Publications by authors named "Yiwei Liu"

241 Publications

Intermolecular Hydrogen-Bond-Assisted Solid-State Dual-Emission Molecules with Mechanical Force-Induced Enhanced Emission.

J Org Chem 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Shenzhen Institute of Aggregate Science and Technology, School of Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518172, China.

Hydrogen bonds not only play a crucial role in the life sciences but also endow molecules with fantastic physical and chemical properties, which help in the realization of their high-tech applications. This work presents an efficient strategy for achieving highly efficient solid-state dual-emission blue emitters with mechanical force-induced enhanced emission properties via intermolecular hydrogen bonds via novel pyrene-based intermediates, namely, 1,3,6,8-tetrabromo-2,7-dihydroxypyrene () and 1,3,6,8-tetrabromo-2-hydroxypyrene (), prepared via hydroxylation and bromination of pyrene in high yields. Moreover, further use of a classical Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction affords new pyrene-based luminescent materials , which display high thermal stability (in range of 336-447 °C), blue emission (<463 nm), and high quantum yields in solution. Interestingly, with the monosubstituted hydroxyl (OH) or methoxy (OMe) group located at position 2 of pyrene, compounds and display exciting dual emission with mechanical force-induced enhanced emission properties, due to the presence of several hydrogen-bond interactions. Moreover, this series of compounds exhibits numerous advantages, for example, deeper blue emission with a narrower full width at half-maximum, a stronger steric effect, and higher hydrophilicity. Thus, these novel bromopyrene intermediates and related pyrene-based luminescent materials will pave the way for further exploration of novel organic solid-state luminescent materials for potential application in organic electronics, bioimaging, chemosensors, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c00617DOI Listing
June 2022

The Effects of Qinghao-Kushen and Its Active Compounds on the Biological Characteristics of Liver Cancer Cells.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 10;2022:8763510. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Pathobiology and Immunology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Background And Aims: (Qinghao) and (Kushen) are traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). They are widely used in disease therapy, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, their key compounds and targets for HCC treatment are unclear. This article mainly analyzed the vital active compounds and the mechanism of Qinghao-Kushen acting on HCC.

Methods: First, we chose a traditional Chinese medicine, which has an excellent clinical effect on HCC by network meta-analysis. Then, we composed the Qinghao-Kushen herb pair and prepared the medicated serum. The active compounds of Qinghao-Kushen were verified by the LC-MS method. Next, we detected key targets from PubChem, SymMap, SwissTargetPrediction, DisGeNET, and GeneCards databases. Subsequently, the mechanism of Qinghao-Kushen was predicted by network pharmacology strategy and primarily examined in HuH-7 cells, HepG2 cells, and HepG2215 cells.

Results: The effect of the Qinghao-Kushen combination was significantly better than that of single Qinghao or single Kushen in HepG2 and HuH-7 cells. Qinghao-Kushen increased the expression of activated caspase-3 protein than Qinghao or Kushen alone in HepG2 and HepG2215 cells. Network analyses and the LC-MS method revealed that the pivotal compounds of Qinghao-Kushen were matrine and scopoletin. GSK-3 was one of the critical molecules related to Qinghao-Kushen. We confirmed that Qinghao-Kushen and matrine-scopoletin decreased the expression of GSK-3 in HepG2 cells while increased GSK-3 expression in HepG2215 cells.

Conclusions: This work not only illustrated that the practical components of Qinghao-Kushen on HCC were matrine and scopoletin but shed light on the inhibitory of Qinghao-Kushen and matrine-scopoletin on liver cancer cells. Moreover, Qinghao-Kushen and matrine-scopoletin had a synergistic effect over the drug alone in HuH-7, HepG2, or HepG2215 cells. GSK-3 may be a potential target for HCC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8763510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9205744PMC
June 2022

The Higher the Children's Achievements, the Better the Elderly Health? Evidence From China.

Front Public Health 2022 26;10:871266. Epub 2022 May 26.

School of Government, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing, China.

Health, an important indicator for measuring the elderly's life and wellbeing, is an important part of positive and healthy aging. Children's achievements are closely linked to their parents' health. However, existing literature does not cover how children's achievements impact the health of their elderly parents. Data were derived from the 2014 Chinese Longitudinal Aging Social Survey; this study includes 6,793 elderly people ages 60 and older as samples. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the correlation between children's achievements and their elderly parents' health statuses in China. The results show that the higher the children's income and education, the better their health of their elderly parents. Living patterns, children' financial support to their parents, and social capital play a mediating role in the relationship between children and their elderly parents. These findings provide further insight into potential factors associated with the children's achievements and elderly health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.871266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9204310PMC
June 2022

The evolutionary trends of health inequality among elderly Chinese people and influencing factors of these trends from 2005 to 2017.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

School of Government, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing, China.

