Publications by authors named "Yong Cao"

809 Publications

Truxene Functionalized Star-Shaped Non-fullerene Acceptor With Selenium-Annulated Perylene Diimides for Efficient Organic Solar Cells.

Front Chem 2021 12;9:681994. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

An electron acceptor with a truxene core and ring-fusion perylene diimide (PDI) tripolymer annulated by selenium (Se) branch, named as FTr-3PDI-Se, is designed and synthesized. FTr-3PDI-Se exhibits large conjugated planar conformation, strong absorption spectra in the regions of 300-400 and 450-550 nm, the deep HOMO energy level of 6.10 eV, and high decomposition temperature above 400°C. The FTr-3PDI-Se: PBDB-T-2Cl based device achieved a disappointing power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.6% together with a high of 1.12 V. The low PCE was due to the large aggregates of blend film, the imbalanced hole/electron transport and low PL quenching efficiencies. The high can be attributed to the high-lying LUMO level of FTr-3PDI-Se and the low-lying HOMO level of PBDB-T-2Cl. Our research presents an interesting and effective molecule-designing method to develop non-fullerene acceptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.681994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149752PMC
May 2021

Viral Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Promising Hope for the Current Dilemma.

Front Oncol 2021 13;11:678226. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as one of the most common malignant brain tumors, was limited in its treatment effectiveness with current options. Its invasive and infiltrative features led to tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. Effective treatment and survival improvement have always been a challenge. With the exploration of genetic mutations and molecular pathways in neuro-oncology, gene therapy is becoming a promising therapeutic approach. Therapeutic genes are delivered into target cells with viral vectors to act specific antitumor effects, which can be used in gene delivery, play an oncolysis effect, and induce host immune response. The application of engineering technology makes the virus vector used in genetics a more prospective future. Recent advances in viral gene therapy offer hope for treating brain tumors. In this review, we discuss the types and designs of viruses as well as their study progress and potential applications in the treatment of GBM. Although still under research, viral gene therapy is promising to be a new therapeutic approach for GBM treatment in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.678226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155537PMC
May 2021

Cannulation strategies in type A aortic dissection: a novel insight narrative review.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Apr;13(4):2551-2562

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, China.

This review highlights vital details that can be easily overlooked and discuss how to identify and fix failed cannulation from another novel insight. Appropriate arterial cannulation strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in Stanford type A aortic dissection (AAD) is highly necessary to reach satisfactory perfusion effects and appreciable clinical outcomes. Despite several previously published reviews on cannulation strategies in AAD, most focus on the advantages and disadvantages by comparing various cannulation strategies. In fact, most of evidence came from retrospective studies. More importantly, however, some important details and novel approaches maybe overlooked due to variety reasons. These overlooked details also make sense in clinical practice. Papers related to cannulation refer to type AAD were retrieved and analyzed from the PubMed and Medline database. The key words such as "aortic dissection", "cannula", "cannulation", "cannulation strategy", "cerebral perfusion", "type I aortic dissection" were conducted and analyzed. In addition, we looked at some new and very significant specific perfusion techniques such as anterograde cerebral perfusion combined with retrograde inferior vena caval perfusion (RIVP) and reperfusion via the right carotid artery before surgery. The arterial cannulation site and strategy should be determined individually. Monitoring measures are very necessary in the whole procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-21-411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107572PMC
April 2021

Direct arylation polycondensation towards water/alcohol-soluble conjugated polymers as the electron transporting layers for organic solar cells.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun;57(47):5798-5801

Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P. R. China.

Two water/alcohol soluble conjugated polymers (WSCPs), based on naphthalenediimide and amino-functionalized 3,4-(propylenedioxy)thiophene, were synthesized via direct arylation polycondensation (DArP). The polymers worked well as electron transporting layers (ETLs) for fullerene-based and fullerene-free organic solar cells (OSCs), presenting an enhancement by above 40% compared to the control devices, respectively. The doping properties and high electron mobilities of these WSCPs endow them with high performance. The research study developed an effective method to synthesize ETLs for highly efficient OSCs, which was rarely reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01128fDOI Listing
June 2021

Fermented Duckweed as a Potential Feed Additive with Poultry Beneficial Bacilli Probiotics.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Health Promoting Naturals Laboratory, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers State University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

In this study, the duckweed varieties Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, and a commercially processed duckweed food supplement were investigated as potential substrates for the propagation of two probiotic Bacillus strains, B. subtilis KATMIRA1933 and B. amyloliquefaciens B-1895. Both L. minor and S. polyrhiza were found to be suitable substrates for the propagation of both bacilli, with 8.47-9.48 Log CFU/g and 10.17-11.31 Log CFU/g after 24 and 48 h growth on the substrates, respectively. The commercial duckweed product was a less favorable substrate, with growth reaching a maximum of 7.89-8.91 CFU/g after 24 h with no further growth after 48 h. Growth and adherence of the bacilli to the three products were confirmed via electron microscopy. These strains have demonstrated health-promoting benefits for poultry and thereby have the potential to enhance duckweed as an animal feed through the process of fermentation. Duckweed has been shown to be a promising alternative resource for protein and has the opportunity to become a valuable resource in multiple industries as a potential means to increase sustainability, food security, and reduce environmental impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-021-09794-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of breast fibromatosis: a case report.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211010619

Ningbo Clinical Pathological Diagnosis Center, Ningbo, China.

