Publications by authors named "Yingying Zhang"

898 Publications

Encapsulated Microstructures of Beneficial Functional Lipids and Their Applications in Foods and Biomedicines.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Joint Laboratory of Advanced Biomedical Materials (NFU-UGent), Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University (NFU), Nanjing 210037, P. R. China.

Beneficial functional lipids are essential nutrients for the growth and development of humans and animals, which nevertheless possess poor chemical stability because of heat/light-sensitivity. Various encapsulation technologies have been developed to protect these nutrients against adverse factors. Different microstructures are exhibited through different encapsulation methods, which influence the encapsulation efficiency and release behavior at the same time. This review summarizes the effects of preparation methods and process parameters on the microstructures of capsules at first. The mechanisms of the different microstructures on encapsulation efficiency and controlled release behavior of core materials are analyzed. Next, a comprehensive overview on the beneficial functional lipids capsules in the latest food and biomedicine applications are provided as well as the matching relationship between the microstructures of the capsules and applications are discussed. Finally, the remaining challenges and future possible directions that have potential interest are outlined. The purpose of this review is to convey the construction of beneficial functional lipids capsules and the function mechanism, a critical analysis on its current status and challenges, and opinions on its future development. This review is believed to promote communication among the food, pharmacy, agronomy, engineering, and nutrition industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c02248DOI Listing
June 2022

A biomass-derived Schiff base material composited with polylactic acid nanofiber membrane as selective fluorescent 'turn off/on' platform for Pb quantitative detection and characterization.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 21;214:414-425. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Joint Laboratory of Advanced Biomedical Materials (NFU-UGent), Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University (NFU), Nanjing 210037, China. Electronic address:

Herein, a biomass-derived compound Z1 is synthesized via 'one pot' method for detection Pb using fluorescence and visual dual-mode in aqueous solution. Z1 shows good response to Pb with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13.4 nM. Importantly, the coordination mode of Z1 with Pb is further evaluated by UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy and a 1:1 stoichiometry is identified. Furthermore, Z1 can be applied to detection Pb in practical samples with satisfactory recoveries in range of 96.0 %-112.0 % in real samples. Besides, Z1 is added into polylactic acid (PLA) solution and made as portable fluorescence nanofiber membrane for Pb detection. Further, Z1 responds to Pb with high selectivity and sensitivity and has been applied for tracking Pb changes in soil samples, zebrafish, and plant tissues. These results indicated that Z1 had great application potential in accurate detection Pb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.089DOI Listing
June 2022

Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Food-reward Mechanisms in Smoking-addicted Individuals: An fNIRS Study.

Physiol Behav 2022 Jun 20:113889. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Shandong Sports University, Jinan, CHN. Electronic address:

Purpose: In addition to its toxic effects on the human cardiovascular and respiratory systems, tobacco dependence also causes damage to brain function and cognitive activity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on food-reward function and its food-cued prefrontal brain activation in tobacco-dependent individuals.

Method: Ninety-three participants who met the study criteria were randomly divided into a moderate-intensity exercise group (65%-75% HRmax), a high-intensity exercise group (75%-85% HRmax), and a quiet control group (n = 31 in each group). Participants were asked to perform a 35-minute target-intensity exercise or rest. The participants took the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire and the Visual Food Cues Paradigm Task immediately before the experiment and immediately after completing the exercise or control intervention, and oxyhemoglobin concentrations in each prefrontal brain region were measured at the same time as the Visual Food Cues Paradigm Task.

Results: Acute aerobic exercise significantly increased implicit cravings for low-calorie sweets in nicotine-dependent individuals (high: p = 0.040; moderate: p = 0.001), while acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise also significantly increased the activation levels of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; CH15: p = 0.030; CH22: p = 0.003) as well as the left orbitofrontal area (OFC; CH21: p = 0.007) in the food-reward brain region in nicotine-dependent individuals.

Conclusion: Acute aerobic exercise improves food-reward function and effectively increases activation levels in the DLPFC and OFC cerebral cortex in tobacco-dependent individuals, facilitating restoration of sensitivity to their drug-hijacked natural reward circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2022.113889DOI Listing
June 2022

Light-Guided Growth of Gradient Hydrogels with Programmable Geometries and Thermally Responsive Actuations.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 16;14(25):29188-29196. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Syngas Conversion of Shaanxi Province, Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710062, China.

Hydrogel actuators have gained considerable interest and experienced significant advancements in recent years. However, the programming of their actuating behaviors is still challenging. Herein, we report the development and regulation of gradient structures of hydrogels for programmable thermally responsive actuating behaviors. The hydrogel actuators are developed by controlling the photoreduction of Fe ions coordinated with carboxylate groups from the substrates and their limited diffusion into the precursor solutions to act as both initiators and crosslinkers. The developed hydrogels show well-defined external geometries and controllable thicknesses under spatiotemporal control of ultraviolet irradiation. The shapes and the actuation amplitudes of the hydrogel actuators can be independently regulated by controlling the formation and photodissociation of Fe-carboxylate coordination in the formed gradient networks. Some interesting applications such as the lifting of an object with a specific shape and directional walking are realized. The proposed method can be extended to other hydrogel actuators with different compositions and stimuli-responsive behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c04679DOI Listing
June 2022

Benefits of continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in patients with hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis.

Hypertens Res 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, PR China.

