Publications by authors named "Yohann Repessé"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gastrointestinal bleeding from angiodysplasia in von Willebrand disease: Improved diagnosis and outcome prediction using videocapsule on top of conventional endoscopy.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 02 29;19(2):380-386. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Department of Hematology and Transfusion, CHU Lille, Institut d'Hématologie Transfusion, Lille, France.

Background: Despite a high prevalence of angiodysplasia, no specific guidelines are available for the modalities of endoscopic exploration of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in von Willebrand disease (VWD). Whether VWD patients could benefit from video capsule endoscopy (VCE) looking for angiodysplasia eligible to endoscopic treatment or at high risk of bleeding is unknown.

Objectives: To assess the diagnostic efficacy for angiodysplasia and the prognostic value of VCE on top of conventional endoscopy in VWD patients with GI bleeding.

Patients/methods: A survey was sent to the 30 centers of the French-network on inherited bleeding disorders to identify VWD patients referred for endoscopic exploration of GI bleeding from January 2015 to December 2017. Data obtained included patient characteristics, VWD phenotype/genotype, GI bleeding pattern, results of endoscopic investigations, and medical management applied including endoscopic therapy. We assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis the recurrence-free survival after the first GI bleeding event according to endoscopic categorization and, in patients with angiodysplasia, to the presence of small-bowel localizations on VCE exploration.

Results: GI bleeding source localization was significantly improved when including VCE exploration (P < .01), even in patients without history of angiodysplasia (P < .05). Patients with angiodysplasia had more GI bleeding recurrences (P < .01). A lower recurrence-free survival was observed in patients with angiodysplasia (log-rank test, P = .02), and especially when lesions were located in the small bowel (log-rank test, P < .01), even after endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation (log-rank test, P < .01).

Conclusion: VCE should be more systematically used in VWD patients with unexplained or recurrent GI bleeding looking for angiodysplasia eligible to endoscopic treatment or at high risk of relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15155DOI Listing
February 2021

Real Life Population Pharmacokinetics Modelling of Eight Factors VIII in Patients with Severe Haemophilia A: Is It Always Relevant to Switch to an Extended Half-Life?

Pharmaceutics 2020 Apr 21;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Reims, EA3801, SFR Cap-Santé, University of Reims, 51100 Reims, France.

We retrospectively analysed the data files of 171 adults and 87 children/adolescents with severe haemophilia, except for 14 patients (moderate; minor) (1), to develop a global population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for eight factors VIII (FVIII) that could estimate individual PK parameters for targeting the desired level of FVIII activity (FVIII:C); and (2) to compare half-life (HL) in patients switching from a standard half-life (SHL) to an extended half-life (EHL) and evaluate the relevance of the switch. One-stage clotting assay for the measurement of FVIII activity (FVIII:C, IU/mL) was used for population PK modelling. The software, Monolix version 2019R1, was used for non-linear mixed-effects modelling. A linear two-compartment model best described FVIII:C. The estimated PK parameters (between-subject variability) were: 2640 mL (23.2%) for volume of central compartment (V1), 339 mL (46.8%) for volume of peripheral compartment (V2), 135 mL/h for Q (fixed random effect), and 204 mL/h (34.9%) for clearance (Cl). Weight, age, and categorical covariate EHL were found to influence Cl and only weight for V1. This model can be used for all of the FVIII cited in the study. Moreover, we demonstrated, in accordance with previous studies, that Elocta had longer half-life (EHL) than SHL (mean ratio: 1.48) as compared to Advate, Factane, Kogenate, Novoeight, and Refacto.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12040380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238177PMC
April 2020

Multicentre pharmacokinetic evaluation of rFVIII-Fc (efmoroctocog alfa) in a real life and comparison with non-extended half-life FVIII concentrates.

Haemophilia 2020 Mar 27;26(2):282-289. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Laboratoire d'Hémostase Hémobiologie, CHU de Lille, Lille, France.