We herein present a rare case of breast fibromatosis, the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) findings of which we believe have never been described. The high similarity between the clinical and imaging manifestations of breast cancer makes its differential diagnosis difficult. In this report, we describe the CEUS findings of a less common type of fibromatosis, discuss the potential value of CEUS to differentiate it from malignant breast lesions, and briefly review the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211010619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120548PMC
May 2021

Surpassing 13% Efficiency for Polythiophene Organic Solar Cells Processed from Nonhalogenated Solvent.

Adv Mater 2021 May 10:e2008158. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou, 510640, P. R. China.

Benefiting from low cost and simple synthesis, polythiophene (PT) derivatives are one of the most popular donor materials for organic solar cells (OSCs). However, polythiophene-based OSCs still suffer from inferior power conversion efficiency (PCE) than those based on donor-acceptor (D-A)-type conjugated polymers. Herein, a fluorinated polythiophene derivative, namely P4T2F-HD, is introduced to modulate the miscibility and morphology of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ)-active layer, leading to a significant improvement of the OSC performance. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameters calculated from the surface energy and differential scanning calorimetry results suggest that P4T2F-HD shows moderate miscibility with the popular nonfullerene acceptor Y6-BO (2,2'-((2Z,2'Z)-((12,13-bis(2-butyloctyl)-3,9-diundecyl-12,13-dihydro-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-e]thieno[2',3':4',5']thieno[2',3':4,5]pyrrolo[3,2-g]thieno[2',3':4,5]thieno[3,2-b]indole-2,10-diyl)bis(methanylylidene))bis(5,6-difluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-2,1-diylidene))dimalononitrile), while poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is very miscible with Y6-BO. As a result, the P4T2F-HD case forms desired nanoscale phase separation in the BHJ film while the P3HT case forms a completely mixed BHJ film, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). By optimizing the cathode interface and the morphology of the P4T2F-HD:Y6-BO films processed from nonhalogenated solvents, a new record PCE of 13.65% for polythiophene-based OSCs is demonstrated. This work highlights the importance of controlling D/A interactions for achieving desired morphology and also demonstrates a promising OSC system for potential cost-effective organic photovoltaics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008158DOI Listing
May 2021

Preparation of carbon dots-hematite quantum dots-loaded hydroxypropyl cellulose-chitosan nanocomposites for drug delivery, sunlight catalytic and antimicrobial application.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Jun 24;219:112201. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

In this project, we studied the thermal and chemical method for the synthesis of carbon dots (CDs)/Hematite (α-FeO) quantum dots and the preparation of hydroxypropyl cellulose cross-linked chitosan (HPCCS) and ulvan (UN) was performed by chemical method. Carbon dots/α-FeO quantum dots with size distribution of 3-5 nm were completely encapsulated in the HPCCS/UN NPs to obtain composites, which indicated unique characteristics with respect to antimicrobial, pH-responsive and optical properties. The CDs-HQDs/HPCCS/UN nanocomposites exhibited a single-excitation (440 nm), dual-emission fluorescence property (505 nm and 628 nm for green and red light from CDs-HQDs and HPCCS/UN NPs). The nanocomposites played as a pH-responsive drug delivery process to release ulvan at a fast rate in pH 7.4 buffer solution but at a slow rate in low pH solutions. The CDs-HQDs/HPCCS/UN nanocomposites gained the highest photocatalytic activity for degrading 4-chlorophenol (4-CPh) as a pollutant (>98% during 70 min under sunlight irradiation). Moreover, the nanocomposites indicated great inhibitory influences towards bacterial and fungal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2021.112201DOI Listing
June 2021

Immunomodulatory effect of pentagalloyl glucose in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and PAO1-induced Caenorhabditis elegans.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jul 3;150:111388. Epub 2021 May 3.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) is a valuable natural compound with an array of biological activities, but the immunomodulatory effect and mechanism have not been fully validated yet. In this study, to elucidate comprehensively the function of immunomodulation and its underlying mechanism of PGG in vitro and in vivo, two model systems were conducted, which including lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages cells and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1)-induced Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Current results showed that PGG significantly inhibited secretions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and mediator nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the expression of genes nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 cells was reduced by PGG. In vivo assay showed that lifespan of PAO1-induced C. elegans was enhanced significantly by 14.1% under the pre-treatment of PGG, which was abrogated in toxin sensitive mdt-15 mutant. Similarly, the PGG showed a benefit on 41.2% significant extension longevity in C. elegans under pathogenic PA14. And the nuclear localization of DAF-16 of strain TJ356 was significantly increased in PAO1-induced C. elegans by PGG. Further, PGG modulated several signaling pathways to enhance immunomodulation in C. elegans including DBL-1, DAF-2/DAF-16, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways. Furthermore, other genes involved in immunomodulatory response in C. elegans were remarkably regulated such as lys-1, lys-2, spp-18, egl-9, and hif-1. Our study suggested that PGG have potential to develop into novel immunomodulatory nutraceutical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2021.111388DOI Listing
July 2021

Atorvastatin and growth, rupture of small unruptured intracranial aneurysm: results of a prospective cohort study.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 9;14:1756286420987939. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background And Aims: The role of statins in unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) growth and rupture remains ambiguous. This study sought to determine whether atorvastatin is associated with aneurysm growth and rupture in patients harboring UIA <7 mm.