This meta-analysis was performed to determine the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on blood pressure (BP) in patients with systemic hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov, without language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials on the treatment of hypertension and OSA with CPAP, compared with sham CPAP or no CPAP, were reviewed. Studies were pooled to obtain weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Nineteen trials (enrolling 1904 participants) met the inclusion criteria. CPAP had significant effects on 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) (WMD -5.01 mmHg, 95% CI -6.94 to -3.08; P < 0.00001), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD -3.30 mmHg, 95% CI -4.32 to -2.28; P < 0.00001), daytime SBP (WMD -4.34 mmHg, 95% CI -6.27 to -2.40; P < 0.0001), daytime DBP (WMD -2.97 mmHg, 95% CI -3.99 to -1.95; P < 0.00001), nighttime SBP (WMD -3.55 mmHg, 95% CI -5.08 to -2.03; P < 0.00001), nighttime DBP (WMD -2.33 mmHg, 95% CI -3.27 to -1.40; P < 0.00001), office SBP (WMD -3.67 mmHg, 95% CI -5.76 to -1.58; P = 0.0006), office DBP (WMD -2.61 mmHg, 95% CI -4.25 to -0.97; P = 0.002), and heart rate (WMD -2.79 beats/min, 95% CI -4.88 to -0.71; P = 0.009). CPAP treatment was associated with BP reduction in patients with systemic hypertension and OSA, except when the follow-up period was shorter than 3 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-022-00954-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Hydrogel microcapsules containing engineered bacteria for sustained production and release of protein drugs.

Biomaterials 2022 Jun 5;287:121619. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China; Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Function and Application of Biological Macromolecular Structures, Tianjin, 300072, China. Electronic address:

Subcutaneous administration of sustained-release formulations is a common strategy for protein drugs, which avoids first pass effect and has high bioavailability. However, conventional sustained-release strategies can only load a limited amount of drug, leading to insufficient durability. Herein, we developed microcapsules based on engineered bacteria for sustained release of protein drugs. Engineered bacteria were carried in microcapsules for subcutaneous administration, with a production-lysis circuit for sustained protein production and release. Administrated in diabetic rats, engineered bacteria microcapsules was observed to smoothly release Exendin-4 for 2 weeks and reduce blood glucose. In another example, by releasing subunit vaccines with bacterial microcomponents as vehicles, engineered bacterial microcapsules activated specific immunity in mice and achieved tumor prevention. The engineered bacteria microcapsules have potential to durably release protein drugs and show versatility on the size of drugs. It might be a promising design strategy for long-acting in situ drug factory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2022.121619DOI Listing
June 2022

Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Pigs with Pulmonary Inflammation Induced by Mycoplasma hyorhinis Infection.

mSystems 2022 Jun 14:e0028222. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Key Lab of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province-State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciencesgrid.454840.9, Nanjing, China.

Lung inflammation induced by Mycoplasma hyorhinis infection accounts for significant economic losses in the swine industry. Increasing evidence suggests that there is cross talk between the lungs and the gut, but little is known about the effect of the lung inflammation caused by infection on gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated changes in the fecal microbiotas of pigs with infection and the microbial regulatory role of such infection in intestinal barrier function. We infected pigs with and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses of fecal samples, data-independent acquisition (DIA) quantitative proteomic analyses of intestinal mucosa, and analyses of barrier dysfunction indicators in serum. We found that pigs with infection exhibit lung and systemic inflammation, as reflected by the histopathological changes and activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway in lung tissue, as well as the increased concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines. Gut microbiotas tended to become disturbed, as evidenced by the enrichment of opportunistic pathogens. The increased diamine oxidase activities and d-lactate concentrations in serum and the decreased relative mRNA expression of , , and indicated the impairment of intestinal barrier function. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed a variety of altered proteins involved in immunomodulatory and inflammatory functions. There was a positive correlation between the abundance of opportunistic pathogens and inflammatory-cytokine concentrations, as well as intestinal immunomodulatory proteins. Our results suggest that lung inflammation induced by infection can contribute to the dysbiosis of gut microbiota and intestinal barrier dysfunction, and dysbiosis of gut microbiota was associated with systemic inflammation and intestinal immune status. Cumulative evidence suggests that bacterial pneumonia may contribute to the dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Our experiment has demonstrated that lung inflammation induced by infection was associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which may provide a theoretical basis for exploring the gut-lung axis based on infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/msystems.00282-22DOI Listing
June 2022

The Regulatory Roles of Polysaccharides and Ferroptosis-Related Phytochemicals in Liver Diseases.

Nutrients 2022 May 30;14(11). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Nutrition, Precision Nutrition Innovation Center, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Liver disease is a global health burden with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Liver injuries can develop into severe end-stage diseases, such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, without valid treatment. Therefore, identifying novel drugs may promote liver disease treatment. Phytochemicals, including polysaccharides, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenes, are abundant in foods and medicinal plants and have various bioactivities, such as antioxidation, immunoregulation, and tumor killing. Recent studies have shown that many natural polysaccharides play protective roles in liver disease models in vitro and in vivo, such as fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, drug-induced liver injury, and liver cancer. The mechanisms of liver disease are complex. Notably, ferroptosis, a new type of cell death driven by iron and lipid peroxidation, is considered to be the key mechanism in many hepatic pathologies. Therefore, polysaccharides and other types of phytochemicals with activities in ferroptosis regulation provide novel therapeutic strategies for ferroptosis-related liver diseases. This review summarizes our current understanding of the mechanisms of ferroptosis and liver injury and compelling preclinical evidence of natural bioactive polysaccharides and phytochemicals in treating liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14112303DOI Listing
May 2022

Photoelectrochemical immunosensor for the sensitive detection of neuron-specific enolase based on the effect of Z-scheme WO/NiCoO nanoarrays p-n heterojunction.