The use of enhanced half-life (EHL) FVIII has improved the quality of prophylaxis in haemophilia A, but with a benefit that may vary from one patient to another. We analysed the pharmacokinetic data obtained with efmoroctocog alfa (rFVIII-Fc) in 114 patients and, in 47 cases, compared them to those previously measured with non-EHL FVIII. The in vivo recovery (IVR) of rFVIII-Fc measured with one stage clotting assay (OSA) and chromogenic assay (CSA) was 2.2 and 2.8 IU/mL per IU/kg, respectively. The median half-life (T ) of rFVIII-Fc was 14.5 hours whatever the FVIII:C assay used, but variable and correlated with preinfusion VWF:Ag levels (r = .76). Both IVR and T were lower in patients under 12 years old (2.4 IU/mL per IU/kg and 11.1 hours, respectively; CSA). PK study of rFVIII-Fc vs non-EHL FVIII showed a T ratio of 1.4 in favour of rFVIII-Fc, regardless of the patient's age. However the relative increase in T with rFVIII-Fc was lower than 30% in one-third of patients evaluated, particularly when the previous FVIII administered was a BHK-derived product. This study therefore suggests that analysis of individual PK profile in response to a specific FVIII concentrate is potentially useful before a switch in haemophilia A patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13946DOI Listing
March 2020

Risk stratification integrating genetic data for factor VIII inhibitor development in patients with severe hemophilia A.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(6):e0218258. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.

Replacement therapy in severe hemophilia A leads to factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors in 30% of patients. Factor VIII gene (F8) mutation type, a family history of inhibitors, ethnicity and intensity of treatment are established risk factors, and were included in two published prediction tools based on regression models. Recently investigated immune regulatory genes could also play a part in immunogenicity. Our objective is to identify bio-clinical and genetic markers for FVIII inhibitor development, taking into account potential genetic high order interactions. The study population consisted of 593 and 79 patients with hemophilia A from centers in Bonn and Frankfurt respectively. Data was collected in the European ABIRISK tranSMART database. A subset of 125 severely affected patients from Bonn with reliable information on first treatment was selected as eligible for risk stratification using a hybrid tree-based regression model (GPLTR). In the eligible subset, 58 (46%) patients developed FVIII inhibitors. Among them, 49 (84%) were "high risk" F8 mutation type. 19 (33%) had a family history of inhibitors. The GPLTR model, taking into account F8 mutation risk, family history of inhibitors and product type, distinguishes two groups of patients: a high-risk group for immunogenicity, including patients with positive HLA-DRB1*15 and genotype G/A and A/A for IL-10 rs1800896, and a low-risk group of patients with negative HLA-DRB1*15 / HLA-DQB1*02 and T/T or G/T for CD86 rs2681401. We show associations between genetic factors and the occurrence of FVIII inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A patients taking into account for high-order interactions using a generalized partially linear tree-based approach.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218258PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6564000PMC
March 2020

Evaluation of the impact of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase inhibitor, 3-deazaneplanocin A, on tissue injury and cognitive function in mice.

Oncotarget 2018 Apr 17;9(29):20698-20708. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, BioConnecT, Caen, France.

Cancer patients display cognitive impairment due, at least partly, to the treatments. Additionally, chemotherapeutic treatments can lead to organ injury, limiting their use, and are likely to have negative impacts on patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) on several tissues and organs, as well as on cognitive functions. DZNep is an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (in particular of the histone methyltransferase EZH2) which showed antitumoral functions in preclinical trials but whose effects on behavior and on organs (side effects) are not known. Chronic injections of DZNep were performed intraperitoneally in male NMRI mice (2 mg/kg; i.p.; three times per week) during 8 weeks. A follow-up of body weight was assessed during all experiments. Histological analysis were performed on several organs. EZH2 expression and H3K27me3 were assayed by western-blot. Several behavioral tests were performed during treatment and 2 weeks after. A particular focus was made on spontaneous locomotor activity, cognitive functions (spontaneous alternation and recognition memory), and anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Hematological modifications were also assessed. Chronic DZNep treatment transiently reduced animal growth. It had no effect on most organs but provoked a reversible splenomegaly, and persistent testis reduction and erythropoiesis. DZNep administration did not alter animal behavior. In conclusion, this study is encouraging for the use of DZNep for cancer treatment. Indeed, it has no effect on animal behavior, conferring an advantageous safety, and induces irreversible side effects limited on testis which are unfortunately found in most chemotherapy treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5945538PMC
April 2018

Potent Thrombolytic Effect of -Acetylcysteine on Arterial Thrombi.

Circulation 2017 Aug 9;136(7):646-660. Epub 2017 May 9.

From Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, INSERM, INSERM UMR-S U1237, Physiopathology and Imaging of Neurological Disorders (PhIND), Cyceron, Caen, France (S.M.d.L., C.G., Y.R., C.A., E.T., D.V., M.G.); CHU de Caen, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, CHU de Caen Côte de Nacre, France (C.G.); Institute for Medicine and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (B.A.H., S.L.D.); Laboratoire d'Hématologie, CHU de Caen, France (Y.R.); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR_S 1176, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France (C.V.D., P.J.L.); CHU Caen, Neurology Department, CHU de Caen Côte de Nacre, France (E.T.); CHU Caen, Clinical Research Department, CHU de Caen Côte de Nacre, France (D.V.); and CHU Caen, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, CHU de Caen Côte de Nacre, France (M.G.).

Background: Platelet cross-linking during arterial thrombosis involves von Willebrand Factor (VWF) multimers. Therefore, proteolysis of VWF appears promising to disaggregate platelet-rich thrombi and restore vessel patency in acute thrombotic disorders such as ischemic stroke, acute coronary syndrome, or acute limb ischemia. -Acetylcysteine (NAC, a clinically approved mucolytic drug) can reduce intrachain disulfide bonds in large polymeric proteins. In the present study, we postulated that NAC might cleave the VWF multimers inside occlusive thrombi, thereby leading to their dissolution and arterial recanalization.

Methods: Experimental models of thrombotic stroke induced by either intra-arterial thrombin injection or ferric chloride application followed by measurement of cerebral blood flow using a combination of laser Doppler flowmetry and MRI were performed to uncover the effects of NAC on arterial thrombi. To investigate the effect of NAC on larger vessels, we also performed ferric chloride-induced carotid artery thrombosis. In vitro experiments were performed to study the molecular bases of NAC thrombolytic effect, including platelet aggregometry, platelet-rich thrombi lysis assays, thromboelastography (ROTEM), and high-shear VWF string formation using microfluidic devices. We also investigated the putative prohemorrhagic effect of NAC in a mouse model of intracranial hemorrhage induced by in situ collagenase type VII injection.

Results: We demonstrated that intravenous NAC administration promotes lysis of arterial thrombi that are resistant to conventional approaches such as recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, direct thrombin inhibitors, and antiplatelet treatments. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments, we provide evidence that the molecular target underlying the thrombolytic effects of NAC is principally the VWF that cross-link platelets in arterial thrombi. Coadministration of NAC and a nonpeptidic GpIIb/IIIa inhibitor further improved its thrombolytic efficacy, essentially by accelerating thrombus dissolution and preventing rethrombosis. Thus, in a new large-vessel thromboembolic stroke model in mice, this cotreatment significantly improved ischemic lesion size and neurological outcome. It is important to note that NAC did not worsen hemorrhagic stroke outcome, suggesting that it exerts thrombolytic effects without significantly impairing normal hemostasis.

Conclusions: We provide evidence that NAC is an effective and safe alternative to currently available antithrombotic agents to restore vessel patency after arterial occlusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.027290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560034PMC
August 2017

Impact of alcohol consumption on the outcome of ischemic stroke and thrombolysis: role of the hepatic clearance of tissue-type plasminogen activator.

Stroke 2015 Jun 28;46(6):1641-50. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

From the INSERM UMR-S U919 "serine proteases and pathophysiology of the neurovascular unit" - SP2U Université Caen Basse-Normandie, GIP CYCERON, Caen, France (E.L., M.G., S.M.d.L., H.V., Y.R., A.M., D.V., C.A., M.R.); Service d'Hématologie CHU Caen, France (Y.R.); and Délégation Recherche Clinique et Innovation (DRCI), CHU de Caen, Caen, France (M.R.).

Background And Purpose: Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only acute treatment for ischemic stroke. Unfortunately, the benefit of tPA-driven thrombolysis is not systematic, and understanding the reasons for this is mandatory. The balance between beneficial and detrimental effects of tPA might explain the limited overall efficiency of thrombolysis. Here, we investigated whether this balance could be influenced by excessive alcohol intake.

Methods: We used a murine model of thromboembolic stroke, coupled to an array of biochemical assays, near-infrared or magnetic resonance imaging scans, 2-photon microscopy, hydrodynamic transfections, and immunohistological techniques.

Results: We found that 6 weeks of alcohol consumption (10% in drinking water) worsens ischemic lesions and cancels the beneficial effects of tPA-induced thrombolysis. We accumulate in vivo and in vitro evidence showing that this aggravation is correlated with a decrease in lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated hepatic clearance of tPA in alcohol-exposed mice.

