Publications by authors named "Yogesh Vashist"

98 Publications

COVID-19: Asymptomatic Carrier: An Autopsy Case Report.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):120-124. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Forensic Medicine, BPS Government Medical College for Women, Sonipat, Haryana, India.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus- 2 (CoV-2) outbreak in Wuhan, China has now spread to many countries across the world including the India with an increasing death toll. On March 11, 2020, the new clinical condition COVID-19 (Corona-Virus-Disease-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Owing to its infectivity, high risk of transmission, and limited handling of dead bodies, published data on the course of diseases has been limited. Most patients with COVID-19 have a mild disease course and remain as asymptomatic carrier; however, few patients of older age and with co-morbidites develop severe disease leading on to fatality. If due to COVID-19 infection death occurs, an autopsy is unlikely. However in unnatural deaths the legal duty impels the proper performance of a full autopsy, to find out the cause and manner of death. The detailed autopsy examination along with histo-pathological findings in the organs of asymptomatic patient of COVID-19 and its comparison with microscopic findings in Aluminium Phosphide poisoning are discussed below. This will summarizes the research status for COVID-19 deaths, which will be important for evaluation of cause of death, prevention, control and clinical strategies of COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_579_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061615PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide scan of long noncoding RNA single nucleotide polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer susceptibility.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jun 3;148(11):2779-2788. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is projected to become the second cancer-related cause of death by 2030. Identifying novel risk factors, including genetic risk loci, could be instrumental in risk stratification and implementation of prevention strategies. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in regulation of key biological processes, and the possible role of their genetic variability has been unexplored so far. Combining genome wide association studies and functional data, we investigated the genetic variability in all lncRNAs. We analyzed 9893 PDAC cases and 9969 controls and identified a genome-wide significant association between the rs7046076 SNP and risk of developing PDAC (P = 9.73 × 10 ). This SNP is located in the NONHSAG053086.2 (lnc-SMC2-1) gene and the risk allele is predicted to disrupt the binding of the lncRNA with the micro-RNA (miRNA) hsa-mir-1256 that regulates several genes involved in cell cycle, such as CDKN2B. The CDKN2B region is pleiotropic and its genetic variants have been associated with several human diseases, possibly though an imperfect interaction between lncRNA and miRNA. We present a novel PDAC risk locus, supported by a genome-wide statistical significance and a plausible biological mechanism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33475DOI Listing
June 2021

Germline variation in the insulin-like growth factor pathway and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Apr;42(3):369-377

Department of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Science, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, UK.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE), have uncovered significant genetic components of risk, but most heritability remains unexplained. Targeted assessment of genetic variation in biologically relevant pathways using novel analytical approaches may identify missed susceptibility signals. Central obesity, a key BE/EAC risk factor, is linked to systemic inflammation, altered hormonal signaling and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis dysfunction. Here, we assessed IGF-related genetic variation and risk of BE and EAC. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate pathway-level and gene-level associations with BE/EAC, using genotypes for 270 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 12 IGF-related genes, ascertained from 3295 BE cases, 2515 EAC cases and 3207 controls in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) GWAS. Gene-level signals were assessed using Multi-marker Analysis of GenoMic Annotation (MAGMA) and SNP summary statistics from BEACON and an expanded GWAS meta-analysis (6167 BE cases, 4112 EAC cases, 17 159 controls). Global variation in the IGF pathway was associated with risk of BE (P = 0.0015). Gene-level associations with BE were observed for GHR (growth hormone receptor; P = 0.00046, false discovery rate q = 0.0056) and IGF1R (IGF1 receptor; P = 0.0090, q = 0.0542). These gene-level signals remained significant at q < 0.1 when assessed using data from the largest available BE/EAC GWAS meta-analysis. No significant associations were observed for EAC. This study represents the most comprehensive evaluation to date of inherited genetic variation in the IGF pathway and BE/EAC risk, providing novel evidence that variation in two genes encoding cell-surface receptors, GHR and IGF1R, may influence risk of BE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052954PMC
April 2021

Sex-Specific Genetic Associations for Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Gastroenterology 2020 12 9;159(6):2065-2076.e1. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Institute for Genomic Statistics and Bioinformatics, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, Germany.

Background & Aims: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its premalignant lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), are characterized by a strong and yet unexplained male predominance (with a male-to-female ratio in EA incidence of up to 6:1). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 20 susceptibility loci for these conditions. However, potential sex differences in genetic associations with BE/EA remain largely unexplored.

Methods: Given strong genetic overlap, BE and EA cases were combined into a single case group for analysis. These were compared with population-based controls. We performed sex-specific GWAS of BE/EA in 3 separate studies and then used fixed-effects meta-analysis to provide summary estimates for >9 million variants for male and female individuals. A series of downstream analyses were conducted separately in male and female individuals to identify genes associated with BE/EA and the genetic correlations between BE/EA and other traits.

Results: We included 6758 male BE/EA cases, 7489 male controls, 1670 female BE/EA cases, and 6174 female controls. After Bonferroni correction, our meta-analysis of sex-specific GWAS identified 1 variant at chromosome 6q11.1 (rs112894788, KHDRBS2-MTRNR2L9, P = .039) that was statistically significantly associated with BE/EA risk in male individuals only, and 1 variant at chromosome 8p23.1 (rs13259457, PRSS55-RP1L1, P = 0.057) associated, at borderline significance, with BE/EA risk in female individuals only. We also observed strong genetic correlations of BE/EA with gastroesophageal reflux disease in male individuals and obesity in female individuals.

Conclusions: The identified novel sex-specific variants associated with BE/EA could improve the understanding of the genetic architecture of the disease and the reasons for the male predominance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.08.052DOI Listing
December 2020

Alignment of stroma fibers, microvessel density and immune cell populations determine overall survival in pancreatic cancer-An analysis of stromal morphology.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(7):e0234568. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to define histo-morphological stroma characteristics by analyzing stromal components, and to evaluate their impact on local and systemic tumor spread and overall survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods And Materials: Patients who underwent oncologic resections with curative intent for PDAC were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Histological specimens were re-evaluated for morphological stroma features as stromal fibers, fibroblast morphology, stroma matrix density, microvessel density and distribution of immune cell populations.