Biosens Bioelectron 2022 Jun 3;213:114452. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Provincial Key Laboratory of Rural Energy Engineering in Yunnan, School of Energy and Environment Science, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, 650500, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a signal-on type PEC immunosensor was constructed to detect neuron-specific enolase (NSE) via Z-scheme WO/NiCoO p-n heterojunction with cactus-like structure used as photoactive materials and MnCdS⊃Au NPs (MCS⊃Au NPs) as signal labels. Firstly, Z-scheme WO/NiCoO heterojunction could accelerate the separation efficiency of carriers and well-matched photoactive materials may promote charge migration, which resulted in WO/NiCoO generating strong and stable current. In addition, Z-scheme WO/NiCoO heterojunction directly grown on the surface of FTO via hydrothermal method facilitated the preparation of PEC immunosensor with outstanding stability. Secondly, an efficient signal amplification strategy was proposed by MnCdS⊃Au NPs incubating with signal antibody (Ab). On the one hand, the well-matched energy levels of MnCdS with WO/NiCoO boosted the photo-generated electrons transferred to the electrode; on the other hand, the LSPR effect of Au may convert thermion to photocurrent to achieve signal amplification. Based on the above strategies, a PEC immunosensor with outstanding reproducibility and stability was obtained for sensitive detection of NSE. Under the optimum experimental conditions, current response range of the constructed signal amplification PEC sensor to NSE was 0.1 pg/mL ∼50 ng/mL and the detection limit was 0.07 pg/mL (S/N = 3). After the application tests in the detection of actual samples, the feasibility of the prepared PEC immunosensor with excellent selectivity, high sensitivity and satisfactory reproducibility was verified and the satisfactory results were obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2022.114452DOI Listing
June 2022

Sex-Specific Transcriptomic Signatures in Brain Regions Critical for Neuropathic Pain-Induced Depression.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 18;15:886916. Epub 2022 May 18.

Faculty of Forensic Medicine, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Neuropathic pain is a chronic debilitating condition with a high comorbidity with depression. Clinical reports and animal studies have suggested that both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are critically implicated in regulating the affective symptoms of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain induces differential long-term structural, functional, and biochemical changes in both regions, which are thought to be regulated by multiple waves of gene transcription. However, the differences in the transcriptomic profiles changed by neuropathic pain between these regions are largely unknown. Furthermore, women are more susceptible to pain and depression than men. The molecular mechanisms underlying this sexual dimorphism remain to be explored. Here, we performed RNA sequencing and analyzed the transcriptomic profiles of the mPFC and ACC of female and male mice at 2 weeks after spared nerve injury (SNI), an early time point when the mice began to show mild depressive symptoms. Our results showed that the SNI-induced transcriptomic changes in female and male mice were largely distinct. Interestingly, the female mice exhibited more robust transcriptomic changes in the ACC than male, whereas the opposite pattern occurred in the mPFC. Cell type enrichment analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes involved genes enriched in neurons, various types of glia and endothelial cells. We further performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), which revealed significant de-enrichment of myelin sheath development in both female and male mPFC after SNI. In the female ACC, gene sets for synaptic organization were enriched, and gene sets for extracellular matrix were de-enriched after SNI, while such signatures were absent in male ACC. Collectively, these findings revealed region-specific and sexual dimorphism at the transcriptional levels induced by neuropathic pain, and provided novel therapeutic targets for chronic pain and its associated affective disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2022.886916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9159910PMC
May 2022

anchor of NaTiO in nitrogen-rich carbon hollow red blood cell-like structure as a 0D-3D hierarchical electrode material for efficient electrochemical desalination.

Chem Sci 2022 Apr 18;13(16):4545-4554. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Rare-scattered Elements of Liaoning Province, Liaoning University Shenyang 110036 P. R. China

Reasonable design of the structure and complementary compounding of electrode materials is helpful to enhance capacitive deionization (CDI) performance. Herein, a novel 0D-3D hierarchical electrode material containing NaTiO nanoparticles anchored at hollow red blood cell (HRBC)-like nitrogen-rich carbon (HRBC-NTO/N-C-60) was prepared selective protection, pyrolysis, and alkalization. Specifically, a HRBC-like NH-MIL-125-based material (HRBC-MOF-60) was first constructed by a selective protection approach of tannic acid (TN), which addresses the shortcomings of using sacrificial templates or corrosive agents. Afterwards, HRBC-NTO/N-C-60 was obtained by annealing and alkalization of HRBC-MOF-60. The nitrogen-rich carbon with a HRBC-like structure has the ability to rapidly transport electrons, and its porous structure enables remarkable charge transfer. Benefiting from the grafted 3D N-doped porous carbon with a HRBC-like structure, well-dispersed 0D NaTiO nanoparticles, and satisfactory bonding effects, HRBC-NTO/N-C-60 exhibited high specific capacitance and fast ionic and electronic diffusion kinetics. Moreover, HRBC-NTO/N-C-60 was well-suited for desalination by functioning as a cathode material for capacitive deionization (CDI), and delivering a high desalination capacity of 66.8 mg g in 200 mg L NaCl solution at 1.4 V. This work introduces an excellent high-performance candidate for electrochemical deionization as well as affording afflatus for accurately inventing OD-3D hierarchical materials with hollow structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc06476bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9019914PMC
April 2022

Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation increases eye-gaze on salient facial features and oxytocin release.