Conclusions: An efficient liver-driven clearance of tPA might influence the safety of thrombolysis after stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007143DOI Listing
June 2015

Haematological complications of cystinosis.

Eur J Haematol 2015 Feb 9;94(2):187. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Haematology, CHU Caen, Caen, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12331DOI Listing
February 2015

Octreotide for recurrent intestinal bleeding due to ventricular assist device.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2014 Mar 16;22(3):350-2. Epub 2013 Aug 16.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Center-Caen, Caen, France.

We report the case of a 64-year-old Jarvik 2000 recipient with a high risk of bleeding (anticoagulation treatment and acquired von Willebrand disease), who presented with intractable gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to severe gastric angiodysplasia. He was successfully treated with long-acting octreotide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0218492312474902DOI Listing
March 2014

GpIbα-VWF blockade restores vessel patency by dissolving platelet aggregates formed under very high shear rate in mice.

Blood 2014 May 19;123(21):3354-63. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche Scientifique U919, "Serine Proteases and Pathophysiology of the Neurovascular Unit", Groupement d'Intérêt Public Cyceron, Caen, France;

Interactions between platelet glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa and plasma proteins mediate platelet cross-linking in arterial thrombi. However, GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors fail to disperse platelet aggregates after myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. These results suggest that stability of occlusive thrombi involves additional and as-yet-unidentified mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms driving platelet cross-linking during occlusive thrombus formation. Using computational fluid dynamic simulations and in vivo thrombosis models, we demonstrated that the inner structure of occlusive thrombi is heterogeneous and primarily determined by the rheological conditions that prevailed during thrombus growth. Unlike the first steps of thrombus formation, which are GpIIb/IIIa-dependent, our findings reveal that closure of the arterial lumen is mediated by GpIbα-von Willebrand Factor (VWF) interactions. Accordingly, disruption of platelet cross-linking using GpIbα-VWF inhibitors restored vessel patency and improved outcome in a mouse model of ischemic stroke, although the thrombi were resistant to fibrinolysis or traditional antithrombotic agents. Overall, our study demonstrates that disruption of GpIbα-VWF interactions restores vessel patency after occlusive thrombosis by specifically disaggregating the external layer of occlusive thrombi, which is constituted of platelet aggregates formed under very high shear rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-12-543074DOI Listing
May 2014

The interaction between factor H and VWF increases factor H cofactor activity and regulates VWF prothrombotic status.

Blood 2014 Jan 6;123(1):121-5. Epub 2013 Sep 6.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale.

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) link hemostasis, thrombosis, and complement. ECs synthesize both the clotting initiator von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the complement regulator factor H (FH). VWF is stored in EC Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), but the intracellular location of FH is not well defined. We found that FH colocalizes with VWF in WPBs of human umbilical vein ECs. Moreover, FH bound to VWF with an apparent nanomolar affinity and the complex was present in normal plasma. The binding of VWF to FH enhanced FH cofactor activity toward factor I-mediated downregulation of complement activation. Besides, this interaction inhibited ADAMTS13-mediated proteolysis of VWF and promoted platelet aggregation. Here, we describe a novel interaction between complement and hemostasis. The simultaneous secretion of VWF and FH by activated ECs may promote adhesion of platelets to endothelial injury sites to assure wound healing, simultaneously dampening the proinflammatory effect of complement to limit bystander tissue damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-04-495853DOI Listing
January 2014

Development of inhibitory antibodies to therapeutic factor VIII in severe hemophilia A is associated with microsatellite polymorphisms in the HMOX1 promoter.

Haematologica 2013 Oct 28;98(10):1650-5. Epub 2013 May 28.