Reducing health inequality and ensuring national health equity have become issues of great concern to all countries in the world. This paper based on the ordered Probit model and concentrated index decomposition method, analysed the influencing factors and evolution trend of health inequality among the elderly with high age in China from 2005 to 2017. The study found that in 2005-2017, the self-rated health distribution of the elderly with high age in China showed an obvious inverted "U" shape, with the proportion of general and relatively healthy being the largest, while the proportion of unhealthy and very healthy was lower. Lifestyle, family income, and age were the main important factors to expand health inequality. Therefore, encouraging the elderly with high age to develop good living habits and narrowing the income gap of the elderly are conducive to solving the health inequality of the elderly with high age and achieving the goals of active ageing and healthy ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3529DOI Listing
June 2022

A role for the calcium-sensing receptor in the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS-treated human dental pulp cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 56 Lingyuan Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510055, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in the expression of inflammatory mediators of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). The expression profile of CaSR in LPS-simulated hDPCs was detected using immunofluorescence, real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and Western blot analyses. Then, its regulatory effects on the expression of specific inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 were determined by RT-qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). LPS significantly downregulated the gene expression of CaSR, but upregulated its protein expression level in hDPCs. Treatments by CaSR agonist R568 or its antagonist Calhex231, and their combinations with protein kinase B (AKT) inhibitor LY294002 showed obvious effects on the expression of selected inflammatory mediators in a time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, an opposite direction was found between the action of R568 and Calhex231, as well as the expression of the pro- (IL-1β, IL-6, COX2-derived PGE, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) mediators. The results provide the first evidence that CaSR-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT-signaling pathway is involved in the release of inflammatory mediators in LPS-treated hDPCs, suggesting that the activation or blockade of CaSR may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulp inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-022-04486-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Does L-asparaginase dose intensity correlate with acute pancreatitis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients?

Pediatr Res 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-022-02146-0DOI Listing
June 2022

Multistage Combination Classifier Augmented Model for Protein Secondary Structure Prediction.

Front Genet 2022 23;13:769828. Epub 2022 May 23.

College of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.

In the field of bioinformatics, understanding protein secondary structure is very important for exploring diseases and finding new treatments. Considering that the physical experiment-based protein secondary structure prediction methods are time-consuming and expensive, some pattern recognition and machine learning methods are proposed. However, most of the methods achieve quite similar performance, which seems to reach a model capacity bottleneck. As both model design and learning process can affect the model learning capacity, we pay attention to the latter part. To this end, a framework called Multistage Combination Classifier Augmented Model (MCCM) is proposed to solve the protein secondary structure prediction task. Specifically, first, a feature extraction module is introduced to extract features with different levels of learning difficulties. Second, multistage combination classifiers are proposed to learn decision boundaries for easy and hard samples, respectively, with the latter penalizing the loss value of the hard samples and finally improving the prediction performance of hard samples. Third, based on the Dirichlet distribution and information entropy measurement, a sample difficulty discrimination module is designed to assign samples with different learning difficulty levels to the aforementioned classifiers. The experimental results on the publicly available benchmark CB513 dataset show that our method outperforms most state-of-the-art models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.769828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170271PMC
May 2022

Regulation of Biofilm Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis and Degradation in .

Annu Rev Microbiol 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity and Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Microbial communities enmeshed in a matrix of macromolecules, termed as biofilms, are the natural setting of bacteria. Exopolysaccharide is a critical matrix component of biofilms. Here, we focus on biofilm matrix exopolysaccharides in . This opportunistic pathogen can adapt to a wide range of environments and can form biofilms or aggregates in a variety of surfaces or environments, such as the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, catheters, wounds, and contact lenses. The ability to synthesize multiple exopolysaccharides is one of the advantages that facilitate bacterial survival in different environments. can produce several exopolysaccharides, including alginate, Psl, Pel, and lipopolysaccharide. In this review, we highlight the roles of each exopolysaccharide in biofilm development and how bacteria coordinate the biosynthesis of multiple exopolysaccharides and bacterial motility. In addition, we present advances in antibiofilm strategies targeting matrix exopolysaccharides, with a focus on glycoside hydrolases. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 76 is September 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-micro-041320-111355DOI Listing
June 2022

Dihydroartemisinin promoted FXR expression independent of YAP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

FASEB J 2022 06;36(6):e22361

Department of Pathobiology and Immunology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, China.

Loss of FXR, one of bile acid receptors, enlarged livers. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a dominant oncogene, promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between FXR and YAP1 was unspecified in bile acid homeostasis in HCC. Here, we used TIMER2.0, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Database, and Kaplan-Meier Plotter Database and discovered that FXR was positively correlated with better prognosis in liver cancer patients. Our previous research showed that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibited cell proliferation in HepG2 and HepG22215 cells. However, the relationship of YAP1 and the bile acid receptor FXR remains elusive during DHA treatment. Furthermore, we showed that DHA improved FXR and reduced YAP1 in the liver cancer cells and mice. Additionally, the expression of nucleus protein FXR was enhanced in Yap1 mice with liver cancer. DHA promoted the expression level of whole and nuclear protein FXR independent of YAP1 in Yap1 mice with liver cancer. DHA declined cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, but not sterol 27-hydroxylase, and depressed cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid of liver tissue in Yap1 mice with liver cancer. Generally, our results suggested that DHA improved FXR and declined YAP1 to suppress bile acid metabolism. Thus, we suggested that FXR acted as a potential therapeutic target in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202200171RDOI Listing
June 2022

