PPD), a severe mental health disorder, is closely associated with decreased gonadal hormone levels during the postpartum period. Mangiferin (MGF) possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation. Growing evidence has suggested that neuroinflammation is involved in the development of depression. However, the role of MGF in the development of PPD is largely unknown. In the present study, by establishing a hormone-simulated pregnancy PPD mouse model, we found that the administration of MGF significantly alleviated PPD-like behaviors. Mechanistically, MGF treatment inhibited microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Moreover, we found that MGF treatment inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and . Together, these results highlight an important role of MGF in microglial activation and thus give insights into the potential therapeutic strategy for PPD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.840567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9204178PMC
June 2022

The XPO1 Inhibitor KPT-8602 Ameliorates Parkinson's Disease by Inhibiting the NF-κB/NLRP3 Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2022 1;13:847605. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Center on Translational Neuroscience, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China.

Exportin 1 (XPO1) is an important transport receptor that mediates the nuclear export of various proteins and RNA. KPT-8602 is a second-generation inhibitor of XPO1, demonstrating the lowest level of side effects, and is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancers. Previous studies suggest that several first-generation inhibitors of XPO1 demonstrate anti-inflammation activities, indicating the application of this drug in inflammation-related diseases. In this study, our results suggested the potent anti-inflammatory effect of KPT-8602 and . KPT-8602 inhibited the activation of the NF-κB pathway by blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and the priming of NLRP3. Importantly, the administration of KPT-8602 attenuated both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peripheral inflammation and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neuroinflammation . In addition, the tissue damage was also ameliorated by KPT-8602, indicating that KPT-8602 could be used as a novel potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammasome-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease, through the regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and the NLRP3 inflammasome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.847605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9200340PMC
June 2022

Comparison of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Agents With Laser Photocoagulation for Retinopathy of Prematurity of 1,627 Eyes in China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 31;9:911095. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People's Hospital, Eye Diseases and Optometry Institute, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To compare the efficacies and treatment outcomes of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents and laser therapy in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

Methods: A retrospective, non-randomized, comparative study of patients diagnosed with type 1 ROP or aggressive posterior ROP (A-ROP) treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents or laser therapy as primary treatment at the People's Hospital of Peking University.

Results: A total of 1,627 eyes of 862 patients were included. In , 399 eyes of 204 patients were diagnosed with A-ROP or zone I type 1 ROP. The initial regression of the anti-VEGF subgroup was better than that of the laser subgroup, and the reactivation rate and rate of progression to retinal detachment were lower than those of the laser subgroup. In , 1,228 eyes of 658 patients were diagnosed with zone II type 1 ROP. The reactivation rate of the laser subgroup was lower than that of the anti-VEGF subgroup. No significant differences were found in the initial regression and the probability of developing retinal detachment. Among the anti-VEGF agents, the reactivation rate in eyes treated with conbercept was much lower than that in eyes treated with ranibizumab. The spherical power and spherical equivalents of eyes treated with laser were significantly higher than those of eyes treated with anti-VEGF agents 1 year after initial treatment.

Conclusions: In contrast to laser therapy, anti-VEGF agents as primary treatments have potential advantages for eyes with zone I type 1 ROP and A-ROP. For eyes with zone II type 1 ROP, laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF agents therapy showed similar efficacy; however, the rate of reactivation with laser therapy was significantly lower than that with anti-VEGF agents. Among the anti-VEGF agents, the reactivation rate was much lower in eyes treated with conbercept than in eyes treated with ranibizumab. Compared to anti-VEGF agents, laser treated eyes had greater trend to myopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.911095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9193577PMC
May 2022

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a biomarker for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis.

J Psychiatr Res 2022 Jul 23;151:676-682. Epub 2022 May 23.

Center on Translational Neuroscience, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, China. Electronic address:

Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a growth factor that plays many critical functions in the central nervous system (CNS) and may be involved in the development of a range of psychopathologies, including depression, dementia, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Methods: In the present study, we performed the first systematic review with a meta-analysis to quantitatively compare the peripheral blood BDNF levels between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls (HCs). A systematic search was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science databases to identify the relevant articles.

Results: Nine studies encompassing 474 adults with OCD and 436 HCs were included in this meta-analysis. A random-effects meta-analysis showed that patients with OCD had significantly decreased peripheral blood levels of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) when compared with the HCs (Hedges' g = -0.722, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.152 to -0.292, P = 0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed decreased BDNF levels in plasma of patients (Hedges' g = -1.137, 95% CI = -1.463 to -0.810, P = 0.000) and drug-free patients (Hedges' g = -1.269, 95% CI = -1.974 to -0.564, P = 0.000) as compared to patients on active drug therapy and HCs. Meta-regression analyses showed that age, sex, sample size, Y-BOS total score, and publication year had no moderating effects on the outcome.

