Publications by authors named "Yingying Tang"

195 Publications

Abnormal Function in Dentate Nuclei Precedes the Onset of Psychosis: A Resting-State fMRI Study in High-Risk Individuals.

Schizophr Bull 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA.

Objective: The cerebellum serves a wide range of functions and is suggested to be composed of discrete regions dedicated to unique functions. We recently developed a new parcellation of the dentate nuclei (DN), the major output nuclei of the cerebellum, which optimally divides the structure into 3 functional territories that contribute uniquely to default-mode, motor-salience, and visual processing networks as indexed by resting-state functional connectivity (RsFc). Here we test for the first time whether RsFc differences in the DN, precede the onset of psychosis in individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia.

Methods: We used the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset from the Shanghai At Risk for Psychosis study that included subjects at high risk to develop schizophrenia (N = 144), with longitudinal follow-up to determine which subjects developed a psychotic episode within 1 year of their functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan (converters N = 23). Analysis used the 3 functional parcels (default-mode, salience-motor, and visual territory) from the DN as seed regions of interest for whole-brain RsFc analysis.

Results: RsFc analysis revealed abnormalities at baseline in high-risk individuals who developed psychosis, compared to high-risk individuals who did not develop psychosis. The nature of the observed abnormalities was found to be anatomically specific such that abnormal RsFc was localized predominantly in cerebral cortical networks that matched the 3 functional territories of the DN that were evaluated.

Conclusions: We show for the first time that abnormal RsFc of the DN may precede the onset of psychosis. This new evidence highlights the role of the cerebellum as a potential target for psychosis prediction and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbab038DOI Listing
May 2021

The lateralization and reliability of spatial mismatch negativity elicited by auditory deviants with virtual spatial location.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 Apr 23;165:92-100. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Shanghai Med-X Engineering Research Center, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China; Brain Science and Technology Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an intensively studied event-related potential component that reflects pre-attentive auditory processing. Existing spatial MMN (sMMN) studies usually use loud-speakers in different locations or deliver sound with binaural localization cues through earphones to elicit MMN, which either was practically complicated or sounded unnatural to the subjects. In the present study, we generated head related transfer function (HRTF)-based spatial sounds and verified that the HRTF-based sounds retained the left and the right spatial localization cues. We further used them as deviants to elicit sMMN with conventional oddball paradigm. Results showed that sMMN was successfully elicited by the HRTF-based deviants in 18 of 21 healthy subjects in two separate sessions. Furthermore, the left deviants elicited higher sMMN amplitudes in the right hemisphere compared to the left hemisphere, while the right deviants elicited sMMN with similar amplitudes in both hemispheres, which supports a combination of contralateral and right-hemispheric dominance in spatial auditory information processing. In addition, the sMMN in response to the right deviants showed good test-retest reliability, while the sMMN in response to the left deviants had weak test-retest reliability. These findings implicate that HRTF-based sMMN could be a robust paradigm to investigate spatial localization and discrimination abilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2021.04.005DOI Listing
April 2021

IL-27/IL-27R Mediates Protective Immunity against Chlamydial Infection by Suppressing Excessive Th17 Responses and Reducing Neutrophil Inflammation.

J Immunol 2021 May 16;206(9):2160-2169. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Key Laboratory of Educational Ministry of China, Tianjin, People's Republic of China

IL-27, a heterodimeric cytokine of the IL-12 family, has diverse influences on the development of multiple inflammatory diseases. In this study, we identified the protective role of IL-27/IL-27R in host defense against respiratory infection and further investigated the immunological mechanism. Our results showed that IL-27 was involved in infection and that IL-27R knockout mice (WSX-1 mice) suffered more severe disease, with greater body weight loss, higher chlamydial loads, and more severe inflammatory reactions in the lungs than C57BL/6 wild-type mice. There were excessive IL-17-producing CD4 T cells and many more neutrophils, neutrophil-related proteins, cytokines, and chemokines in the lungs of WSX-1 mice than in wild-type mice following infection. In addition, IL-17/IL-17A-blocking Ab treatment improved disease after infection in WSX-1 mice. Overall, we conclude that IL-27/IL-27R mediates protective immunity during chlamydial respiratory infection in mice by suppressing excessive Th17 responses and reducing neutrophil inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000957DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of citalopram on hippocampal volume in first-episode schizophrenia: Structural MRI results from the DECIFER trial.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 7;312:111286. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry, NYU Langone Health, 1 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States of America; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY 10962, United States of America. Electronic address:

Hippocampal volume loss is prominent in first episode schizophrenia (FES) and has been associated with poor clinical outcomes and with BDNF genotype; antidepressants are believed to reverse hippocampal volume loss via release of BDNF. In a 12-month, placebo-controlled add-on trial of the antidepressant, citalopram, during the maintenance phase of FES, negative symptoms were improved with citalopram. We now report results of structural brain imaging at baseline and 6 months in 63 FES patients (34 in citalopram group) from the trial to assess whether protection against hippocampal volume loss contributed to improved negative symptoms with citalopram. Hippocampal volumetric integrity (HVI) did not change significantly in the citalopram or placebo group and did not differ between treatment groups, whereas citalopram was associated with greater volume loss of the right CA1 subfield. Change in cortical thickness was associated with SANS change in 4 regions (left rostral anterior cingulate, right frontal pole, right cuneus, and right transverse temporal) but none differed between treatment groups. Our findings suggest that minimal hippocampal volume loss occurs after stabilization on antipsychotic treatment and that citalopram's potential benefit for negative symptoms is unlikely to result from protection against hippocampal volume loss or cortical thinning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2021.111286DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of Aripiprazole With Reduced Hippocampal Atrophy During Maintenance Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May-Jun 01;41(3):244-249

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai.

Purpose/background: Hippocampal volume loss in early schizophrenia has been linked with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and with less response of negative symptoms. Aripiprazole has been reported to preserve hippocampal volume and to reduce inflammation.

Methods/procedures: Study 1 was a 12-month multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial of citalopram added to clinician-determined second-generation antipsychotic medication in 95 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), 19 of whom received aripiprazole. We compared participants taking aripiprazole with those on other antipsychotics to determine whether those on aripiprazole had less hippocampal volume loss. We also examined peripheral biomarker data from medication-naive patients with schizophrenia receiving 8 weeks of antipsychotic treatment (n = 24) to see whether markers of inflammation and oxidative stress that previously predicted hippocampal volume differed between aripiprazole (n = 9) and other antipsychotics (study 2).

Findings/results: Aripiprazole was associated with a mean increase in hippocampal volume of 0.35% (SD, 0.80%) compared with a 0.53% decrease (SD, 1.2%) with other antipsychotics during the first year of maintenance treatment in patients with FES. This difference was significant after adjusting for age, sex, citalopram treatment, and baseline Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score (B = 0.0079, P = 0.03). Aripiprazole was also associated with reduced concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor (P < 0.01) during the first 8 weeks of treatment in medication-naive patients with FES.

Implications/conclusions: These results suggest that aripiprazole may protect against hippocampal atrophy via an anti-inflammatory mechanism, but these results require replication in larger, randomized trials, and the clinical relevance of hippocampal volume loss is not established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001391DOI Listing
April 2021

High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex for negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

Psychiatry Res 2021 May 16;299:113876. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