Psychophysiology 2022 May 31:e14107. Epub 2022 May 31.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, Center for Information in Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Non-invasive, transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (taVNS) via the ear is used therapeutically in epilepsy, pain, and depression, and may also have beneficial effects on social cognition. However, the underlying mechanisms of taVNS are unclear and evidence regarding its role in social cognition improvement is limited. To investigate the impact of taVNS on social cognition we have studied its effects on gaze toward emotional faces in combination with eye-tracking and on the release of the neuropeptide oxytocin which plays a key role in influencing social cognition and motivation. A total of 54 subjects were enrolled (49 were included in the final analysis) in a sham-controlled, participant-blind, crossover experiment, consisting of two treatment sessions 1 week apart. In one session participants received 30-min taVNS (tragus), and in the other, they received 30-min sham (earlobe) stimulation with the treatment order counterbalanced. The proportion of time spent viewing the faces and facial features (eyes, nose, and mouth) was measured together with resting pupil size. Additionally, saliva samples were taken for the measurement of oxytocin concentrations by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Saliva oxytocin concentrations increased significantly after taVNS compared to sham stimulation, while resting pupil size did not. In addition, taVNS increased time spent viewing the nose region irrespective of face emotion, and this was positively correlated with increased saliva oxytocin concentrations. Our findings suggest that taVNS biases visual attention toward socially salient facial features across different emotions and this is associated with its effects on increasing endogenous oxytocin release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.14107DOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on the microstructures, mechanical properties and bone mineral compositions of lumbar spines in type 2 diabetic rats.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 May 30;23(1):511. Epub 2022 May 30.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Rehabilitation Technical Aids for Old-Age Disability, Key Laboratory of Human Motion Analysis and Rehabilitation Technology of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, National Research Center for Rehabilitation Technical Aids, Beijing, 100176, China.

Background: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can improve the structure and strength of femur of rats, but the effect of CSII treatment on the lumbar spine of T2D rats is unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of CSII on the microstructure, multi-scale mechanical properties and bone mineral composition of the lumbar spine in T2D rats.

Methods: Seventy 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two batches, each including Control, T2D, CSII and Placebo groups, and the duration of insulin treatment was 4-week and 8-week, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to take their lumbar spine. Microstructure, bone mineral composition and nanoscopic-mesoscopic-apparentand-macroscopic mechanical properties were evaluated through micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation test, nonlinear finite element analysis and compression test.

Results: It was found that 4 weeks later, T2D significantly decreased trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), nanoscopic-apparent and partial mesoscopic mechanical parameters of lumbar spine (P < 0.05), and significantly increased bone mineral composition parameters of cortical bone (P < 0.05). It was shown that CSII significantly improved nanoscopic-apparent mechanical parameters (P < 0.05). In addition, 8 weeks later, T2D significantly decreased bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and macroscopic mechanical parameters (P < 0.05), and significantly increased bone mineral composition parameters of cancellous bone (P < 0.05). CSII treatment significantly improved partial mesoscopic-macroscopic mechanical parameters and some cortical bone mineral composition parameters (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: CSII treatment can significantly improve the nanoscopic-mesoscopic-apparent-macroscopic mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in T2D rats, as well as the bone structure and bone mineral composition of the lumbar vertebrae, but it will take longer treatment time to restore the normal level. In addition, T2D and CSII treatment affected bone mineral composition of cortical bone earlier than cancellous bone of lumbar spine in rat. Our study can provide evidence for clinical prevention and treatment of T2D-related bone diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-022-05452-0DOI Listing
May 2022

Development and Evaluation of a PSMA-Targeted Nanosystem Co-Packaging Docetaxel and Androgen Receptor siRNA for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Treatment.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Apr 29;14(5). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

Primary prostate cancer (PC) progresses to castration-resistant PC (CRPC) during androgen deprivation therapy (ADR) in early stages of prostate cancer. Thus, rather than blocking the androgen-related pathway further, docetaxel (DTX)-based therapy has become the most effective and standard first-line chemotherapy for CRPC. Although the therapy is successful in prolonging the survival of patients with CRPC, chemotherapy resistance develops due to the abnormal activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. Thus, to optimize DTX efficacy, continued maximum suppression of androgen levels and AR signaling is required. Here, we designed a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted nanosystem to carry both DTX and AR siRNA (Di-PP/AR-siRNA/DTX) for CRPC treatment. Specifically, DTX was encapsulated into the hydrophobic inner layer, and the AR siRNA was then condensed with the cationic PEI block in the hydrophilic outer layer of the PEI-PLGA polymeric micelles. The micelles were further coated with PSMA-targeted anionic polyethylene glycol-polyaspartic acid (Di-PEG-PLD). In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the resulting Di-PP/AR-siRNA/DTX exhibited prolonged blood circulation, selective targeting, and enhanced antitumor effects. Consequently, Di-PP/AR-siRNA/DTX holds great potential for efficient CRPC treatment by combining chemotherapy and siRNA silencing of androgen-related signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14050964DOI Listing
April 2022

Sphingolipids at Plasmodesmata: Structural Components and Functional Modulators.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 19;23(10). Epub 2022 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Adaptation and Improvement, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China.