Results: A total of 108 patients were identified undergoing curative resection for PDAC in the period from 2011-2016. 33 (30.6%) patients showed parallel alignment of stroma fibers while 75 (69.4%) had randomly oriented stroma fibers. As compared to parallel alignment, random orientation of stroma fibers was associated with larger tumor size (median 3.62 cm vs. median 2.87cm, p = 0.037), nodal positive disease (76.0% vs. 54.5%, p = 0.040), higher margin positive resection rates (41.9% vs. 15.2%, p = 0.008) and a trend for higher rates of T3/4 tumors (33.3% vs. 15.2%, p = 0.064). In univariate analysis, patients with parallel alignment of stroma fibers had improved overall survival rates as compared to patients with random orientation of stroma fibers (42 months vs. 22 months, p = 0.046). The combination of random orientation of stroma fibers and low microvessel density was associated with impaired overall survival rates (16 months vs. 36 months, p = 0.019). A high CD4/CD3 ratio (16 months vs. 33 months, p = 0.040) and high stromal density of CD163 positive cells were associated with reduced overall survival (27 months vs. 34 months, p = 0.039). In multivariable analysis, the combination of random orientation of stroma fibers and low microvessel density (HR 1.592, 95%CI 1.098-2.733, p = 0.029), high CD4/CD3 ratio (HR 2.044, 95%CI 1.203-3.508, p = 0.028) and high density of CD163 positive cells (HR 1.596, 95%CI 1.367-1.968, p = 0.036) remained independent prognostic factors.

Conclusion: Alignment of stroma fibers and microvessel density are simple histomorphological features serving as surrogate markers of local tumor progression dissemination and surgical resectability and determine prognosis in PDAC patients. High CD4/CD3 ratio and CD163 positive cell counts determine poor prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234568PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7357746PMC
September 2020

Polygenic and multifactorial scores for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma risk prediction.

J Med Genet 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Most cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are asymptomatic in early stages, and the disease is typically diagnosed in advanced phases, resulting in very high mortality. Tools to identify individuals at high risk of developing PDAC would be useful to improve chances of early detection.

Objective: We generated a polygenic risk score (PRS) for PDAC risk prediction, combining the effect of known risk SNPs, and carried out an exploratory analysis of a multifactorial score.

Methods: We tested the associations of the individual known risk SNPs on up to 2851 PDAC cases and 4810 controls of European origin from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. Thirty risk SNPs were included in a PRS, which was computed on the subset of subjects that had 100% call rate, consisting of 839 cases and 2040 controls in PANDoRA and 6420 cases and 4889 controls from the previously published Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium genome-wide association studies. Additional exploratory multifactorial scores were constructed by complementing the genetic score with smoking and diabetes.

Results: The scores were associated with increased PDAC risk and reached high statistical significance (OR=2.70, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.68, p=2.54×10 highest vs lowest quintile of the weighted PRS, and OR=14.37, 95% CI 5.57 to 37.09, p=3.64×10, highest vs lowest quintile of the weighted multifactorial score).

Conclusion: We found a highly significant association between a PRS and PDAC risk, which explains more than individual SNPs and is a step forward in the direction of the construction of a tool for risk stratification in the population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106961DOI Listing
June 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies an early onset pancreatic cancer risk locus.

Int J Cancer 2020 10 1;147(8):2065-2074. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute for Translational Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Early onset pancreatic cancer (EOPC) is a rare disease with a very high mortality rate. Almost nothing is known on the genetic susceptibility of EOPC, therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants specific for patients diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) at younger ages. In the first phase, conducted on 821 cases with age of onset ≤60 years, of whom 198 with age of onset ≤50, and 3227 controls from PanScan I-II, we observed four SNPs (rs7155613, rs2328991, rs4891017 and rs12610094) showing an association with EOPC risk (P < 1 × 10 ). We replicated these SNPs in the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium and used additional in silico data from PanScan III and PanC4. Among these four variants rs2328991 was significant in an independent set of 855 cases with age of onset ≤60 years, of whom 265 with age of onset ≤50, and 4142 controls from the PANDoRA consortium while in the in silico data, we observed no statistically significant association. However, the resulting meta-analysis supported the association (P = 1.15 × 10 ). In conclusion, we propose a novel variant rs2328991 to be involved in EOPC risk. Even though it was not possible to find a mechanistic link between the variant and the function, the association is supported by a solid statistical significance obtained in the largest study on EOPC genetics present so far in the literature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33004DOI Listing
October 2020

Lymph Node and Bone Marrow Micrometastases Define the Prognosis of Patients with pN0 Esophageal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Mar 4;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Centre, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Pathological routine lymph node staging is postulated to be the main oncological prognosticator in esophageal cancer (EC). However, micrometastases in lymph nodes (LNMM) and bone marrow (BNMM) are discussed as the key events in tumor recurrence. We assessed the prognostic significance of the LNMM/BNMM status in initially pN0 staged patients with curative esophagectomy.

Methods: From 110 patients bone marrow aspirates and lymph node tissues were analyzed. For LNMM detection immunohistochemistry was performed using the anticytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3. To detect micrometastases in the bone marrow a staining with the pan-keratin antibody A45-B/B3 was done. Results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters as well as recurrence and death during follow-up time.

Results: Thirty-eight (34.5%) patients showed LNMM, whereas in 54 (49.1%) patients BNMM could be detected. LNMM and BNMM positive patients showed a correlation to an increased pT category ( = 0.017). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the LNMM/BNMM status and especially LNMM skipping the anatomical lymph node chain were significant independent predictors of overall survival and recurrence-free survival.