Antifouling ionic liquid doped molecularly imprinted polymer-based ratiometric electrochemical sensor for highly stable and selective detection of zearalenone.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Jun 30;1210:339884. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, Hubei Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin, and its accurate detection in complex biological samples is still a challenge. Herein, an antifouling ratiometric electrochemical sensor has been developed for its detection. In this system, black phosphorus-graphene oxide is used as substrate to amplify the signal; ionic liquid doped molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) endows the sensing surface not only high recognition ability but also high capability to resist nonspecific adsorption. During MIP preparation a magnetic field is introduced to regulate polymer structure for improving the recognition efficiency of the sensor. The signals of ZEN and poly methylene blue (MB) serve as response signal and internal reference signal, respectively. The peak current of ZEN increases with the increase of ZEN concentration, while the peak current of poly(MB) decreases simultaneously; their ratio changes with ZEN concentration variation. The obtained ratiometric sensor shows a wide linear response range of 0.05-13 μM and a low limit of detection of 12.7 nM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, it has high selectivity, stability and reproducibility, thanks to the advanced antifouling MIP and the built-in correction of poly(MB). The sensor has been successfully applied to determine ZEN in human serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339884DOI Listing
June 2022

Parental preference for boys in childhood and the health of the elderly: Evidence from China.

Soc Sci Med 2022 Jun 22;302:114986. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

College of Literature and Law, Henan Agricultural University. Address: 15 Longzihu University Park, Zhengdong New District, Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study analyzed the relationship between parents' son preference in a person's childhood and their health when they become older, and tested whether childhood educational opportunities, health level, and care resources play mediating roles in this relationship.

Background: China has entered a stage of aging population. The health of the elderly determines whether the government can successfully cope with the challenges brought about by the aging of the population. Chinese people are deeply influenced by Confucianism. The concept of "son preference" is related to residents' parenting strategies. Then, if one's parents exhibit a son preference in their childhood, will it affect one's health in old age?

Method: Based on the data of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study collected in 2014, this paper uses the least square method to analyze the impact of parents' preference in childhood for boys on the health of the elderly, and uses Karlson-Holm-Breen (KHB) to analyze the mediating effects of childhood educational opportunities, health level and care resources.

Results: This study found that parents' preference for boys had a positive impact on the health of male children when they became elderly but had a negative impact on the health of female children when they became elderly. Childhood educational opportunities, health level, and care resources mediated this relationship.

Conclusion: It is necessary to analyze the impact of parents' preference for sons in one's childhood on the health of elderly, and intervene the adverse factors affecting the health, to improve the health level and quality of life of the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.114986DOI Listing
June 2022

Zero-order-term elimination by using two hologram subtraction based on reference wave polarization adjustment in off-axis digital holography.

Opt Lett 2022 May;47(9):2274-2277

We propose a method for the removal of the zero-order term by the subtraction of two off-axis holograms based on a reference wave polarization adjustment. The zero-order elimination hologram is generated by the subtraction of two off-axis holograms that are formed by the interference of two reference waves of different linear-polarization orientations with the same s-polarization object wave. The expression about the zero-order elimination hologram is derived according to the essential formula of holographic recording, which proves the validity of this method in principle. The experimental results show that imaging reconstruction from the zero-order elimination hologram can achieve a higher resolution than conventional reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.456913DOI Listing
May 2022

Kill two birds with one stone: Selective and fast removal and sensitive determination of oxytetracycline using surface molecularly imprinted polymer based on ionic liquid and ATRP polymerization.

J Hazard Mater 2022 07 14;434:128907. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, Hubei Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in food and environment has potential threats to ecosystem and human health, thus its sensitive monitoring and effective elimination are very important. In this work, a new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) composite was prepared through atom transfer radical polymerization by using OTC as template, gold nanoparticles modified carbon nanospheres (Au-CNS) as supporter, ionic liquids (IL) as functional monomer and cross-linking agent. The obtained [email protected] composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It displayed high imprinting factor (5.50) and adsorption capacity (56.7 mg g), and could achieved the adsorption equilibrium in short time (about 15 min). Results also illustrated that the adsorption process basically conformed to the quasi-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model, and [email protected] could be recycled at least 5 times. Furthermore, a sensitive OTC electrochemical sensor was developed by combining [email protected] with IL-modified carbon nanocomposites ([email protected]). The resulting sensor demonstrated a linear response to OTC in the wide range of 0.02-20 μM, and the detection limit was down to 5 nM. It also had the advantages of high selectivity, fast elution/regeneration and simple construction procedure. The sensor had been applied to the detection of real samples, and acceptable recovery (96.4%-106%) and RSD (3.2%-6.2%) were obtained. This work expands the application of IL-based MIP in pollutant monitoring and enriching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128907DOI Listing
July 2022

Interbacterial Antagonism Mediated by a Released Polysaccharide.