Plasmodesmata (PD) are plant-specific channels connecting adjacent cells to mediate intercellular communication of molecules essential for plant development and defense. The typical PD are organized by the close apposition of the plasma membrane (PM), the desmotubule derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and spoke-like elements linking the two membranes. The plasmodesmal PM (PD-PM) is characterized by the formation of unique microdomains enriched with sphingolipids, sterols, and specific proteins, identified by lipidomics and proteomics. These components modulate PD to adapt to the dynamic changes of developmental processes and environmental stimuli. In this review, we focus on highlighting the functions of sphingolipid species in plasmodesmata, including membrane microdomain organization, architecture transformation, callose deposition and permeability control, and signaling regulation. We also briefly discuss the difference between sphingolipids and sterols, and we propose potential unresolved questions that are of help for further understanding the correspondence between plasmodesmal structure and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105677DOI Listing
May 2022

High-Definition Survey of Architectural Heritage Fusing Multisensors-The Case of Beamless Hall at Linggu Temple in Nanjing, China.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

School of Architecture, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, China.

Following the development of digital measurement technology in recent years, the information contained in the measurement outcomes have become increasingly rich. However, the traditional graphical representation method based on vector graph needs to be updated. In this study, we use the Beamless Hall of Linggu Temple as an example. Measurements are conducted by using digital techniques, including three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, close-range photogrammetry, and infrared thermal imaging. The pseudocolours that express spatial information and moisture distribution are calculated and generated through point clouds, which are used to express the land subsidence, wall deformation, moisture distribution, and other effects of the Beamless Hall. Furthermore, combining it with two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation, such as the plan, elevation, and section, damage-related information can be expressed intuitively and efficiently. This method can combine the advantages of graphics and images to provide a comprehensive and intuitive representation of the digital measurement results of brick architecture heritage. It can also provide a reference for surveying similar monuments and buildings of our architectural heritage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22093369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9100895PMC
April 2022

In utero hypoxia attenuated acetylcholine-mediated vasodilatation via CHRM3/p-NOS3 in fetal sheep MCA: role of ROS/ERK1/2.

Hypertens Res 2022 Jul 18;45(7):1168-1182. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institute for Fetology, First Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Hypoxia can lead to adult middle cerebral artery (MCA) dysfunction and increase the risk of cerebrovascular diseases. It is largely unknown whether intrauterine hypoxia affects fetal MCA vasodilatation. This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of intrauterine hypoxia on fetal MCA vasodilatation. Near-term fetal sheep were exposed to intrauterine hypoxia. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to hypoxia in cellular experiments. Vascular tone measurement, molecular analysis, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to determine vascular functions, tissue anatomy, and molecular pathways in fetal MCA. In fetal MCA, acetylcholine (ACh) induced reliable relaxation, which was markedly attenuated by intrauterine hypoxia. Atropine, P-F-HHSiD, L-NAME, and u0126 blocked most ACh-mediated dilation, while AF-DX 116 and tropicamide partially inhibited the dilation. Indomethacin and SB203580 did not significantly change ACh-mediated dilation. Tempol and PS-341 could restore the attenuated ACh-mediated vasodilatation following intrauterine hypoxia. The mRNA expression levels of CHRM2 and CHRM3 and the protein levels of CHRM3, p-NOS3, SOD2, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, MAPK14, and p-MAPK14 were significantly reduced by intrauterine hypoxia. The dihydroethidium assay showed that the production of ROS was increased under intrauterine hypoxia. TEM analysis revealed endothelial cells damaged by intrauterine hypoxia. In HUVECs, hypoxia increased ROS formation and decreased the expression of CHRM3, p-NOS3, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, and p-MAPK14, while tempol and PS-341 potentiated p-NOS3 protein expression. In conclusion, in utero hypoxia reduced ACh-mediated vasodilatation in ovine MCA predominantly via decreased CHRM3 and p-NOS3, and the decreased NOS3 bioactivities might be attributed to ROS and ERK1/2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-022-00935-yDOI Listing
July 2022

Extensible and self-recoverable proteinaceous materials derived from scallop byssal thread.

Nat Commun 2022 May 18;13(1):2731. Epub 2022 May 18.

Sars-Fang Centre, MOE Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China.

Biologically derived and biologically inspired fibers with outstanding mechanical properties have found attractive technical applications across diverse fields. Despite recent advances, few fibers can simultaneously possess high-extensibility and self-recovery properties especially under wet conditions. Here, we report protein-based fibers made from recombinant scallop byssal proteins with outstanding extensibility and self-recovery properties. We initially investigated the mechanical properties of the native byssal thread taken from scallop Chlamys farreri and reveal its high extensibility (327 ± 32%) that outperforms most natural biological fibers. Combining transcriptome and proteomics, we select the most abundant scallop byssal protein type 5-2 (Sbp5-2) in the thread region, and produce a recombinant protein consisting of 7 tandem repeat motifs (rTRM7) of the Sbp5-2 protein. Applying an organic solvent-enabled drawing process, we produce bio-inspired extensible rTRM7 fiber with high-extensibility (234 ± 35%) and self-recovery capability in wet condition, recapitulating the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of the native scallop byssal thread. We further show that the mechanical properties of rTRM7 fiber are highly regulated by hydrogen bonding and intermolecular crosslinking formed through disulfide bond and metal-carboxyl coordination. With its outstanding mechanical properties, rTRM7 fiber can also be seamlessly integrated with graphene to create motion sensors and electrophysiological signal transmission electrode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30415-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117251PMC
May 2022