Conclusions: This study indicates that routine pathological staging of EC is insufficient. Micrometastases in lymph nodes and the bone marrow seem to be the main reason for tumor recurrence and they are a strong prognosticator following curative treatment of pN0 EC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139797PMC
March 2020

ALCAM contributes to brain metastasis formation in non-small-cell lung cancer through interaction with the vascular endothelium.

Neuro Oncol 2020 07;22(7):955-966

Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Brain metastasis (BM) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a very poor prognosis. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of cell adhesion molecules in tumor metastasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) in BM formation in NSCLC.

Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 143 NSCLC primary tumors and BM. A correlation between clinicopathological parameters and survival was developed. Biological properties of ALCAM were assessed in vitro by gene ablation using CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the NCI-H460 NSCLC cell line and in vivo by intracranial and intracardial cell injection of NCI-H460 cells in NMRI-Foxn1nu/nu mice.

Results: ALCAM expression was significantly upregulated in NSCLC brain metastasis (P = 0.023) with a de novo expression of ALCAM in 31.2% of BM. Moderate/strong ALCAM expression in both primary NSCLC and brain metastasis was associated with shortened survival. Functional analysis of an ALCAM knock-out (KO) cell line showed a significantly decreased cell adhesion capacity to human brain endothelial cells by 38% (P = 0.045). In vivo studies showed significantly lower tumor cell dissemination in mice injected with ALCAM-KO cells in both mouse models, and both the number and size of BM were significantly diminished in ALCAM depleted tumors.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that elevated levels of ALCAM expression promote BM formation in NSCLC through increased tumor cell dissemination and interaction with the brain endothelial cells. Therefore, ALCAM could be targeted to reduce the occurrence of BM.

Key Points: 1. ALCAM expression associates with poor prognosis and brain metastasis in NSCLC.2. ALCAM mediates interaction of NSCLC tumor cells with brain vascular endothelium.3. ALCAM might represent a novel preventive target to reduce the occurrence of BM in NSCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339886PMC
July 2020

Identification of loci of functional relevance to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: Cross-referencing of expression quantitative trait loci data from disease-relevant tissues with genetic association data.

PLoS One 2019 31;14(12):e0227072. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Institute of Pathology, Klinikum Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its precancerous condition Barrett's esophagus (BE) are multifactorial diseases with rising prevalence rates in Western populations. A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data identified 14 BE/EA risk loci located in non-coding genomic regions. Knowledge about the impact of non-coding variation on disease pathology is incomplete and needs further investigation. The aim of the present study was (i) to identify candidate genes of functional relevance to BE/EA at known risk loci and (ii) to find novel risk loci among the suggestively associated variants through the integration of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and genetic association data. eQTL data from two BE/EA-relevant tissues (esophageal mucosa and gastroesophageal junction) generated within the context of the GTEx project were cross-referenced with the GWAS meta-analysis data. Variants representing an eQTL in at least one of the two tissues were categorized into genome-wide significant loci (P < 5×10-8) and novel candidate loci (5×10-8 ≤ P ≤ 5×10-5). To follow up these novel candidate loci, a genetic association study was performed in a replication cohort comprising 1,993 cases and 967 controls followed by a combined analysis with the GWAS meta-analysis data. The cross-referencing of eQTL and genetic data yielded 2,180 variants that represented 25 loci. Among the previously reported genome-wide significant loci, 22 eQTLs were identified in esophageal mucosa and/or gastroesophageal junction tissue. The regulated genes, most of which have not been linked to BE/EA etiology so far, included C2orf43/LDAH, ZFP57, and SLC9A3. Among the novel candidate loci, replication was achieved for two variants (rs7754014, Pcombined = 3.16×10-7 and rs1540, Pcombined = 4.16×10-6) which represent eQTLs for CFDP1 and SLC22A3, respectively. In summary, the present approach identified candidate genes whose expression was regulated by risk variants in disease-relevant tissues. These findings may facilitate the elucidation of BE/EA pathophysiology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227072PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938334PMC
April 2020

Shared Genetic Etiology of Obesity-Related Traits and Barrett's Esophagus/Adenocarcinoma: Insights from Genome-Wide Association Studies.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 02 20;29(2):427-433. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Centre of Urban Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its precursor Barrett's esophagus (BE). Research suggests that individuals with high genetic risk to obesity have a higher BE/EA risk. To facilitate understanding of biological factors that lead to progression from BE to EA, the present study investigated the shared genetic background of BE/EA and obesity-related traits.

Methods: Cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was applied to summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses on BE/EA and on obesity traits. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a proxy for general obesity, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) for abdominal obesity. For single marker analyses, all genome-wide significant risk alleles for BMI and WHR were compared with summary statistics of the BE/EA meta-analyses.

Results: Sex-combined analyses revealed a significant genetic correlation between BMI and BE/EA ( = 0.13, = 2 × 10) and a of 0.12 between WHR and BE/EA ( = 1 × 10). Sex-specific analyses revealed a pronounced genetic correlation between BMI and EA in females ( = 0.17, = 1.2 × 10), and WHR and EA in males ( = 0.18, = 1.51 × 10). On the single marker level, significant enrichment of concordant effects was observed for BMI and BE/EA risk variants ( = 8.45 × 10) and WHR and BE/EA risk variants ( = 2 × 10).

Conclusions: Our study provides evidence for sex-specific genetic correlations that might reflect specific biological mecha-nisms. The data demonstrate that shared genetic factors are particularly relevant in progression from BE to EA.

Impact: Our study quantifies the genetic correlation between BE/EA and obesity. Further research is now warranted to elucidate these effects and to understand the shared pathophysiology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0374DOI Listing
February 2020

No Association Between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Barrett's Esophagus or Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 10 1;17(11):2227-2235.e1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Department of Genomics, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Background & Aims: Epidemiology studies of circulating concentrations of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have produced conflicting results. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to determine the associations between circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D and risks of EAC and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE).

