Publications by authors named "Yiru Wang"

175 Publications

Copy number variations of the KAT6A gene are associated with body measurements of Chinese sheep breeds.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Nov 29:1-8. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Key laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Copy number variation (CNV) is one kind of genomic structure variations and presents as gains and losses of genomic fragments. More recently, we have made an atlas of CNV maps for livestock. In the future, it is a primary focus to determine the phenotypic effects of candidate CNVs. Lysine Acetyltransferase 6 A () is a protein coding gene and plays a critical role in many cellular processes. However, the effects of CNVs on sheep body measurements remains unknown. In this study, we performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect the presences and distributions of three CNV regions within gene in 672 sheep from four Chinese breeds. Association analysis indicated that the three CNVs of gene were significantly associated with body measurement(s) in Small-tailed Han sheep (STH) and Hu sheep (HU) ( < 0.05), while no effects on Large-tailed Han sheep (LTH) were observed ( > 0.05) were observed. Additionally, only one CNV was significantly associated with body measurement (body length) in Chaka sheep (CK) ( < 0.05). Our study provided evidence that the CNV(s) of gene could be used as candidate marker(s) for molecular breedings of STH, HU, and CK breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.2005616DOI Listing
November 2021

Multi-Omics Analyses Reveal Systemic Insights into Maize Vivipary.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Nov 12;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Maize vivipary, precocious seed germination on the ear, affects yield and seed quality. The application of multi-omics approaches, such as transcriptomics or metabolomics, to classic vivipary mutants can potentially reveal the underlying mechanism. Seven maize vivipary mutants were selected for transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. A suite of transporters and transcription factors were found to be upregulated in all mutants, indicating that their functions are required during seed germination. Moreover, vivipary mutants exhibited a uniform expression pattern of genes related to abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis, and ABA core signaling. 4 (), which is involved in ABA biosynthesis, was markedly downregulated and () was upregulated in all vivipary mutants, indicating antagonism between these two phytohormones. The ABA core signaling components (PYL-ABI1-SnRK2-ABI3) were affected in most of the mutants, but the expression of these genes was not significantly different between the mutant and wild-type seeds. Metabolomics analysis integrated with co-expression network analysis identified unique metabolites, their corresponding pathways, and the gene networks affected by each individual mutation. Collectively, our multi-omics analyses characterized the transcriptional and metabolic landscape during vivipary, providing a valuable resource for improving seed quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10112437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8618366PMC
November 2021

A Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Film Loaded with AFCP Nanoparticles for Inhibiting Formation of Enamel White Spot Lesions.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 16;16:7623-7637. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Stomatology Hospital, School of Stomatology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Research of Zhejiang Province, Cancer Center of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310006, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study investigated the effects of mineralizing film consisting of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and amorphous fluorinated calcium phosphate (AFCP) nanoparticles on enamel white spot lesions (WSLs).

Material And Methods: The AFCP nanoparticles and mineralizing film were prepared via nanoprecipitation and solvent evaporation, respectively. They were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and fluoride ion selective electrode. Thirty-two human enamel slices (4 mm × 4 mm × 1.5 mm) were highly polished and randomly assigned to four groups: negative control (no treatment); pure HPMC film; mineralizing film; GC Tooth Mousse Plus (contains 10% CPP-ACP and 0.2% NaF). Subsequently, samples were challenged by a modified pH-cycling and characterized by color measurement, Micro-CT, SEM/EDX, and nanoindentation.

Results: The mineralizing film could sustain release of Ca, P and F ions over 24 h and maintain AFCP nanoparticles in metastable state over 8~12 h. During 4 weeks of pH cycling, the mineralizing film group exhibited least color change (∆E), mineral loss and lesion depth (120 ± 10 µm) among four groups ( < 0.05). SEM findings revealed that the porosities among enamel crystals increased in negative control and pure HPMC film groups after pH cycling, whereas in mineralizing film group, the original microstructure of enamel was well conserved and mineral deposits were detected between enamel prisms. Mineralizing film group demonstrated a least reduction of nanomechanical properties such as elastic modulus of 77.02 ± 6.84 GPa and hardness of 3.62 ± 0.57 GPa ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The mineralizing film might be a promising strategy for prevention and management of WSLs via inhibiting enamel demineralization and promoting enamel remineralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S335549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8605885PMC
November 2021

