Publications by authors named "Yoichiro Kamatani"

215 Publications

Trans-ethnic Mendelian-randomization study reveals causal relationships between cardiometabolic factors and chronic kidney disease.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: This study was to systematically test whether previously reported risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are causally related to CKD in European and East Asian ancestries using Mendelian randomization.

Methods: A total of 45 risk factors with genetic data in European ancestry and 17 risk factors in East Asian participants were identified as exposures from PubMed. We defined the CKD by clinical diagnosis or by estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Ultimately, 51 672 CKD cases and 958 102 controls of European ancestry from CKDGen, UK Biobank and HUNT, and 13 093 CKD cases and 238 118 controls of East Asian ancestry from Biobank Japan, China Kadoorie Biobank and Japan-Kidney-Biobank/ToMMo were included.

Results: Eight risk factors showed reliable evidence of causal effects on CKD in Europeans, including genetically predicted body mass index (BMI), hypertension, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nephrolithiasis. In East Asians, BMI, T2D and nephrolithiasis showed evidence of causality on CKD. In two independent replication analyses, we observed that increased hypertension risk showed reliable evidence of a causal effect on increasing CKD risk in Europeans but in contrast showed a null effect in East Asians. Although liability to T2D showed consistent effects on CKD, the effects of glycaemic phenotypes on CKD were weak. Non-linear Mendelian randomization indicated a threshold relationship between genetically predicted BMI and CKD, with increased risk at BMI of >25 kg/m2.

Conclusions: Eight cardiometabolic risk factors showed causal effects on CKD in Europeans and three of them showed causality in East Asians, providing insights into the design of future interventions to reduce the burden of CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab203DOI Listing
October 2021

Genome-Wide Meta-analysis Identifies Genetic Variants Associated With Glycemic Response to Sulfonylureas.

Diabetes Care 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Objective: Sulfonylureas, the first available drugs for the management of type 2 diabetes, remain widely prescribed today. However, there exists significant variability in glycemic response to treatment. We aimed to establish heritability of sulfonylurea response and identify genetic variants and interacting treatments associated with HbA reduction.

Research Design And Methods: As an initiative of the Metformin Genetics Plus Consortium (MetGen Plus) and the DIabetes REsearCh on patient straTification (DIRECT) consortium, 5,485 White Europeans with type 2 diabetes treated with sulfonylureas were recruited from six referral centers in Europe and North America. We first estimated heritability using the generalized restricted maximum likelihood approach and then undertook genome-wide association studies of glycemic response to sulfonylureas measured as HbA reduction after 12 months of therapy followed by meta-analysis. These results were supported by acute glipizide challenge in humans who were naïve to type 2 diabetes medications, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), and functional validation in cellular models. Finally, we examined for possible drug-drug-gene interactions.

Results: After establishing that sulfonylurea response is heritable (mean ± SEM 37 ± 11%), we identified two independent loci near the and genes associated with HbA reduction at a genome-wide scale ( < 5 × 10). The C allele at rs1234032, near , was associated with 0.14% (1.5 mmol/mol), = 2.39 × 10), lower reduction in HbA. Similarly, the C allele was associated with higher glucose trough levels (β = 1.61, = 0.005) in healthy volunteers in the SUGAR-MGH given glipizide ( = 857). In 3,029 human whole blood samples, the C allele is a eQTL for increased expression of (β = 0.21, = 2.04 × 10). The C allele of rs10770791, in an intronic region of , was associated with 0.11% (1.2 mmol/mol) greater reduction in HbA ( = 4.80 × 10). In 1,183 human liver samples, the C allele at rs10770791 is a eQTL for reduced expression ( = 1.61 × 10), which, together with functional studies in cells expressing , supports a key role for hepatic (encoding OATP1B1) in regulation of sulfonylurea transport. Further, a significant interaction between statin use and SLCO1B1 genotype was observed (p = 0.001). In statin nonusers, C allele homozygotes at rs10770791 had a large absolute reduction in HbA (0.48 ± 0.12% [5.2 ± 1.26 mmol/mol]), equivalent to that associated with initiation of a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor.

Conclusions: We have identified clinically important genetic effects at genome-wide levels of significance, and important drug-drug-gene interactions, which include commonly prescribed statins. With increasing availability of genetic data embedded in clinical records these findings will be important in prescribing glucose-lowering drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-1152DOI Listing
October 2021

A cross-population atlas of genetic associations for 220 human phenotypes.