Induction of heme oxygenase-1, a stress-inducible enzyme with anti-inflammatory activity, reduces the immunogenicity of therapeutic factor VIII in experimental hemophilia A. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 expression is modulated by polymorphisms in the promoter of the heme oxygenase-1-encoding gene (HMOX1). We investigated the relationship between polymorphisms in the HMOX1 promoter and factor VIII inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A. We performed a case-control study on 99 inhibitor-positive patients and 263 patients who did not develop inhibitors within the first 150 cumulative days of exposure to therapeutic factor VIII. Direct sequencing and DNA fragment analysis were used to study (GT)n polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms located at -1135 and -413 in the promoter of HMOX1. We assessed associations between the individual allele frequencies or genotypes, and inhibitor development. Our results demonstrate that inhibitor-positive patients had a higher frequency of alleles with large (GT)n repeats (L: n≥30), which are associated with lesser heme oxygenase-1 expression (odds ratio 2.31; 95% confidence interval 1.46-3.66; P<0.001]. Six genotypes (L/L, L/M, L/S, M/M, M/S and S/S) of (GT)n repeats were identified (S: n<21; M: 21≤n<30). The genotype group including L alleles (L/L, L/M and L/S) was statistically more frequent among inhibitor-positive than inhibitor-negative patients, as compared to the other genotypes (33.3% versus 17.1%) (odds ratio 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.30-3.76; P<0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first association identified between HMOX1 promoter polymorphism and development of anti-drug antibodies. Our study paves the way towards modulation of the endogenous anti-inflammatory machinery of hemophilia patients to reduce the risk of inhibitor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2013.084665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3789472PMC
October 2013

Thermodynamic analysis of the interaction of factor VIII with von Willebrand factor.

Biochemistry 2012 May 14;51(20):4108-16. Epub 2012 May 14.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Unité Mixte de Recherche S 872, Paris, France.

Factor VIII (FVIII) is a glycoprotein that plays an important role in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. In circulation, FVIII is protected upon binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF), a chaperone molecule that regulates its half-life, distribution, and activity. Despite the biological significance of this interaction, its molecular mechanisms are not fully characterized. We determined the equilibrium and activation thermodynamics of the interaction between FVIII and VWF. The equilibrium affinity determined by surface plasmon resonance was temperature-dependent with a value of 0.8 nM at 35 °C. The FVIII-VWF interaction was characterized by very fast association (8.56 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) and fast dissociation (6.89 × 10(-3) s(-1)) rates. Both the equilibrium association and association rate constants, but not the dissociation rate constant, were dependent on temperature. Binding of FVIII to VWF was characterized by favorable changes in the equilibrium and activation entropy (TΔS° = 89.4 kJ/mol, and -TΔS(++) = -8.9 kJ/mol) and unfavorable changes in the equilibrium and activation enthalpy (ΔH° = 39.1 kJ/mol, and ΔH(++) = 44.1 kJ/mol), yielding a negative change in the equilibrium Gibbs energy. Binding of FVIII to VWF in solid-phase assays demonstrated a high sensitivity to acidic pH and a sensitivity to ionic strength. Our data indicate that the interaction between FVIII and VWF is mediated mainly by electrostatic forces, and that it is not accompanied by entropic constraints, suggesting the absence of conformational adaptation but the presence of rigid "pre-optimized" binding surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi300232dDOI Listing
May 2012

Proteolytic antibodies activate factor IX in patients with acquired hemophilia.

Blood 2011 Feb 3;117(7):2257-64. Epub 2010 Dec 3.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

Acquired hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by the spontaneous occurrence of inhibitory antibodies against endogenous factor VIII (FVIII). IgG from some patients with acquired hemophilia hydrolyze FVIII. Because of the complex etiology of the disease, no clinical parameter, including the presence of FVIII-hydrolyzing IgG, has been associated with patient's survival or death. Here, we demonstrate the presence of anti-FIX antibodies in acquired hemophilia patients. IgG from some patients were found to hydrolyze FIX. In most cases, IgG-mediated FIX-hydrolysis resulted in FIX activation. IgG-mediated hydrolysis of FIX thus led to the significant generation of activated FIX in 25 of 65 patients. Based on the estimated kinetic parameters, patients' IgG activated up to 0.3nM FIX in 24 hours, an amount that restored thrombin generation in vitro provided the presence of more than or equal to 3% residual FVIII activity in plasma. This work identifies proteolytic IgG as novel molecules able to activate FIX under pathologic conditions. IgG-mediated FIX activation is a prevalent phenomenon among acquired hemophilia patients. The presence of FIX-activating IgG may partly compensate for the antibody-mediated inhibition of endogenous FVIII in restoring thrombin generation. This clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00213473.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-07-296103DOI Listing
February 2011

Endocytic receptor for pro-coagulant factor VIII: relevance to inhibitor formation.

Thromb Haemost 2010 Dec 30;104(6):1093-8. Epub 2010 Sep 30.

Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes, INSERM UMR 872 Equipe 16, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, F-75006 France.

The immunogenicity of therapeutic factor VIII (FVIII) in patients with haemophilia A remains a critical issue in patient management. This review describes the immunological processes involved in the activation of the immune system against FVIII, with a particular focus on the role of endocytic receptors for the recognition of FVIII by antigen-presenting cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH10-05-0294DOI Listing
December 2010

Induction of heme oxygenase-1 in factor VIII-deficient mice reduces the immune response to therapeutic factor VIII.

Blood 2010 Apr 4;115(13):2682-5. Epub 2009 Nov 4.

Inserm, Unite 872, Centre de recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.

Replacement therapy with exogenous factor VIII (FVIII) to treat hemorrhages induces anti-FVIII inhibitory immunoglobulin G in up to 30% of patients with hemophilia A. Chronic inflammation associated with recurrent bleedings is a proposed risk factor for FVIII inhibitor development. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible enzyme with potent anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we demonstrate that induction of HO-1 before FVIII administration drastically reduces the onset of the anti-FVIII humoral immune response. The protective effect was specific for HO-1 because it was reproduced on administration of the end products of HO-1 activity, carbon monoxide, and bilirubin, and prevented by the pharmacologic inhibition of HO-1 using tin mesoporphyrin IX. HO-1 induction was associated with decreased major histocompatibility complex class II expression by splenic antigen-presenting cells and reduced T-cell proliferation. Triggering the endogenous anti-inflammatory machinery before FVIII administration may represent a novel therapeutic option for preventing the development of FVIII inhibitors in hemophilia A patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-04-216408DOI Listing
April 2010

Kinetics and thermodynamics of interaction of coagulation factor VIII with a pathogenic human antibody.

Mol Immunol 2009 Dec 6;47(2-3):290-7. Epub 2009 Oct 6.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR S 872, Paris, F-75006 France.

Replacement therapy in hemophilia A with exogenous coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) often results in the development of FVIII-neutralizing antibodies, referred to as inhibitors. Despite of large number of studies on the functional properties of FVIII inhibitors, detailed physicochemical characterization of their interactions is not available. Here we studied the biophysical mechanism of the interaction between a human pathogenic antibody--BO2C11 and its target antigen--FVIII. Kinetic and thermodynamic analyses implied that this interaction is not accompanied by significant conformational changes in the proteins. The data also suggested that association of BO2C11 to FVIII is driven mainly by a hydrophobic effect. The protein electrostatics however played a decisive role in this association. Thus, a gradual increase in ionic strength resulted in a considerable increase in the association rate of binding of BO2C11 to FVIII. Such an ionic strength-dependency is uncommon for other antibody-antigen interactions. Our data suggest that electrostatic effects observed for BO2C11-FVIII association may arise from high-energy penalty of desolvation of the charged residues at the binding interfaces. We hypothesize that untypical ionic strength dependence of association of BO2C11 to FVIII reflects the nature of the recognized epitope, namely a molecular surface involved in the binding of FVIII to phospholipids. The presented data provide mechanistic information about FVIII neutralization by an inhibitory antibody and also contribute to the understanding of the general mechanisms of antibody-antigen interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2009.09.021DOI Listing
December 2009

Inhibitors of factor VIII in hemophilia.

N Engl J Med 2009 Jul;361(3):308; author reply 310

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc091067DOI Listing
July 2009

A cellular viewpoint of anti-FVIII immune response in hemophilia A.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2009 Oct;37(2):105-13

INSERM UMRS 872, Equipe 16, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 15, rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris, France.

A large proportion of hemophilia A patients who receive replacement therapy, develop an immune response toward the infused factor VIII (FVIII). In this review, we discuss recent progress in several aspects of the anti-FVIII immune response, focusing on the sites of FVIII endocytosis (marginal zone of the spleen and bleeding site), the type of antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells) and endocytic receptors, implicated in FVIII presentation to T cells during primary and secondary immune response. Although it is becoming increasingly clear that regulatory T cells are involved in FVIII tolerance in healthy subjects and potentially in patients without inhibitors, we would like to demonstrate that little is known about the different T cells subsets and the cytokines network, which are also crucial for the development of allo- and autoimmune diseases. As more information on these issues becomes available, a better understanding of the role of each immune cells compartment in promoting FVIII tolerance or inhibitors development might lead to new strategies to promote FVIII tolerance in hemophilia A patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12016-009-8117-2DOI Listing
October 2009

The role of VWF in the immunogenicity of FVIII.