Methods: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using a 2-sample (summary data) approach. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3755967, rs10741657, rs12785878, rs10745742, rs8018720, and rs17216707) associated with circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D were used as instrumental variables. We collected data from 6167 patients with BE, 4112 patients with EAC, and 17,159 individuals without BE or EAC (controls) participating in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium, as well as studies from Bonn, Germany, and Cambridge and Oxford, United Kingdom. Analyses were performed separately for BE and EAC.

Results: Overall, we found no evidence for an association between genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentration and risk of BE or EAC. The odds ratio per 20 nmol/L increase in genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentration for BE risk estimated by combining the individual SNP association using inverse variance weighting was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.77-1.92; P = .41). The odds ratio for EAC risk, estimated by combining the individual SNP association using inverse variance weighting, was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.39-1.19; P = .18).

Conclusions: In a Mendelian randomization study, we found that low genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with risk of BE or EAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.01.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6675666PMC
October 2019

Genetic determinants of telomere length and risk of pancreatic cancer: A PANDoRA study.

Int J Cancer 2019 03 12;144(6):1275-1283. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, S. Andrea Hospital, 'Sapienza' University, Rome, Italy.

Telomere deregulation is a hallmark of cancer. Telomere length measured in lymphocytes (LTL) has been shown to be a risk marker for several cancers. For pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) consensus is lacking whether risk is associated with long or short telomeres. Mendelian randomization approaches have shown that a score built from SNPs associated with LTL could be used as a robust risk marker. We explored this approach in a large scale study within the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. We analyzed 10 SNPs (ZNF676-rs409627, TERT-rs2736100, CTC1-rs3027234, DHX35-rs6028466, PXK-rs6772228, NAF1-rs7675998, ZNF208-rs8105767, OBFC1-rs9420907, ACYP2-rs11125529 and TERC-rs10936599) alone and combined in a LTL genetic score ("teloscore", which explains 2.2% of the telomere variability) in relation to PDAC risk in 2,374 cases and 4,326 controls. We identified several associations with PDAC risk, among which the strongest were with the TERT-rs2736100 SNP (OR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.35-1.76; p = 1.54 × 10 ) and a novel one with the NAF1-rs7675998 SNP (OR = 0.80; 95%CI 0.73-0.88; p = 1.87 × 10 , p = 3.27 × 10 ). The association of short LTL, measured by the teloscore, with PDAC risk reached genome-wide significance (p = 2.98 × 10 for highest vs. lowest quintile; p = 1.82 × 10 as a continuous variable). In conclusion, we present a novel genome-wide candidate SNP for PDAC risk (TERT-rs2736100), a completely new signal (NAF1-rs7675998) approaching genome-wide significance and we report a strong association between the teloscore and risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting that telomeres are a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31928DOI Listing
March 2019

Evidence for PTGER4, PSCA, and MBOAT7 as risk genes for gastric cancer on the genome and transcriptome level.

Cancer Med 2018 10 6;7(10):5057-5065. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Association of Medical Practices in Hematology and Internal Oncology, Troisdorf, Germany.

Genetic associations between variants on chromosome 5p13 and 8q24 and gastric cancer (GC) have been previously reported in the Asian population. We aimed to replicate these findings and to characterize the associations at the genome and transcriptome level. We performed a fine-mapping association study in 1926 GC patients and 2012 controls of European descent using high dense SNP marker sets on both chromosomal regions. Next, we performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses using gastric transcriptome data from 143 individuals focusing on the GC associated variants. On chromosome 5p13 the strongest association was observed at rs6872282 (P = 2.53 × 10 ) and on chromosome 8q24 at rs2585176 (P = 1.09 × 10 ). On chromosome 5p13 we found cis-eQTL effects with an upregulation of PTGER4 expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 9.27 × 10 ). On chromosome 8q24 we observed cis-eQTL effects with an upregulation of PSCA expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 2.17 × 10 ). In addition, we found trans-eQTL effects for the same variants on 8q24 with a downregulation of MBOAT7 expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 3.11 × 10 ). In summary, we confirmed and refined the previously reported GC associations at both chromosomal regions. Our data point to shared etiological factors between Asians and Europeans. Furthermore, our data imply an upregulated expression of PTGER4 and PSCA as well as a downregulated expression of MBOAT7 in gastric tissue as risk-conferring GC pathomechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198243PMC
October 2018

Kidney Transplantation after Extended Multivisceral Resection for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Case Rep Transplant 2018 26;2018:3757382. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Clinic for Surgery, University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Long-term survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is limited. Consequently, solid organ transplantation in PDAC patients is usually not considered. This is the first case report of kidney transplantation (KT) in a 57-year-old female patient after extended multivisceral resection for PDAC of the distal pancreas who had developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to toxic kidney damage by chemotherapy. 13,5 years after initial PDAC-operation and 3 years after KT the patient remains in a good general health condition with sufficient function of the kidney allograft without local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3757382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6083642PMC
July 2018

Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies five new susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.

Nat Commun 2018 02 8;9(1):556. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, 'Sapienza' University of Rome, 00185, Rome, Italy.

In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-02942-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805680PMC
February 2018

Tumour diameter is not reliable for management of non-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

Endocr Connect 2017 Nov;6(8):876-885

Institute of Liver StudiesKing's College Hospital, London, UK

Small non-functioning pancreatic NETs (pNETs) ≤2 cm can pose a management dilemma in terms of surveillance or resection. There is evidence to suggest that a surveillance approach can be considered since there are no significant radiological changes observed in lesions during long-term follow-up. However, other studies have suggested loco-regional spread can be present in ≤2 cm pNETs. The aim of this study was to characterise the prevalence of malignant features and identify any useful predictive variables in a surgically resected cohort of pNETs. 418 patients with pNETs were identified from 5 NET centres. Of these 227 were included for main analysis of tumour characteristics. Mean age of patients was 57 years, 47% were female. The median follow-up was 48.2 months. Malignant features were identified in 38% of ≤2 cm pNETs. ROC analysis showed that the current cut-off of 20 mm had a sensitivity of 84% for malignancy. The rate of malignant features is in keeping with other surgical series and challenges the belief that small pNETs have a low malignant potential. This study does not support a 20 mm size cut-off as being a solitary safe parameter to exclude malignancy in pNETs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-17-0293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5704448PMC
November 2017

Do pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis share the same genetic risk factors? A PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium investigation.