A Study on Correlation between Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Parameters and Pathological Features of Diabetic Nephropathy.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Ultrasound, First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China; Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing, China; State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) parameters and histopathological features in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty-two patients with DN (44 men, mean age: 52.61 ± 10.63 y) were enrolled. They underwent renal biopsy for DN at the Department of Ultrasound, PLA Hospital, between May 2017 and February 2020. Renal tissue was obtained by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle biopsy. CEUS was performed, and time-intensity curves (TICs) and renal perfusion parameters were analyzed. Differences in CEUS parameters were analyzed according to the glomerular classification and interstitial fibrosis-tubular atrophy (IFTA) score. Continuous variables were evaluated using the analysis of variance or Mann-Whitney U-test. Discontinuous variables were compared with the χ-test. Spearman correlation analyses evaluated associations among quantitative ultrasound perfusion parameters and histopathological characteristics. Peak enhancement (PE), wash-in rate (WiR), wash-in perfusion index (WiPI) and wash-out rate (WoR) of the cortex, and their cortex/medulla ratios, decreased with increasing glomerular classification grade (p < 0.05). The fall time (FT) of the cortex, and their cortex/medulla ratios, increased with increasing glomerular classification grade (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the CEUS parameters for different IFTA scores. The perfusion volume-relevant parameters (such as PE, WiR and WiPI) had a negative correlation (p < 0.05), while the perfusion time-relevant parameters (such as RT and FT) had a positive correlation (p < 0.05), with the severity of glomerular lesions, glomerulosclerosis rate and number of Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions. The CEUS parameters of the cortex could reflect pathological characteristics, especially changes in glomerular lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.08.014DOI Listing
November 2021

Efferocytosis in multisystem diseases (Review).

Mol Med Rep 2022 Jan 15;25(1). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China.

Efferocytosis, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells performed by both specialized phagocytes (such as macrophages) and non‑specialized phagocytes (such as epithelial cells), is involved in tissue repair and homeostasis. Effective efferocytosis prevents secondary necrosis, terminates inflammatory responses, promotes self‑tolerance and activates pro‑resolving pathways to maintain homeostasis. When efferocytosis is impaired, apoptotic cells that could not be cleared in time aggregate, resulting in the necrosis of apoptotic cells and release of pro‑inflammatory factors. In addition, defective efferocytosis inhibits the intracellular cholesterol reverse transportation pathways, which may lead to atherosclerosis, lung damage, non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease and neurodegenerative diseases. The uncleared apoptotic cells can also release autoantigens, which can cause autoimmune diseases. Cancer cells escape from phagocytosis via efferocytosis. Therefore, new treatment strategies for diseases related to defective efferocytosis are proposed. This review illustrated the mechanisms of efferocytosis in multisystem diseases and organismal homeostasis and the pathophysiological consequences of defective efferocytosis. Several drugs and treatments available to enhance efferocytosis are also mentioned in the review, serving as new evidence for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8600411PMC
January 2022

Carbon Monoxide in Renal Physiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment of Renal Disease.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 ;27(41):4253-4260

Department of Geriatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the endogenous gaseous messengers or gasotransmitters, and is a paramount mediator in physiological and disease conditions. In this review, we focus on the functions of CO in normal and pathological renal physiology. We discuss endogenous renal CO production and signaling in the normal kidney, the characteristic of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) modalities, and outline its regulatory functions in renal physiology. This article summarizes the mechanisms as well as the effect of CO in the evolving field of renal diseases. We predict numerous innovative CO applications forevolvingcutting-edge scholarly work in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612827666210706161207DOI Listing
January 2021

Does the risk of major customer need to be balanced? The role of customer concentration in corporate governance.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(11):e0259689. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

School of Business, Cangzhou Normal University, Cangzhou, Hebei, China.

In the operation and management of the company, major customers may affect a supplier firm's level of governance. The goal of our study is investigating whether a major customer acts as an important role in corporate governance in emerging markets and exposing the mechanism that how major customers affect corporate decision-making. There is a growing body of literature involving studies about the effect of customer concentration on firm performance of western countries. Few studies have recognized to what degree does customer concentration satisfy the sustainable development of supplier firm. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms, we found a nonlinear relationship between customer concentration and risk-taking, corporate policies and firm performance. Evidence shows that the effect of customer concentration in China resembles an inverted U-shaped curve and major customers are crucial in financial and investment policies. Our results help to provide a broader perspective on the role of major customers, giving a deep explanation about the role of customer concentration in corporate governance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0259689PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8577764PMC
November 2021

Interobserver reproducibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diabetic nephropathy.

Br J Radiol 2021 Nov 9:20210189. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Ultrasound, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the interobserver reproducibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Methods: A total of 40 patients with diabetic nephropathy were enrolled in this retrospective study. We measured peak intensity (PEAK), time-to-peak (TP), area under the curve (AUC) and mean transit time (MTT) of renal CEUS in each patient. Each parameter was performed by two independent observers. The interobserver reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Bland-Altman plots by mean difference with 95% limits of agreement (LOAs).

Results: The parameters of the left and right kidneys showed moderate or good reliability. The best was the left kidney AUC parameters (ICC,0.945),with a 95% CI of 0.896-0.971.The Bland-Altman plots showed that the mean differences between the right renal parameters (PEAK, TP, AUC and MTT) obtained between the observers 1 and 2 were -6.63%,2.54%,-11.30%,-2.22%, and the 95% LOAs are -30.78 to 17.52%, -30.15 to 35.23%, -43.95 to 21.35%, -44.50 to 40.06%. While the left ones were -2.89%, 0.32%, -8.26%, 1.25% , and the 95% LOAs were -38.50 to 32.72%, -31.98 to 32.62%, -57.89 to 41.37%, -37.21 to 39.71%, respectively.

Conclusion: Quantitative CEUS can show good interobserver reproducibility, which is better for the right kidney. It seems necessary to establish standardized techniques for obtaining contrast-enhanced quantitative analysis of renal blood perfusion.