J Bacteriol 2022 05 21;204(5):e0007622. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two common pathogens causing chronic infections in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and in wounds, suggesting that these two organisms coexist . However, P. aeruginosa utilizes various mechanisms to antagonize S. aureus when these organisms are grown together . Here, we suggest a novel role for Psl in antagonizing S. aureus growth. Psl is an exopolysaccharide that exists in both cell-associated and cell-free forms and is important for biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa. When grown in planktonic coculture with a P. aeruginosa mutant, S. aureus had increased survival compared to when it was grown with wild-type P. aeruginosa. We found that cell-free Psl was critical for the killing, as purified cell-free Psl was sufficient to kill S. aureus. Transmission electron microscopy of S. aureus treated with Psl revealed disrupted cell envelopes, suggesting that Psl causes S. aureus cell lysis. This was independent of known mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa to antagonize S. aureus. Cell-free Psl could also promote S. aureus killing during growth in -like conditions. We also found that Psl production in P. aeruginosa CF clinical isolates positively correlated with the ability to kill S. aureus. This could be a result of P. aeruginosa coevolution with S. aureus in CF lungs. In conclusion, this study defines a novel role for P. aeruginosa Psl in killing S. aureus, potentially impacting the coexistence of these two opportunistic pathogens . Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two important opportunistic human pathogens commonly coisolated from clinical samples. However, P. aeruginosa can utilize various mechanisms to antagonize S. aureus . Here, we investigated the interactions between these two organisms and report a novel role for P. aeruginosa exopolysaccharide Psl in killing S. aureus. We found that cell-free Psl could kill S. aureus , possibly by inducing cell lysis. This was also observed in conditions reflective of scenarios. In accord with this, Psl production in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates positively correlated with their ability to kill S. aureus. Together, our data suggest a role for Psl in affecting the coexistence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jb.00076-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9112932PMC
May 2022

Relationships between serum iron and liver diseases in nutrition intervention trials: A nested case-control study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2022 06 11;78:102157. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Center for Global Health, School of Population Medicine and Public Health, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: Serum iron is associated with the risk of several diseases. However, limited prospective studies have been performed between serum iron and the subsequent risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) and primary liver cancer (PLC) incidence.

Methods: We performed a nested case-control study using data from the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials among participants who developed PLC incidence or died from CLD over 22-years of follow-up. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the risk of PLC incidence or CLD death in different quintile of baseline serum iron using logistic regression.

Results: Individuals with serum iron in the highest quintile, compared to those in the second quintile (the reference), had an increased risk of CLD mortality (OR=2.02, 95% CI=1.27-3.27, P=0.011). The association was stronger among HCV-positive participants (P=0.005). For PLC incidence, the risk estimates were above one, but not statistically significant (all P > 0.05).

Conclusions: A significant positive association was found between serum iron and the risk of CLD-related mortality, especially in HCV-positive subjects. Our results suggest that serum iron plays a risk role in CLD death but not in PLC incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2022.102157DOI Listing
June 2022

Liquid Metal Based Nano-Composites for Printable Stretchable Electronics.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Mar 25;22(7). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China.

Liquid metal (LM) has attracted prominent attention for stretchable and elastic electronics applications due to its exceptional fluidity and conductivity at room temperature. Despite progress in this field, a great disparity remains between material fabrication and practical applications on account of the high surface tension and unavoidable oxidation of LM. Here, the composition and nanolization of liquid metal can be envisioned as effective solutions to the processibility-performance dilemma caused by high surface tension. This review aims to summarize the strategies for the fabrication, processing, and application of LM-based nano-composites. The intrinsic mechanism and superiority of the composition method will further extend the capabilities of printable ink. Recent applications of LM-based nano-composites in printing are also provided to guide the large-scale production of stretchable electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22072516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9002646PMC
March 2022

Extensive Diversity and Prevalent Fluconazole Resistance among Environmental Yeasts from Tropical China.

Genes (Basel) 2022 02 28;13(3). Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Public Laboratory, Hainan Medical University, Haikou 571199, China.

Yeasts play important roles in both the environment and in human welfare. While some environmental yeasts positively contribute to nutrient cycling and food production, a significant number of yeast species are opportunistic human pathogens, including several that are tolerant/resistant to commonly used antifungal drugs. At present, most of our understanding of environmental yeasts has come from a few terrestrial environments in selected geographic regions. Relatively little is known about yeast diversity in tropical environments and their potential impacts on human health. Here, we characterize culturable yeasts in 968 environmental samples from eight regions in tropical China. Among the 516 soil, 273 freshwater, and 179 seawater samples, 71.5%, 85.7%, and 43.6% contained yeasts, respectively. A total of 984 yeast isolates were analyzed for their DNA barcode sequences and their susceptibilities to fluconazole. DNA sequence comparisons revealed that the 984 yeast isolates likely belonged to 144 species, including 106 known species and 38 putative novel species. About 38% of the 984 isolates belonged to known human pathogens and the most common species was , accounting for 21% (207/984) of all isolates. Further analyses based on multi-locus sequence typing revealed that some of these environmental shared identical genotypes with clinical isolates previously reported from tropical China and elsewhere. Importantly, 374 of the 984 (38%) yeast isolates showed intermediate susceptibility or resistance to fluconazole. Our results suggest that these environmental yeasts could have significant negative impacts on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13030444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8954247PMC
February 2022

An Antifatigue Liquid Metal Composite Electrode Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite Artificial Muscle with Excellent Electromechanical Properties.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Mar 15;14(12):14630-14639. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

College of Materials Science and Opto-Electronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China.

Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC), one of the most popular materials in the field of artificial muscle research, have attracted much attention because of their high flexibility, low drive voltage (<10 V), high force density, large deformation, and so forth. However, the results show that the serious electrode fatigue crack and water loss of traditional IPMC greatly decrease its fatigue life and limit the practical application. In this study, we developed a novel liquid metal composite electrode. A layer of eutectic gallium-indium alloy (EGaIn) liquid metal was applied to the surface of the platinum electrode of the IPMC using a mask. Because of the good self-healing performance of the liquid metal, it is expected to solve the above problems of resistance increase and water loss caused by cracks. It turns out that the prepared EGaIn/Pt-IPMC exhibits a driving force up to 120 mN and maximum fatigue life of about 25,000 s at a driving voltage of 3 V. Compared with the best work reported, the fatigue strength of EGaIn/Pt-IPMC was increased by about 210%, and the maximum driving force of EGaIn/Pt-IPMC prepared by a single-layer basement membrane was between the IPMC prepared by 4-6 layer basement membrane. The electromechanical properties were significantly improved, and it is expected to realize a series of bionic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c01453DOI Listing
March 2022

Molecularly imprinted ratiometric electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes/cuprous oxide nanoparticles/titanium carbide MXene composite for diethylstilbestrol detection.

Mikrochim Acta 2022 03 9;189(4):137. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China.

Conventional molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP)-based electrochemical sensors are generally susceptible to the changes of personal operation, electrode surface, and solution conditions. Herein, a ratiometric strategy was employed through introducing CuO nanoparticles (NPs) as inner reference probe to realize the reliable detection of diethylstilbestrol (DES). MIP film was prepared by electropolymerization of 1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylicacid in the presence of DES on carbon nanotubes/cuprous oxide/titanium carbide (CNT/CuO NPs/TiCT) modified electrodes. The TiCT with accordion-like structure not only possessed good electrical conductivity, but also facilitated the immobilization of CuO NPs, which contributed to stabilizing the signal. CNT was introduced to further improve the sensitivity of the sensor. Under optimum conditions, the MIP/CNT/CuO NPs/TiCT electrochemical sensors showed a broad linear response range of 0.01 to 70 μM, and a low detection limit of 6 nM (S/N = 3). Moreover, the sensor was applied to detect DES in real samples including lake water, milk, and pork, and the recoveries for spiked standard were 88-112%. Thus, this work provides a new way for reliable DES detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-022-05249-xDOI Listing
March 2022

Ag nanoparticles enhance immune checkpoint blockade efficacy by promoting of immune surveillance in melanoma.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jun 16;616:189-200. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Department of Dermatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Hunan Key Laboratory of Skin Cancer and Psoriasis, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Hunan Engineering Research Center of Skin Health and Disease, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Xiangya Clinical Research Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Research Center of Molecular Metabolomics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China. Electronic address:

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy, represented by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), has shown an obvious benefit for melanoma immunotherapy, but the overall response rate is still low. To find an effective combination therapy strategy, we successfully produced small size silver nanoparticles coated with sucrose (S-AgNPs) as potent adjuvants. The antitumor effects of S-AgNPs were tested in vitro and comparatively investigated in immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice with melanoma. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescent staining analysis were conducted to identify the tumor microenvironments. The expression of PD-L1 in tumors was tested by multiple methods. The combination therapy and potential toxicity of S-AgNPs and PD-1 mAbs were assessed in melanoma-bearing mice. In our findings, S-AgNPs presented potent antitumor effects, good druggability and low systemic toxicity. Functionally, we found that S-AgNPs exhibited better antitumor effects in immunocompetent mice. Mechanistically, we showed that S-AgNPs suppress tumor cell proliferation by inducing cellular apoptosis and promote cytotoxic CD8 T cell infiltration and activity. Preclinically, S-AgNPs showed excellent local antitumor activity and mild systemic immunotoxicity with PD-1 mAbs in the inhibition of melanoma proliferation, providing a novel clinical combination treatment strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.02.050DOI Listing
June 2022