Int J Cancer 2018 01 16;142(2):290-296. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a very aggressive tumor with a five-year survival of less than 6%. Chronic pancreatitis (CP), an inflammatory process in of the pancreas, is a strong risk factor for PDAC. Several genetic polymorphisms have been discovered as susceptibility loci for both CP and PDAC. Since CP and PDAC share a consistent number of epidemiologic risk factors, the aim of this study was to investigate whether specific CP risk loci also contribute to PDAC susceptibility. We selected five common SNPs (rs11988997, rs379742, rs10273639, rs2995271 and rs12688220) that were identified as susceptibility markers for CP and analyzed them in 2,914 PDAC cases, 356 CP cases and 5,596 controls retrospectively collected in the context of the international PANDoRA consortium. We found a weak association between the minor allele of the PRSS1-PRSS2-rs10273639 and an increased risk of developing PDAC (OR  = 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, p = 0.023). Additionally all the SNPs confirmed statistically significant associations with risk of developing CP, the strongest being PRSS1-PRSS2-rs10273639 (OR  = 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.67, p = 1.10 × 10 ) and MORC4-rs 12837024 (OR  = 2.07 (1.55-2.77, p  = 0.7 × 10 ). Taken together, the results from our study do not support variants rs11988997, rs379742, rs10273639, rs2995271 and rs12688220 as strong predictors of PDAC risk, but further support the role of these SNPs in CP susceptibility. Our study suggests that CP and PDAC probably do not share genetic susceptibility, at least in terms of high frequency variants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31047DOI Listing
January 2018

Hamburg-Glasgow classification: preoperative staging by combination of disseminated tumour load and systemic inflammation in oesophageal carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2017 Aug 13;117(5):612-618. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Centre, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The aim of this study was to establish a new preoperative staging classification and evaluate its comparability to the post-operative tumour stage, lymph node invasion and metastasis (TNM) classification. To date, adequate, preoperative staging in patients with oesophageal carcinoma (EC) is still missing but urgently needed. Systemic inflammation and disseminated tumour load have a pivotal role in recurrence and oncological outcome. To improve the clinical staging, we merged the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and disseminated tumour cells (DTC) into a new sufficient preoperative staging classification, the Hamburg-Glasgow classification (HGC).

Methods: In this prospective, single-centre study, 326 patients following curative oesophagectomy were included. From all patients preoperative bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac crest to detect DTCs by immunostaining with the pan-keratin antibody A45-B/B3. HGC was subdefined into four prognostic groups on the basis of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin and DTC. The three prognostic groups of the GPS were supplemented by DTC detection status. Results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome.

Results: Increasing HGC significantly correlated with lymph node invasion (P=0.022), post-operative pathohistological TNM staging (P=0.001) and tumour recurrence (P=0.001). The four HGC prognostic groups displayed a gradual decrease in overall as well as disease-free survival (P<0.001, each). Hamburg-Glasgow classification was a strong, significant independent predictor of overall survival and disease-free survival (P<0.001, both) in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Hamburg-Glasgow classification seems to be a promising preoperative additive staging classification for accurate and simple outcome stratification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5572176PMC
August 2017

Management and follow-up of gallbladder polyps : Joint guidelines between the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR), European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and other Interventional Techniques (EAES), International Society of Digestive Surgery - European Federation (EFISDS) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE).

Eur Radiol 2017 Sep 9;27(9):3856-3866. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.

Objectives: The management of incidentally detected gallbladder polyps on radiological examinations is contentious. The incidental radiological finding of a gallbladder polyp can therefore be problematic for the radiologist and the clinician who referred the patient for the radiological examination. To address this a joint guideline was created by the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR), European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and other Interventional Techniques (EAES), International Society of Digestive Surgery - European Federation (EFISDS) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE).

Methods: A targeted literature search was performed and consensus guidelines were created using a series of Delphi questionnaires and a seven-point Likert scale.

Results: A total of three Delphi rounds were performed. Consensus regarding which patients should have cholecystectomy, which patients should have ultrasound follow-up and the nature and duration of that follow-up was established. The full recommendations as well as a summary algorithm are provided.

Conclusions: These expert consensus recommendations can be used as guidance when a gallbladder polyp is encountered in clinical practice.

Key Points: • Management of gallbladder polyps is contentious • Cholecystectomy is recommended for gallbladder polyps >10 mm • Management of polyps <10 mm depends on patient and polyp characteristics • Further research is required to determine optimal management of gallbladder polyps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-4742-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5544788PMC
September 2017

HSP90 is a promising target in gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil resistant pancreatic cancer.

Apoptosis 2017 Mar;22(3):369-380

Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Chemotherapy (CT) options in pancreatic cancer (PC) are limited to gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Several identified molecular targets in PC represent client proteins of HSP90. HSP90 is a promising target since it interferes with many oncogenic signaling pathways simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different HSP90 inhibitors in gemcitabine and 5-FU resistant PC. PC cell lines 5061, 5072 and 5156 were isolated and brought in to culture from patients being operated at our institution. L3.6pl cell line served as a control. Anti-proliferative efficacy of three different HSP90 inhibitors (17-AAG, 17-DMAG and 17-AEPGA) was evaluated by the MTT assay. Alterations in signaling pathway effectors and apoptosis upon HSP90 inhibition were determined by western blot analysis and annexin V/PI staining. The cell lines 5061, 5072 and 5156 were resistant to gemcitabine and 5-FU. In contrast 17-AAG and the water-soluble derivates 17-DMAG and 17-AEPGA displayed high anti-proliferative activity in all tested cell lines. The calculated IC was below 1 µM. Highly significant down regulation of epidermal-growth-factor-receptor, insulin-like-growth-factor-receptor-1, AKT and MAPK reflected the intracellular molecular signaling-network disruption. Furthermore, besides HSP70 also HSP27 was upregulated in all cell lines. Apoptosis occurred early under HSP90 inhibition and was determined by annexin V/PI staining and CASPASE-3 and PARP assay. In contrast, gemcitabine treated cells did not show any apoptosis. HSP90 inhibition disrupts multiple signaling cascades in gemcitabine and 5-FU resistant PC simultaneously and promotes cancer cell apoptosis. Watersoluble 17-DMAG is equally effective as 17-AAG. HSP27, besides HSP70, may represent an effective response marker of successful HSP90 inhibition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-016-1332-4DOI Listing
March 2017