Advances In Knowledge: Quantitative assessment of renal perfusion by CEUS in patients with diabetic nephropathy provides diagnostic information. Furthermore, renal perfusion assessment in patients with diabetic nephropathy using CEUS has good reproducibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20210189DOI Listing
November 2021

The Role of Lymphangiogenesis in Coronary Atherosclerosis.

Lymphat Res Biol 2021 Oct 28. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Cardiology, LongHua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Lymphatic circulation, a one-way channel system independent of blood circulation, collects interstitial fluid in a blind-end way. Existing widely in various organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels play important roles in maintaining tissue fluid homeostasis, regulating immune function, and promoting lipid transport. Recent studies have shown clear evidence that lymphangiogenesis has a strong mutual effect on coronary atherosclerosis (AS). In this study, we focus on this topic, especially in the aspects of relevant ligand/receptor, inflammation, and adipose metabolism. For the moment, however, the role of lymphangiogenesis and remodeling in coronary AS still remains controversial. The studies of our group and accumulating published evidence show that the pathological remodeling of lymphatic vessels in coronary AS may have a negative effect, but normal functional lymphangiogenesis is probably beneficial to the regression of coronary AS. Thus, the conclusion of this review is that lymphatic vessel function rather than its quantity determines its influence in AS, which needs more evidence to support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2021.0026DOI Listing
October 2021

Ultrasensitive Temperature Sensing Based on Ligand-Free Alloyed CsPbCl Br Perovskite Nanocrystals Confined in Hollow Mesoporous Silica with High Density of Halide Vacancies.

Small 2021 Nov 13;17(46):e2103425. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Chemistry and the MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis & Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

Temperature sensing based on fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals has recently received immense attention. Enhancing the trap-facilitated thermal quenching of the fluorescence should be an effective approach to achieve high sensitivity for temperature sensing. Compared with conventional semiconductor nanocrystals, the defect-tolerant feature of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (LHP NCs) endows them with high density of defects. Here, hollow mesoporous silica (h-SiO ) template-assisted ligand-free synthesis and halogen manipulation (chloride-importing) are proposed to fabricate highly defective yet fluorescent CsPbCl Br NCs confined in h-SiO (CsPbCl Br [email protected] ) for ultrasensitive temperature sensing. The trap barrier heights, exciton-phonon scattering, and trap state filling process in the CsPbCl Br [email protected] and CsPbBr [email protected] are studied to illustrate the higher temperature sensitivity of CsPbCl Br [email protected] at physiological temperature range. By integrating the thermal-sensitive CsPbCl Br [email protected] and thermal-insensitive K SiF :Mn phosphor into the flexible ethylene-vinyl acetate polymer matrix, ratiometric temperature sensing from 30.0 °C to 45.0 °C is demonstrated with a relative temperature sensitivity up to 13.44% °C at 37.0 °C. The composite film shows high potential as a thermometer for monitoring the body temperature. This work demonstrates the unparalleled temperature sensing performance of LHP NCs and provides new inspiration on switching the defects into advantages in sensing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103425DOI Listing
November 2021

M6A RNA methylation-mediated RMRP stability renders proliferation and progression of non-small cell lung cancer through regulating TGFBR1/SMAD2/SMAD3 pathway.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Oct 9. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, PR China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has the highest mortality rate among all malignancies worldwide. The role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the progression of cancers is a contemporary research hotspot. Based on an integrative analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we identified lncRNA-RNA Component of Mitochondrial RNA Processing Endoribonuclease (RMRP) as one of the most highly upregulated lncRNAs that are associated with poor survival in NSCLC. Furthermore, N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A) was highly enriched within RMRP and enhanced its RNA stability. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that RMRP promoted NSCLC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. In terms of mechanism, RMRP recruited YBX1 to the TGFBR1 promotor region, leading to upregulation of the transcription of TGFBR1. The TGFBR1/SMAD2/SMAD3 pathway was also regulated by RMRP. In addition, RMRP promoted the cancer stem cells properties and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which promote the resistance to radiation therapy and cisplatin. Clinical data further confirmed a positive correlation between RMRP and TGFBR1. In short, our work reveals that m6A RNA methylation-mediated RMRP stability renders proliferation and progression of NSCLC through regulating TGFBR1/SMAD2/SMAD3 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00888-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects ARPE‑19 cells against HO‑induced oxidative stress via the Nrf2/HO‑1 pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 11 7;24(5). Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116021, P.R. China.