IsoCell: An Approach to Enhance Single Cell Clustering by Integrating Isoform-level Expression through Orthogonal Projection.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2022 Jan 31;PP. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) provides a powerful approach for profiling transcriptomes at single cell resolution. Currently, existing single cell clustering methods are exclusively based on gene-level expression data, without considering alternative splicing information. We therefore hypothesize that adding information about alternative splicing may help enhance single cell clustering. This motivates us to develop a way to integrate isoform-level expression and gene-level expression. We report an approach to enhance single cell clustering by integrating isoform-level expression through orthogonal projection. First, we construct an orthogonal projection matrix based on gene expression data. Second, isoforms are projected to the gene space to remove the redundant information between them. Third, isoform selection is performed based on the residual of the projected expression and the selected isoforms are combined with gene expression data for subsequent clustering. We applied our method to sixteen scRNA-seq datasets. We find that alternative splicing contains differential information among cell types and can be integrated to enhance single cell clustering. Compared with using only gene-level expression data, the integration of isoform-level expression leads to better clustering performances for most of the datasets. The integration of isoform-level expression also has potential in the detection of novel cell subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2022.3147193DOI Listing
January 2022

Global, regional, and national time trends in mortality for congenital heart disease, 1990-2019: An age-period-cohort analysis for the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Jan 11;43:101249. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Heart Center and Shanghai Institute of Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, National Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Room 7016, Heart centre, Shanghai Children's Medical centre, No. 1678, Dongfang Rd, Pudong District, Shanghai, China.

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from birth defects worldwide. We report an overview of trends in CHD mortality in 204 countries and territories over the past 30 years and associations with age, period, and birth cohort.

Methods: Cause-specific CHD mortality estimates were derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study. We utilised an age-period-cohort model to estimate overall annual percentage changes in mortality (net drifts), annual percentage changes from 0 to 4 to 65-69 years (local drifts), period and cohort relative risks (period/cohort effects) between 1990 and 2019. This approach allows for the examination and differentiation of age, period, and cohort effects in the mortality trends, with the potential to identify disparities and treatment gaps in cardiac care.

Findings: CHD is the leading cause of deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in those under 20 years. Global CHD deaths in 2019 were 217,000 (95% uncertainty interval 177,000-262,000). There were 129 countries with at least 50 deaths. India, China, Pakistan, and Nigeria had the highest mortality, accounting for 39.7% of deaths globally. Between 1990 and 2019, the net drift of CHD mortality ranged from -2.41% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.55, -2.67) in high Socio-demographic Index (SDI) countries to -0.62% per year (95% CI: -0.82, -0.42) in low-SDI countries. Globally, there was an emerging transition in the age distribution of deaths from paediatric to adult populations, except for an increasing trend of mortality in those aged 10-34 years in Mexico and Pakistan. During the past 30 years, favourable mortality reductions were generally found in most high-SDI countries like South Korea (net drift = -4.0% [95% CI -4.8 to -3.1] per year) and the United States (-2.3% [-2.5 to -2.0]), and also in many middle-SDI countries like Brazil (-2.7% [-3.1 to 2.4]) and South Africa (-2.5% [-3.2 to -1.8]). However, 52 of 129 countries had either increasing trends (net drifts ≥0.0%) or stagnated reductions (≥-0.5%) in mortality. The relative risk of mortality generally showed improving trends over time and in successively younger birth cohorts amongst high- and high-middle-SDI countries, with the exceptions of Saudi Arabia and Kazakhstan. 14 middle-SDI countries such as Ecuador and Mexico, and 16 low-middle-SDI countries including India and 20 low-SDI countries including Pakistan, had unfavourable or worsening risks for recent periods and birth cohorts.

Interpretation: CHD mortality is a useful and accessible indicator of trends in the provision of congenital cardiac care both in early childhood and across later life. Improvements in the treatment of CHD should reduce the risk for successively younger cohorts and shift the risk for all age groups over time. Although there were gains in CHD mortality globally over the past three decades, unfavourable period and cohort effects were found in many countries, raising questions about adequacy of their health care for CHD patients across all age groups. These failings carry significant implications for the likelihood of achieving the Sustainable Development Goal targets for under-5 years and NCD mortality.

Funding: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81525002, 31971048, 82073573 to ZZ and HZ), Shanghai Outstanding Medical Academic Leader program (2019LJ22 to HZ), and Collaborative Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Health Commission (2020CXJQ01 to HZ), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for the Global Burden of Disease Project (to NJK) and NHMRC fellowship administered through the University of Melbourne (to GCP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8760503PMC
January 2022

Preparation of [email protected]@[email protected] Composite as SERS Substrate and Its Application in the Enrichment and Detection for Phenanthrene.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Jan 14;13(1). Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants, Army Logistics Academy of PLA, Chongqing 401331, China.