Nat Genet 2021 Oct 30;53(10):1415-1424. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Current genome-wide association studies do not yet capture sufficient diversity in populations and scope of phenotypes. To expand an atlas of genetic associations in non-European populations, we conducted 220 deep-phenotype genome-wide association studies (diseases, biomarkers and medication usage) in BioBank Japan (n = 179,000), by incorporating past medical history and text-mining of electronic medical records. Meta-analyses with the UK Biobank and FinnGen (n = 628,000) identified ~5,000 new loci, which improved the resolution of the genomic map of human traits. This atlas elucidated the landscape of pleiotropy as represented by the major histocompatibility complex locus, where we conducted HLA fine-mapping. Finally, we performed statistical decomposition of matrices of phenome-wide summary statistics, and identified latent genetic components, which pinpointed responsible variants and biological mechanisms underlying current disease classifications across populations. The decomposed components enabled genetically informed subtyping of similar diseases (for example, allergic diseases). Our study suggests a potential avenue for hypothesis-free re-investigation of human diseases through genetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00931-xDOI Listing
October 2021

A genome-wide association study identifies a novel candidate locus at the DLGAP1 gene with susceptibility to resistant hypertension in the Japanese population.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 30;11(1):19497. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kami Machi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

Numerous genetic variants associated with hypertension and blood pressure are known, but there is a paucity of evidence from genetic studies of resistant hypertension, especially in Asian populations. To identify novel genetic loci associated with resistant hypertension in the Japanese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study with 2705 resistant hypertension cases and 21,296 mild hypertension controls, all from BioBank Japan. We identified one novel susceptibility candidate locus, rs1442386 on chromosome 18p11.3 (DLGAP1), achieving genome-wide significance (odds ratio (95% CI) = 0.85 (0.81-0.90), P = 3.75 × 10) and 18 loci showing suggestive association, including rs62525059 of 8q24.3 (CYP11B2) and rs3774427 of 3p21.1 (CACNA1D). We further detected biological processes associated with resistant hypertension, including chemical synaptic transmission, regulation of transmembrane transport, neuron development and neurological system processes, highlighting the importance of the nervous system. This study provides insights into the etiology of resistant hypertension in the Japanese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98144-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484335PMC
September 2021

Genetics of autosomal mosaic chromosomal alteration (mCA).

J Hum Genet 2021 Sep 28;66(9):879-885. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) are frequently observed in cancer cells and are regarded as one of the common features of cancers. Strikingly, accumulating studies demonstrated that mCAs are also prevalent in elderly individuals without cancer, implying mCA could be a feature of aging and not necessarily a cancerous state. However, the genetic basis of mCA has been mostly unknown. Recent studies of autosomal mCA based on biobank-scale datasets, including UK Biobank and Biobank Japan, provided a glimpse into the underlying genetic mechanism. In this concise review, we briefly introduced mCA, its link with cancer and aging, and the emerging genetic mechanisms of this phenomenon. We highlighted the following aspects: (1) the interplay between somatic and inherited germline mutations in generating mosaicism; (2) monogenic and polygenic architectures of mCA; and (3) population-specific profiles of mCA. We provided a future perspective emphasizing the need to understand the connection between mCA and other characteristics of aging, in particular, the epigenetic and immunologic features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-021-00964-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Combined landscape of single-nucleotide variants and copy number alterations in clonal hematopoiesis.

