Publications by authors named "Yiqi Yang"

106 Publications

Safety profile of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in cancer: a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1229

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, which are among the most important breakthroughs in precision medicine, have played a crucial role in cancer treatment. Understanding the toxicity profiles of the different PARP inhibitors will improve strategic treatment in clinical practice.

Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched to include related studies published in English between January 2009 and February 2020. Only prospective, phase II and III randomized controlled trials were included. The following treatment groups were analyzed: niraparib, talazoparib, olaparib, rucaparib, conventional therapy (chemotherapy), one PARP inhibitor with one angiogenesis inhibitor, and placebo. Baseline data and adverse event data were extracted from the Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis.

Results: Fourteen phase II and III randomized controlled trials (4,336 patients) were included. When considering grade 3-5 adverse events, olaparib may be a better choice (probability =57%), followed by conventional therapy (50%), talazoparib (45%), rucaparib (75%), niraparib (77%), and a PARP inhibitor with one angiogenesis inhibitor (94%). Niraparib and rucaparib had higher risks for hematological and gastrointestinal toxicities, respectively. Talazoparib was safer for gastrointestinal function. Constipation and neutropenia were less observed in olaparib, but the risks for anorexia increased. The combination of PARP inhibitor and angiogenesis inhibitor increased the risk of general, metabolic, and gastrointestinal disorders.

Conclusions: This network meta-analysis suggested that the toxicity spectrum of each PARP inhibitor is different. Olaparib had the best safety profile among all PARP inhibitors because of its mild toxicity and narrow spectrum. This study may guide clinicians and support further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421942PMC
August 2021

Dual-functional hybrid quaternized chitosan/Mg/alginate dressing with antibacterial and angiogenic potential for diabetic wound healing.

J Orthop Translat 2021 Sep 12;30:6-15. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Clinic treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is considerably challenging. Impaired wound healing may be caused by poor vascularization and dysfunction of the extracellular matrix, which leads to poor re-epithelialization and increased risk of infection. In this study, we evaluated the treatment potential of a functional dressing comprising quaternized chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan) and magnesium (Mg) on DFUs.

Methods: Dressings were prepared by vacuum freeze-drying. The cellular proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis potential of the functional dressings were determined in vitro. Methicillin-resistant (MRSA ATCC43300) and methicillin-resistant 287 (MRSE287) were used to evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of the dressings. Finally, a diabetic rat model with infected wounds was used to further evaluate the effects of functional dressings on the healing of DFUs.

Results: Functional dressings facilitated the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), while also stimulating angiogenesis in HUVECs. Additionally, the functional dressing could effectively eradicate MRSA and MRSE, exhibiting excellent antibacterial ability against drug-resistant bacteria. The results of in vivo microbiological and histological tests demonstrated effective anti-infection ability and wound-healing potential of this functional dressing.

Conclusions: The dual-functional dressing exhibited wound-healing ability and anti-infection efficiency, demonstrating potential application prospects in DFU treatment.

Translational Potential Of This Article: As one of the common and serious complications of diabetes, DFUs do not heal easily, causing great suffering to patients. Therefore, improvement in the prognosis of DFUs is a crucial clinical need. The dual-functional dressing prepared in this study was proven to improve the treatment of DFUs, both in vitro and in vivo. Considering its urgent clinical necessity and good biocompatibility of its raw materials, such as alginate, Mg, and chitosan derivatives, this dual-functional dressing presents good prospects for clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2021.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365451PMC
September 2021

Risk Signature of Cancer-Associated Fibroblast-Secreted Cytokines Associates With Clinical Outcomes of Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:628677. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key components in tumor microenvironment (TME). The secreted products of CAFs play important roles in regulating tumor cells and further impacting clinical prognosis. This study aims to reveal the relationship between CAF-secreted cytokines and breast cancer (BC) by constructing the risk signature. We performed three algorithms to reveal CAF-related cytokines in the TCGA BC dataset and identified five prognosis-related cytokines. Then we used single-cell RNA sequencing (ScRNA-Seq) datasets of BC to confirm the expression level of these five cytokines in CAFs. METABRIC and other independent datasets were utilized to validate the findings in further analyses. Based on the identified five-cytokine signature derived from CAFs, BC patients with high-risk score (RS) had shorter overall survival than low-RS cases. Further analysis suggested that the high-RS level correlated with cell proliferation and mast cell infiltration in BCs of the Basal-like subtype. The results also indicated that the level of RS could discriminate the high-risk BC cases harboring driver mutations (i.e., PI3KCA, CDH1, and TP53). Additionally, the status of five-cytokine signature was associated with the frequency and molecular timing of whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) analysis among BC samples indicated that the high-RS level was associated with the increase of tumor subclones. This work demonstrated that the prognostic signature based on CAF-secreted cytokines was associated with clinical outcome, tumor progression, and genetic alteration. Our findings may provide insights to develop novel strategies for early intervention and prognostic prediction of BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.628677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356635PMC
July 2021

Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale ameliorate colitis-induced lung injury via inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Sep 5;347:109615. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