Age‑related macular degeneration (AMD) is a global health problem. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been proven to be effective against several eye diseases. However, only a few studies have investigated the effectiveness of LBP for AMD. In the present study, the human retinal epithelial cell line, ARPE‑19, was pretreated with LBP for 24 h before exposure to HO (500 M). Cell viability was assessed, and a series of oxidative and antioxidant indicators were evaluated to determine the influence of LBP on H2O2‑triggered oxidative stress. The present study also determined the apoptosis status, as well as the expression levels of apoptotic proteins and nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) pathway proteins. The present study aimed to determine the protective role for LBP pretreatment and its underlying molecular mechanism. The results of the present study suggest that pretreatment of ARPE‑19 cells with LBP exhibit high efficacy at reducing oxidative damage and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Furthermore, LBP may modulate the expression of proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway and activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436232PMC
November 2021

Perturbation Training for Fall-Risk Reduction in Healthy Older Adults: Interference and Generalization to Opposing Novel Perturbations Post Intervention.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 16;3:697169. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Applied Health and Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

This study examined the effects of perturbation training on the contextual interference and generalization of encountering a novel opposing perturbation. One hundred and sixty-nine community-dwelling healthy older adults (69.6 ± 6.4 years) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: slip-perturbation training (St, = 67) group received 24 slips, trip-perturbation training (Tt, = 67) group received 24 trips, and control (Ctrl: = 31) group received only non-perturbed walking trials (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03199729; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03199729). After training, all groups had 30 min of rest and three post-training non-perturbed walking trials, followed by a reslip and a novel trip trial for St, a retrip and a novel slip trial for Tt, and randomized novel slip and trip trials for Ctrl. The margin of stability (MOS), step length, and toe clearance of post-training walking trials were compared among three groups to examine interferences in proactive adjustment. Falls, MOS at the instant of recovery foot touchdown, and hip height of post-training perturbation trials were investigated to detect interferences and generalization in reactive responses. Results indicated that prior adaptation to slip perturbation training, resulting in walking with a greater MOS (more anterior) and a shorter step length ( < 0.01) than that of the Ctrl group, would be associated with a greater likelihood to forward balance loss if encountered with a trip. The trip adaptation training mainly induced a higher toe clearance during walking ( < 0.01) than the Ctrl group, which could lead to reduced effectiveness of the reactive response when encountered with a novel slip. However, there was no difference in the reactive MOS, limb support, and falls between the control group and the slip and trip training groups on their respective opposing novel perturbation post-training (MOS, limb support, and falls for novel slip: Tt = Ctrl; for the novel trip: St = Ctrl, both > 0.05). Current findings suggested that, although perturbation training results in proactive adjustments that could worsen the reactive response (interference) when exposed to an unexpected opposing perturbation, older adults demonstrated the ability to immediately generalize the training-induced adaptive reactive control to maintain MOS, to preserve limb support control, and to reduce fall risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.697169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418084PMC
August 2021

The Red Blood Cell Distribution Width-Albumin Ratio: A Promising Predictor of Mortality in Stroke Patients.

Int J Gen Med 2021 22;14:3737-3747. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, Wenzhou Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Zhejiang, Wenzhou, 325000, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Within this study we attempt to express a correlation between the mortality of stroke and stroke related infection to a novel biomarker represented by the red blood cell width-albumin levels ratio within the patient. We hypothesize that this novel biomarker could be utilized as better predictive tool for stroke associated infections.

Methods: Patient data sets were obtained via the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care Database iii V1.4 (MIMIC-iii). Data from 1480 patients were obtained to serve the testing for the RA biomarker tests. Clinical endpoints of 30-, 60-, and 365-day all-cause mortality in stroke patients were used as subgroups within the analyzed population. Estimation of hazard ratios (HR) were obtained from Cox regression models for stroke-associated infection and all-cause mortality in relation to RA values.

Results: A high-RA was associated with increased mortality in ICU patients suffering from a stroke. After adjusting for age and sex, compared to the reference group (the first quartile), the high-RA group had the highest 30-day (HR, 95% CI: 1.88 (1.36, 2.58)), 90-day (HR, 95% CI: 2.12 (1.59, 2.82)), and one-year (HR, 95% CI: 2.15 (1.65, 2.80)) all-cause mortality. The RA values were independently associated with an increased risk of stroke-associated infection when adjusting for confounders.

Conclusions: Our data suggest RA may be an easily accessible, reproducible, and low-cost biomarker for predicting stroke-associated infections and mortality in patients who have suffered from a stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S322441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315287PMC
July 2021

Applicability of Transthoracic Contrast Echocardiography for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:656702. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Translational Medicine Research Center, Medical Artificial Intelligence Research Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

To explore the preferred test to screen for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and to predict the probability of interventional embolization. We performed a retrospective observational study evaluating patients with idiopathic PAVMs from 2009 to 2019. After clinical evaluation, a total of 105 patients were studied, including 71 patients with positive digital subtraction pulmonary angiography (DSPA) findings and 34 with negative DSPA findings. The following patient data were assessed: blood test, chest radiograph, transthoracic contrast echocardiography (TTCE), and DSPA findings. The majority of patients with idiopathic PAVMs were female (66.2% with positive DSPA findings). We found a good κ-coefficient of 0.77 with strong consistency for inter observer agreement concerning the pulmonary right-to-left shunt (RLS) grade on TTCE, which was superior to conventional chest radiographs. The positive predictive value (PPV) of the radiographic features for PAVMs on DSPA was 0.83 (95% CI 0.64-1.0) and 0.44 for the possibility of embolization (95% CI 0.19-0.70). The PPV of the shunt grade of PAVMs on DSPA was 0.14 (95% CI 0.01-0.29) for grade 1, 0.74 (95% CI 0.60-0.88) for grade 2, and 0.97 (95% CI 0.92-1.0) for grade 3. The PPVs of pulmonary shunt grades 2 and 3 on TTCE for the possibility of embolization for PAVMs were 0.21 (95% CI, 0.05-0.36) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.99), respectively. TTCE is the preferred screening test for PAVMs. The pulmonary RLS grade on TTCE not only identifies the likelihood of PAVMs but also predicts the probability for embolization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.656702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311437PMC
July 2021

A qualitative study on the experience of empowerment from the perspectives of breast cancer survivors.