Nomogram and Machine Learning Models Predict 1-Year Mortality Risk in Patients With Sepsis-Induced Cardiorenal Syndrome.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 29;9:792238. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Early prediction of long-term outcomes in patients with sepsis-induced cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) remains a great challenge in clinical practice. Herein, we aimed to construct a nomogram and machine learning model for predicting the 1-year mortality risk in patients with sepsis-induced CRS.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 340 patients diagnosed with sepsis-induced CRS in Shanghai Tongji Hospital between January 2015 and May 2019, as a discovery cohort. Two predictive models, the nomogram and machine learning model, were used to predict 1-year mortality. The prognostic variables used to develop the nomogram were identified based on a forward stepwise binary logistic regression, and the predictive ability of the nomogram was evaluated by the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the calibration curve. Meanwhile, machine learning (ML) techniques, such as support vector machine, random forest (RF), and gradient boosted decision tree, were assessed mainly by accuracy and AUC. Feature ranking analysis was performed using the ML algorithm. Both nomogram and ML models were externally validated by an independent cohort of 103 patients diagnosed with sepsis-induced CRS between June 2019 and December 2020.

Results: Age, sequential sepsis-related organ failure score (SOFA), serum myoglobin (MYO), vasopressor use, and mechanical ventilation were identified as independent risk factors for 1-year mortality in the nomogram predictive model. In the discovery cohort, the nomogram yielded higher AUC for predicting mortality than did the SOFA score (0.855 [95% CI: 0.815-0.895] vs. 0.756 [95% CI: 0.705-0.808]). For ML, the model developed by RF showed the highest accuracy (0.765) and AUC (0.854). In feature ranking analysis, factors such as age, MYO, SOFA score, vasopressor use, and baseline serum creatinine were identified as important features affecting 1-year prognosis. Moreover, the nomogram and RF model both performed well in external validation, with an AUC of 0.877 and 0.863, respectively.

Conclusion: Our nomogram and ML models showed that age, SOFA score, serum MYO levels, and the use of vasopressors during hospitalization were the main factors influencing the risk of long-term mortality. Our models may serve as useful tools for assessing long-term prognosis in patients with sepsis-induced CRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.792238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9099150PMC
April 2022

Subthalamic Oscillatory Activity of Reward and Loss Processing Using the Monetary Incentive Delay Task in Parkinson Disease.

Neuromodulation 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, RuiJin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Neural and Intelligence Engineering Center, Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective deep brain stimulation target for Parkinson disease (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder and has been implicated in reward and motivational processing. In this study, we assessed the STN and prefrontal oscillatory dynamics in the anticipation and receipt of reward and loss using a task commonly used in imaging.

Materials And Methods: We recorded intracranial left subthalamic local field potentials from deep brain stimulation electrodes and prefrontal scalp electroencephalography in 17 patients with PD while they performed a monetary incentive delay task.

Results: During the expectation phase, enhanced left STN delta-theta activity was observed in both reward and loss vs neutral anticipation, with greater STN delta-theta activity associated with greater motivation specifically to reward. In the consummatory outcome phase, greater left STN delta activity was associated with a rewarding vs neutral outcome, particularly with more ventral contacts along with greater delta-theta coherence with the prefrontal cortex. We highlight a differential activity in the left STN to loss vs reward anticipation, demonstrating a distinct STN high gamma activity. Patients with addiction-like behaviors show lower left STN delta-theta activity to loss vs neutral outcomes, emphasizing impaired sensitivity to negative outcomes.

Conclusions: Together, our findings highlight a role for the left STN in reward and loss processing and a potential role in addictive behaviors. These findings emphasize the cognitive-limbic function of the STN and its role as a physiologic target for neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurom.2022.04.033DOI Listing
May 2022

Dependable Performance of Thin Film Composite Nanofiltration Membrane Tailored by Capsaicin-Derived Self-Polymer.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Apr 20;14(9). Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China.

To address trade-off and membrane-fouling challenges during the development of nanofiltration membranes, a thin-film composite membrane was prepared on the basis of interfacial polymerization regulated by adjusting the capsaicin-derived self-polymer poly N-(2-hydroxy-5-(methylthio) benzyl) acrylamide (PHMTBA) on the polysulfone substrate in this study. Through the self-polymerization of the monomer HMTBA with varied contents, microwave-assisted technology was employed to develop a variety of PHMTBAs. It was discovered that PHMTBA is involved in the interfacial polymerization process. Piperazine and PHMTBA competed for the reaction with trimesoyl chloride, resulting in a flatter and looser membrane surface. The PHMTBA-modified membrane presented a typical double-layer structure: a thicker support layer and a thinner active layer. The addition of PHMTBA to membranes improved their hydrophilicity and negative charge density. As a result, the PHMTBA-modified membrane showed dependable separation performance (water flux of 159.5 L m h and rejection of 99.02% for NaSO) as well as enhanced anti-fouling properties (flux recovery ratio of more than 100% with bovine serum albumin-fouling and antibacterial efficiency of 93.7% against ). The performance of the prepared membranes was superior to that of most other modified TFC NF membranes previously reported in the literature. This work presents the application potential of capsaicin derivatives in water treatment and desalination processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14091671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9103837PMC
April 2022

Cytosine Base Editing Enables Quadruple-Edited Allogeneic CAR-T Cells for T-ALL.