It has been reported that Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides (DOPS) could alleviate colitis in animal model and suppress the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and β-arrestin1 in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether DOPS has effect on protecting against colitis-induced pulmonary injury. The purpose of this study was to explore the protective effect and mechanism of DOPS on colitis-induced lung injury. A dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mice colitis model and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BEAS-2B cells model were applied in this study. The results showed that DOPS treatment restored histopathological changes, reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and MDA generation, and increased anti-oxidative enzymes activities including SOD and GSH-Px in colitis mice. Further investigation showed that DOPS significantly inhibited the protein expression of TLR4, and apparently up-regulated proteins expressions of nuclear-Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO-1 in lung tissues of colitis mice and in BEAS-2B cells. These results indicated that DOPS significantly inhibited inflammation and oxidative stress to alleviate colitis-induced secondary lung injury, and its mechanisms are closely related to the inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathway and the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway. DOPS may be a promising drug for alleviating colitis-induced lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109615DOI Listing
September 2021

FTZ attenuates liver steatosis and fibrosis in the minipigs with type 2 diabetes by regulating the AMPK signaling pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 3;138:111532. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Guangdong Metabolic Disease Research Center of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, China; Key Laboratory of Glucolipid Metabolic Disorder, Ministry of Education of China, China; Key Unit of Modulating Liver to Treat Hyperlipemia SATCM (State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), China; Institute of Chinese Medicinal Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, China; Guangdong TCM Key Laboratory against Metabolic Diseases, China. Electronic address:

Fufang Zhenzhu Tiaozhi formula (FTZ), a preparation of Chinese herbal medicine, has various pharmacological properties, such as hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anticoagulant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a marker of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and contributes to liver injury, fibrosis, and inflammation. Given the multiple effects of FTZ, we investigated whether FTZ can be a therapeutic agent for NASH and its mechanism. In the present study, we observed that FTZ treatment had an obviously favorable influence on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in the histopathologic features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD) with NASH minipigs. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of the fibrotic marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and a TUNEL assay revealed increased apoptotic positive hepatic cells in the liver tissues of the model group. Furthermore, FTZ administration reduced the increased expression of α-SMA, and FTZ inhibited apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2/Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Mechanistically, our data suggested that FTZ treatment attenuated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis via the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. In vitro studies showed that FTZ also attenuated intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA). FTZ upregulated the expression levels of P-AMPK and BCL-2 and downregulated BAX. The changes induced by FTZ were reversed by Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK. In conclusion, FTZ attenuated NASH by ameliorating steatosis and hepatocyte apoptosis, which is attributable to the regulation of the AMPK pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111532DOI Listing
June 2021

A 3D printed Ga containing scaffold with both anti-infection and bone homeostasis-regulating properties for the treatment of infected bone defects.

J Mater Chem B 2021 06;9(23):4735-4745

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Large bone defects face a high risk of infection, which can also lead to bone homeostasis disorders. This seriously hinders the bone healing process; therefore, the help of a dual-functional scaffold that has both anti-infection and bone-homeostasis-regulating capacities is needed in the treatment of infected bone defects. In this study, a 3D printed dual-functional scaffold composed of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG), and gallium (Ga) was produced. In vitro experiments demonstrated the excellent antibacterial ability of the PCL/MBG/Ga scaffold against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The scaffold also significantly inhibited osteoclastic activity and promoted osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, a rabbit model with an infected bone defect in the radius was used to evaluate the in vivo bone healing capability of PCL/MBG/Ga. The results demonstrate that the PCL/MBG/Ga scaffold can significantly accelerate bone healing and prevent bone resorption, suggesting its potential for application in repairing infected bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00387aDOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular mechanism of Fufang Zhenzhu Tiaozhi capsule in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease based on network pharmacology and validation in minipigs.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 23;274:114056. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Guangdong Metabolic Diseases Research Center of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine; Key Laboratory of Glucolipid Metabolic Disorder, Ministry of Education of China; Institute of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University; Guangdong TCM Key Laboratory for Metabolic Diseases, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Fufang Zhenzhu Tiaozhi formula (FTZ) of which a patented preparation of Chinese herbal medicine has been well documented with significant clinical curative effect for hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Because of the complexity of the chemical constituents of Chinese herbal formulas, the holistic pharmacological mechanism of FTZ acting on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear.

Aim Of The Study: To investigate the pharmacological efficacy and mechanism of FTZ in the treatment of T2DM accompanied by NAFLD.

Materials And Methods: Network pharmacology and validation in minipigs were used in this study. First, potential bioactive compounds of FTZ were identified by the traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology technology platform (TCMSP). Then, targets of compounds were gathered using DrugBank, SwissTargetPrediction and TCMSP, while targets for T2DM and NAFLD were collected from CTD (compounds-targets-diseases network) and GeneCards. Common targets were defined as direct therapeutic targets acting on T2DM with NAFLD. In addition, crucial targets were chosen by the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and contribution to compound-therapeutic targets in T2DM with the NAFLD network. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were used to analyze the metabolism-related signaling pathways affected by FTZ. Candidate patterns selected by network pharmacology were tested in the minipigs model of T2DM with NAFLD. Measurements of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting insulin (FINS) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) in the blood and the expression levels of proteins, including PI3K-AKT and HIF-1α, in the livers of the minipigs were followed by the administration of FTZ.