Allogenic Blood Transfusion is Associated with Poor Perioperative and Long-Term Outcome in Esophageal Cancer.

World J Surg 2017 Jan;41(1):208-215

Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Esophageal resection for cancer (EC) is still associated with considerable mortality and morbidity rates. Allogenic blood transfusion (aBT) is associated with poor short-term and long-term outcome in surgical oncology. We aimed to evaluate the effect of aBT in a homogeneous population of EC patients undergoing esophagectomy without perioperative treatment.

Methods: We analyzed 565 esophagectomies performed due to EC. Allogenic blood transfusion was correlated to clinicopathological parameters, perioperative mortality and morbidity as well as the long-term outcome. Results are presented as adjusted odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI).

Results: Patients receiving aBT (aBT(+)) had no higher tumor stages or higher rates of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.65 and 0.17, respectively) compared to patients without aBT (aBT(-)). Allogenic blood transfusion was strongly associated with perioperative morbidity (OR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.5, P = 0.02) and mortality (OR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.0-8.6, P = 0.04). Tumor recurrence rate was significantly higher in aBT(+) patients (P = 0.001). The disease-free and overall survival were significantly longer in aBT(-) compared to aBT(+) patients (P = 0.016 and <0.001, respectively). Patients receiving aBT had almost doubled risk for tumor recurrence (HR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2-2.5, P = 0.001) and death (HR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.5-3.2, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Allogenic blood transfusion has a significant impact on the natural course of EC after complete resection. The poor short-term and long-term outcome warrants further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms induced by allogenic blood transfusion in cancer patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-016-3730-8DOI Listing
January 2017

Prognostic Significant or Not? The Positive Circumferential Resection Margin in Esophageal Cancer: Impact on Local Recurrence and Overall Survival in Patients Without Neoadjuvant Treatment.

Ann Surg 2017 12;266(6):988-994

Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) in esophageal cancer on survival and recurrence in patients without pretreatment.

Background: Whereas the infiltration of the proximal or distal resection margin is associated with poor survival and higher recurrence, studies looking at the role of the circumferential resection margin on survival and local recurrence after esophagectomy are conflicting.

Methods: Influence of CRM infiltration according to the College of American Pathologists (CAP) and Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) on long-term survival of 180 patients with resected pT3 tumors and without neoadjuvant therapy was analyzed.

Results: A positive CRM was found in 76 (42.4%) patients according to RCP and 44 (24.4%) patients according to CAP. The CRM status had neither according to CAP nor according to RCP a significant impact on overall survival (P = 0.317 and 0.655, respectively), local recurrence (P = 0.716 and 0.900, respectively), or distant tumor relapse (P = 0.303 and 0.471, respectively).Lymphatic tumor spread found in 129 (71.7%) patients was an independent prognosticator (P = 0.002). In 137 (76.1%) patients who had a transthoracic esophagectomy a CRM infiltration was significantly lower according to CAP compared with 43 (23.9%) patients who had a transhiatal esophagectomy (P = 0.026).

Conclusions: CRM was found to have no impact on survival and recurrence in esophageal cancer. Therefore, the possible impact of neoadjuvant pretreatment in locally advanced tumors should be considered with caution in terms of an improved resectability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000001995DOI Listing
December 2017

Three new pancreatic cancer susceptibility signals identified on chromosomes 1q32.1, 5p15.33 and 8q24.21.

Oncotarget 2016 Oct;7(41):66328-66343

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common pancreatic cancer susceptibility variants at 13 chromosomal loci in individuals of European descent. To identify new susceptibility variants, we performed imputation based on 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project data and association analysis using 5,107 case and 8,845 control subjects from 27 cohort and case-control studies that participated in the PanScan I-III GWAS. This analysis, in combination with a two-staged replication in an additional 6,076 case and 7,555 control subjects from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control (PanC4) Consortia uncovered 3 new pancreatic cancer risk signals marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2816938 at chromosome 1q32.1 (per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 4.88x10 -15), rs10094872 at 8q24.21 (OR = 1.15, P = 3.22x10 -9) and rs35226131 at 5p15.33 (OR = 0.71, P = 1.70x10 -8). These SNPs represent independent risk variants at previously identified pancreatic cancer risk loci on chr1q32.1 ( NR5A2), chr8q24.21 ( MYC) and chr5p15.33 ( CLPTM1L- TERT) as per analyses conditioned on previously reported susceptibility variants. We assessed expression of candidate genes at the three risk loci in histologically normal ( n = 10) and tumor ( n = 8) derived pancreatic tissue samples and observed a marked reduction of NR5A2 expression (chr1q32.1) in the tumors (fold change -7.6, P = 5.7x10 -8). This finding was validated in a second set of paired ( n = 20) histologically normal and tumor derived pancreatic tissue samples (average fold change for three NR5A2 isoforms -31.3 to -95.7, P = 7.5x10 -4-2.0x10 -3). Our study has identified new susceptibility variants independently conferring pancreatic cancer risk that merit functional follow-up to identify target genes and explain the underlying biology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340084PMC
October 2016

Genome-wide association studies in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's oesophagus: a large-scale meta-analysis.