Methods: This prospective, multicenter cohort study consecutively enrolled patients with concurrent UIA <7 mm and ischemic cerebrovascular disease from four hospitals between 2016 and 2019. Baseline and follow-up patient information was recorded. Because of the strong anti-inflammatory effect of aspirin, patients using aspirin were excluded. Patients taking atorvastatin 20 mg daily were atorvastatin users. The primary and exploratory endpoints were aneurysm rupture and growth, respectively.

Results: Among the 1087 enrolled patients, 489 (45.0%) took atorvastatin, and 598 (55%) took no atorvastatin. After a mean follow-up duration of 33.0 ± 12.5 months, six (1.2%) and five (0.8%) aneurysms ruptured in atorvastatin and non-atorvastatin groups, respectively. In the adjusted multivariate Cox analysis, UIA sized 5 to <7 mm, current smoker, and uncontrolled hypertension were associated with aneurysm rupture, whereas atorvastatin [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.495, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.417-5.356,  = 0.537] was not. Of 159 patients who had follow-up imaging, 34 (21.4%) took atorvastatin and 125 (78.6%) took no atorvastatin. Aneurysm growth occurred in five (14.7%) and 21 (16.8%) patients in atorvastatin and non-atorvastatin groups (mean follow-up: 20.2 ± 12.9 months), respectively. In the adjusted multivariate Cox analysis, UIAs sized 5 to <7 mm and uncontrolled hypertension were associated with a high growth rate; atorvastatin (adjusted HR 0.151, 95% CI 0.031-0.729,  = 0.019) was associated with a reduced growth rate.

Conclusions: We conclude atorvastatin use is associated with a reduced risk of UIA growth, whereas atorvastatin is not associated with UIA rupture. The Clinic Benefit and Risk of Oral Aspirin for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Combined With Cerebral Ischemia http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02846259.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420987939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042545PMC
April 2021

Unilateral Limited Laminectomy for Debridement to Treat Localized Short-Segment Lumbosacral Spinal Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Case Series.

Orthop Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Spine Surgery and Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of surgically treating lumbosacral tuberculosis with a modified posterior unilateral limited laminectomy method for debridement.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled a total of 26 patients who were administered in our institution from January 2010 to December 2016, diagnosed with lumbosacral tuberculosis at the L5/S1 level, and underwent one-stage posterior unilateral limited laminectomy as surgical treatment for debridement, allograft of cortical bone grafting, and fixation. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, visual analog scale (VAS) score, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and lumbosacral angle (LA, Cobb's method) were statistically compared, and the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment (ASIA) Scale was compared between the preoperative and postoperative time points to evaluate the clinical outcomes.

Results: All 26 patients were observed during the follow-up period, and the mean follow-up time was 1.3 ± 0.42 years. The mean age was 56 ± 7.4 years old. The average operation time was 118.1 ± 17.5 min, and the mean bleeding volume was 513.0 ± 79.6 mL. There were no intraoperative complications or tuberculous sinus, and two cases experienced hypostatic pneumonia during hospitalization, which resolved with responsive antibiotics and symptomatic supportive treatment. At the final follow-up, there was no recurrence of tuberculosis, and the ESR (11.8 ± 1.8 mm/h) and CRP (3.0 ± 1.0 mg/L) levels in all patients had returned to normal. The patients with neurologic deficits had improved, and the mean ODI was 79.9 ± 10.6 (87-62) preoperatively and significantly decreased to 20.5 ± 5.7 (11-29) at the final follow-up (P < 0.01). ASIA scale scores were improved by 1~2 grades at the last follow-up. The patients' pain levels were significantly alleviated; the mean VAS score declined to 1.2 ± 0.4 (0-2.5) at the final follow-up compared to 7.5 ± 1.6 (6.5-8.5) preoperatively (P < 0.01). All patients achieved bony graft fusion at an average time of 6.8 ± 1.2 months. Physiological lumbar lordosis was significantly improved, and the mean LA before operation was 17.6° ± 2.1°, which was significantly different from the postoperative LA (29.3° ± 7.4°, P < 0.01) at the final follow up. The LA (27.1° ± 5.5°, P = 0.15) slightly rebounded but without significance compared to the postoperative level.

Conclusion: Only posterior approach by unilateral limited laminectomy for debridement could be served as an effective and safe method to treat short-segment lumbosacral tuberculosis without extensive anterior sacral and gravitation abscesses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12940DOI Listing
May 2021