Results: A total of 116 active compounds and 82 potential targets related to T2DM and NAFLD were found. Pathway and functional enrichment analysis showed that FTZ mainly regulates metabolism-related pathways, including PI3K-AKT, HIF-1α, TNFα and MAPK. Animal experiments showed that FTZ treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C and FBG, increased serum levels of HDL-C, ameliorated systemic insulin resistance (IR), and attenuated liver damage in minipigs with T2DM and NAFLD. FTZ treatment has an obviously favorable influence on hepatic steatosis and liver lipid accumulation in the histopathologic features of HE, Oil red O staining, and electron microscopy. Mechanistically, FTZ improved liver metabolism by increasing the phosphorylation of PI3K-AKT and decreasing the expression of HIF-1α.

Conclusion: Network pharmacology was supported by experimental studies, which indicated that FTZ has demonstrated therapeutic benefits in T2DM and NAFLD by regulating the PI3K-AKT and HIF-1α signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114056DOI Listing
June 2021

The traditional Chinese medicine formula Fufang-Zhenzhu-Tiaozhi protects myocardia from injury in diabetic minipigs with coronary heart disease.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 5;137:111343. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Guangdong Metabolic Disease Research Center of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, China; Key Laboratory of Glucolipid Metabolic Disorder, Ministry of Education of China, China; Key Unit of Modulating Liver to Treat Hyperlipemia SATCM (State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), China; Institute of Chinese Medicinal Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangdong TCM Key Laboratory against Metabolic Diseases, China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Previous research has reported that the Fufang-Zhenzhu-Tiaozhi (FTZ) formula has obvious effects on the treatment of dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. In the present study, we intended to establish a convenient DM-CHD model in minipigs and investigated the protective effect of FTZ against myocardial injury and its mechanism.

Methods: The DM-CHD model was established by a high-fat/high-sucrose/high-cholesterol diet (HFSCD) combined with balloon injury in the coronary artery. Subsequently, sixteen Wuzhishan minipigs were assigned to three groups: control group, model group, and FTZ group. The model group and FTZ group were given a HFSCD, while the control group was given a normal diet (ND). FTZ was given with meals in the FTZ group. During this time, biochemical parameters, such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG), were measured by using testing kits. Insulin (INS) was determined by ELISA, and the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated to evaluate insulin resistance levels. After FTZ administration, the plasma levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were measured by using ELISA kits to evaluate myocardial injury. Coronary artery stenosis was analyzed by angiographic and HE staining. Myocardial ischemia was assayed with electrocardiogram (ECG). Moreover, cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were measured by ELISA kits to assess inflammation. The myocardial tissue was collected, and the pathological morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), HE staining, and Masson staining. Western blots were used to detect the expression of PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, p-NF-κB, and NF-κB.

Results: A DM-CHD model in minipigs with glucose-lipid metabolism disorder, coronary artery incrassation and myocardial damage was successfully established through balloon injury in the coronary artery combined with HFSCD. FTZ effectively inhibited coronary artery incrassation and protected the myocardium against injury in DM-CHD minipigs. FTZ decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels and upregulated the protein expression of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the myocardium.

Conclusions: A novel DM-CHD model in minipigs was successfully established through balloon injury in the coronary artery combined with HFSCD. FTZ has a protective effect against myocardial injury in DM-CHD by inhibiting inflammation and activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111343DOI Listing
May 2021

A pH-responsive bioassay for sensitive colorimetric detection of adenosine triphosphate based on switchable DNA aptamer and metal ion-urease interactions.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Mar 19;413(6):1533-1540. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, People's Republic of China.

A facile and economic colorimetric strategy was designed for ATP detection by rationally using urease, a pH-responsive molecule, and a metal-mediated switchable DNA probe. By utilizing metal ions as a modulator of urease activity, the concentration of ATP is translated into pH change, which can be readily visualized by naked eye. An unmodified single-stranded DNA probe was designed, which consists of a target binding sequence and two flanked cytosine (C)-rich sequences. This C-rich single-stranded DNA can form a hairpin structure triggered by Ag ions via C-Ag-C base mismatch. Upon introduction of ATP, Ag-coordinated hairpin DNA structure will be broken and release the included Ag, thus inhibiting the activity of urease. Conversely, urease can hydrolyze urea and raise pH value of the solution, resulting in the color change of the sensing solution. The proposed assay allows determination of ATP as low as 1.6 nM and shows a satisfactory result in human serum. Because of simple operation and low cost of this method, we believe it has a potential in point-of-care (POC) testing in resource-limited areas. Schematic illustration of pH-responsive colorimetric sensor for ATP detection based on switchable DNA aptamer and metal ion-urease interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-03136-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Osteoblast and Osteoclast Activity Affect Bone Remodeling Upon Regulation by Mechanical Loading-Induced Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Expression in Osteocytes.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 26;7:585056. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implants, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Bone remodeling is affected by mechanical stimulation. Osteocytes are the primary mechanical load-sensing cells in the bone, and can regulate osteoblast and osteoclast activity, thus playing a key role in bone remodeling. Further, bone mass during exercise is also regulated by Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). This study aimed to investigate the role of LIF in the mechanical response of the bone, and , and to elucidate the mechanism by which osteocytes secrete LIF to regulate osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

Methods: A tail-suspension (TS) mouse model was used in this study to mimic muscular disuse. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect bone and serum LIF levels. Micro-computed tomography (CT) of the mouse femurs was performed to measure three-dimensional bone structure parameters. Fluid shear stress (FSS) and microgravity simulation experiments were performed to study mechanical stress-induced LIF secretion and its resultant effects. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured to induce osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, respectively.