Lancet Oncol 2016 Oct 12;17(10):1363-1373. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of General, Visceral and Thorax Surgery, RoMed Klinikum Rosenheim, Rosenheim, Germany.

Background: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma represents one of the fastest rising cancers in high-income countries. Barrett's oesophagus is the premalignant precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. However, only a few patients with Barrett's oesophagus develop adenocarcinoma, which complicates clinical management in the absence of valid predictors. Within an international consortium investigating the genetics of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, we aimed to identify novel genetic risk variants for the development of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Methods: We did a meta-analysis of all genome-wide association studies of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma available in PubMed up to Feb 29, 2016; all patients were of European ancestry and disease was confirmed histopathologically. All participants were from four separate studies within Europe, North America, and Australia and were genotyped on high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Meta-analysis was done with a fixed-effects inverse variance-weighting approach and with a standard genome-wide significance threshold (p<5 × 10). We also did an association analysis after reweighting of loci with an approach that investigates annotation enrichment among genome-wide significant loci. Furthermore, the entire dataset was analysed with bioinformatics approaches-including functional annotation databases and gene-based and pathway-based methods-to identify pathophysiologically relevant cellular mechanisms.

Findings: Our sample comprised 6167 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and 4112 individuals with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, in addition to 17 159 representative controls from four genome-wide association studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. We identified eight new risk loci associated with either Barrett's oesophagus or oesophageal adenocarcinoma, within or near the genes CFTR (rs17451754; p=4·8 × 10), MSRA (rs17749155; p=5·2 × 10), LINC00208 and BLK (rs10108511; p=2·1 × 10), KHDRBS2 (rs62423175; p=3·0 × 10), TPPP and CEP72 (rs9918259; p=3·2 × 10), TMOD1 (rs7852462; p=1·5 × 10), SATB2 (rs139606545; p=2·0 × 10), and HTR3C and ABCC5 (rs9823696; p=1·6 × 10). The locus identified near HTR3C and ABCC5 (rs9823696) was associated specifically with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (p=1·6 × 10) and was independent of Barrett's oesophagus development (p=0·45). A ninth novel risk locus was identified within the gene LPA (rs12207195; posterior probability 0·925) after reweighting with significantly enriched annotations. The strongest disease pathways identified (p<10) belonged to muscle cell differentiation and to mesenchyme development and differentiation.

Interpretation: Our meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies doubled the number of known risk loci for Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma and revealed new insights into causes of these diseases. Furthermore, the specific association between oesophageal adenocarcinoma and the locus near HTR3C and ABCC5 might constitute a novel genetic marker for prediction of the transition from Barrett's oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Fine-mapping and functional studies of new risk loci could lead to identification of key molecules in the development of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which might encourage development of advanced prevention and intervention strategies.

Funding: US National Cancer Institute, US National Institutes of Health, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, Swedish Cancer Society, Medical Research Council UK, Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Else Kröner Fresenius Stiftung, Wellcome Trust, Cancer Research UK, AstraZeneca UK, University Hospitals of Leicester, University of Oxford, Australian Research Council.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5052458PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30240-6DOI Listing
October 2016

In vitro study comparing the efficacy of the water-soluble HSP90 inhibitors, 17-AEPGA and 17-DMAG, with that of the non‑water-soluble HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, in breast cancer cell lines.

Int J Mol Med 2016 Oct 3;38(4):1296-302. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Heat shock protein (HSP)90 has emerged as an important target in cancer therapeutics. Diverse HSP90 inhibitors are under evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the growth inhibitory effects of the newly developed water-soluble HSP90 inhibitors, 17-[2-(Pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl]amino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AEPGA) and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), compared to that of the non-water-soluble HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). The anti-proliferative effects of the 3 drugs on the human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, SKBR-3 and MDA-MB-231, were examined in vitro. In addition, tumor progression factors, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR1) and insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF1R), as well as apoptotic markers were analysed. We found a time- and dose-dependent effect in all the tested cell lines. The effects of 17-AEPGA and 17-DMAG were equal or superior to those of 17-AAG. The 50% growth inhibition concentration was <2 µM for the water-soluble compounds following 72 h of exposure. The significant inhibition of HER2, EGFR1 and IGF1R protein expression was already evident at the concentration of 1 µM. Apoptosis was examined by caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) assay at the concentration of 1 µM of the inhibitors. HSP70 was upregulated, but HSP27 expression was not affected. Our data indicate that 17-AEPGA and 17-DMAG are highly active in breast cancer cell lines and may help to overcome the delivery issues associated with the use of 17-AAG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2016.2696DOI Listing
October 2016

Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B region affect pancreatic cancer risk.

Oncotarget 2016 08;7(35):57011-57020

Division of Gastroenterology and Research Laboratory, IRCCS Scientific Institute and Regional General Hospital "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza", San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

The CDKN2A (p16) gene plays a key role in pancreatic cancer etiology. It is one of the most commonly somatically mutated genes in pancreatic cancer, rare germline mutations have been found to be associated with increased risk of developing familiar pancreatic cancer and CDKN2A promoter hyper-methylation has been suggested to play a critical role both in pancreatic cancer onset and prognosis. In addition several unrelated SNPs in the 9p21.3 region, that includes the CDNK2A, CDNK2B and the CDNK2B-AS1 genes, are associated with the development of cancer in various organs. However, association between the common genetic variability in this region and pancreatic cancer risk is not clearly understood. We sought to fill this gap in a case-control study genotyping 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,857 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and 6,111 controls in the context of the Pancreatic Disease Research (PANDoRA) consortium. We found that the A allele of the rs3217992 SNP was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (ORhet=1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.27, p=0.026, ORhom=1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.51, p=0.00049). This pleiotropic variant is reported to be a mir-SNP that, by changing the binding site of one or more miRNAs, could influence the normal cell cycle progression and in turn increase PDAC risk. In conclusion, we observed a novel association in a pleiotropic region that has been found to be of key relevance in the susceptibility to various types of cancer and diabetes suggesting that the CDKN2A/B locus could represent a genetic link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302969PMC
August 2016

How we do it: double in situ split for staged mesohepatectomy in patients with advanced gall bladder cancer and marginal future liver remnant.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2016 Jun 30;401(4):565-71. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has increased the rate of liver resections in patients with marginal future liver remnant. We here describe a modified ALPPS procedure with splitting-off the central liver segments for staged mesohepatectomy in patients with advanced gall bladder cancer.