Somatic MAP3K3 mutation defines a subclass of cerebral cavernous malformation.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 May 22;108(5):942-950. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing 100050, China; Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China; Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular disorders that affect up to 0.5% of the total population. About 20% of CCMs are inherited because of familial mutations in CCM genes, including CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607, and CCM3/PDCD10, whereas the etiology of a majority of simplex CCM-affected individuals remains unclear. Here, we report somatic mutations of MAP3K3, PIK3CA, MAP2K7, and CCM genes in CCM lesions. In particular, somatic hotspot mutations of PIK3CA are found in 11 of 38 individuals with CCMs, and a MAP3K3 somatic mutation (c.1323C>G [p.Ile441Met]) is detected in 37.0% (34 of 92) of the simplex CCM-affected individuals. Strikingly, the MAP3K3 c.1323C>G mutation presents in 95.7% (22 of 23) of the popcorn-like lesions but only 2.5% (1 of 40) of the subacute-bleeding or multifocal lesions that are predominantly attributed to mutations in the CCM1/2/3 signaling complex. Leveraging mini-bulk sequencing, we demonstrate the enrichment of MAP3K3 c.1323C>G mutation in CCM endothelium. Mechanistically, beyond the activation of CCM1/2/3-inhibited ERK5 signaling, MEKK3 p.Ile441Met (MAP3K3 encodes MEKK3) also activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 pathways because of mutation-induced MEKK3 kinase activity enhancement. Collectively, we identified several somatic activating mutations in CCM endothelium, and the MAP3K3 c.1323C>G mutation defines a primary CCM subtype with distinct characteristics in signaling activation and magnetic resonance imaging appearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.04.005DOI Listing
May 2021

A nomogram to predict the risk of early postoperative ischemic events in patients with spontaneous intracranial hematoma.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, NO.119 Nansihuanxilu, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100160, People's Republic of China.

Spontaneous intracranial hematoma (ICH) is the second leading cause of stroke and has a high risk of postoperative ischemic events (PIEs). But, the evidence on PIEs in ICH patients still lacks. Therefore, a retrospective study was carried out to screen the risk factors for PIEs and construct a visual predictive model. This was a retrospective study whose population were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of PIEs. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with PIEs. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis was used to screen risk factors and construct the early PIEs risk nomogram. In addition, impact of PIEs on patient prognosis and surgery related costs was assessed. Out of 122 ICH patients, 24 (19.7%) were diagnosed with PIEs. Coronary heart disease history, ischemic stroke history, regular shaped hematoma and platelet number were identified as risk factors for early PIEs. Early PIEs risk nomogram showed good calibration and discrimination of the data with concordance index of 0.846 (95% confidence interval, 0.747-0.945) which was confirmed to be 0.827 through bootstrapping validation. In addition, there was statistical difference in discharged Glasgow Coma Scale score (P = 0.046) and surgery related costs (p = 0.031) between PIEs group and nPIEs group. These results showed the early PIEs risk nomogram was accurate for prediction risks of PIEs and the occurrence of PIEs affects prognosis of patients, and increases surgery related costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-021-01533-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Dodecacyclic-Fused Electron Acceptors with Multiple Electron-Deficient Units for Efficient Organic Solar Cells.

ChemSusChem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, P. R. China.

Fused aromatic cores in non-fullerene electron acceptors (NFEAs) play a significant role in determining their optoelectronic properties and photovoltaic performance. In this work, a dodecacyclic-fused core with three electron-deficient units is synthesized through a double intramolecular Cadogan reduction cyclization. Terminal groups with different halogen substitution (F or Cl) are grafted onto the dodecacyclic-fused core to afford MS-4F and MS-4Cl, both of which showed strong and broad absorption, narrow bandgaps around 1.40 eV, and variable molecular packing model in pristine and blend films. Photovoltaic performance of solar cells containing MS-4F and MS-4Cl as NFEAs were investigated with resultant power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 11.75 % and 11.79 %, respectively. The mechanism study indicates that both of PBDB-T : MS-4F- and PBDB-T : MS-4Cl-based devices displayed high hole and electron mobility values, efficient charge transfer, and low charge recombination etc. These results indicate that designing multiple-fused aromatic cores with multiple electron-deficient units is a promising strategy to obtain high-performance NFEAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202100592DOI Listing
April 2021

The Relationship Between Smoking and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:625087. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is the main cause of death and disability after intracranial aneurysm rupture. Previous studies have shown that smoking can lead to DCI after intracranial aneurysm rupture. However, some recent studies have shown that nicotine, as the main ingredient of tobacco, can cause cerebral vasodilation. This view has led to a debate about the relationship between smoking and DCI. This study aims to determine the relationship between smoking and DCI. A systematic literature search was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, and Embase online databases were searched for studies published up to September 2020. All studies related to smoking and DCI were included in the analysis. The R and RevMan software were used for data analysis, and random or fixed model analysis was selected depending on the degree of heterogeneity. Publication bias was examined by using the Begg-Mazumdar test and using contour-enhanced funnel plots with trim method. A total of eight original articles (12 cohorts) with 10,722 patients were included in this meta-analysis. There were statistically significant higher rates of DCI in the smoking group than in the non-smoking group (RR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.05-1.27). After heterogeneity among cohorts was removed by sensitivity analysis, there was still a statistically significant difference in the incidence of DCI between the smoking and non-smoking groups (RR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.07-1.20). Although the effects of nicotine as the main component of tobacco are unclear in terms of cerebral vessels, the present study suggests that smoking is a risk factor for DCI in patients with ruptured aneurysm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.625087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033017PMC
March 2021

Laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection for resecting lesions originating in the paracaval portion of the caudate lobe (with videos).