Results: Micro-CT results showed that TS mice exhibited deteriorated bone microstructure and lower serum LIF expression. LIF secretion by osteocytes was promoted by FSS and was repressed in a microgravity environment. Further experiments showed that LIF could elevate the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in BMM-derived osteoclasts through the STAT3 signaling pathway. LIF also enhanced alkaline phosphatase staining and osteogenesis-related gene expression during the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs.

Conclusion: Mechanical loading affected LIF expression levels in osteocytes, thereby altering the balance between osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.585056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726425PMC
November 2020

A 3D-bioprinted scaffold with doxycycline-controlled BMP2-expressing cells for inducing bone regeneration and inhibiting bacterial infection.

Bioact Mater 2021 May 10;6(5):1318-1329. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Large bone defects face a high risk of pathogen exposure due to open wounds, which leads to high infection rates and delayed bone union. To promote successful repair of infectious bone defects, fabrication of a scaffold with dual functions of osteo-induction and bacterial inhibition is required. This study describes creation of an engineered progenitor cell line (C3H10T1/2) capable of doxycycline (DOX)-mediated release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). Three-dimensional bioprinting technology enabled creation of scaffolds, comprising polycaprolactone/mesoporous bioactive glass/DOX and bioink, containing these engineered cells. and experiments confirmed that the scaffold could actively secrete BMP2 to significantly promote osteoblast differentiation and induce ectopic bone formation. Additionally, the scaffold exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial capacity, thereby ensuring the survival of embedded engineered cells when facing high risk of infection. These findings demonstrated the efficacy of this bioprinted scaffold to release BMP2 in a controlled manner and prevent the occurrence of infection; thus, showing its potential for repairing infectious bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.10.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658329PMC
May 2021

Post-translational modifications of PRC2: signals directing its activity.

Authors:
Yiqi Yang Gang Li

Epigenetics Chromatin 2020 10 31;13(1):47. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China.

Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a chromatin-modifying enzyme that catalyses the methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me1/2/3). This complex maintains gene transcriptional repression and plays an essential role in the maintenance of cellular identity as well as normal organismal development. The activity of PRC2, including its genomic targeting and catalytic activity, is controlled by various signals. Recent studies have revealed that these signals involve cis chromatin features, PRC2 facultative subunits and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of PRC2 subunits. Overall, these findings have provided insight into the biochemical signals directing PRC2 function, although many mysteries remain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-020-00369-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603765PMC
October 2020

EZH2 overexpression dampens tumor-suppressive signals via an EGR1 silencer to drive breast tumorigenesis.

Oncogene 2020 11 2;39(48):7127-7141. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China.

The mechanism underlying EZH2 overexpression in breast cancer and its involvement in tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed an approach to systematically identify the trans-acting factors regulating the EZH2 expression, and identified more than 20 such factors. We revealed reciprocal regulation of early growth response 1 (EGR1) and EZH2: EGR1 activates the expression of EZH2, and EZH2 represses EGR1 expression. Using CRISPR-mediated genome/epigenome editing, we demonstrated that EHZ2 represses EGR1 expression through a silencer downstream of the EGR1 gene. Deletion of the EGR1 silencer resulted in reduced cell growth, invasion, tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells, and extensive changes in gene expression, such as upregulation of GADD45, DDIT3, and RND1; and downregulation of genes encoding cholesterol biosynthesis pathway enzymes. We hypothesize that EZH2/PRC2 acts as a "brake" for EGR1 expression by targeting the EGR1 silencer, and EZH2 overexpression dampens tumor-suppressive signals mediated by EGR1 to drive breast tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01484-9DOI Listing
November 2020

Irisin inhibits osteocyte apoptosis by activating the Erk signaling pathway in vitro and attenuates ALCT-induced osteoarthritis in mice.

Bone 2020 12 5;141:115573. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China. Electronic address:

Moderate exercise can alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) such as pain, stiffness, and joint deformities that are associated with progressive cartilaginous degeneration, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone changes, and synovial inflammation. Irisin is an exercise-related myokine that reportedly plays a crucial role in bone remodeling. However, its role in OA remains unknown. This study aimed to determine whether irisin can attenuate OA progression and the mechanism of its therapeutic effect. Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomized to groups that underwent sham operation, and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or irisin in vivo. Apoptosis was induced by stretching murine osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells in vitro. Irisin reduced wear, maintained the proportion of hyaline cartilage, a more complete cartilage structure, and lower Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scores at 4 weeks after ACLT. Irisin reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in cartilage and caspase 3 in the subchondral bone. Irisin exerted rescue effects in microstructural parameters of subchondral trabecular bone including bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), connection density (Conn. D), and the structure model index (SMI) compared with ACLT-vehicle group. Bone histomorphometry showed that irisin increased subchondral bone remodeling. The decreasing ratio (%) of the eroded surface (ES/BS) was reversed by irisin in the ACLT+vehicle group. Staining with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase showed a decreased number of osteoclasts. Irisin significantly increased the proliferation of osteocytes, protected them from apoptosis, and maintained cellular activity by regulating the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kB-ligand (OPG/Rankl). Irisin activated serine/threonine-selective protein kinases (Erk) and p38 signaling, and its anti-apoptosis function depended on the Erk signaling pathway. Irisin attenuated OA progression by decreasing osteocyte apoptosis and improving the microarchitecture of subchondral bone. Activation of the Erk pathway by irisin plays an important role in reducing osteocyte apoptosis in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115573DOI Listing
December 2020

Correction: Potent and regularizable crosslinking of ultrafine fibrous protein scaffolds for tissue engineering using a cytocompatible disaccharide derivative.