Methods: A double in situ split for ALPPS (DALPPS) is performed with splitting-off the central liver segments (segments 1, 4, 5, and 8). This induces a rapid hypertrophy of the left lateral (segments 2/3) and right posterior sectors (segments 6/7). An intrahepatic right posterior approach during splitting-off the right posterior sector is introduced as a part of this new procedure. This approach facilitates the dissection and ligation of the right anterior branch of the portal vein (segments 5 and 8) while the liver hilum remains untouched during the first step of surgery.

Results: Two patients with advanced gall bladder cancer were treated with the DALPPS procedure till date. After a short interval (7-9 days), a rapid hypertrophy of the left lateral and right posterior sector was observed (hypertrophy up to 72.6 and 54.6 %, respectively). A staged mesohepatectomy including caudate lobectomy and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct was then performed safely. There was no surgical-technical morbidity. No signs of posthepatectomy liver failure according to the 50-50 criteria were seen. However, one patient died from severe ARDS attributed to the preoperative chemotherapy. Nevertheless, this complication is deemed to be surgery related.

Conclusions: The DALPPS procedure is a new surgical technique for staged mesohepatectomy for patients with small future liver remnant in size or in function. However, appropriate patient selection is mandatory to avoid morbidity and mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-016-1410-7DOI Listing
June 2016

Glasgow Prognostic Score may be a prognostic index for overall and perioperative survival in gastric cancer without perioperative treatment.

Surgery 2016 06 19;159(6):1548-1556. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

Department of General, Visceral, and Thoracic Surgery at the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Systemic inflammation is a key factor in tumor growth. C-reactive protein and albumin are parameters of systemic inflammation from the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS). The purpose was to evaluate the prognostic role of GPS in a homogeneous population of gastric cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment only.

Methods: Patients underwent operations between 2009 and 2014. Those who had received perioperative treatment or had other malignancies or inflammatory diseases were excluded. Eighty-eight patients met all inclusion criteria (age >18 years, documented preoperative serum levels of albumin and C-reactive protein, histologically proven gastric cancer, curative operation, including lymphadenectomy). C-reactive protein and albumin levels were retrieved from our prospective database. GPS was correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome.

Results: Increasing GPS was linked to aggressive tumor biology in terms of tumor size (GPS 0: 51.2% T1 and T2, 48.8% T3 and T4; GPS 1: 23.8% T1 and T2, 76.2% T3 and T4; GPS 2: 23.1% T1 and T2, 76.9% T3 and T4; P = .026), synchronous distant metastases (GPS 0: 47.1% M0, 0.0% M1; GPS 1: 25.9% M0, 0.0% M1; GPS 2: 27.1% M0, 100.0% M1; P = .030), venous vessel invasion (GPS 0: 91.2% V0, 8.8% V1; GPS 1: 66.7% V0, 33.3% V1; GPS 2: 55.0% V0, 45.0% V1; P = .008), resection margin status (GPS 0: 97.4% R0, 2.6% R1; GPS 1: 90.0% R0, 10.0% R1; GPS 2: 77.3% R0, 22.7% R1; P = .044), reduced overall survival (GPS 0: median 25.2 months [range 0.4-106.0]; GPS 1: 15.3 [0.2-59.5]; GPS 2: 5.8 [0.1-55.3]; P = .016) with median overall survival in the whole cohort being 16.2 months (range 0.1-106.0) and perioperative mortality (GPS 0: 0.0% of perioperative deaths, GPS 1: 20.0%, GPS 2: 80.0%; P = .036). Furthermore, GPS was identified as an independent prognosticator of overall survival (P = .033). A gradual decrease in survival between GPS subgroups was evident.

Conclusion: GPS represents an independent prognostic factor for long-term outcome in resected gastric cancer patients without perioperative treatment and is strongly associated with perioperative mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2016.01.018DOI Listing
June 2016

The PER (Preoperative Esophagectomy Risk) Score: A Simple Risk Score to Predict Short-Term and Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Surgically Treated Esophageal Cancer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Feb;95(7):e2724

From the Departments of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery (MR, JM, FGU, MN, TG, MB, JRI, YKV) and Department of Intensive Care (SK), University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, University of Hamburg, Hamburg; and Departments of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery (UW), University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Esophageal resection in patients with esophageal cancer (EC) is still associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. We aimed to develop a simple preoperative risk score for the prediction of short-term and long-term outcomes for patients with EC treated by esophageal resection. In total, 498 patients suffering from esophageal carcinoma, who underwent esophageal resection, were included in this retrospective cohort study. Three preoperative esophagectomy risk (PER) groups were defined based on preoperative functional evaluation of different organ systems by validated tools (revised cardiac risk index, model for end-stage liver disease score, and pulmonary function test). Clinicopathological parameters, morbidity, and mortality as well as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were correlated to the PER score. The PER score significantly predicted the short-term outcome of patients with EC who underwent esophageal resection. PER 2 and PER 3 patients had at least double the risk of morbidity and mortality compared to PER 1 patients. Furthermore, a higher PER score was associated with shorter DFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P < 0.001). The PER score was identified as an independent predictor of tumor recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 2.1; P < 0.001) and OS (HR 2.2; P < 0.001). The PER score allows preoperative objective allocation of patients with EC into different risk categories for morbidity, mortality, and long-term outcomes. Thus, multicenter studies are needed for independent validation of the PER score.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998613PMC
February 2016