In this study, highly active [email protected]@[email protected] surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) active substrate was synthesized for application in the enrichment and detection of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. The morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible absorption spectrum (UV-vis spectra). The effect of each component of [email protected]@[email protected] nanocomposites on SERS was explored, and it was found that gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are crucial to enhance the Raman signal based on the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism, and apart from enriching the PAHs through π-π interaction, graphene oxide (GO) also generates strong chemical enhancement of Raman signals, and polydopamine (PDA) can prevent Au from shedding and agglomeration. The existence of Fe3O4 aided the quick separation of substrate from the solutions, which greatly simplified the detection procedure and facilitated the reuse of the substrate. The SERS active substrate was used to detect phenanthrene in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 10 g/L (5.6 × 10 mol/L), which is much lower than that of ordinary Raman, it is promising for application in the enrichment and detection of trace PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13010128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8778011PMC
January 2022

Dihydroartemisinin reduced lipid droplet deposition by YAP1 to promote the anti-PD-1 effect in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Phytomedicine 2022 Feb 26;96:153913. Epub 2021 Dec 26.

Department of Pathobiology and Immunology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China. Electronic address:

Background: Anti-PD-1 was used to treat for many cancers, but the overall response rate of monoclonal antibodies blocking the inhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 was less than 20%. Lipid droplet (LD) deposition reduced chemotherapy efficacy, but whether LD deposition affects anti-PD-1 treatment and its mechanism remains unclear. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was FDA proved antimalarial medicine, but its working mechanism on LD deposition has not been clarified.

Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of DHA reducing LDs deposition and improving the efficacy of anti-PD-1.

Methods: LD numbers and area were separately detected by electron microscopy and oil Red O staining. The expression of YAP1 and PLIN2 was detected by immunohistochemical staining in liver cancer tissues. Transcription and protein expression levels of YAP1 and PLIN2 in cells were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot after DHA treated HepG2215 cells and Yap1 mice.

Results: LD accumulation was found in the liver tumor cells of DEN/TOPBCOP-induced liver tumor mice with anti-PD-1 treatment. But DHA treatment or YAP1 knockdown reduced LD deposition and PLIN2 expression in HepG2215 cells. Furthermore, DHA reduced the LD deposition, PLIN2 expression and triglycerides (TG) content in the liver tumor cells of Yap1 mice with liver tumor.

Conclusion: Anti-PD-1 promoted LD deposition, while YAP1 knockdown/out reduced LD deposition in HCC. DHA reduced LD deposition by inhibiting YAP1, enhancing the effect of anti-PD-1 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153913DOI Listing
February 2022

Effect of Specific Acupuncture Therapy Combined with Rehabilitation Training on Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 26;2021:5671998. Epub 2021 Dec 26.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine Center and Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Acupuncture therapies were used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI) and its complications. To assess the effect of a specific acupuncture therapy combined with rehabilitation training for inpatients with incomplete SCI, we conducted an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine Center in West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Seventy-two participants diagnosed with incomplete SCI were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 24 patients each, with data collection completed in December, 2019. Participants were randomly assigned (1 : 1 : 1) to 3 groups to receive treatment for 4 weeks, 5 times/week of acupuncture for Continuous Acupuncture Treatment (CAT) group, 3 times/week for Intermittent Acupuncture Treatment (IAT) group, and no acupuncture for Control group; all 3 groups received routine rehabilitation training. The primary outcome was the change of American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score from baseline to week 4. Secondary outcomes included sensory score, Modified Barthel Index (MBI). At week 4, CAT group had a higher motor score and MBI score increase than the control group (mean difference 10.52, 17.36;   0.001,   0.01, respectively). CAT group had more increase in motor score and MBI than IAT group (mean difference 5.55, 14.77;   0.05,   0.05, respectively). But the difference among groups in the increase of sensory score was not statistically significant. Acupuncture resulted in a higher motor score and MBI after 4 weeks. And the dosage of 5/week led to more improvement in motor score and MBI than that of 3/week. The results suggested that a dosage of 5/week of acupuncture is safe and more effective for SCI than 3/week. But further research is needed to determine the best intervention dosage, long-term efficacy, and underlying mechanism. This trial is registered with ChiCTR1900021530.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5671998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8720606PMC
December 2021

Excited state photochemically driven surface formation of benzene from acetylene ices on Pluto and in the outer solar system.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Jan 19;24(3):1424-1436. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.

NASA's New Horizons mission unveiled a diverse landscape of Pluto's surface with massive regions being neutral in color, while others like Cthulhu Macula range from golden-yellow to reddish comprising up to half of Pluto's carbon budget. Here, we demonstrate in laboratory experiments merged with electronic structure calculations that the photolysis of solid acetylene - the most abundant precipitate on Pluto's surface - by low energy ultraviolet photons efficiently synthesizes benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons excited state photochemistry thus providing critical molecular building blocks for the colored surface material. Since low energy photons deliver doses to Pluto's surface exceeding those from cosmic rays by six orders of magnitude, these processes may significantly contribute to the coloration of Pluto's surface and of hydrocarbon-covered surfaces of Solar System bodies such as Triton in general. This discovery critically enhances our perception of the distribution of aromatic molecules and carbon throughout our Solar System.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp04959cDOI Listing
January 2022

Semaglutide and Diabetic Retinopathy Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Clin Drug Investig 2022 Jan 11;42(1):17-28. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Chazhong Road No. 20, Fuzhou, 350005, China.