Nat Med 2021 07 8;27(7):1239-1249. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in apparently healthy individuals is implicated in the development of hematological malignancies (HM) and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies of CH analyzed either single-nucleotide variants and indels (SNVs/indels) or copy number alterations (CNAs), but not both. Here, using a combination of targeted sequencing of 23 CH-related genes and array-based CNA detection of blood-derived DNA, we have delineated the landscape of CH-related SNVs/indels and CNAs in 11,234 individuals without HM from the BioBank Japan cohort, including 672 individuals with subsequent HM development, and studied the effects of these somatic alterations on mortality from HM and cardiovascular disease, as well as on hematological and cardiovascular phenotypes. The total number of both types of CH-related lesions and their clone size positively correlated with blood count abnormalities and mortality from HM. CH-related SNVs/indels and CNAs exhibited statistically significant co-occurrence in the same individuals. In particular, co-occurrence of SNVs/indels and CNAs affecting DNMT3A, TET2, JAK2 and TP53 resulted in biallelic alterations of these genes and was associated with higher HM mortality. Co-occurrence of SNVs/indels and CNAs also modulated risks for cardiovascular mortality. These findings highlight the importance of detecting both SNVs/indels and CNAs in the evaluation of CH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01411-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Polygenic Risk Score of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis for Potential Clinical Use.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 08 22;36(8):1481-1491. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common disease causing three-dimensional spinal deformity in as many as 3% of adolescents. Development of a method that can accurately predict the onset and progression of AIS is an immediate need for clinical practice. Because the heritability of AIS is estimated as high as 87.5% in twin studies, prediction of its onset and progression based on genetic data is a promising option. We show the usefulness of polygenic risk score (PRS) for the prediction of onset and progression of AIS. We used AIS genomewide association study (GWAS) data comprising 79,211 subjects in three cohorts and constructed a PRS based on association statistics in a discovery set including 31,999 female subjects. After calibration using a validation data set, we applied the PRS to a test data set. By integrating functional annotations showing heritability enrichment in the selection of variants, the PRS demonstrated an association with AIS susceptibility (p = 3.5 × 10 with area under the receiver-operating characteristic [AUROC] = 0.674, sensitivity = 0.644, and specificity = 0.622). The decile with the highest PRS showed an odds ratio of as high as 3.36 (p = 1.4 × 10 ) to develop AIS compared with the fifth in decile. The addition of a predictive model with only a single clinical parameter (body mass index) improved predictive ability for development of AIS (AUROC = 0.722, net reclassification improvement [NRI] 0.505 ± 0.054, p = 1.6 × 10 ), potentiating clinical use of the prediction model. Furthermore, we found the Cobb angle (CA), the severity measurement of AIS, to be a polygenic trait that showed a significant genetic correlation with AIS susceptibility (rg = 0.6, p = 3.0 × 10 ). The AIS PRS demonstrated a significant association with CA. These results indicate a shared polygenic architecture between onset and progression of AIS and the potential usefulness of PRS in clinical settings as a predictor to promote early intervention of AIS and avoid invasive surgery. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4324DOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic variations in medical research in the past, at present and in the future.

Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 2021 ;97(6):324-335

Cancer Precision Medicine Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research.

As we look so different, our genomic sequences vary enormously. The differences in our genome, genetic variations, have played very significant roles in medical research and have contributed to improvement of medical managements in the last 2-3 decades. Genetic variations include germline variations, somatic mutations, and diversities in receptor genes of rearranged immune cells, T cells and B cells. Germline variants are in some cases causative of genetic diseases, are associated with the risk of various diseases, and also affect drug efficacies or adverse events. Some somatic mutations are causative of tumor development. Recent DNA sequencing technologies allow us to perform single-cell analysis or detailed repertoire analysis of B and T cells. It is critically important to investigate temporal changes in immune environment in various anatomical regions in the next one to two decades. In this review article, we would like to introduce the roles of genetic variations in medical fields in the past, at present and in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2183/pjab.97.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403528PMC
January 2021

Eight novel susceptibility loci and putative causal variants in atopic dermatitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan; Clinical Research Center, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan; Department of Applied Genetics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common allergic disease in the world. While genetic components play critical roles in its pathophysiology, a large proportion of its genetic background is still unexplored.

Objectives: This study sought to illuminate the genetic associations with AD using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and its downstream analyses.

Methods: This study conducted a GWAS for AD comprising 2,639 cases and 115,648 controls in the Japanese population, followed by a trans-ethnic meta-analysis with UK Biobank data and downstream analyses including partitioning heritability analysis by linkage disequilibrium score regression.

Results: This study identified 17 significant susceptibility loci, among which 4 loci-AFF1, ITGB8, EHMT1, and EGR2-were novel in the Japanese GWAS. The trans-ethnic meta-analysis revealed 4 additional novel loci, namely-ZBTB38,LOC105755953/LOC101928272, TRAF3, andIQGAP1. This study found a missense variant (R243W) with a deleterious functional effect in NLRP10 and a variant altering expression of CCDC80 via enhancer expression as highly likely causal variants. These 2 regions were Asian-specific, and these population-specific associations could be explained by the frequency of causal variants. The gene-based test showed SMAD4 as an additional novel significant locus. Downstream analyses revealed substantial overlap of GWAS significant signals in enhancers of skin cells and immune cells, especially CD4 T cells. A highly shared polygenic architecture of AD between Europeans and Asians was also found.

