Publications by authors named "Ylva Strandberg Lutzow"

3 Publications

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Bovine proteins containing poly-glutamine repeats are often polymorphic and enriched for components of transcriptional regulatory complexes.

BMC Genomics 2010 Nov 23;11:654. Epub 2010 Nov 23.

CSIRO Livestock Industries, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia.

Background: About forty human diseases are caused by repeat instability mutations. A distinct subset of these diseases is the result of extreme expansions of polymorphic trinucleotide repeats; typically CAG repeats encoding poly-glutamine (poly-Q) tracts in proteins. Polymorphic repeat length variation is also apparent in human poly-Q encoding genes from normal individuals. As these coding sequence repeats are subject to selection in mammals, it has been suggested that normal variations in some of these typically highly conserved genes are implicated in morphological differences between species and phenotypic variations within species. At present, poly-Q encoding genes in non-human mammalian species are poorly documented, as are their functions and propensities for polymorphic variation.

Results: The current investigation identified 178 bovine poly-Q encoding genes (Q ≥ 5) and within this group, 26 genes with orthologs in both human and mouse that did not contain poly-Q repeats. The bovine poly-Q encoding genes typically had ubiquitous expression patterns although there was bias towards expression in epithelia, brain and testes. They were also characterised by unusually large sizes. Analysis of gene ontology terms revealed that the encoded proteins were strongly enriched for functions associated with transcriptional regulation and many contributed to physical interaction networks in the nucleus where they presumably act cooperatively in transcriptional regulatory complexes. In addition, the coding sequence CAG repeats in some bovine genes impacted mRNA splicing thereby generating unusual transcriptional diversity, which in at least one instance was tissue-specific. The poly-Q encoding genes were prioritised using multiple criteria for their likelihood of being polymorphic and then the highest ranking group was experimentally tested for polymorphic variation within a cattle diversity panel. Extensive and meiotically stable variation was identified.

Conclusions: Transcriptional diversity can potentially be generated in poly-Q encoding genes by the impact of CAG repeat tracts on mRNA alternative splicing. This effect, combined with the physical interactions of the encoded proteins in large transcriptional regulatory complexes suggests that polymorphic variations of proteins in these complexes have strong potential to affect phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-11-654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3014979PMC
November 2010

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):522-8

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1169588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943200PMC
April 2009

15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 induces chemokine expression, oxidative stress and microfilament reorganization in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

J Dairy Res 2008 Feb 29;75(1):55-63. Epub 2008 Jan 29.

Cooperative Research Centre for Innovative Dairy Products, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

The roles of the pro-adipogenic ligands of the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARG) in regulating innate immune responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. The analyses revealed that 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) enhanced the expression of Interleukin 8 (IL-8) and Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6) in these cells in a dose-dependent manner. 15d-PGJ2 also induced the expression of transcripts encoding proteins involved in oxidative stress, including Ferritin heavy chain and Superoxide dismutase 1, as well as substantial microfilament reorganization. In contrast, synthetic PPARG agonists displayed a different and much smaller range of effects on the cells, causing down-regulation of Interleukin 1-beta, Interleukin 6 and IL-8 and increased expression of Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). In an independent analysis, the cells were pre-incubated with PPARG agonists followed by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. This study revealed that troglitazone increased the responsiveness of the cells to lipopolysaccharide resulting in up-regulation of Interleukin 1-beta, TNFalpha, IL-8, CCL2 and CXCL6 while 15d-PGJ2 caused down-regulation of TNFalpha, CCL2 and CXCL6. These findings are relevant to understanding the anti-inflammatory potential of the PPARG ligands and underline different mechanisms of action of 15d-PGJ2 and troglitazone in bMEC. Furthermore, the present results demonstrate that the generation of pro-inflammatory mediators can be modulated by currently available therapeutic agents and may therefore be of value in the treatment of mastitis in ruminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029907003056DOI Listing
February 2008
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