Background: Semaglutide is a recently approved glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The SUSTAIN 6 trial found a significantly higher rate of retinopathy complications in the semaglutide-treated group compared with the placebo group.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between semaglutide and the risk of retinopathy in patients with T2DM.

Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched up to April 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials that reported diabetic retinopathy (DR) events in semaglutide-treated and control groups. A meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.4 software to calculate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: A total of 23 randomized trials involving 22,096 patients with T2DM were included. There were 730 incident DR cases-463 in the semaglutide group and 267 in the control group. Overall, semaglutide was not associated with increased DR risk compared with controls when all trials were combined (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.98-1.33). Subgroup analysis showed that semaglutide was associated with an increased risk of DR compared with placebo (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50). Moreover, patient age ≥ 60 years and diabetes duration ≥ 10 years were also factors for increased risk of DR when using semaglutide (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.59; RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.58, respectively).

Conclusions: Semaglutide was not associated with an increased risk of DR; however, caution regarding DR risk is needed for older patients or those with long diabetes duration when taking semaglutide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40261-021-01110-wDOI Listing
January 2022

A novel ratiometric electrochemical sensor based on dual-monomer molecularly imprinted polymer and Pt/CoO for sensitive detection of chlorpromazine hydrochloride.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Jan 3;1190:339245. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, PR China.

In this work, a novel signal on/off ratiometric electrochemical sensor for the selective detection of chlorpromazine (CPZ) was developed. The sensor was constructed by electrodepositing dual-monomer molecularly imprinted polymer (DMMIP) film on the surface of Pt/CoO nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode, using CPZ as template molecule, methylene blue and catechol as functional monomers. The copolymerization of two monomers increased the diversity of functional groups for binding template molecules, and enhanced stability. The quantitative detection of CPZ was performed by differential pulse voltammetry, using the peak current of poly (methylene blue) as reference signal and the peak current of CPZ as indicating signal. The results showed that the developed DMMIP sensor not only possessed high selectivity and sensitivity, but also exhibited satisfactory anti-interference ability. Under the optimum conditions, a linear detection range of 0.005-9 μmol L (R = 0.9962) was obtained, and the limit of detection was 2.6 nmol L. Moreover, the sensor showed good reproducibility and stability toward CPZ detection. It was applied to detect CPZ in serum and pharmaceutical samples, and satisfactory recoveries (ranging from 95.3% to 108.0%) were achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.339245DOI Listing
January 2022

Can information disclosure buffer psychological anxiety due to COVID-19? Evidence from China.

Psychol Trauma 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

School of Government.

Objective: Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, cases of infection continue to increase and pose a great threat to the safety of people. When an individual perceives a threat in the environment, a stress reaction is automatically triggered. Long-term stress can lead to severe mental problems. Thus, the present study aims to assess the relationship between information disclosure and psychological anxiety and to determine the mediating role of epidemic prevention satisfaction and epidemic prevention confidence.

Method: A survey is conducted on 1,439 respondents to determine the mental health of Chinese residents during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The logit method is used to explore the correlation between information disclosure and psychological anxiety. Furthermore, the bootstrap decomposition method is used to verify the mediation effects of different aspects of epidemic prevention satisfaction and epidemic prevention confidence.

Results: The study finds that information disclosure exerts a negative impact on psychological anxiety attributable to COVID-19 (β = -.085, < .001), whereas epidemic prevention satisfaction and epidemic prevention confidence mediated the relationship between information disclosure and psychological anxiety.

Conclusions: In exploring means to cope with challenges attributable to COVID-19, the study finds that information disclosure not only improves epidemic prevention satisfaction and epidemic prevention confidence but also buffers psychological anxiety attributable to COVID-19. Therefore, timely and accurate information from the government is beneficial for improving epidemic prevention satisfaction and epidemic prevention confidence and for alleviating psychological anxiety among Chinese residents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0001147DOI Listing
November 2021

Room-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced NMR spectroscopy of small biological molecules in water.

Nat Commun 2021 11 25;12(1):6880. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful and popular technique for probing the molecular structures, dynamics and chemical properties. However the conventional NMR spectroscopy is bottlenecked by its low sensitivity. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) boosts NMR sensitivity by orders of magnitude and resolves this limitation. In liquid-state this revolutionizing technique has been restricted to a few specific non-biological model molecules in organic solvents. Here we show that the carbon polarization in small biological molecules, including carbohydrates and amino acids, can be enhanced sizably by in situ Overhauser DNP (ODNP) in water at room temperature and at high magnetic field. An observed connection between ODNP C enhancement factor and paramagnetic C NMR shift has led to the exploration of biologically relevant heterocyclic compound indole. The QM/MM MD simulation underscores the dynamics of intermolecular hydrogen bonds as the driving force for the scalar ODNP in a long-living radical-substrate complex. Our work reconciles results obtained by DNP spectroscopy, paramagnetic NMR and computational chemistry and provides new mechanistic insights into the high-field scalar ODNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27067-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8616939PMC
November 2021
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