Nurs Open 2021 09 27;8(5):2429-2438. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment, Shantou, China.

Aim: To describe the experience of empowerment for breast cancer survivors in order to increase quality of life after treatment.

Design: We adopted a qualitative design in this study.

Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach guided by interpretive description methodology as the theoretical framework was used in this study. Semi-structured group and individual interviews were conducted with eleven female Chinese breast cancer survivors (mean age 54.18 years, 100% female).

Results: Many survivors reported that they continued to experience disease-related discomfort from the physiological aspect, but they use multiple ways to improve quality of life. Breast cancer survivors experienced empowerment after treatment. Empowerment mainly required three components: a belief in good health, capability of self-management and acquisition of a good social support system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.1000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363359PMC
September 2021

Efficient and Outlier-Robust Simultaneous Pose and Correspondence Determination by Branch-and-Bound and Transformation Decomposition.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jul 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Estimating the pose of a calibrated camera relative to a 3D point-set from one image is an important task in computer vision. Perspective-n-Point algorithms are often used if perfect 2D-3D correspondences are known. However, it is difficult to determine 2D-3D correspondences perfectly, and then the simultaneous pose and correspondence determination problem is needed to be solved. Early methods aimed to solve this problem by local optimization. Recently, several new methods are proposed to globally solve this problem by using branch-and-bound (BnB) method, but they tend to be slow because the time complexity of the BnB-based method is exponential to the dimensionality of the parameter space, and they directly search the 6D parameter space. In this paper, we propose to decompose the searching to two separate searching processes by introducing a rotation invariant feature (RIF). Specifically, we construct RIFs from the original 3D and 2D point-sets and search for the globally optimal translation to match these two RIFs first. Then, the original 3D point set is translated and matched with the 2D point-set to find a globally optimal rotation. Experiments on challenging data show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of both speed and accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3096842DOI Listing
July 2021

Gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor mepiquat chloride enhances root K+ uptake in cotton by modulating plasma membrane H+-ATPase.

J Exp Bot 2021 09;72(18):6659-6671

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Potassium deficiency causes severe losses in yield and quality in crops. Mepiquat chloride, a plant growth regulator, can increase K+ uptake in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), but the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we used a non-invasive micro-test technique to measure K+ and H+ fluxes in the root apex with or without inhibitors of K+ channels, K+ transporters, non-selective cation channels, and plasma membrane H+-ATPases. We found that soaking seeds in mepiquat chloride solution increased the K+ influx mediated by K+ channels and reduced the K+ efflux mediated by non-selective cation channels in cotton seedlings. Mepiquat chloride also increased negative membrane potential (Em) and the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases in roots, due to higher levels of gene expression and protein accumulation of plasma membrane H+-ATPases as well as phosphorylation of H+-ATPase 11 (GhAHA11). Thus, plasma membrane hyperpolarization mediated by H+-ATPases was able to stimulate the activity of K+ channels in roots treated with mepiquat chloride. In addition, reduced K+ efflux under mepiquat chloride treatment was associated with reduced accumulation of H2O2 in roots. Our results provide important insights into the mechanisms of mepiquat chloride-induced K+ uptake in cotton and hence have the potential to help in improving K nutrition for enhancing cotton production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab302DOI Listing
September 2021

Postoperative Delirium is Not Associated with Long-Term Decline in Activities of Daily Living or Mortality After Laryngectomy.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 17;16:823-831. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200031, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To determine the relationships between postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative activities of daily living (ADL) and mortality in patients undergoing laryngectomy. We hypothesized that POD would reduce postoperative ADL and increase postoperative mortality.

Patients And Methods: The prospective study included older participants (age ≥65 y) undergoing total laryngectomy, partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy plus neck dissection, or partial laryngectomy plus neck dissection under general anesthesia. The diagnosis of delirium was based on the Confusion Assessment Method algorithm, which was administered on postoperative days 1 through 6. ADL were evaluated using the Chinese version of the Index of ADL scale. Follow-up assessments of ADL and mortality were conducted 24 months after surgery.

Results: Of 127 participants (aged 70.3 ± 4.1 y), 19 (15.0%) developed POD. POD was not associated with a decrease in ADL after laryngectomy (p=0.599) nor with an increase in postoperative mortality [3/19 (15.8%) vs 12/108 (11.1%), p=0.560, Log rank test]. However, longer surgery duration was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OR, 3.262; 95% CI, 1.261-9.169, p=0.025).

Conclusion: POD was not associated with long-term ADL or mortality after laryngectomy. Prolonged surgery was the only factor associated with a higher postoperative mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S303800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139736PMC
June 2021

The Amorphous Quercetin/ Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose Acetate Succinate Solid Dispersions Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method to Enhance Quercetin Dissolution.