Conclusion: Although the relationship between our findings and the pathophysiology of OCD and the role BDNF plays in the development of the disease remains to be determined, the outcomes suggest that BDNF may serve as a potential biomarker of OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.05.026DOI Listing
July 2022

Clean Style Recovery and Utilization of Residual Nutrients in Effluents From Biohydrogen Production: Immobilization Based on Sodium Alginate.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 16;10:906968. Epub 2022 May 16.

Key Laboratory of New Materials and Facilities for Rural Renewable Energy, MOA of China, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

Clean- and high-value recovery and reuse of the residue of biohydrogen production (biohydrogen slurry) is an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, sodium alginate (SA) gel was used to concentrate nutrients quickly from biohydrogen slurry, which was prepared into gel microspheres (GMs), just like "capsule." The immobilization and release efficiency of conventional and reverse spherification were investigated. Better immobilization and release efficiency were detected under the conventional spherification method. The effect of GM sizes and concentrations of SA and calcium chloride (CaCl) was further studied in terms of sphericity factor, nutrient release, yield, encapsulation efficiency, and loading capacity. The best immobilization effect was obtained with a 1.6-mm syringe needle, 3.0 wt% SA, and 6 wt% CaCl, in which the sphericity factor, nitrogen release, yield, nitrogen encapsulation efficiency, and nitrogen loading capacity reached to 0.047, 96.20, 77.68, 38.37, and 0.0476%, respectively. This process not only avoids environmental pollution from biohydrogen slurry but also uses them at a high value as a fertilizer to nourish the soil. The feasibility of "slurry capsule" preparation will realize the clean recovery and reuse of biohydrogen slurry, which provides a new idea for ecological protection and carbon neutral goals and has important significance for sustainable development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.906968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9149072PMC
May 2022

[Propagation and phenotypic analysis of mutant rabbits with homozygous mutation].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2022 May;38(5):1847-1858

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China.

Myostatin gene () encodes a negative regulator for controlling skeletal muscle growth in animals. In this study, homozygous mutants with "double muscle" phenotypic traits and stable inheritance were bred on the basis of gene editing rabbits, with the aim to establish a method for breeding homozygous progeny from primary MSTN biallelic mutant rabbits. primary mutant rabbits were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. The primary mutant rabbits were mated with wild type rabbits to produce F1 rabbits, whereas the F2 generation homozygous rabbits were bred by half-sibling mating or backcrossing with F1 generation rabbits of the same mutant strain. Sequence analysis of PCR products and its T vector cloning were used to screen homozygous rabbits. The mutant rabbits with 14-19 week-old were weighed and the difference of gluteus maximus tissue sections and muscle fiber cross-sectional area were calculated and analyzed. Five primary rabbits with gene mutation were obtained, among which three were used for homozygous breeding. A total of 15 homozygous rabbits (5 types of mutants) were obtained (M2-: 3; M2-: 2; M3-: 2; M7-: 6; M7-: 2). The body weight of homozygous mutant rabbits aged 14-19 weeks were significantly higher than that of wild-type rabbits of the same age ((2 718±120) g . (1 969±53) g, < 0.01, a 38.0% increase). The mean cross sections of gluteus maximus muscle fiber in homozygous mutant rabbits were not only significantly higher than that of wild type rabbits ((3 512.2±439.2) μm . (1 274.8±327.3) μm, < 0.01), but also significantly higher than that of hemizygous rabbits ((3 512.2±439.2) μm . (2 610.4±604.4) μm, < 0.05). In summary, five homozygous mutants rabbits of gene were successfully bred, which showed a clear lean phenotype. The results showed that the primary breeds were non-chimeric mutant rabbits, and the mutant traits could be inherited from the offspring. homozygous mutant rabbits of F2 generation could be obtained from F1 hemizygous rabbits by inbreeding or backcrossing. The progenies of the primary biallelic mutant rabbits were separated into two single-allelic mutants, both of which showed a "double-muscle" phenotype. Thus, this study has made progress in breeding high-quality livestock breeds with gene editing technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.210541DOI Listing
May 2022

Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Limb Ischemia With Aorto-iliac Occlusion.

Front Surg 2022 26;9:831922. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Vascular Surgery, School of Medicine, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: To evaluate the outcomes of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) with Rotarex catheter in patients with acute lower limb ischemia (ALI) caused by aorto-iliac occlusion.

Materials And Methods: Data of patients with ALI caused by aorto-iliac occlusion in our institutions from January 2010 and April 2020 were reviewed. The primary end point was limb salvage rate. The secondary end points included technical success rate, survival rate, complications after the operation and during the follow-up.