Thromb Res 2008 ;122 Suppl 2:S3-6

INSERM, UMR S 872, Les Cordeliers, Paris, F-75006 France.

Up to 33% of patients with severe haemophilia A develop inhibitory antibodies to factor VIM (FVIII) that can significantly impair treatment with FVIII. The plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) binds to FVIII and is known to be important for the functioning of FVIII. Accumulating data suggest that VWF may also be important for reducing the immunogenicity of therapeutically administered FVIII in patients with haemophilia A. Although contradictory results have been reported for studies in patients, studies in mice have shown that the levels of FVIII-binding antibodies induced following treatment with recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) are higher than those following treatment with plasma-derived FVIII preparations containing VWF, and that the addition of VWF to rFVIII reduces the levels of FVIII-binding antibodies induced. In in vitro studies, VWF has been shown to inhibit both the uptake of FVIII by immature dendritic cells and the activation of FVIII-specificT-cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, recombinant VWF (rVWF) lacking the FVIII-binding domain did not inhibit T-cell activation. These data suggest that VWF may reduce the immunogenicity of FVIII by inhibiting the uptake of FVIII by antigen presenting cells, the first step in the development of an immune response against a foreign antigen. Further studies are required to confirm the applicability of these results to patients with haemophilia. If confirmed, these data would encourage the use of VWF in conjunction with FVIII in the management of patients with haemophilia A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0049-3848(08)70002-1DOI Listing
October 2008

The electrophysiological effects of racemic ketamine and etomidate in an in vitro model of "border zone" between normal and ischemic/reperfused guinea pig myocardium.

Anesth Analg 2008 Feb;106(2):365-70, table of contents

Département d'Anesthésie réanimation, CHU de Caen, Ave. Côte de Nacre, 14033 Caen Cedex, France.

Background: Etomidate and ketamine are used during induction of anesthesia in high-risk patients. However, their effects on action potential (AP) variables and ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and conduction blocks are unknown.

Methods: Guinea pig right ventricular muscle strips were mounted in a 5-mL double chamber bath with the strips separated into two zones by an impermeable latex membrane. One-half (normal zone) was exposed to normal perfusate while the other half (altered zone) was exposed to hypoxia, hyperkalemia, acidosis, and lack of glucose. AP variables were recorded continuously in the normal and altered zones. Spontaneous arrhythmias and conduction blocks were noted. Etomidate (10(-7), 10(-6), and 10(-5) M) and ketamine (10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M) were superfused into the bath throughout the experiment and the electrophysiologic effects compared with the control group.

Results: We found that under control conditions, etomidate and ketamine did not modify resting membrane potential, maximal upstroke velocity, AP amplitude, or AP duration at 90% of repolarization (APD90). Ketamine (10(-4) M), but not weaker concentrations and none of the concentration of etomidate, reversed the ischemia-induced shortening of APD90 and APD dispersion. Etomidate and ketamine did not modify the occurrence of conduction block during simulated ischemia. In contrast, ketamine (25% at 10(-6) M, 13% at 10(-5) M, and 13% at 10(-4) M vs 90% in the control group, P < 0.05) but not etomidate (38% at 10(-7) M, 63% at 10(-6) M, and 63% at 10(-5) M vs 90% in the control group, NS) decreased the incidence of reperfusion-induced spontaneous arrhythmias.

Conclusions: In guinea pig myocardium, our data suggest that ketamine, in clinically relevant concentrations, decreases ischemia-induced AP shortening and spontaneous reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Further study is required to precisely determine the effect of etomidate on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ane.0b013e31816052b6DOI Listing
February 2008

Factor VIII bypasses CD91/LRP for endocytosis by dendritic cells leading to T-cell activation.

Haematologica 2008 Jan;93(1):83-9

Unité 872, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France.

Background: The development of factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors remains the major hurdle in the clinical management of patients with hemophilia A. FVIII uptake by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) is the first step involved in initiation of immune responses to FVIII. Studies on FVIII catabolism have highlighted the role played by CD91/LRP as a potential target for increasing FVIII half-life in patients and prolonging treatment efficiency. We investigated the involvement of CD91 in FVIII endocytosis by human dendritic cells (DC), a model of professional APC.