Blood 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Allogeneic chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CART) therapies require multiple gene edits to be clinically tractable. Most allogeneic CART have been created using gene editing techniques that induce DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), resulting in unintended on-target editing outcomes with potentially unforeseen consequences. Cytosine base editors (CBEs) install C•G to T•A point mutations in T cells with between 90-99% efficiency to silence gene expression without creating DSBs, greatly reducing or eliminating undesired editing outcomes following multiplexed editing as compared to CRISPR-Cas9. Using CBE, we developed 7CAR8, a CD7-directed allogeneic CART created using four simultaneous base edits. We show that CBE, unlike CRISPR-Cas9, does not impact T-cell proliferation, lead to aberrant DNA damage response pathway activation or result in karyotypic abnormalities following multiplexed editing. We demonstrate 7CAR8 to be highly efficacious against T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) using multiple in vitro and in vivo models. Thus, CBE is a promising technology for applications requiring multiplexed gene editing and can be used to manufacture quadruple-edited 7CAR8 cells with high potential for clinical translation for relapsed and refractory T-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2022015825DOI Listing
May 2022

Imaging Insights of Isolated Idiopathic Dystonia: Voxel-Based Morphometry and Activation Likelihood Estimation Studies.

Front Neurol 2022 26;13:823882. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Functional Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The understanding of brain structural abnormalities across different clinical forms of dystonia and their contribution to clinical characteristics remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate shared and specific gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities in various forms of isolated idiopathic dystonia. We collected imaging data from 73 isolated idiopathic dystonia patients and matched them with healthy controls to explore the GMV alterations in patients and their correlations with clinical characteristics using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technique. In addition, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of previous VBM studies. Our study demonstrated widespread morphometry alterations in patients with idiopathic dystonia. Multiple systems were affected, which mainly included basal ganglia, sensorimotor, executive control, and visual networks. As the result of the ALE meta-analysis, a convergent cluster with increased GMV was found in the left globus pallidus. In subgroup VBM analyses, decreased putamen GMV was observed in all clinic forms, while the increased GMV was observed in parahippocampal, lingual, and temporal gyrus. GD demonstrated the most extensive GMV abnormalities in cortical regions, and the aberrant GMV of the posterior cerebellar lobe was prominent in CD. Moreover, trends of increased GMV regions of the left precuneus and right superior frontal gyrus were demonstrated in the moderate-outcome group compared with the superior-outcome group. Results of our study indicated shared pathophysiology of the disease-centered on the dysfunction of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, impairing sensorimotor integration, high-level motor execution, and cognition of patients. Dysfunction of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit could also be involved in CD especially. Finally, the frontal-parietal pathway may act as a potential marker for predicting treatment outcomes such as deep brain stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.823882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9087834PMC
April 2022

Burden of Disease Due to Cancer - China, 2000-2019.

China CDC Wkly 2022 Apr;4(15):306-311

National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, CDC China, Beijing, China.

What Is Already Known About This Topic?: Cancer is a major global public health problem and the leading cause of death in China. China has a large population, and therefore has a significant proportion of the global burden of cancer.

What Is Added By This Report?: The age-standardized incidence of cancer has increased in China, while the cancer mortality rate has decreased. Compared with younger age groups, individuals over 70 have a greater burden of cancer. Digestive tract cancer and breast cancer should be targeted for prevention, treatment, and control.

What Are The Implications For Public Health Practices?: To effectively reduce the burden of cancer, early screening of key populations and age groups should be strengthened, and targeted and precise prevention and control strategies should be adopted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2022.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9081893PMC
April 2022

Infrequent Intranasal Oxytocin Followed by Positive Social Interaction Improves Symptoms in Autistic Children: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

Psychother Psychosom 2022 May 11:1-13. Epub 2022 May 11.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: There are currently no approved drug interventions for social behavior dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous trials investigating effects of daily intranasal oxytocin treatment have reported inconsistent results and have not combined it with positive social interaction. However, in two preclinical studies we established that treatment every other day rather than daily is more efficacious in maintaining neural and behavioral effects by reducing receptor desensitization.

Objective: We aimed to establish whether a 6-week intranasal oxytocin compared with placebo treatment, followed by a period of positive social interaction, would produce reliable symptom improvements in children with ASD.

Methods: A pilot double-blind, randomized, crossover design trial was completed including 41 children with ASD aged 3-8 years. Primary outcomes were the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2) and social responsivity scale-2 (SRS-2). Secondary measures included cognitive, autism- and caregiver-related questionnaires, and social attention assessed using eye-tracking.

Results: Significant improvements were found for oxytocin relative to placebo in primary outcome measures (total ADOS-2 and SRS-2 scores, ps < 0.001) and in behavioral adaptability and repetitive behavior secondary measures. Altered SRS-2 scores were associated with increased saliva oxytocin concentrations. Additionally, oxytocin significantly increased time spent viewing dynamic social compared to geometric stimuli and the eyes of angry, happy, and neutral expression faces. There were no adverse side effects of oxytocin treatment.

Conclusions: Overall, results demonstrate that a 6-week intranasal oxytocin treatment administered every other day and followed by positive social interactions can improve clinical, eye tracking, and questionnaire-based assessments of symptoms in young autistic children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000524543DOI Listing
May 2022

Corrigendum to "Laquinimod exerts anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury" [Int. Immunopharmacol. 88 (2020) 106989].

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Jul 6;108:108815. Epub 2022 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2022.108815DOI Listing
July 2022

Gut microbiota specifically mediates the anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of berberine (BBR) and facilitates to predict BBR's cholesterol-decreasing efficacy in patients.

J Adv Res 2022 03 30;37:197-208. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China.

Introduction: Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pharmacological activities of many natural products. As an effective hypolipidemic agent, berberine (BBR)'s clinical application is greatly impeded by the obvious inter-individual response variation. To date, little evidence exists on the causality between gut microbes and its therapeutic effects, and the linkage of bacteria alterations to the inter-individual response variation.