Results: A total of 85 patients with ALI was diagnosed with aorto-iliac occlusion. Thirty-eight patients were treated by PMT with Rotarex catheter and enrolled in present study. Twenty-four were male (63.2%), and 14 were female (36.8%). The mean age was 66 years (range 28-83). All 38 patients were treated with PMT, with additional catheter directed thrombolysis (2/38, 5.3%), balloon angioplasty (8/38, 21.1%) and stent deployment (7/38, 18.4%). The mean procedure time was 123 ± 31 min. Seven patients (18.4%) underwent continuous renal replacement therapy. Two patients received major amputations (above the knee) and 2 patients died for renal insufficiency and heart failure during the hospital stay. Thirty-day survival rate was 94.7% and limb salvage was 94.4%. The mean follow-up time was 14.0 months (8-22 months). There was no major amputation and target artery occlusion occurred during the follow-up period.

Conclusion: PMT with Rotarex catheter could be new option for acute aorto-iliac occlusion, leading to safe and effective results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.831922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9116458PMC
April 2022

A Photoacoustic-Fluorescent Imaging Probe for Proteolytic Gingipains Expressed by Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 May 18:e202201843. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in periodontal disease. We herein report a dual-modal fluorescent and photoacoustic imaging probe for the detection of gingipain proteases secreted by P. gingivalis. Upon proteolytic cleavage by Arg-specific gingipain (RgpB), five-fold photoacoustic enhancement and >100-fold fluorescence activation was measured with detection limits of 1.1 nM RgpB and 5.0E4 CFU mL bacteria in vitro. RgpB activity was imaged in porcine jaws with low-nanomolar sensitivity. Diagnostic efficacy was evaluated in gingival crevicular fluid samples from subjects with and without periodontal disease, wherein activation was correlated to qPCR-based detection of P. gingivalis (Pearson's r=0.71). Finally, photoacoustic imaging of RgpB-cleaved probe was achieved in murine brains ex vivo, with relevance and potential utility for disease models of general infection by P. gingivalis, motivated by the recent biological link between gingipain and Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202201843DOI Listing
May 2022

Paeoniflorin Rescued MK-801-Induced Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors in Mice via Oxidative Stress Pathway.

Front Nutr 2022 27;9:870032. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Center on Translational Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) affects approximately 1% population worldwide, and the first-line antipsychotics have partial reactivity or non-reactivity with side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find more effective drugs. Paeoniflorin (PF) is the main effective component of traditional Chinese medicine from white peony, red peony and peony bark, which acts as a neuroprotective agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PF can rescue MK-801 induced schizophrenia-like behavior in mice. Our results demonstrated that intragastric administration of PF ameliorated MK-801 induced schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice as demonstrated by prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response, fear conditioning test for memory and open field test for activity. In contrast, the first-line antipsychotics-olanzapine reversed the prepulse inhibition deficits and hyperactivities, but not memory deficits, in the model mice. Further analysis showed that PF reduced oxidative stress in the MK-801-treated mice, as evidenced by the increased superoxide dismutase levels and decreased malondialdehyde levels in the blood of the model mice. In addition, PF treatment inhibited the expression of the apoptotic protein Bax and restored the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brains of the model mice. data indicated that PF protected against oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity in the primary cultured hippocampal neurons. In conclusion, our results were the first to provide evidence that PF rescued schizophrenia-like behaviors (both positive symptoms and cognitive impairments) in rodents through oxidative stress pathway, and therefore provide a novel strategy for treatment of SCZ. However, more pre-clinical and clinical research are needed to translate the present findings into clinics for a treatment of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.870032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094402PMC
April 2022

Induction of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants by a multivalent mRNA-lipid nanoparticle vaccine encoding SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV Spike protein receptor-binding domains.

bioRxiv 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

To address the need for multivalent vaccines against that can be rapidly developed and manufactured, we compared antibody responses against SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and several variants of concern in mice immunized with mRNA-lipid nanoparticle vaccines encoding homodimers or heterodimers of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domains. All vaccine constructs induced robust anti-viral antibody responses, and the heterodimeric vaccine elicited an IgG response capable of cross-neutralizing SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1, B.1.351 (beta), and B.1.617.2 (delta) variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2022.04.28.489834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094100PMC
April 2022

Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 as a Potential Biomarker for Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2022 25;13:788677. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Center on Translational Neuroscience, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China.

Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system contributed to the onset and development of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, there was no strong clinical evidence to link an individual FGF with SCZ. In this study, we aim to measure blood FGF9 levels in the patients with SCZ with and/or without medication, and test whether FGF9 has a potential to be a biomarker for SCZ. We recruited 130 patients with SCZ and 111 healthy individuals, and the ELISA and qRT-PCR assays were used to measure serum FGF9 levels in the participants. ELISA assay demonstrated that serum FGF9 protein levels were dramatically reduced in first-episode, drug-free patients, but not in chronically medicated patients when compared to healthy control subjects. Further analysis showed that treatment of the first-episode, drug-free SCZ patients with antipsychotics for 8 weeks significantly increased the serum FGF9 levels. In addition, we found that blood mRNA levels were significantly lower in first-onset SCZ patients than controls. Under the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff values for FGF9 protein level as an indicator for diagnosis of drug-free SCZ patients was projected to be 166.4 pg/ml, which yielded a sensitivity of 0.955 and specificity of 0.86, and the area under the curve was 0.973 (95% CI, 0.954-0.993). Furthermore, FGF9 had good performance to discriminate between drug-free SCZ patients and chronically medicated patients, the optimal cutoff value for FGF9 concentration was projected to be 165.035 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 0.86 and specificity of 0.919, and the AUC was 0.968 (95% CI, 0.944, 0.991). Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrated the dysregulation of FGF9 in SCZ, and FGF9 has the potential to be served as a biomarker for SCZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.788677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9082542PMC
April 2022

Genetic Characteristics of Resectable Colorectal Cancer with Pulmonary Metastasis.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 28;2022:2033876. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

The lung is the most common extra-abdominal metastasis site of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the genetic variation of pulmonary metastases (PM) and primary tumors in resectable CRC. The clinical data of 410 patients with PM after CRC surgery and 33 paraffin-embedded tissue samples from January 2012 to July 2019 in our hospital were collected retrospectively. Next, 450-panel gene detection technologies based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) were used to analyze the changes in the gene map and the overall variation in cancer-related genes in PM and primary tumors. After quality control, 19 samples were included in the final gene analysis. The results showed that APC (89.5%), TP53 (89.5%), and KRAS (53%) were the most common mutations in PM and primary tumors, but the gene amplification variation was enriched in primary tumors (4.6% vs. 11.4%). KRAS G12D was the most common site variation of the KRAS gene in both PM and primary tumors of CRC. There was no hotspot mutation in the TP53 locus in CRC, and the TP53 mutation in the PM was consistent with that in the primary lesion. The microsatellite instability (MSI) levels of 10 patients were MSS. The mean tumor mutation burden (TMB) of the primary tumor (5.3 muts·Mb) was slightly higher than that of metastasis (5.0 muts·Mb). In our institution, the genetic characteristics of resectable PM from CRC may be highly consistent with those of the primary tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2033876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9072045PMC
May 2022

Metabolic perturbations and health impact from exposure to a combination of multiple harmful Maillard reaction products on Sprague-Dawley rats.

Food Funct 2022 May 23;13(10):5515-5527. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic perturbations and health impact of the co-accumulation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), including acrylamide, harmane, and -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), serum biochemical and histopathological examinations as well as metabolomic analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with acrylamide (2 mg per kg body weight [bw]), harmane (1 mg per kg bw), CML (2 mg per kg bw), and combinations of these MRPs. Harmane did not cause adverse effects on the health of rats, whereas acrylamide and CML resulted in significantly ( < 0.05) decreased insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR > 1), increased oxidative stress levels, and pathological injuries to the pancreas, liver, and gastrocnemius. Owing to the antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities of harmane, the effects of the combination of the MRPs on oxidative stress levels, blood glucose metabolism, and pathological injuries to the pancreas and gastrocnemius were relieved. However, new health problems, including pathological injury of the kidneys and increased cancer risk, were observed. Metabolomic analysis revealed that this may be related to the effects of MRPs on the arginine biosynthesis pathway, which resulted in the abnormal metabolism of fumaric acid and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results indicated that the mechanisms of the combined effect of MRPs and their effects on health cannot be predicted from the effects of individual MRPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2fo00143hDOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of a Single Sub-Anesthetic Dose of Ketamine on Postoperative Emotional Responses and Inflammatory Factors in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Front Pharmacol 2022 5;13:818822. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Anesthesiology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