J Pharm Sci 2021 09 15;110(9):3230-3237. Epub 2021 May 15.

School of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin 541004, PR China. Electronic address:

HPMCAS-HF, HPMCAS-MF and HPMCAS-LF were used as carriers to prepare the amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of quercetin (Que) by co-precipitation. The Que ASD based on PVP K30 was prepared by solvent evaporation method. The ability of polymer to inhibit Que crystallization was evaluated. The study found the order of the ability of polymer to inhibit Que nucleation to be: HF > MF > LF > K30, and that to maintain Que supersaturation to be: HF > K30 > MF > LF. The prepared solid dispersions were characterized by IR, DSC and PXRD. Although HF was the most effective crystallization inhibitor, the release of the Que/HF ASD was poor and assigned to the carrier-controlled dissolution for the strong interactions between Que and HF. The Que/MF ASD exhibited better dissolution behavior compared to the Que/K30 ASD. The dissolution behavior of the Que ASD depended on the polymer-Que interactions and the ability of crystallization inhibition of the polymer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2021.05.004DOI Listing
September 2021

Age- and sex-specific reference intervals for blood urea nitrogen in Chinese general population.

Sci Rep 2021 05 12;11(1):10058. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nephrology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism. This study aims to explore the age- and sex-specific distribution of BUN among healthy Chinese adults. A total of 24,006 BUN values from healthy adults (14,148 males and 9858 females) were included in the cross-sectional study. Males had a higher median BUN value compared to females (4.6 mmol/L vs. 4.1 mmol/L). BUN values showed a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, and blood sugar (P < 0.0001). However, eGFR showed a negative correlation with the BUN reference value (P < 0.0001) in both sexes. Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed that the positive associations of BUN levels and age were statistically significant after adjusting confounding factors (P < 0.001). Thus, the serum BUN values increased by 0.21 mmol/L for males and 0.282 mmol/L for females per 10 years. The BUN values corresponding to the 1st, 2.5th, 50th, 97.5th, and 99th percentiles for any specific age in both sex were also calculated. These results indicate that the serum BUN reference value is significantly affected by age and gender, and thus, its interpretation is age- and sex-dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89565-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115101PMC
May 2021

A highly stable multifunctional aptamer for enhancing antitumor immunity against hepatocellular carcinoma by blocking dual immune checkpoints.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jun;9(11):4159-4168

The United Innovation of Mengchao Hepatobiliary Technology Key Laboratory of Fujian Province, Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350025, P. R. China. and Fujian Institute of Research on The Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, P. R. China.

T-lymphocytes play a potent role in cancer immunotherapy; while, limited tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) combined with severe immunosuppression always significantly hinder their antitumor immune responses, especially in solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we prepared a highly stable multifunctional aptamer for strengthening antitumor immunity against HCC solid tumors through a dual immune checkpoint blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-L1. The engineered multifunctional aptamer (termed P1/C4-bi-apt) can block both CTLA-4/B7 and PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathways and thus enhance the antitumor immune responses. Furthermore, it can direct CTLA-4-positive T cells to infiltrate into tumors to further enhance the antitumor efficacy compared to a single blockage of CTLA-4 or PD-L1. As a result, the multifunctional aptamer can significantly inhibit tumor growth and thus improve the long-term survival of HCC-bearing mice. The designed multifunctional aptamer is simple, stable and easy to prepare, and it can significantly strengthen the functionality of T cells, holding great potential for HCC immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm02210aDOI Listing
June 2021

Punctuated Loci on Chromosome IV Determine Natural Variation in Orsay Virus Susceptibility of Strains Bristol N2 and Hawaiian CB4856.

J Virol 2021 05 24;95(12). Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Host-pathogen interactions play a major role in evolutionary selection and shape natural genetic variation. The genetically distinct strains, Bristol N2 and Hawaiian CB4856, are differentially susceptible to the Orsay virus (OrV). Here, we report the dissection of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to OrV infection. We compare OrV infection in the relatively resistant wild-type CB4856 strain to the more susceptible canonical N2 strain. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of viral susceptibility, 52 fully sequenced recombinant inbred lines (CB4856 × N2 RILs) were exposed to OrV. This led to the identification of two loci on chromosome IV associated with OrV resistance. To verify the two loci and gain additional insight into the genetic architecture controlling virus infection, introgression lines (ILs) that together cover chromosome IV, were exposed to OrV. Of the 27 ILs used, 17 had an CB4856 introgression in an N2 background, and 10 had an N2 introgression in a CB4856 background. Infection of the ILs confirmed and fine-mapped the locus underlying variation in OrV susceptibility, and we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism in may contribute to the difference in OrV susceptibility between N2 and CB4856. An allele swap experiment showed the strain CB4856 became as susceptible as the N2 strain by having an N2 allele, although having the CB4856 allele did not increase resistance in N2. In addition, we found that multiple strains with nonoverlapping introgressions showed a distinct infection phenotype from the parental strain, indicating that there are punctuated locations on chromosome IV determining OrV susceptibility. Thus, our findings reveal the genetic complexity of OrV susceptibility in and suggest that viral susceptibility is governed by multiple genes. Genetic variation determines the viral susceptibility of hosts. Yet, pinpointing which genetic variants determine viral susceptibility remains challenging. Here, we have exploited the genetic tractability of the model organism to dissect the genetic architecture of Orsay virus infection. Our results provide novel insight into natural determinants of Orsay virus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02430-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315983PMC
May 2021