Conclusions: This study identified Japanese-specific loci and novel significant loci shared by different populations. Two putative causal variants were illuminated in Japanese-specific loci. Trans-ethnic analyses revealed strong heritability enrichment in immune-related pathways, and relevant cell types shared among populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.04.019DOI Listing
June 2021

Hematopoietic mosaic chromosomal alterations increase the risk for diverse types of infection.

Nat Med 2021 06 7;27(6):1012-1024. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki, Finland.

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01371-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245201PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology.

Nat Genet 2021 06 17;53(6):817-829. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Bipolar disorder is a heritable mental illness with complex etiology. We performed a genome-wide association study of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry, which identified 64 associated genomic loci. Bipolar disorder risk alleles were enriched in genes in synaptic signaling pathways and brain-expressed genes, particularly those with high specificity of expression in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant signal enrichment was found in genes encoding targets of antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptics and anesthetics. Integrating expression quantitative trait locus data implicated 15 genes robustly linked to bipolar disorder via gene expression, encoding druggable targets such as HTR6, MCHR1, DCLK3 and FURIN. Analyses of bipolar disorder subtypes indicated high but imperfect genetic correlation between bipolar disorder type I and II and identified additional associated loci. Together, these results advance our understanding of the biological etiology of bipolar disorder, identify novel therapeutic leads and prioritize genes for functional follow-up studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00857-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192451PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide association study of epilepsy in a Japanese population identified an associated region at chromosome 12q24.

Epilepsia 2021 06 29;62(6):1391-1400. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurodevelopmental Disorder Genetics, Institute of Brain Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Science, Aichi, Japan.

Objective: Although a number of genes responsible for epilepsy have been identified through Mendelian genetic approaches, and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have implicated several susceptibility loci, the role of ethnic-specific markers remains to be fully explored. We aimed to identify novel genetic associations with epilepsy in a Japanese population.

Methods: We conducted a GWAS on 1825 patients with a variety of epilepsies and 7975 control individuals. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of epilepsy-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using Japanese eQTL data.

Results: We identified a novel region, which is ~2 Mb (lead SNP rs149212747, p = 8.57 × 10 ), at chromosome 12q24 as a risk for epilepsy. Most of these loci were polymorphic in East Asian populations including Japanese, but monomorphic in the European population. This region harbors 24 transcripts including genes expressed in the brain such as CUX2, ATXN2, BRAP, ALDH2, ERP29, TRAFD1, HECTD4, RPL6, PTPN11, and RPH3A. The eQTL analysis revealed that the associated SNPs are also correlated to differential expression of genes at 12q24.

Significance: These findings suggest that a gene or genes in the CUX2-RPH3A ~2-Mb region contribute to the pathology of epilepsy in the Japanese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16911DOI Listing
June 2021

A deep learning method for HLA imputation and trans-ethnic MHC fine-mapping of type 1 diabetes.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1639. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Statistical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Conventional human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation methods drop their performance for infrequent alleles, which is one of the factors that reduce the reliability of trans-ethnic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) fine-mapping due to inter-ethnic heterogeneity in allele frequency spectra. We develop DEEP*HLA, a deep learning method for imputing HLA genotypes. Through validation using the Japanese and European HLA reference panels (n = 1,118 and 5,122), DEEP*HLA achieves the highest accuracies with significant superiority for low-frequency and rare alleles. DEEP*HLA is less dependent on distance-dependent linkage disequilibrium decay of the target alleles and might capture the complicated region-wide information. We apply DEEP*HLA to type 1 diabetes GWAS data from BioBank Japan (n = 62,387) and UK Biobank (n = 354,459), and successfully disentangle independently associated class I and II HLA variants with shared risk among diverse populations (the top signal at amino acid position 71 of HLA-DRβ1; P = 7.5 × 10). Our study illustrates the value of deep learning in genotype imputation and trans-ethnic MHC fine-mapping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21975-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955122PMC
March 2021

Regional differences in genes and variants causing retinitis pigmentosa in Japan.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 May 25;65(3):338-343. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the regional differences in the genes and variants causing retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in Japan STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter study METHODS: In total, 1204 probands of each pedigree clinically diagnosed with nonsyndromic RP were enrolled from 5 Japanese facilities. The regions were divided into the Tohoku region, the Kanto and Chubu regions, and the Kyushu region according to the location of the hospitals where the participants were enrolled. We compared the proportions of the causative genes and the distributions of the pathogenic variants among these 3 regions.