Surg Endosc 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Main Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Background: The paracaval portion of the caudate lobe is located in the core of the liver. Lesions originating in the paracaval portion often cling to or even invade major hepatic vascular structures. The traditional open anterior hepatic transection approach has been adopted to treat paracaval-originating lesions. With the development of laparoscopic surgery, paracaval-originating lesions are no longer an absolute contraindication for laparoscopic liver resection. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection for resecting paracaval-originating lesions.

Methods: This study included 15 patients who underwent laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection for paracaval-originating lesion resection between August 2017 and April 2020. The perioperative indicators, follow-up results, operative techniques and surgical indications were retrospectively evaluated.

Results: All patients underwent laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection for paracaval-originating lesion resection. The median operation time was 305 min (220-740 min), the median intraoperative blood loss was 400 ml (250-3600 ml), and the median length of postoperative hospital stay was 9 days (5-20 days). No conversion to laparotomy or perioperative deaths occurred. Six patients had Clavien grade III-IV complications (III/IV, 5/1). Two patients developed tumor recurrence after 13 months and 8 months.

Conclusion: Although technically challenging, laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection is still a safe and feasible procedure for resecting paracaval-originating lesions in select patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08455-5DOI Listing
April 2021

A practical study of the hepatic vascular system anatomy of the caudate lobe.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Apr;11(4):1313-1321

Department of Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea.

Background: This study aimed to examine the inflow and outflow vascular system of the caudate lobe and determine its relevance to hepatobiliary surgery.

Methods: A total of 41 cadaveric liver specimens were dissected in 2019 to evaluate the inflow and outflow vascular system of the caudate lobe.

Results: The Glisson's pedicles of the paracaval portion were mainly from the right pedicle in 14 cases (34.15%), mainly from the left pedicle in 22 cases (53.66%), and equally from the left and right pedicle in 5 cases (12.19%). Many thick branches of the portal vein were found behind the plane consisting of the hilar plate and Arantius ligament, but none of them were thicker than 1 mm in front of the plane. All of the veins of the caudate lobe drained into the inferior vena cava (IVC) via the anterior face. There was an avascular zone without short hepatic veins (SHVs) consisting of loose connective tissue between the retrohepatic IVC and caudate lobe, with its length and width being 45-97 mm and 6-15 mm, respectively.

Conclusions: The plane consisting of the hilar plate and Arantius ligament can be regarded as the boundary between the caudate lobe and the other lobes. There is an avascular zone without SHVs consisting of loose connective tissue between the retrohepatic IVC and caudate lobe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930664PMC
April 2021

Mechanism of the Alcohol-Soluble Ionic Organic Interlayer in Organic Solar Cells.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 2;37(14):4347-4354. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P. R. China.

In this article combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations and corresponding experimental measurements, the adsorption behaviors and working mechanism of the alcohol-soluble ionic organic interlayer on different electrode substrates were studied. The results suggest that, when the ionic organic bipyridine salt interlayer (FPyBr) is adsorbed on the Ag surface, Br will break away from molecule chains and form new chemical bonds with the Ag substrate, as confirmed by both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study and DFT study for the first time. Charges are further found to transfer to the Ag substrate from the new interlayer molecular structure without Br, resulting in adsorption dipoles directed from Ag to the interlayer. Moreover, the direction of the intrinsic dipole of the molecule itself on the Ag substrate is also verified, which is the same as that of the adsorption dipole. Subsequently, the superposition of the two dipoles results in a large reduction of the Ag substrate work function. In addition, the dipole formation mechanism of the interlayer on the ITO surface was also studied. The change in the work function of the ITO substrate by this interlayer is found to be smaller than that of Ag as confirmed by both a DFT study and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) results, which is mainly due to the reversed direction of the molecular intrinsic dipole with respect to the interfacial dipole. The worst device performance of organic solar cells based on the ITO-FPyBr substrate is considered to be one of the consequences of the feature. The findings here are of great importance for the study of the mechanism of the ionic organic interlayer in organic electronic devices, providing insightful understandings on how to further improve the material and device performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00413DOI Listing
April 2021

Vitamin D/VDR signaling inhibits colitis by suppressing HIF-1α activation in colonic epithelial cells.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 May 24;320(5):G837-G846. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases Prevention and New Materials, Shanxi Medical University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling is reported to have a protective effect on the onset or progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) activation is demonstrated to be closely associated with chemical-induced colitis. However, the association between vitamin D/VDR signaling and HIF-1α on IBD development remains a mystery. Here, we showed that HIF-1α expression was largely increased in the colonic epithelial cells of diseased tissues from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Consistently, HIF-1α activation was also improved in colonic epithelial cells upon TNFα treatment in a NF-κB pathway-dependent manner. HIF-1α inhibitors treatments ameliorated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)- or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in animal models. In cell or colitis animal models, vitamin D/VDR signaling suppressed HIF-1α overexpression in colonic epithelial cells via regulating NF-κB pathway, resulting in the inhibition of IFNγ and IL-1β overproductions in these cells. Collectively, these data suggest that vitamin D/VDR signaling relieves colitis development in animal models, at least in part, by suppressing HIF-1α expression in colonic epithelial cells. This study demonstrates vitamin D/VDR signaling inhibits colitis by suppressing HIF-1α activation in colonic epithelial cells. Since the effect of vitamin D/VDR signaling is only apparent on patients who seem to be vitamin D deficient, the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in patients who are not vitamin D deficient need to be proven.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00061.2021DOI Listing
May 2021

Multidimensional predicting model of intracranial aneurysm stability with backpropagation neural network: a preliminary study.