To investigate the effect of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine on postoperative anxiety, depression, and inflammatory factors in patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 104 patients undergoing selective colorectal surgery in our hospital from Jan 2015 to Oct 2017 were included and randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) into a 0.1 mg kg ketamine group (K1 group), 0.2 mg kg ketamine group (K2 group), 0.3 mg kg ketamine group (K3 group), or control group (C group). Corresponding doses of ketamine were given intravenously in the K groups (K1, K2, and K3 groups) 5 min before operation, and the same amount of normal saline was given in the C group. The intravenous analgesia program was identical in the four groups. The patients' emotional reactions (anxiety and depression) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), the quality of postoperative recovery was evaluated by the Quality of Recovery-40 (QoR-40) questionnaire, and the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in peripheral blood were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the day before operation and within 24, 48, and 72 h post-operation respectively. Pain was estimated by the visual analog scale (VAS), and sedation was assessed with Ramsay score 30 min after extubation. The time points of anesthetic end and extubation were recorded. The complications during anesthesia and recovery such as cough and agitation 30 min after extubation were recorded. The anxiety score (HAD-A) and depression score (HAD-D) of the K3 group were significantly lower than those of the C group post-operation ( < 0.05). The QoR-40 score of the K3 group was significantly higher than that of the C group ( < 0.05). The serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the K3 group were significantly lower than those in the C group ( < 0.05 and < 0.01). There were no significant differences in HAD-A, HAD-D, and QoR-40 scores or serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α between the K1 and K2 groups and the C group. There were no significant differences in VAS pain score or Ramsay sedation score among the four groups 30 min after extubation. There were no significant differences in extubation time, postoperative cough, emergence agitation, or delirium among the four groups. Dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diplopia, or other adverse reactions were not found 30 min after extubation. A single sub-anesthetic dose (0.3 mg kg) of ketamine can significantly improve the postoperative anxiety and depression of colorectal cancer patients and reduce the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.818822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9037238PMC
April 2022

sp-to-sp transitions in graphite during cold-compression.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 4;24(17):10561-10566. Epub 2022 May 4.

Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies & Shenzhen Engineering Research Center for Frontier Materials Synthesis at High Pressures, Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech), Shenzhen 518055, China.

Pressure-induced sp-to-sp transitions in graphite have been studied for decades by experiments and simulations. In general, pressures of 15-18 GPa are needed to initiate structural transitions in graphite at room temperature, and the high-pressure phases are usually unquenchable, as evidenced by resistivity and optical transmittance measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS). However, our Raman results show that the onset transition pressure can be as low as 9.7 GPa when using the methanol-ethanol-water (MEW) mixture as the pressure-transmitting medium (PTM), indicated by an additional Raman peak caused by the sp bonding between adjacent graphite layers. Moreover, using a combination of XRD, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), we show that a small amount of sp bonds associated with a unique feature of cross stacking are present in the recovered samples. Our findings will be useful to understand the intricate structural transitions in graphite-like materials under compression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp00178kDOI Listing
May 2022

Bacteria-Based Synergistic Therapy in the Backdrop of Synthetic Biology.

Front Oncol 2022 4;12:845346. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Although the synergistic effect of traditional therapies combined with tumor targeting or immunotherapy can significantly reduce mortality, cancer remains the leading cause of disease related death to date. Limited clinical response rate, drug resistance and off-target effects, to a large extent, impede the ceilings of clinical efficiency. To get out from the dilemmas mentioned, bacterial therapy with a history of more than 150 years regained great concern in recent years. The rise of biological engineering and chemical modification strategies are able to optimize tumor bacterial therapy in highest measure, and meanwhile avoid its inherent drawbacks toward clinical application such as bacteriotoxic effects, weak controllability, and low security. Here, we give an overview of recent studies with regard to bacteria-mediated therapies combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. And more than that, we review the bacterial detoxification and targeting strategies biological reprogramming or chemical modification, their applications, and clinical transformation prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.845346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9013830PMC
April 2022

Plant lipid phosphate phosphatases: current advances and future outlooks.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2022 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2022 Apr 17.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan, China.

Lipids are widely distributed in various tissues of an organism, mainly in plant storage organs (e.g., fruits, seeds, etc.). Lipids are vital biological substances that are involved in: signal transduction, membrane biogenesis, energy storage, and the formation of transmembrane fat-soluble substances. Some lipids and related lipid derivatives could be changed in their: content, location, or physiological activity by the external environment, such as biotic or abiotic stresses. Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play important roles in regulating intermediary lipid metabolism and cellular signal response. LPPs can dephosphorylate lipid phosphates containing phosphate monolipid bonds such as: phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate, etc. These processes can change the contents of some important lipid signal mediation such as diacylglycerol and LPA, affecting lipid signal transmission. Here, we summarize the research progress of LPPs in plants, emphasizing the structural and biochemical characteristics of LPPs and their role in spatio-temporal regulation. In the future, more in-depth studies are required to boost our understanding of the key role of plant LPPs and lipid metabolism in: signal regulation, stress tolerance pathway, and plant growth and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2022.2032588DOI Listing
April 2022

CYP2D6 Gene Polymorphisms and Variable Metabolic Activity in Schizophrenia Patients of Han and Tibetan Populations.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2022 2;18:731-736. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

The Third People's Hospital of Foshan, Foshan, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: It has been suggested that the pharmacogenomic response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients partially contributed by drug metabolism enzyme polymorphism, including P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). However, CYP2D6 gene polymorphism across populations is largely unknown.