Results: The proportions of genetically solved cases were 29.4% in the Tohoku region (n = 500), 29.6% in the Kanto and Chubu regions (n = 196), and 29.7% in the Kyushu region (n = 508), which did not differ statistically (P = .99). No significant regional differences in the proportions of each causative gene in genetically solved patients were observed after correction by multiple testing. Among the 29 pathogenic variants detected in all 3 regions, only p.(Pro347Leu) in RHO was an autosomal dominant variant; the remaining 28 variants were found in autosomal recessive genes. Conversely, 78.6% (275/350) of the pathogenic variants were detected only in a single region, and 6 pathogenic variants (p.[Asn3062fs] in EYS, p.[Ala315fs] in EYS, p.[Arg872fs] in RP1, p.[Ala126Val] in RDH12, p.[Arg41Trp] in CRX, and p.[Gly381fs] in PRPF31) were frequently found in ≥ 4 patients in the single region.

Conclusion: We observed region-specific pathogenic variants in the Japanese population. Further investigations of causative genes in multiple regions in Japan will contribute to the expansion of the catalog of genetic variants causing RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-021-00824-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 127 open-angle glaucoma loci with consistent effect across ancestries.

Nat Commun 2021 02 24;12(1):1258. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is a heritable common cause of blindness world-wide. To identify risk loci, we conduct a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on a total of 34,179 cases and 349,321 controls, identifying 44 previously unreported risk loci and confirming 83 loci that were previously known. The majority of loci have broadly consistent effects across European, Asian and African ancestries. Cross-ancestry data improve fine-mapping of causal variants for several loci. Integration of multiple lines of genetic evidence support the functional relevance of the identified POAG risk loci and highlight potential contributions of several genes to POAG pathogenesis, including SVEP1, RERE, VCAM1, ZNF638, CLIC5, SLC2A12, YAP1, MXRA5, and SMAD6. Several drug compounds targeting POAG risk genes may be potential glaucoma therapeutic candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20851-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904932PMC
February 2021

Whole genome sequencing of 45 Japanese patients with intellectual disability.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 05 24;185(5):1468-1480. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors, originating before the age of 18 years. However, the genetic etiologies of ID are still incompletely elucidated due to the wide range of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been applied as a single-step clinical diagnostic tool for ID because it detects genetic variations with a wide range of resolution from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to structural variants (SVs). To explore the causative genes for ID, we employed WGS in 45 patients from 44 unrelated Japanese families and performed a stepwise screening approach focusing on the coding variants in the genes. Here, we report 12 pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants: seven heterozygous variants of ADNP, SATB2, ANKRD11, PTEN, TCF4, SPAST, and KCNA2, three hemizygous variants of SMS, SLC6A8, and IQSEC2, and one homozygous variant in AGTPBP1. Of these, four were considered novel. Furthermore, a novel 76 kb deletion containing exons 1 and 2 in DYRK1A was identified. We confirmed the clinical and genetic heterogeneity and high frequency of de novo causative variants (8/12, 66.7%). This is the first report of WGS analysis in Japanese patients with ID. Our results would provide insight into the correlation between novel variants and expanded phenotypes of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247954PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide analysis identifies novel susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction.

Eur Heart J 2021 03;42(9):919-933

Division Heart & Lungs, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Aims: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation.

Methods And Results: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1β (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro.

Conclusions: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936531PMC
March 2021

Publisher Correction: Clinical use of current polygenic risk scores may exacerbate health disparities.

Nat Genet 2021 May;53(5):763

Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00797-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Genome-wide SNP data of Izumo and Makurazaki populations support inner-dual structure model for origin of Yamato people.

J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 25;66(7):681-687. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Population Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Yata 1111, Mishima, 411-8540, Japan.