Improved Influenza Diagnostics through Thermal Contrast Amplification.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 7;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Influenza poses a serious health threat and creates an economic burden for people around the world. The accurate diagnosis of influenza is critical to the timely clinical treatment of patients and the control of outbreaks to protect public health. Commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) that are operated by visual readout are widely used in clinics to screen influenza infections, but RIDTs suffer from imperfect analytical sensitivity, especially when the virus concentration in the sample is low. Fortunately, the sensitivity can be simply improved through an add-on signal amplification step, i.e., thermal contrast amplification (TCA). To demonstrate the advantage of TCA for influenza diagnosis, we conducted a prospective cohort study on 345 clinical specimens collected for influenza A and B testing during the 2017-2018 influenza season. All samples were tested using the Quidel QuickVue Influenza A + B test, followed by a TCA readout, and then confirmatory polymerase chain reaction testing. Through the TCA detecting sub-visual weak positives, TCA reading improved the overall influenza sensitivity by 53% for influenza A and 33% for influenza B over the visual RIDTs readings. Even though the specificity was compromised slightly by the TCA protocol (relative decrease of 0.09% for influenza A and 0.01% for influenza B), the overall performance was still better than that achieved by visual readout based on comparison of their plots in receiver operating characteristic space and F1 scores (relative increase of 14.5% for influenza A and 12.5% for influenza B). Performing a TCA readout on wet RIDTs also improved the overall TCA performance (relative increase in F1 score of 48%). Overall, the TCA method is a simple and promising way to improve the diagnostic performance of commercial RIDTs for infectious diseases, especially in the case of specimens with low target analytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11030462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999055PMC
March 2021

Enhancement of Memory Properties of Pentacene Field-Effect Transistor by the Reconstruction of an Inner Vertical Electric Field with an n-Type Semiconductor Interlayer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 15;13(11):13452-13458. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Artificial Functional Materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China.

Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as nonvolatile memory units are essential for lightweight and flexible electronics, yet the practical application remains a great challenge. The positively charged defects in pentacene film at the interface between pentacene and polymer caused by environmental conditions, as revealed by theoretical and experimental research works, result in unacceptable high programming/erasing (P/E) gate voltages in pentacene OFETs with polymer charge-trapping dielectric. Here, we report a pentacene OFET in which an n-type semiconductor layer was intercalated between a polymer and a blocking insulator. In this structure, the hole barrier caused by the defect layer can be adjusted by the thickness and charge-carrier density of the n-type semiconductor interlayer based on the electrostatic induction theory. This idea was implemented in an OFET structure Cu/pentacene/poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)/ZnO/SiO/Si(p), which shows low P/E gate voltages, large field-effect mobility (0.73 cm V s), fast P/E speeds (responding to a pulse width of 5 × 10 s), and long retention time in air.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19603DOI Listing
March 2021

Study of Sexual-Linked Genes ( and ) on the Performance of Androecious Persimmons ( Thunb.).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 18;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Key Laboratory of Non-Timber Forest Germplasm Enhancement & Utilization of State Administration of Forestry and Grassland, Non-Timber Forestry Research and Development Center, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Zhengzhou 450003, China.

It is reported that the production of floral sexual phenotype in hexaploid monoecious persimmon () is closely related to a pseudogene called , and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-like insertion (named ) in the promoter leads to the gene silence. As a result, DNA methylation level of promoter determines the development of male or female flowers. However, the molecular mechanism in androecious , which only bear male flowers, remains elusive. Here, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), molecular cloning, and bisulfite PCR sequencing technique were carried out using 87 materials, including 56 androecious resources, 15 monoecious, and 16 gynoecious cultivars, to investigate the performance of and on the specific androecious type of in China. In conclusion, the insertion was exactly located in the promoter region, and the gene and the sequence were existing and conserved in androecious . Meanwhile, we also demonstrated that the gene was widespread in our investigated samples. Ultimately, our result convincingly provided evidence that the low expression of is probably ascribed to the presence of displaying strong methylation in the promoter, and low expression of as well as high DNA methylation level, in the promoter was closely connected with the production of male flowers; this result was consistent with the monoecious persimmon model. Our findings provide predominant genetic aspects for investigation into androecious , and future perfecting the sex-determining mechanisms in persimmon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922513PMC
February 2021

Sodium propionate protect the blood-milk barrier integrity, relieve lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory injury and cells apoptosis.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 30;270:119138. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Sodium propionate (SP) has been reported to possess an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic potential by inhibiting certain signaling pathways and helps in reducing the pathological damages of the mammary gland. However, the effects of sodium propionate on attenuating Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory condition and cell damage in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) are not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the protective effects of sodium propionate on LPS-induced inflammatory conditions and to clarify the possible underlying molecular mechanism in bMECs.