J Mater Chem B 2020 Aug;8(32):7289-7290

Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, USA. and Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, USA and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, USA.

Correction for 'Potent and regularizable crosslinking of ultrafine fibrous protein scaffolds for tissue engineering using a cytocompatible disaccharide derivative' by Helan Xu et al., J. Mater. Chem. B, 2015, 3, 3609-3616, DOI: 10.1039/C4TB02100B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb90127jDOI Listing
August 2020

Transferring feather wastes to ductile keratin filaments towards a sustainable poultry industry.

Waste Manag 2020 Sep 27;115:65-73. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States; Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States; Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States. Electronic address:

Technology for the transformation of waste feathers to quality regenerated filaments has been developed. Regardless of superior properties of natural keratin materials, previously developed regenerated materials from keratin had tensile properties much lower than their natural counterparts due to backbone hydrolysis and inefficient reconstruction of disulfide crosslinkages. In this work, tough keratin filaments have been regenerated from white duck feathers via efficient restoration of disulfide crosslinkages using a dithiol reducing agent. Dithiol substantially reserves free thiol groups in the extraction and formed lengthy intermolecular crosslinkages in regenerated keratin filaments. Due to the high degree of intermolecular reconstruction of disulfide bonds and formation of lengthy crosslinkages via dithiol chain-extension, the keratin filaments exhibited considerable improvements in mechanical properties, especially for ductility and water stability. The tenacity and elongation at break were 160.7 MPa and 14%, respectively. The filaments retained about 80% of the tenacity of natural feathers at either dry or wet conditions and demonstrated stretchability 150% higher than natural feathers. The fiber regeneration technology makes it possible to substitute primary fiber sources by renewable poultry feathers. Successful filament substitution or addition can bring more than 88-billion-dollar revenue. The technology not only contributes to a sustainable fiber and poultry industry but adds substantial values to poultry feathers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.07.022DOI Listing
September 2020

Bioprinting of an osteocyte network for biomimetic mineralization.

Biofabrication 2020 07 29;12(4):045013. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. These authors contributed equally to this work.

Osteocytes, essential regulators of bone homeostasis, are embedded in the mineralized bone matrix. Given the spatial arrangement of osteocytes, bioprinting represents an ideal method to biofabricate a 3D osteocyte network with a suitable surrounding matrix similar to native bone tissue. Here, we reported a 3D bioprinted osteocyte-laden hydrogel for biomimetic mineralization in vitro with exceptional shape fidelity, a high cell density (10 cells per ml) and high cell viability (85%-90%). The bioinks were composed of biomimetic modified biopolymers, namely, gelatine methacrylamide (GelMA) and hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HAMA), with or without type I collagen. The osteocyte-laden constructs were printed and cultured in mineralization induction media. After 28 d, increased dendritic cell connections and enhanced mineralized matrix production were observed after the addition of type I collagen. These results were further confirmed by the expression of osteocyte-related genes, markers of osteocyte morphology (Connexin43 and E11/Podoplanin), markers of mineralization (dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (Dmp1)) and the cellular response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Moreover, the 3D bioprinting constructs outperformed the 2D monolayer culture and they were at least comparable to 3D casted hydrogels in mimicking the natural osteocyte phenotype. All results indicated that the 3D bioprinting osteocyte network shows promise for mechanistic studies and pharmaceutical screening in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/aba1d0DOI Listing
July 2020

Relationship between tRNA-derived fragments and human cancers.

Int J Cancer 2020 12 4;147(11):3007-3018. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

tRNA-derived fragments, a class of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), have been identified in numerous studies in recent years. tRNA-derived fragments are classified into two main groups, including tRNA halves (tiRNAs) and tRNA-derived small RNA fragments (tRFs), according to different cleavage positions of the precursor or mature tRNAs. Instead of random tRNA degradation debris, a growing body of evidence has shown that tRNA-derived fragments are precise products of specific tRNA modifications and play important roles in biological activities, such as regulating protein translation, affecting gene expression, and altering immune signaling. Recently, the relations between tRNA-derived fragments and the occurrence of human diseases, especially cancers, have generated wide interest. It has been demonstrated that tRNA-derived fragments are involved in cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, progression and survival. In this review, we will describe the biogenesis of tRNA-derived fragments, the distinct expression and function of tRNA-derived fragments in the development of cancers, and their emerging roles as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and precise targets of future treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33107DOI Listing
December 2020

Bilobalide reversibly modulates blood-brain barrier permeability through promoting adenosine A1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of actin-binding proteins.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 06 17;526(4):1077-1084. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Guangdong Metabolic Disease Research Centre of Integrated Chinese and Medicine, Key Unit of Modulating Liver to Treat Hyperlipemia SATCM (State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Guangdong TCM Key Laboratory for Metabolic Diseases, Institute of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, China. Electronic address:

Bilobalide, one of the key bioactive components of Ginkgo biloba leaves, exerts prominent neuroprotective properties in central nervous system (CNS) disease. However, the effect of bilobalide on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of bilobalide on BBB permeability and its potential mechanism involved. Both the in vitro and in vivo results showed that significant enhancement of BBB permeability was found following bilobalide treatment, evidenced by the reduced transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), the increased fluorescein sodium (Na-F) penetration rate in vitro and the leakage of FITC-dextran in vivo. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images demonstrated that bilobalide modulated BBB permeability by changing the ultrastructure of tight junctions (TJs). In addition, actin-binding proteins ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) and Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation was observed following bilobalide treatment. Moreover, the effect of bilobalide on TEER reduction and ERM/MLC phosphorylation was counteracted by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) siRNA. The current findings suggested that bilobalide might reversibly modulate BBB permeability by the alteration of TJs ultrastructure through A1R-mediated phosphorylation of actin-binding proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.03.186DOI Listing
June 2020

Chitosan/gallnut tannins composite fiber with improved tensile, antibacterial and fluorescence properties.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Dec 11;226:115311. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Textiles, Merchandising & Fashion Design, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States; Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States. Electronic address:

Natural extracts gallnut tannins (GTs) were used as functional components to prepare chitosan/gallnut tannins (CS/GTs) composite fiber by blended solution spinning. Chitosan fiber has great potential to be used as absorbent suture and dressing due to its good biocompatibility. However, the weak mechanical properties limited its application. Chitosan and GTs were blended in aqueous solution of acetic acid to spin the composite fiber. The results indicated that CS/GTs fiber can be easily prepared due to the appropriate rheology characteristics for blended solution. Compared with pure chitosan fiber, CS/GTs fiber with 10% GTs showed lower hydrophilicity and higher dry, wet breaking strength by more than 40% due to ionic cross-linking between chitosan and GTs. The bacterial reduction to Staphylococcus aureus increased from 49.0 to 99.7% and about double green and red fluorescent intensity were observed for CS/GTs fiber. GTs have great potentiality in improving the properties of chitosan fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115311DOI Listing
December 2019

Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides alleviate colon tumorigenesis via restoring intestinal barrier function and enhancing anti-tumor immune response.

Pharmacol Res 2019 10 29;148:104417. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Development and Research of Chinese Medicine, Mathematical Engineering Academy of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, PR China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Intact epithelial barrier and mucosal immune system are crucial for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Previous study indicated that Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides (DOPS) can regulate immune responses and inflammation to alleviate experimental colitis. However, it remains largely unknown whether DOPS can suppress AOM/DSS-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) model through its direct impact on intestinal barrier function and intestinal mucosal immunity. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic action of DOPS for CRC model and further illustrated its underlying mechanisms. Treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and DOPS significantly improved the clinical signs and symptoms of chronic colitis, relieve colon damage, suppress the formation and growth of colon tumor in CRC mice. Moreover, administration of DOPS effectively preserved the intestinal barrier function via reducing the loss of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in adjacent tissues and carcinomatous tissues. Further studies demonstrated that DOPS improved the metabolic ability of tumor infiltrated CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and reduced the expression of PD-1 on CTLs to enhance the anti-tumor immune response in the tumor microenvironments (TME). Together, the conclusions indicated that DOPS restore intestinal barrier function and enhance intestinal anti-tumor immune response to suppress CRC, which may be a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104417DOI Listing
October 2019

Benign Fabrication of Fully Stereocomplex Polylactide with High Molecular Weights via a Thermally Induced Technique.

ACS Omega 2018 Jul 18;3(7):7979-7984. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design and Department of Biological Systems Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, HECO Building, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0802, United States.

A reproducible and environmentally friendly method for the preparation of high molecular-weight stereocomplex polylactide (HMW SCPLA) is achieved. Poly(l-lactide) and poly(d-lactide) were simply dissolved in an environmentally friendly solvent, dibasic ester (DBE), at 110 °C. Then, the two solutions were mixed and cooled to room temperature, and the HMW SCPLA spontaneously precipitated in the form of fine powder consequently. The presence of the DBE reduced the reaction temperature and improved the molecular mobility of the polymers; thus, the degradation problems and the molecular diffusion issue in the process of the formation of the stereocomplex could be overcome. The relationship among the concentration of the mixture, degree of stereo-complexation, and thermal properties of SCPLA powders was also established. Moreover, porous membrane and film SCPLA material with good thermal properties were also obtained using this thermally induced technique. This method could be a good approach to expand the SCPLA applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b00902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6644614PMC
July 2018

Overexpression of OsAGO1b Induces Adaxially Rolled Leaves by Affecting Leaf Abaxial Sclerenchymatous Cell Development in Rice.

Rice (N Y) 2019 Aug 8;12(1):60. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Background: ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1) proteins can recruit small RNAs to regulate gene expression, involving several growth and development processes in Arabidopsis. Rice genome contains four AGO1 genes, OsAGO1a to OsAGO1d. However, the regulatory functions to rice growth and development of each AGO1 gene are still unknown.