The "Dual Structure" model on the formation of the modern Japanese population assumes that the indigenous hunter-gathering population (symbolized as Jomon people) admixed with rice-farming population (symbolized as Yayoi people) who migrated from the Asian continent after the Yayoi period started. The Jomon component remained high both in Ainu and Okinawa people who mainly reside in northern and southern Japan, respectively, while the Yayoi component is higher in the mainland Japanese (Yamato people). The model has been well supported by genetic data, but the Yamato population was mostly represented by people from Tokyo area. We generated new genome-wide SNP data using Japonica Array for 45 individuals in Izumo City of Shimane Prefecture and for 72 individuals in Makurazaki City of Kagoshima Prefecture in Southern Kyushu, and compared these data with those of other human populations in East Asia, including BioBank Japan data. Using principal component analysis, phylogenetic network, and f4 tests, we found that Izumo, Makurazaki, and Tohoku populations are slightly differentiated from Kanto (including Tokyo), Tokai, and Kinki regions. These results suggest the substructure within Mainland Japanese maybe caused by multiple migration events from the Asian continent following the Jomon period, and we propose a modified version of "Dual Structure" model called the "Inner-Dual Structure" model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00898-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225512PMC
July 2021

Tractor uses local ancestry to enable the inclusion of admixed individuals in GWAS and to boost power.

Nat Genet 2021 02 18;53(2):195-204. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Admixed populations are routinely excluded from genomic studies due to concerns over population structure. Here, we present a statistical framework and software package, Tractor, to facilitate the inclusion of admixed individuals in association studies by leveraging local ancestry. We test Tractor with simulated and empirical two-way admixed African-European cohorts. Tractor generates accurate ancestry-specific effect-size estimates and P values, can boost genome-wide association study (GWAS) power and improves the resolution of association signals. Using a local ancestry-aware regression model, we replicate known hits for blood lipids, discover novel hits missed by standard GWAS and localize signals closer to putative causal variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00766-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867648PMC
February 2021

Whole genome sequence analyses of eGFR in 23,732 people representing multiple ancestries in the NHLBI trans-omics for precision medicine (TOPMed) consortium.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jan 6;63:103157. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Genetic factors that influence kidney traits have been understudied for low frequency and ancestry-specific variants.

Methods: We combined whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 23,732 participants from 10 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program multi-ethnic studies to identify novel loci for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Participants included European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestries. We applied linear mixed models using a genetic relationship matrix estimated from the WGS data and adjusted for age, sex, study, and ethnicity.

Findings: When testing single variants, we identified three novel loci driven by low frequency variants more commonly observed in non-European ancestry (PRKAA2, rs180996919, minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.04%, P = 6.1 × 10; METTL8, rs116951054, MAF 0.09%, P = 4.5 × 10; and MATK, rs539182790, MAF 0.05%, P = 3.4 × 10). We also replicated two known loci for common variants (rs2461702, MAF=0.49, P = 1.2 × 10, nearest gene GATM, and rs71147340, MAF=0.34, P = 3.3 × 10, CDK12). Testing aggregated variants within a gene identified the MAF gene. A statistical approach based on local ancestry helped to identify replication samples for ancestry-specific variants.

Interpretation: This study highlights challenges in studying variants influencing kidney traits that are low frequency in populations and more common in non-European ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.103157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804602PMC
January 2021

Population-based Screening for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Variants in Japan.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Dec 11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama.

Background & Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. A small proportion of CRCs can be attributed to recognizable hereditary germline variants of known CRC susceptibility genes. To better understand cancer risk, it is necessary to explore the prevalence of hereditary CRC and pathogenic variants of multiple cancer-predisposing genes in non-European populations.

Methods: We analyzed the coding regions of 27 cancer-predisposing genes in 12,503 unselected Japanese CRC patients and 23,705 controls by target sequencing and genome-wide SNP chip. Their clinical significance was assessed using ClinVar and the guidelines by ACMG/AMP.

Results: We identified 4,804 variants in the 27 genes and annotated them as pathogenic in 397 and benign variants in 941, of which 43.6% were novel. In total, 3.3% of the unselected CRC patients and 1.5% of the controls had a pathogenic variant. The pathogenic variants of MSH2 (odds ratio (OR) = 18.1), MLH1 (OR = 8.6), MSH6 (OR = 4.9), APC (OR = 49.4), BRIP1 (OR=3.6), BRCA1 (OR = 2.6), BRCA2 (OR = 1.9), and TP53 (OR = 1.7) were significantly associated with CRC development in the Japanese population (P-values<0.01, FDR<0.05). These pathogenic variants were significantly associated with diagnosis age and personal/family history of cancer. In total, at least 3.5% of the Japanese CRC population had a pathogenic variant or CNV of the 27 cancer-predisposing genes, indicating hereditary cancers.