Materials And Methods: Here, we investigated the differences of CYP2D6 gene polymorphism between Chinese Han and Tibetan schizophrenia patients. We analyzed five CYP2D6 gene related polymorphic locus in 103 patients with schizophrenia, including 60 Han ethnicity and 43 of Tibetan ethnicity, by nucleic acid MALDI-TOF.

Results: Polymorphisms of rs1065852, rs1135840 and rs16947 were significantly different between Han and Tibetan patients. rs1065852 AA genotype had a low frequency of 9.3% in Tibetan patients in comparison with a frequency of 41.7% in Han patients, whereas rs16947 AA genotype had a low frequency of 3.3% in Han patients in comparison with a frequency of 34.9% in Tibetan patients. Additionally, the two patient groups showed distinct distribution of CYP2D6 haplotypes, with the highest frequency of *10/*10 and *1/*2 in Han and Tibetan patients, respectively. Furthermore, Han and Tibetan patients showed differential CYP2D6 metabolic activity.

Discussion: Taken together, this exploratory study showed the differences of CYP2D6 gene and metabolic polymorphism between Han and Tibetan schizophrenia patients, and therefore may improve our understanding of the pharmacogenomic response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients across populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S355985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8986482PMC
April 2022

Comprehensive analysis of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Arch Oral Biol 2022 Jun 6;138:105346. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Stomatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to explore expression profiles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) and potential molecular mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Design: In this study, high-throughput microarray was used to detect the expression profiles of circRNAs in OSCC. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify the expression of dysregulated circRNAs in microarray. The validated microRNAs sponged by circRNAs and targeted mRNA were collected from literatures and miRTarBase database. and Gene Ontologypathways were analyzed on DAVID platform. Furthermore, network of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA and protein-protein interaction were constructed by Cytoscape 6.0 software.

Results: The results revealed that 1540 circRNAs were differentially expressed in 4 paired OSCC tissues and adjacent tissues significantly. Among them, 6 abundant circRNAs which have been reported in literatures were identified through RT-qPCR. According to the hypothesis of competing endogenous RNAs, 14 miRNAs sponged by the validated circRNAs and 62 downstream target protein coding genes were identified. Upon Gene Ontologyanalysis, 62 target genes were found to play roles in positively regulation of cell migration, cell division, angiogenesis and response to hypoxia. For Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, target genes were found to be involved in oncogenic signaling pathways (hsa05200), PI3K-Akt signaling pathway (hsa04151), focal adhesion (hsa04510), microRNAs in cancer (hsa05206), ECM-receptor interaction (hsa04512). These results suggested that circRNAs may participate in the tumorigenesis and development of OSCC via sponging miRNAs.

Conclusions: This study indicated that circRNA may play vital role in tumorigenesis and metastasis in OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2022.105346DOI Listing
June 2022

Inositol Improves Cold Tolerance Through Inhibiting and Increasing Ca Influx in Rapeseed ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2022 17;13:775692. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Rapeseed ( L.) is an important oilseed crop worldwide. However, its productivity is significantly affected by various abiotic stresses, including cold stress. Among various stresses, cold stress is an important abiotic factor affecting plant growth, yield, and quality. The calcium channels are regarded as key pathways affecting cold tolerance in plants. Thus, improvement in cold tolerance is of great significance for crop improvement. The current study was designed to examine the beneficial role of exogenous inositol in improving cold stress tolerance in rapeseed. From the RNA-seq results, we identified 35 differently expressed genes encoding different inositol enzymes. The results show that inositol (a cyclic polyol) positively regulated cold tolerance by increasing calcium ion (Ca) influx in rapeseed. Furthermore, we found that the expression of calcineurin B-like () gene was inhibited by inositol. On the other hand, overexpressed plant mediated the Ca flux under cold stress suggesting the key role of inositol-Ca pathway in cold tolerance. Moreover, the overexpression of in represented that transgenic plants mediated the Ca flux highlighting the vital role of the inositol-Ca pathway in conferring cold stress. Our study provides new insights into rapeseed cold tolerance mechanism and introduces a feasible method to improve the cold tolerance of rapeseed quickly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.775692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8969906PMC
March 2022

Dictating the interfacial stability of nickel-rich LiNiCoMnO via a diazacyclo electrolyte additive - 2-Fluoropyrazine.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jul 24;618:431-441. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China. Electronic address:

Nickel-rich (Ni-rich) cathode materials, LiNiCoMnO (NCM, x ≥ 0.9, x + y + z = 1) hold great promise for developing high energy density lithium ion batteries especially for vehicle electrification. However, the practical application of Ni-rich cathode materials is still suffered from fast structural and interfacial degradation, and the resulted capacity decay. In this study, a diazacyclo type electrolyte additive, 2-fluoropyrazine (2-FP), was explored for the first time to boost the interfacial stabilization of single crystal LiNiCoMnO (NCM90) cathode. The capacity retention of the NCM90 is evidently promoted from 72.3% to 82.1% after 200 cycles at 1C (180 mA g) when adding 0.2% 2-FP into the electrolyte. The improvement of the electrochemical performance is ascribed to the generation of a compact and homogeneous cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) film through ring-opening electrochemical polymerization of 2-FP upon the NCM90 electrode particles. This enhanced CEI layer benefits the suppression of the decomposition of LiPF electrolyte and the dissolution of the transition metals (Co and Mn), thus preventing the detrimental side reactions between the NCM90 electrode and the electrolyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.03.089DOI Listing
July 2022

Mechanistic Insights Into Trehalose-Mediated Cold Stress Tolerance in Rapeseed ( L.) Seedlings.

Front Plant Sci 2022 10;13:857980. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Cold stress (CS) severely affects several physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms and limits the growth and production of rapeseed ( L.). Trehalose (Tre) acts as a growth modulator, which is extensively used to improve the tolerance to multiple plant stresses. Further, Tre also serves as an external force in inducing plant signaling molecules, regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes, and enhancing the CS tolerance in plants. Nevertheless, the importance of exogenous Tre in improving the CS tolerance in rapeseed is still unclear. Therefore, the current study was designed to get mechanistic insights into Tre-mediated CS tolerance in rapeseed seedlings. To explore the Tre role, we designed four treatments [control (CK), CK + 20 mM L Tre, Cold, and Cold + 20 mM L Tre] and three CS conditions (4, 0, and -4°C). The results showed that Tre treatments significantly mitigated the adverse effects of CS on the seedlings and increased the survival rate of Tre-treated seedlings under CS conditions. The exogenous Tre dramatically increased the contents of osmoprotectants, including the soluble sugar (SS), soluble protein (SP), and proline (Pro), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were also increased under CS conditions. Additionally, Tre decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents to protect the rapeseed seedlings. Moreover, Tre also remarkably augmented the expression levels of antioxidant genes (, and ), CS-responsive marker genes (, and ), and Tre-biosynthesis genes (, and ). Briefly, exogenous Tre not only regulates the antioxidant and osmotic balance, but it also significantly participates in Tre metabolism and signaling network to improve the CS tolerance in rapeseed. Thus, Tre-induced supervisory connections between physiological or/and biochemical attributes provide information to dissect the mechanisms of Tre-mediated CS tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.857980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8961026PMC
March 2022

Endoscopic incision of rectal diverticulum: A case report.

Z Gastroenterol 2022 Mar 15. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

A 70-year-old woman with a rectal diverticulum presented with anal pendant expansion and difficulty in defecation for more than 1 year. The patient was diagnosed with a rectal diverticulum by pelvic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), rectal angiography, and colonoscopy. The endoscopic diverticulum incision procedure (EDIP) was implemented with this patient. At the 4-month follow-up, anal pendant expansion and difficulty in defecation were significantly relieved. Furthermore, colonoscopy proved that there were no vestigial feces in the diverticulum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1742-4001DOI Listing
March 2022

The precision study of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral density and body composition measurements in female cynomolgus monkeys.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2022 Mar;12(3):2051-2057

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a well-accepted tool for monitoring skeletal and body composition changes in biomedical studies. The nonhuman primate model is suitable for studies exploring the pathogenesis of and novel treatments for osteoporosis. Our objectives are to determine the precision of DXA detection in cynomolgus monkeys and to identify the difference in precision in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) with various segment selections.

Methods: Thirty adult female cynomolgus monkeys underwent duplicate total body DXA scans. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition, including bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM), were analyzed by enCORE software, while lumbar BMD was obtained by manual region-of-interest analysis. The precision was represented as the root-mean-square standard deviation (RMS-SD) and coefficient of variation (RMS-CV%), and least significant changes (LSCs) were reported.

Results: The RMS-SD (RMS-CV%) of the repeated DXA analyses for BMD, BMC, LM and FM were 0.002 g/cm (0.50%), 0.90 g (0.42%), 0.015 kg (0.49%), and 0.031 kg (2.71%), respectively. The regional BMD precision (RMS-CV%) of the lumbar spine with various combinations ranged from 0.70% to 1.09%, The LSCs with 80% statistical confidence (LSC) ranged from 1.27% to 1.97%, and LSC ranged from 1.94% to 3.01%.