Results: We obtained overexpression and RNAi transgenic lines of each OsAGO1 gene. However, only up- and down-regulation of OsAGO1b caused multiple abnormal phenotypic changes in rice, indicating that OsAGO1b is the key player in rice growth and organ development compared with other three OsAGO1s. qRT-PCR assays showed that OsAGO1b was almost unanimously expressed in leaves at different developmental stages, and strongly expressed in spikelets at S1 to S3 stages. OsAGO1b is a typical AGO protein, and co-localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm simultaneously. Overexpression of OsAGO1b caused adaxially rolled leaves and a series of abnormal phenotypes, such as the reduced tiller number and plant height. Knockdown lines of OsAGO1b showed almost normal leaves, but the seed setting percentage was significantly reduced accompanied by the disturbed anther patterning and reduced pollen fertility. Further anatomical observation revealed that OsAGO1b overexpression plants showed the partially defective development of sclerenchymatous cells on the abaxial side of leaves. In situ hybridization showed OsAGO1b mRNA was uniformly accumulated in P1 to P3 primordia without polarity property, suggesting OsAGO1b did not regulate the adaxial-abaxial polarity development directly. The expression levels of several genes related to leaf polarity development and vascular bundle differentiation were observably changed. Notably, the accumulation of miR166 and TAS3-siRNA was decreased, and their targeted OSHBs and OsARFs were significantly up-regulated. The mRNA distribution patterns of OSHB3 and OsARF4 in leaves remained almost unchanged between ZH11 and OsAGO1b overexpression lines, but their expression levels were enhanced at the regions of vascular bundles and sclerenchymatous cell differentiation.

Conclusions: In summary, we demonstrated OsAGO1b is the leading player among four OsAGO1s in rice growth and development. We propose that OsAGO1b may regulate the abaxial sclerenchymatous cell differentiation by affecting the expression of OSHBs in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-019-0323-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687834PMC
August 2019

Elevated Exogenous Pyruvate Potentiates Mesodermal Differentiation through Metabolic Modulation and AMPK/mTOR Pathway in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

Stem Cell Reports 2019 08 25;13(2):338-351. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Centre of Reproduction, Development and Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China; Bioimaging and Stem Cell Core Facility, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China. Electronic address:

Pyruvate is a key metabolite in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Exogenous pyruvate modulates metabolism, provides cellular protection, and is essential for the maintenance of human preimplantation embryos and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, little is known about how pyruvate contributes to cell-fate determination during epiblast stage. In this study, we used hESCs as a model to demonstrate that elevated exogenous pyruvate shifts metabolic balance toward oxidative phosphorylation in both maintenance and differentiation conditions. During differentiation, pyruvate potentiates mesoderm and endoderm lineage specification. Pyruvate production and its mitochondrial metabolism are required in BMP4-induced mesoderm differentiation. However, the TCA-cycle metabolites do not have the same effect as pyruvate on differentiation. Further study shows that pyruvate increases AMP/ATP ratio, activates AMPK, and modulates the mTOR pathway to enhance mesoderm differentiation. This study reveals that exogenous pyruvate not only controls metabolism but also modulates signaling pathways in hESC differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2019.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6700476PMC
August 2019

Valorization of keratin from food wastes via crosslinking using non-toxic oligosaccharide derivatives.

Food Chem 2019 Dec 13;300:125181. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States; Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States; Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States. Electronic address:

Oligosaccharide derivatives were developed to crosslink keratin materials from poultry feathers, swine bristles and ox hairs to valorize these major wastes from meat industry. Global butchery generates more than 8,600,000 tons of keratinous wastes annually. Keratin was considered a promising resource for developing bio-based products as alternatives to petroleum products. Regenerated keratin products, such as films, usually showed insufficient mechanical properties, and required external crosslinking. However, most crosslinkers for proteins are either toxic, expensive, or with low efficiencies under mild conditions. In this research, regenerated keratin films were crosslinked by oxidized sucrose, a safe and potent bio-polyaldehyde. The crosslinker with verified low toxicity improved both tensile strength and elongation of keratin films, surpassing many other safe crosslinkers. Mechanism of the crosslinking reaction was proposed as forming Schiff bases and aminals and verified via H NMR and C NMR. Relationship between tensile properties and crosslinking degree of keratin films was also quantified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125181DOI Listing
December 2019

Prognostic Value of XIAP Level in Patients with Various Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Cancer 2019 26;10(6):1528-1537. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis, which has been found to be overexpressed in multiple human cancers and associated with survival rates. Herein, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the predictive value of XIAP level in patients with various solid tumors. Relevant articles exploring the relationship between XIAP expression and survival of cancer patients were retrieved in PubMed, PMC, EMBASE and Web of Science published from 2001 to 2018. The combined hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the significance. A total of 6554 patients from 40 articles were included in this meta-analysis. It was shown in 37 studies with 4864 cases that the over-expression of XIAP was associated with poorer overall survival (OS) (combined HR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.33-1.96). Meanwhile, 8 studies with 1862 cases revealed that elevated XIAP level predicted shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (HR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.03-4.59). Subgroup analyses showed that higher XIAP detection was related to worse OS in gastric cancer (HR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.18-1.72) and head and neck cancer (HNC) (HR=2.97, 95% CI: 1.97-4.47). Our results suggested that elevated XIAP level seemed to represent an unfavorable prognostic factor for clinical outcomes in cancer patients. However, there were limited studies describing the association between XIAP expression and clinical prognosis in each different type of tumors. Therefore, concrete roles of XIAP in various cancers need to be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.28229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6485232PMC
February 2019

High sorption of reactive dyes onto cotton controlled by chemical potential gradient for reduction of dyeing effluents.