Conclusions: This largest study of CRC heredity in Asia can contribute to the development of guidelines for genetic testing and variant interpretation for heritable CRCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.12.007DOI Listing
December 2020

Two decades after Human Genome Project: do large-genetic studies lead to path of the genomic medicine of complex diseases?

J Hum Genet 2021 Jan 11;66(1). Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Statistical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00828-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Cerebral small vessel disease genomics and its implications across the lifespan.

Nat Commun 2020 12 8;11(1):6285. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, USA.

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were associated with altered white matter integrity (p = 2.5×10-7) in brain images from 1,738 young healthy adults, providing insight into the lifetime impact of SVD genetic risk. Mendelian randomization suggested causal association of increasing WMH-volume with stroke, Alzheimer-type dementia, and of increasing blood pressure (BP) with larger WMH-volume, notably also in persons without clinical hypertension. Transcriptome-wide colocalization analyses showed association of WMH-volume with expression of 39 genes, of which four encode known drug targets. Finally, we provide insight into BP-independent biological pathways underlying SVD and suggest potential for genetic stratification of high-risk individuals and for genetically-informed prioritization of drug targets for prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19111-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722866PMC
December 2020

Hematopoietic mosaic chromosomal alterations and risk for infection among 767,891 individuals without blood cancer.

medRxiv 2020 Nov 16. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking the two are incompletely understood . Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from blood-derived DNA genotyping, are structural somatic variants associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality . Whether mCAs represent independent risk factors for infection is unknown. Here we use genome-wide genotyping of blood DNA to show that mCAs predispose to diverse infectious diseases. We analyzed mCAs from 767,891 individuals without hematological cancer at DNA acquisition across four countries. Expanded mCA (cell fraction >10%) prevalence approached 4% by 60 years of age and was associated with diverse incident infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 significant loci. Germline genetic alleles associated with expanded mCAs were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. Our results link mCAs with impaired immunity and predisposition to infections. Furthermore, these findings may also have important implications for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in prioritizing individual preventive strategies and evaluating immunization responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.12.20230821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685330PMC
November 2020

Hematopoietic mosaic chromosomal alterations and risk for infection among 767,891 individuals without blood cancer.

Res Sq 2020 Nov 16. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking the two are incompletely understood1,2. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from blood-derived DNA genotyping, are structural somatic variants associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality3-11. Whether mCAs represent independent risk factors for infection is unknown. Here we use genome-wide genotyping of blood DNA to show that mCAs predispose to diverse infectious diseases. We analyzed mCAs from 767,891 individuals without hematological cancer at DNA acquisition across four countries. Expanded mCA (cell fraction >10%) prevalence approached 4% by 60 years of age and was associated with diverse incident infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 significant loci. Germline genetic alleles associated with expanded mCAs were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. Our results link mCAs with impaired immunity and predisposition to infections. Furthermore, these findings may also have important implications for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in prioritizing individual preventive strategies and evaluating immunization responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-100817/v1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685327PMC
November 2020

Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysms identifies 17 risk loci and genetic overlap with clinical risk factors.

Nat Genet 2020 12 16;52(12):1303-1313. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Research, Innovation and Education, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00725-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116530PMC
December 2020

Population-specific and trans-ancestry genome-wide analyses identify distinct and shared genetic risk loci for coronary artery disease.

Nat Genet 2020 11 5;52(11):1169-1177. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

To elucidate the genetics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of 168,228 individuals of Japanese ancestry (25,892 cases and 142,336 controls) with genotype imputation using a newly developed reference panel of Japanese haplotypes including 1,781 CAD cases and 2,636 controls. We detected eight new susceptibility loci and Japanese-specific rare variants contributing to disease severity and increased cardiovascular mortality. We then conducted a trans-ancestry meta-analysis and discovered 35 additional new loci. Using the meta-analysis results, we derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD, which outperformed those derived from either Japanese or European genome-wide association studies. The PRS prioritized risk factors among various clinical parameters and segregated individuals with increased risk of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Our data improve the clinical characterization of CAD genetics and suggest the utility of trans-ancestry meta-analysis for PRS derivation in non-European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0705-3DOI Listing
November 2020
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