Neurol Sci 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 119 South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, China.

Objectives: The stability of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) may involve in multidimensional factors. Backpropagation (BP) neural network could be adopted to support clinical work. This preliminary study aimed to delve into the feasibility of BP neural network in assessing the risk of IA rupture/growth and to prove the advantage of multidimensional model over single/double-dimensional model.

Methods: Thirty-six IA patients were recruited from a prospective registration study (ChiCTR1900024547). All patients were followed up until aneurysm ruptured/grew or 36 months after being diagnosed with the IAs. The multidimensional data regarding clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic characteristics were acquired. Hemodynamic analyses were conducted with patient-specific models. Based on these characteristics, seven models were built with BP neural network (the ratio of training set to validation set as 8:1). The area under curves (AUC) was calculated for subsequent comparison.

Results: Forty-five characteristics were determined from 36 patients with 37 IAs. In the models based on the single dimension of IA characteristics, only morphological characteristics exhibited high performance in assessing 3-year IA stability (AUC = 0.703, P = 0.035). Among the models integrating two dimensions of IA characteristics, clinical-morphological (AUC = 0.731, P = 0.016), clinical-hemodynamic (AUC = 0.702, P = 0.036), and morphological-hemodynamic (AUC = 0.785, P = 0.003) models were capable of assessing the risk of 3-year IA rupture/growth. Moreover, the models including all three dimensions exhibited the maximum predicting significance (AUC = 0.811, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: The present preliminary study reported that BP neural network might support assessing the 3-year stability of IAs. Models based on multidimensional characteristics could improve the assessment accuracy for IA rupture/growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05172-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparative structural analysis of human Na1.1 and Na1.5 reveals mutational hotspots for sodium channelopathies.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544

Among the nine subtypes of human voltage-gated sodium (Na) channels, the brain and cardiac isoforms, Na1.1 and Na1.5, each carry more than 400 missense mutations respectively associated with epilepsy and cardiac disorders. High-resolution structures are required for structure-function relationship dissection of the disease variants. We report the cryo-EM structures of the full-length human Na1.1-β4 complex at 3.3 Å resolution here and the Na1.5-E1784K variant in the accompanying paper. Up to 341 and 261 disease-related missense mutations in Na1.1 and Na1.5, respectively, are resolved. Comparative structural analysis reveals several clusters of disease mutations that are common to both Na1.1 and Na1.5. Among these, the majority of mutations on the extracellular loops above the pore domain and the supporting segments for the selectivity filter may impair structural integrity, while those on the pore domain and the voltage-sensing domains mostly interfere with electromechanical coupling and fast inactivation. Our systematic structural delineation of these mutations provides important insight into their pathogenic mechanism, which will facilitate the development of precise therapeutic interventions against various sodium channelopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2100066118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980448PMC
March 2021

Analysis and Validation of circRNA-miRNA Network in Regulating mA RNA Methylation Modulators Reveals CircMAP2K4/miR-139-5p/YTHDF1 Axis Involving the Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:560506. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The mA RNA methylation modulators play a crucial role in regulating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. The circular RNA (circRNA) regulatory network in regulating mA RNA methylation modulators in HCC remains largely unknown. In this study, 5 prognostic mA RNA methylation modulators in HCC were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) projects. The differentially expressed microRNAs (DEmiRNAs) and circRNAs (DEcircRNAs) between paired tumor and normal tissues were screened out from TCGA and or Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to construct the circRNA-miRNA- mA RNA methylation modulator regulatory network, which included three mA RNA methylation modulators (HNRNPC, YTHDF1, and YTHDF2), 11 DEmiRNAs, and eight DEcircRNAs. Among the network, hsa-miR-139-5p expression was negatively correlated with YTHDF1. Hsa-miR-139-5p low or YTHDF1 high expression was correlated with high pathological grade, advanced stage and poor survival of HCC. Additionally, cell cycle, base excision repair, and homologous recombination were enriched in YTHDF1 high expression group by GSEA. A hub circRNA regulatory network was constructed based on hsa-miR-139-5p/YTHDF1 axis. Furthermore, hsa_circ_0007456(circMAP2K4) was validated to promote HCC cell proliferation by binding with hsa-miR-139-5p to promote YTHDF1 expression. Taken together, we identified certain circRNA regulatory network related to mA RNA methylation modulators and provided clues for mechanism study and therapeutic targets for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.560506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940687PMC
February 2021

A Facile Synthesized Polymer Featuring B-N Covalent Bond and Small Singlet-Triplet Gap for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 8;60(16):8813-8817. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, P. R. China.