J Environ Manage 2019 Jun 21;239:271-278. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68583-0802, United States; Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68583-0802, United States; Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68583-0802, United States. Electronic address:

This research uses soybean oil/water dual-phase solvents system (SWDS) to achieve high dye fixation as well as minimal discharge of waste effluents. Reactive dyeings are one of the most serious pollution sources and few dyeing technologies developed could successfully reduce the generation of toxic substances without decreasing dyeing qualities. Through a remarkable increase in chemical potential of dyes in dyeing medium, SWDS remarkably increased the dye concentration in the internal solvent phase. As a result, % exhaustion of dye was 100%, and % fixation of dye was up to 92% in SWDS. Final discharges of dyes and salts from SWDS were decreased by 85% and 100%, respectively, compared to that from the conventional aqueous system. More than 99.5% of initially added biodegradable soybean oil could be recycled for reactive dyeing without treatments. Furthermore, SWDS could be readily applied in jet-dyeing machines on a pilot scale. Via the reuse of soybean oil, SWDS could save up to $0.26 per kg of fabric compared to aqueous dyeings in terms of materials cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.062DOI Listing
June 2019

Poly(l-lactic acid) bio-composites reinforced by oligo(d-lactic acid) grafted chitosan for simultaneously improved ductility, strength and modulus.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 16;131:495-504. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States; Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States; Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802, United States. Electronic address:

PLA bio-composites reinforced by oligo(d-lactic acid) grafted chitosan has been developed for simultaneously improved ductility, strength and modulus. Brittleness problem greatly limits the applications of PLA, a polymer derived from corn. Various methods have been developed to solve the brittleness problem. Unfortunately, these methods have their limitations, such as sacrifice of strength and modulus of PLA, use of toxic chemicals and high costs. Bio-based elastomers such as chitosan also have poor compatibility with PLA, leading to poor mechanical properties. The hypothesis for this research is that CS-g-oligo(D-LA) particles with good ductility could form strong interfacial interactions with PLLA matrix. Reinforcing effect of CS-g-oligo(D-LA) particles on PLLA matrix was systematically studied. Compatibility and intermolecular interactions between CS-g-oligo(D-LA) particles and PLLA matrix were studied by SEM, DSC and C NMR analyses. The reinforcing mechanism was summarized. Due to effective transfer of stress from PLLA matrix to the strong but ductile skeletons of CS-g-oligo(D-LA), ductility, strength and modulus of PLLA bio-composites were substantially improved. This novel reinforcing strategy via formation of strong interactions between enantiomeric lactyl units would enrich the fabrication and exploration of high-performance PLA-based bio-composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.098DOI Listing
June 2019

Purification and characterization of lysozyme from Chinese Lueyang black-bone Silky fowl egg white.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2019 22;49(3):215-221. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Chinese-German Joint Laboratory for Natural Product Research, Qinling-Bashan Mountains Bioresources Comprehensive Development C.I.C., College of Biological Science and Engineering , Shaanxi University of Technology , Hanzhong , China.

Lysozyme, an important antibacterial protein, is an enzyme that cleaves the glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine of peptidoglycan in cell walls. The novel lysozyme was purified and characterized from Chinese Lueyang black-bone silky fowl (CBSF) egg white, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence, enzymatic properties, and antibacterial activity were investigated. The CBSF lysozyme was purified using adsorption chromatography, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography. The purification fold and yield were 3.28 and 14.69%, respectively. The purified lysozyme was revealed as a single protein band with SDS-PAGE and had a MALDI-TOF/TOF molecular weight of 14305.57 Da and a final specific activity of 3.49 × 10 U/mg protein using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as a substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the lysozyme were 50 °C and 6.0, respectively. The 20 N-terminal amino acid residues of the purified lysozyme were determined to be KVFGRCELAAAMKRHGLDNY, showing some homology to the N-terminus of the odontophoridae egg white lysozyme. The purified lysozyme exerted a potent antimicrobial activity toward indicator microorganisms, including Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. However, its inhibition of gram-negative activity was weaker than that of the Gram-positive bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2018.1476887DOI Listing
April 2019

Submicron amino acid particles reinforced 100% keratin biomedical films with enhanced wet properties via interfacial strengthening.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 May 24;177:33-40. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68583-0802, United States; Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68583-0802, United States; Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 234, HECO Building, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68583-0802, United States. Electronic address:

Keratin films with wet stability and strength suitable for biomedical applications were developed via reinforcement with submicron cysteine particles for improved interfaces. Keratin products regenerated from wool or human hair were widely investigated as wound dressing and tissue engineering scaffolds for their satisfactory biomedical properties. However, regenerated keratin scaffolds usually did not have good mechanical properties, and also could not stand humid or wet biological environment due to poor moisture stability. Reinforcements for keratin materials were usually polysaccharides or synthetic polymers, and thus usually had non-ideal interfacial properties due to limited compatibility. In this research, submicron cystine particles were employed to reinforce keratin films for their high compatibility with keratin and bio-safety. Transition of primary and secondary structures of keratin due to matrix-reinforcement interaction was analyzed. The keratin films showed unprecedented pliancy, good tensile properties under humid conditions and biocompatibility, and thus had good potential for biomedical engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.01.043DOI Listing
May 2019
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