Design And Methods: Immature DC were generated from circulating monocytes from healthy donors. Surface expression of CD91 was assessed by flow cytometry. Uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated ligands by immature DC was studied in the presence of various blocking agents.

Results: CD91 was expressed on approximately 20% of DC and mediated the internalization of its model ligand, alpha2-macroglobulin. DC internalized FVIII and activated a human FVIII-specific T-cell clone in a dose-dependent manner. FVIII uptake by DC and subsequent T-cell activation were not inhibited by receptor-associated protein.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that CD91 and other members of the LDL receptor family are not strongly implicated in FVIII internalization by monocyte-derived DC, and suggest the involvement of alternative divalent ion-dependent endocytic receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.11535DOI Listing
January 2008

VWF protects FVIII from endocytosis by dendritic cells and subsequent presentation to immune effectors.

Blood 2007 Jan 19;109(2):610-2. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

INSERM Unité 681, Paris, France.

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a chaperone molecule for procoagulant factor VIII (FVIII). Its role in the reduction of the immunogenicity of therapeutic FVIII in patients with hemophilia A has been evoked but lacks clear cellular and molecular rationale. Here, we demonstrate that VWF protects FVIII from being endocytosed by human dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequently presented to FVIII-specific T cells. The immunoprotective effect of VWF requires a physical interaction with FVIII because the endocytosis of FVIII was significantly restored on hindering the formation of the VWF-FVIII complex. Interestingly, VWF had no direct inhibitory effect either on the ability of DCs to present antigenic peptides or on the activation potency of CD4+ T cells. We thus propose that VWF may reduce the immunogenicity of FVIII by preventing, upstream from the activation of immune effectors, the entry of FVIII in professional antigen-presenting cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-05-022756DOI Listing
January 2007

Class III effects of dofetilide and arrhythmias are modulated by [K+]o in an in vitro model of simulated-ischemia and reperfusion in guinea-pig ventricular myocardium.

Eur J Pharmacol 2006 Feb 14;532(3):279-89. Epub 2006 Feb 14.

Laboratoire d'Anesthésiologie Expérimentale et de Physiologie Cellulaire E3212, University of Caen, France.

To evaluate class III effects of clinically relevant concentrations of dofetilide (5 and 10 nmol/l) and the effects of extracellular potassium [K+]o modulation of arrhythmias onset at the level of the "border zone," we used a previously reported in vitro model whereby normoxic and ischemic/reperfused zones were studied. Guinea-pig right ventricular strips (driven at 1 Hz at 36.5+/-0.5 degrees C) were superfused with Tyrode's solution in oxygenated (HCO3- 25 mmol/l, K+ 4 mmol/l, pH 7.35+/-0.05, glucose 5.5 mmol/l: normal zone) and ischemia-simulating conditions (HCO3- 9 mmol/l, pH 6.90+/-0.05, no oxygen and no glucose: altered zone) having either [K+]o 4 (n=20), 8 (n=20) or 12 (n=20) mmol/l. Action potentials in normal and altered zones were recorded simultaneously during 30 min of simulated-ischemia and after 30 min of reperfusion with oxygenated Tyrode's solution. Each preparation served as control for successive phases of dofetilide studies (at 5 and 10 nmol/l) and action potential values were normalized to those present at the beginning of the experiment. During simulated-ischemia, the higher the [K+]o the worse were action potential changes, although full recovery was seen upon 30 min of reperfusion in all [K+]o groups. A high incidence of ischemia/reperfusion arrhythmias was observed in 4 and 12 mmol/l [K+]o groups as opposed to a low incidence of arrhythmias in 8 mmol/l [K+]o group. Dofetilide at 5 and 10 nmol/l with all [K+]o explored: (i) exhibited class III effects, (ii) was effective (or neutral) against ventricular arrhythmias during both simulated-ischemia and reperfusion, and (iii) did not globally increase the dispersion of action potential durations between normal and altered zones. Different arrhythmogenic mechanisms are involved in this model at different [K+]o with 8 mmol/l providing relative protection. Class III effects of dofetilide are evident in the normal zone when in the ischemic-like zone [K+]o ranges from 4 to 12 mmol/l. Thus dofetilide did not increase dispersion of repolarization and had either an antiarrhythmic or a neutral effect during ischemia/reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.12.083DOI Listing
February 2006