High-efficiency organic solar cells (OSCs) largely rely on polymer donors. Herein, we report a new building block BNT and a relevant polymer PBNT-BDD featuring B-N covalent bond for application in OSCs. The BNT unit is synthesized in only 3 steps, leading to the facile synthesis of PBNT-BDD. When blended with a nonfullerene acceptor Y6-BO, PBNT-BDD afforded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.1 % in an OSC, comparable to the benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based counterpart. The nonradiative recombination energy loss of 0.19 eV was afforded by PBNT-BDD. PBNT-BDD also exhibited weak crystallinity and appropriate miscibility with Y6-BO, benefitting of morphological stability. The singlet-triplet gap (ΔE ) of PBNT-BDD is as low as 0.15 eV, which is much lower than those of common organic semiconductors (≥0.6 eV). As a result, the triplet state of PBNT-BDD is higher than the charge transfer (CT) state, which would suppress the recombination via triplet state effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202016265DOI Listing
April 2021

In vitro and in vivo study of the enhancement of carotenoid bioavailability in vegetables using excipient nanoemulsions: Impact of lipid content.

Food Res Int 2021 03 21;141:110162. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, College of Food Science, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

The impact of lipid content of excipient nanoemulsions on the bioavailability of carotenoids from spinach was assessed using a combination of in vitro and in vivo digestion models. Alterations in the particle size, charge, microstructure, and lipid digestion were monitored as the spinach-nanoemulsion mixtures passed through the digestive tract. There was an increase in both bioaccessibility (19.2% > 14.4% > 7.5% > 3.1%) and bioavailability (106.7 > 39.6 ≈ 35.3 > 15.0 ng/mL) of carotenoids with increasing lipid content (1.0, 0.6, 0.2, 0 g), which attributed to higher transfer efficiency of the carotenoids from spinach to fat droplets and mixed micelles in increasing lipid content. The polarity of carotenoids also had an important impact: the bioavailability of lutein was significantly higher than that of β-carotene. Our findings show the importance of selecting an appropriate lipid content of reduced-fat emulsion-based foods to enhance the oral bioavailability of co-ingested hydrophobic nutraceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110162DOI Listing
March 2021

Paternal nicotine exposure promotes hepatic fibrosis in offspring.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jun 25;343:44-55. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China; Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Paternal nicotine exposure can alter phenotypes in future generations. The aim of this study is to explore whether paternal nicotine exposure affects the hepatic repair to chronic injury which leads to hepatic fibrosis in offspring. Our results demonstrate that nicotine down regulates mmu-miR-15b expression via the hyper-methylation on its CpG island shore region in the spermatozoa. This epigenetic modification imprinted in the liver of the offspring. The decreased mmu-miR-15b promotes the expression of Wnt4 and activates the Wnt pathway in the offspring mice liver. The activation of the Wnt pathway improves the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) leading to liver fibrosis. Moreover, the Wnt pathway promotes the activation of the TGF-β pathway and the two pathways cooperate to promote the transcription of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. In conclusion, this study found that nicotine promotes hepatic fibrosis in the offspring via the activation of Wnt pathway by imprinting the hyper-methylation of mmu-miR-15b.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.02.015DOI Listing
June 2021

Laparoscopic middle-hepatic-vein-guided anatomical hemihepatectomy in the treatment of hepatolithiasis: a 10-year case study.

Surg Endosc 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Main Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Background: This retrospective 10-year case study evaluated the perioperative results and long-term efficacy of laparoscopic middle-hepatic-vein-guided hemihepatectomy (L-MHV-H) and traditional anatomical hemihepatectomy (TAH) in the treatment of hepatolithiasis (HL).

Methods: From January 2010 to December 2019, 99 patients with regional HL underwent laparoscopic anatomical hemihepatectomy (LAH) at our centre, including 43 patients in the L-MHV-H group and 56 patients in the TAH group.

Results: All patients in both groups were Child-Pugh grade A before operation. No significant between-group differences in general information, stone distribution, comorbidities, history of previous abdominal surgery or co-occurrence of gallstones and common bile duct stones were observed. The L-MHV-H group exhibited a higher intraoperative stone clearance rate (95.3% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.014) and a lower postoperative complication rate (10.1% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.005) compared with the TAH group. In the median follow-up time of 60 months (range 6-125 months), the L-MHV-H group had lower stone recurrence (2.3% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.013) and cholangitis recurrence (2.3% vs. 17.9%, p = 0.034) rates. No significant between-group differences in the other results were observed.

Conclusions: L-MHV-H is safe and feasible for HL with certain advantages over TAH in improving the intraoperative stone clearance rate, reducing postoperative complication incidence and reducing stone and cholangitis recurrence rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08344-xDOI Listing
February 2021

CyTOF Analysis Reveals a Distinct Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in IDH Mutant Anaplastic Gliomas.

Front Oncol 2020 4;10:560211. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The immune microenvironment is important for the development, progression, and prognosis of anaplastic glioma (AG). This complex milieu has not been fully elucidated, and a high-dimensional analysis is urgently required. Utilizing mass cytometry (CyTOF), we performed an analysis of immune cells from 5 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AAmut) and 10 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeletion (AOD) and their paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Based on a panel of 33 biomarkers, we demonstrated the tumor-driven immune changes in the AG immune microenvironment. Our study confirmed that mononuclear phagocytes and T cells are the most abundant immunocytes in the AG immune microenvironment. Glioma-associated microglia/macrophages in both AAmut and AOD samples showed highly immunosuppressive characteristics. Compared to those in the PBMCs, the ratios of immune checkpoint-positive exhausted CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells were higher at the AG tumor sites. The AAmut immune milieu exhibits more immunosuppressive characteristics than that in AOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.560211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890006PMC
February 2021

Classification of brain arteriovenous malformations located in motor-related areas based on location and anterior choroidal artery feeding.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Surgical management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving motor cortex or fibre tracts (M-AVMs) is challenging. This study aimed to construct a classification system based on nidus locations and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) feeding to pre-surgically evaluate motor-related and seizure-related outcomes in patients undergoing resection of M-AVMs.