Main Methods: The effects of increasing doses of SP on LPS-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis was studied in vitro. Furthermore, the underlying protective mechanisms of SP on LPS-stimulated bMECs was investigated under different experimental conditions.

Key Findings: The results reveled that increased inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and those of tight junction's mRNA expression was significantly attenuated dose-dependently by propionate. Biochemical analysis revealed that propionate pretreatment modulated the LPS-induced intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, oxidative and antioxidant factors and apoptosis rate. Furthermore, we investigated that the LPS activated nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), caspase/Bax apoptotic pathways and Histone deacetylases (HDAC) was significantly attenuated by propionate in bMECs.

Significance: Our results suggest that sodium propionate is a potent agent for ameliorating LPS-mediated cellular disruption and limiting detrimental inflammatory responses, partly via maintaining blood milk barrier integrity, inhibiting HDAC activity and NF-kB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119138DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic Performance of a Blood Urea Nitrogen to Creatinine Ratio-based Nomogram for Predicting In-hospital Mortality in COVID-19 Patients.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 12;14:117-128. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Nephrology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People's Republic of China.

Background: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is leading to high morbidity and mortality. This aim of this study was to test whether blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BCR) is a predictor for mortality in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: Ranges of "normal" BCR values were calculated from 9165 healthy subjects, and 337 and 79 COVID-19 patients were randomly assigned to the training cohort and the validation cohort, respectively. Prognostic factor of death incidence was selected by LASSO regression analyses. The prognostic ability of BCR range was assessed by logistic regression analysis. A nomogram for predicting in-hospital mortality based on BCR was developed. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated with respect to its calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness.

Results: Among 337 COVID-19 patients, 13.4% and 11.3% were classified into higher and lower than normal range group, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves for all-cause mortality showed that patients with higher BCR group had worse prognosis (<0.0001). BCR above the normal range was independently associated with death in COVID-19 patients (OR: 7.54; 95%CI: 1.55-36.66; =0.012). The nomogram had good discrimination in the training cohort (C-index 0.838; 0.795-0.880) and the validation cohort (C-index 0.929; 0.869-0.989), and good calibration. Using maximum Youden index, the cutoff values of 59.8 points, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.4% and 81%. Decision curve and clinical impact curve analysis demonstrated that the nomogram was clinically useful.

Conclusion: BCR was a useful prognostic factor for COVID-19 patients. Development of an individualized BCR-based prediction nomogram can effectively predict the risk of mortality and help clinicians to make individual treatment early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S278365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811470PMC
January 2021

A novel long-wavelength off-on fluorescence probe for nitroreductase analysis and hypoxia imaging.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Feb 8;1144:76-84. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

the United Innovation of Mengchao Hepatobiliary Technology Key Laboratory of Fujian Province, Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350025, PR China; Liver Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350005, PR China. Electronic address:

Hypoxia is one of the most important features of various diseases including solid tumors. It is of significant clinical importance for hypoxia analysis in tumors, and the analysis of hypoxia can be moved away to the indirect detection of nitroreductase. Various fluorescence methods have been developed for the analysis of nitroreductase and tumor hypoxia due to their simplicity, non-invasiveness and excellent spatial-temporal resolution. Here, we synthesized a multifunctional fluorophore, which possesses larger π-conjugation structure, leading to the red-shift of absorption and fluorescence emission to long-wavelength region. This fluorophore (RCOH) can be further used to prepare the off-on hypoxia probe (RCO-NTR) by introducing the electron withdrawing group of nitrobenzyl, leading to the quenching of fluorescence emission through an electron transfer process. After reaction with NTR accompanied by NADH as an electron donor, the nitro group in the RCO-NTR probe can be reduced and then the RCOH fluorophore can be released through rearrangement and elimination, leading to the enhancement of fluorescence signal. Thus, the prepared RCO-NTR probe can be used for nitroreductase analysis, which can be further used for hypoxia imaging at both cellular and animal levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.12.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Aggregation affects optical properties and photothermal heating of gold nanospheres.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):898. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Laser heating of gold nanospheres (GNS) is increasingly prevalent in biomedical applications due to tunable optical properties that determine heating efficiency. Although many geometric parameters (i.e. size, morphology) can affect optical properties of individual GNS and their heating, no specific studies of how GNS aggregation affects heating have been carried out. We posit here that aggregation, which can occur within some biological systems, will significantly impact the optical and therefore heating properties of GNS. To address this, we employed discrete dipole approximation (DDA) simulations, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and laser calorimetry on GNS primary particles with diameters (5, 16, 30 nm) and their aggregates that contain 2 to 30 GNS particles. DDA shows that aggregation can reduce the extinction cross-section on a per particle basis by 17-28%. Experimental measurement by UV-Vis and laser calorimetry on aggregates also show up to a 25% reduction in extinction coefficient and significantly lower heating (~ 10%) compared to dispersed GNS. In addition, comparison of select aggregates shows even larger extinction cross section drops in sparse vs. dense aggregates. This work shows that GNS aggregation can change optical properties and reduce heating and provides a new framework for exploring this effect during laser heating of nanomaterial solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79393-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806971PMC
January 2021
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