Conclusions: DXA provided excellent reproducibility in the measurements of BMD and body composition in nonhuman primates. We find DXA reliable for total and regional measurement in skeletal research and the evaluation of osteoporosis treatment with monkeys as animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-21-799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8899938PMC
March 2022

One-Step Supramolecular Multifunctional Coating on Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Bioimaging and Therapeutic Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Mar 8;14(11):13692-13702. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Plant viral nanoparticles (plant VNPs) are promising biogenetic nanosystems for the delivery of therapeutic, immunotherapeutic, and diagnostic agents. The production of plant VNPs is simple and highly scalable through molecular farming in plants. Some of the important advances in VNP nanotechnology include genetic modification, disassembly/reassembly, and bioconjugation. Although effective, these methods often involve complex and time-consuming multi-step protocols. Here, we report a simple and versatile supramolecular coating strategy for designing functional plant VNPs metal-phenolic networks (MPNs). Specifically, this method gives plant viruses [, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), cowpea mosaic virus, and potato virus X] additional functionalities including photothermal transduction, photoacoustic imaging, and fluorescent labeling different components in MPN coating [, complexes of tannic acid (TA), metal ions (, Fe, Zr, or Gd), or fluorescent dyes (, rhodamine 6G and thiazole orange)]. For example, using TMV as a viral substrate by choosing Zr-TA and rhodamine 6G, fluorescence is observed peaking at 555 nm; by choosing Fe-TA coating, the photothermal conversion efficiency was increased from 0.8 to 33.2%, and the photoacoustic performance was significantly improved with a limit of detection of 17.7 μg mL. We further confirmed that [email protected] nanohybrids show good cytocompatibility and excellent cell-killing performance in photothermal therapy with 808 nm irradiation. These findings not only prove the practical benefits of this supramolecular coating for designing multifunctional and biocompatible plant VNPs but also bode well for using such materials in a variety of plant virus-based theranostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c22690DOI Listing
March 2022

The Influence of Radiological "Disappearing Lesions" on the Efficacy and Prognosis of Patients with Colorectal Liver Metastases Undergoing Conversion Therapy.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2022 22;2022:2200598. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400000, China.

Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of radiological "disappearing liver metastasis" (DLM) on the efficacy and prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) undergoing conversion therapy.

Methods: Patients with CRLM by the multidisciplinary team (MDT) of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were retrospectively enrolled from January 2014 to January 2021. The relationship between the occurrence and recurrence of DLM and different clinical factors was analyzed.

Results: Thirty-five of the 113 patients (31.0%) with initially unresectable CRLM developed DLM, and of the 361 lesions, 177 disappeared (49.0%). Within 6 months, 6-12 months, and 12-24 months groups, the recurrence rate was 3.4%, 16.8%, and 34.8%, but there is no recurrence in after 24 months group. There was a statistical difference between chemotherapy alone and chemotherapy combined with the targeted therapy group on the occurrence of DLM (58.3% vs. 37.1%, < 0.001). There were significant differences between <5 mm group and >10 mm group on occurrence of DLM(76.7% vs. 30.4%, < 0.001) and between 5-10 mm group and >10 mm group also (70.0% vs. 30.4%, < 0.001). Through univariate and multivariate analyses, it was concluded that age ( = 0.026, 95%CI = 3.690) and treatment regimens ( = 0.033, 95%CI = 2.703) had a significant influence on the progression-free survival (PFS) time of DLM.

Conclusion: Younger patients, who use chemotherapy alone to achieve a therapeutic effect, might have better survival benefits when the lesions do not progress within 2 years after the appearance of DLMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2200598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8888111PMC
February 2022

Decisive role of ozone formation control in winter PM mitigation in Shenzhen, China.

Environ Pollut 2022 May 18;301:119027. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Laboratory of Atmospheric Observation Supersite, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

During the COVID-19 lockdown, atmospheric PM in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) showed the highest reduction in China, but the reasons, being a critical question for future air quality policy design, are not yet clear. In this study, we analyzed the relationships among gaseous precursors, secondary aerosols and atmospheric oxidation capacity in Shenzhen, a megacity in the PRD, during the lockdown period in 2020 and the same period in 2021. The comprehensive observational datasets showed large lockdown declines in all primary and secondary pollutants (including O). We found that, however, the daytime concentrations of secondary aerosols during the lockdown period and normal period were rather similar when the corresponding odd oxygen (O≡O+NO, an indicator of photochemical processing avoiding the titration effect of O by freshly emitted NO) were at similar levels. Therefore, reduced O, rather than the large reduction in precursors, was a direct driver to achieve the decline in secondary aerosols. Moreover, O was also found to determine the spatial distribution of intercity PM levels in winter PRD. Thus, an effective strategy for winter PM mitigation should emphasize on control of winter O formation in the PRD and other regions with similar conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119027DOI Listing
May 2022
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