Methods And Materials: A total of 125 patients who underwent microsurgical resection of M-AVMs were retrospectively reviewed. Four subtypes were identified based on nidus location: (I) nidus involving the premotor area and/or supplementary motor areas; (II) nidus involving the precentral gyrus; (III) nidus involving the corticospinal tract (CST) and superior to the posterior limb of the internal capsule; (IV) nidus involving the CST at or inferior to the level of posterior limb of the internal capsule. In addition, we divided type IV into type IVa and type IVb according to the AChA feeding. Surgical-related motor deficit (MD) evaluations were performed 1 week (short-term) and 6 months (long-term) after surgery.

Results: The type I patients exhibited the highest incidence (62.0%) of pre-surgical epilepsy among the four subtypes. Multivariate analysis showed that motor-related area subtypes (p=0.004) and diffuse nidus (p=0.014) were significantly associated with long-term MDs. Long-term MDs were significantly less frequent in type I than in the other types. Type IV patients acquired the highest proportion (four patients, 25.0%) of long-term poor outcomes (mRS >2). Type IVb patients showed a significantly higher incidence of post-surgical MDs than type IVa patients (p=0.041). The MDs of type III or IV patients required more recovery time. Of the 62 patients who had pre-surgical seizures, 90.3% (56/62) controlled their seizures well and reached Engel class I after surgery.

Conclusions: Combining the consideration of location and AChA feeding, the classification for M-AVMs is a useful approach for predicting post-surgical motor function and decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000591DOI Listing
February 2021

A theoretical study on the role of ammonium ions in the double-layered VO electrode.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Feb;23(7):4187-4194

Institute of Modern Physics, Shanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, People's Republic of China.

Double-layered V2O5 and its analogues have received increasing attention as a proper cathode for Mg2+, Na+, Li+ ion batteries, even for ammonium ion batteries. Our theoretical research focuses on the effects of NH4+ ions on the structural stability and the ion diffusion properties of double-layered V2O5. The elastic constant calculations indicate the NH4+ and water contents have a dramatic influence on the stability of the electrode. When the ratio of H2O and ammonia ions decreases to (NH4)0.125V2O5·0.125H2O, double-layered bronze will transform into other phases. The predicted specific capacity for the redox process from (NH4)0.5V2O5·0.5H2O to (NH4)0.125V2O5·0.125H2O is 54.6 mA h g-1, which agrees with the experimental value of 55.6 mA h g-1. From the diffusion barrier calculations, it is found that the H2O molecules can shield the polarization of NH4+ and lower the diffusion barrier of NH4+ ions. Furthermore, the migrations of common charge carriers in NH4+ pre-intercalated V2O5 have also been studied, which implies that Li+, Zn2+, Na+, Mg2+ ions may move easily in the electrode with energy barriers lower than 525 meV. Our findings match well with the reported experimental results. A special structure of Mg6NH4V8O20 with a much higher Mg ion concentration has been reported. Our findings show that the theoretical specific density of Mg batteries based on NH4+ pre-intercalated V2O5 can be improved to 431 mA h g-1, which is 2.5 times larger than the reported values. This work highlights the effects of the ratio of NH4+ and H2O on double-layered V2O5 and provides insights into designing vanadium oxide based fast-diffusion multivalent ion conductors, which are suitable for battery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp05717gDOI Listing
February 2021

UTX/KDM6A deletion promotes the recovery of spinal cord injury by epigenetically triggering intrinsic neural regeneration.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Mar 10;20:337-349. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Organ Injury, Aging and Regenerative Medicine of Hunan Province, Changsha 410008, China.

Interrupted axons that fail to regenerate mainly cause poor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). How neurons epigenetically respond to injury determines the intrinsic growth ability of axons. However, the mechanism underlying epigenetic regulation of axonal regeneration post-SCI remains largely unknown. In this study, we elucidated the role of the epigenetic regulatory network involving ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX)/microRNA-24 (miR-24)/NeuroD1 in axonal regeneration and functional recovery in mice following SCI. Our results showed that UTX was significantly increased post-SCI and repressed axonal regeneration . However, downregulation of UTX remarkably promoted axonal regeneration. Furthermore, miR-24 was increased post-SCI and positively regulated by UTX. miR-24 also inhibited axonal regeneration. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) indicated that UTX binds to the miR-24 promoter and regulates miR-24 expression. Genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis suggested that NeuroD1 is a potential downstream target of UTX/miR-24. A dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR-24 binds to NeuroD1; moreover, it represses axonal regeneration by negatively regulating the expression of NeuroD1 via modulation of microtubule stability. UTX deletion prominently promoted axonal regeneration and improved functional recovery post-SCI, and silencing NeuroD1 restored UTX function. Our findings indicate that UTX could be a potential target in SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820127PMC
March 2021