Objectives: This study aims to confirm the causal role of the gut microbiota in BBR's anti-hyperlipidemic effect and identify key bacteria that can predict its effectiveness.

Methods: The correlation between gut microbiota and BBR's inter-individual response variation was studied in hyperlipidemic patients. The causal role of gut microbes in BBR's anti-hyperlipidemic effects was subsequently assessed by altered administration routes, co-treatment with antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and metagenomic analysis.

Results: Three-month clinical study showed that BBR was effectively to decrease serum lipids but displayed an obvious response variation. The cholesterol-lowering but not triglyceride-decreasing effect of BBR was closely related to its modulation on gut microbiota. Interestingly, the baseline levels of and could accurately predict its anti-hypercholesterolemic efficiency in the following treatment. Causality experiments in mice further confirmed that the gut microbiome is both necessary and sufficient to mediate the lipid-lowering effect of BBR. The absence of substantially abolished BBR's cholesterol-decreasing efficacy.

Conclusion: The gut microbiota is necessary and sufficient for BBR's hyperlipidemia-ameliorating effect. The baseline composition of gut microbes can be an effective predictor for its pharmacotherapeutic efficacy, providing a novel way to achieve personalized therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2021.07.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9039652PMC
March 2022

Nickel hydroxide as a non-noble metal co-catalyst decorated on CdZnS solid solution for enhanced hydrogen evolution.

RSC Adv 2021 Jun 8;11(33):20479-20485. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University No. 99 Shangda Road Shanghai 200444 China

The study of non-noble metal photocatalysts provides practical significance for hydrogen evolution applications. Herein, new CdZnS/Ni(OH) catalysts were fabricated through simple hydrothermal and precipitation methods. The photocatalytic performance of the CdZnS/Ni(OH) composites under visible light was significantly improved, which was attributed to the wider visible light absorption range and less recombination of electron-hole pairs. The composite with a Ni(OH) content of 10% showed the best hydrogen evolution rate of 46.6 mmol g h, which was almost 9 times higher than that of pristine CdZnS. The severe photo-corrosion of CdZnS was greatly improved, and the CdZnS/Ni(OH) composite exhibited a very high hydrogen evolution rate after three repeated tests. The excellent photocatalytic performance was due to the non-noble metal Ni(OH) co-catalyst. The excited electrons were transferred to the co-catalyst, which reduced electron-hole recombination. Moreover, the co-catalyst offered more sites for photocatalytic reactions. This study researched the mechanism of a co-catalyst composite, providing new possibilities for non-noble metal photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra03938eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9033972PMC
June 2021

Heteroplasmic and homoplasmic m.616T>C in mitochondria tRNAPhe promote isolated chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia.

JCI Insight 2022 Jun 8;7(11). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Nephrology, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Hangzhou, China.

Inherited kidney diseases are the fifth most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of inherited kidney diseases, while mitochondrial-transfer RNA (mt-tRNA) variants and their pathogenic contributions to kidney disease remain largely unclear. In this study, we identified the pathogenic mt-tRNAPhe 616T>C mutation in 3 families and documented that m.616T>C showed a high pathogenic threshold, with both heteroplasmy and homoplasmy leading to isolated chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia without hematuria, proteinuria, or renal cyst formation. Moreover, 1 proband with homoplamic m.616T>C presented ESRD as a child. No symptoms of nervous system evolvement were observed in these families. Lymphoblast cells bearing m.616T>C exhibited swollen mitochondria, underwent active mitophagy, and showed respiratory deficiency, leading to reduced mitochondrial ATP production, diminished membrane potential, and overproduction of mitochondrial ROS. Pathogenic m.616T>C abolished a highly conserved base pair (A31-U39) in the anticodon stem-loop which altered the structure of mt-tRNAPhe, as confirmed by a decreased melting temperature and slower electrophoretic mobility of the mutant tRNA. Furthermore, the unstable structure of mt-tRNAPhe contributed to a shortage of steady-state mt-tRNAPhe and enhanced aminoacylation efficiency, which resulted in impaired mitochondrial RNA translation and a significant decrease in mtDNA-encoded polypeptides. Collectively, these findings provide potentially new insights into the pathogenesis underlying inherited kidney disease caused by mitochondrial variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.157418DOI Listing
June 2022

Cryptosporidium parvum downregulates miR-181d in HCT-8 cells via the p50-dependent TLRs/NF-κB pathway.

Vet Parasitol 2022 May 16;305:109710. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China; International Joint Research Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases of Henan, Zhengzhou 450046, China. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidium spp. can cause diarrhea and even death in humans and animals. Host microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the post-transcriptional regulation of the innate immune response to Cryptosporidium infection. To study host miRNA activity in the innate immune response to C. parvum infection, we examined the expression of miR-181d in HCT-8 cells infected with C. parvum and found that it was significantly downregulated, while TLR2, TLR4, NF-κB, and myD88 involved in the TLR/NF-κB signaling pathway were significantly upregulated at the early stages of C. parvum infection. We transfected cells with short-interfering RNAs (siRNA) as TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB inhibitors. Analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot confirmed that C. parvum downregulates miR-181d expression via the p50 subunit-dependent TLR2/TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway in HCT-8 cells. This study provides a new theoretical foundation to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of host miRNAs against Cryptosporidium infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2022.109710DOI Listing
May 2022
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