First-episode Schizophrenia and Early Psychosis Program, Division of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Institute of Mental Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Negative symptoms are the major challenge in clinical management of schizophrenia. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) has been suggested to be highly involved in the mechanisms of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the effect of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) over DMPFC has not yet been well studied. In this double-blind, randomized controlled rTMS clinical trial, thirty-three participants (17 in active group and 16 in sham group) were enrolled. This study includes the rTMS treatment phase (lasts for 4 weeks) and a subsequently naturalistic follow-up phase (lasts for another 4 weeks). Schizophrenia patients with prominently negative symptoms were randomly assigned to receive 10 Hz or sham rTMS intervention. The score change in Scale of Negative Symptoms (SANS) was defined as the primary outcome measure. There was a significant decrease in negative symptoms, especially affective flattening and anhedonia in schizophrenia patients after DMPFC-rTMS intervention. Moreover, the negative symptoms improvement could maintain at least another 4 weeks. In addition, no memory impairment or serious adverse reaction of rTMS emerged. Our results suggest that high frequency rTMS over DMPF may represent a safe and effective treatment for negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113876DOI Listing
May 2021

Functional specificity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in positive reappraisal: A single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Neuroimage studies have yielded evidence for a correlation between the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and a specific type of cognitive reappraisal strategy, positive reappraisal. However, evidence is still lacking for a direct relation. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left VLPFC at different time points to investigate the functional specificity of the left VLPFC in the success of positive reappraisal and the timing at which the left VLPC was involved in positive reappraisal. Fifteen participants engaged in a baseline experiment and in TMS experiments. All participants successfully reduced their negative emotional ratings using positive reappraisal in the baseline experiment. In the TMS experiments, participants performed the same task as in the baseline experiment but single-pulse TMS was applied over the left VLPFC at 300 ms or/and 3,300 ms after stimulus onset, as well as over the vertex as a control stimulation. Valence ratings of negative stimuli increased (unpleasantness reduction) when participants reappraised negative stimuli with TMS stimulation over the left VLPFC, regardless of the timing of the stimulation at 300 ms or/and at 3,300 ms after the stimulus onset, relative to the vertex stimulation and the baseline experiment. Our study provided evidence of the functional specificity of the left VLPFC in regulation of negative emotions using positive reappraisal. The left VLPFC was believed to be involved in different stages of positive reappraisal. The prominent facilitation effect of TMS over the left VLPFC makes it possible to consider potential applications in clinical practice for mood disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00881-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Brain morphological abnormalities in children with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 deficiency disorder.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Mar 15;31:46-53. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: To quantitatively evaluate the brain MRI morphological abnormalities in patients with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 deficiency disorder (CDD) on a group level and longitudinally.

Methods: We performed surface-based MRI analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted images on three CDD patients scanned at age of three years, and compared with 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We further examined the longitudinal morphological changes in one patient with a follow-up of 5 years.

Results: CDD patients presented significant reductions in total intracranial volume, total gray matter (GM) volume and subcortical GM volume compared to controls. For subcortical regions, significant GM volume reductions were seen in the brain stem, bilateral thalamus, bilateral hippocampus, bilateral cerebellum and left amygdala. Although GM volume of cortical mantle did not show statistical differences overall, significant reduction was detected in bilateral parietal, left occipital and right temporal lobes. Cortical thickness exhibited significant decreases in bilateral occipital, parietal and temporal lobes, while surface area did not show any significant differences. Longitudinal follow-up in one patient revealed a monotonic downward trend of relative volume in the majority of brain regions. The relative surface area appeared to gain age-related growth, whereas the relative cortical thickness exhibited a striking progressive decline over time.

Conclusions: Quantitative morphology analysis in children with CDD showed global volume loss in the cortex and more notably in the subcortical gray matter, with a progressive trend along with the disease course. Cortical thickness is a more sensitive measure to disclose cortical atrophy and disease progression than surface area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026562PMC
March 2021

Enhancing attention and memory of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis with mHealth technology.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Apr 11;58:102587. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, 600 Wanping Nan Road, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cognitive impairment has adverse impact on the social and role functions of those at clinical high risk for psychosis and it has become an important target for intervention. Mobile health applications are user-friendly, real-time, personalized and portable in administering cognitive training and have promising application prospects in the field of mental health.

Methods: Eighty CHR subjects were randomized into an intervention group and a control group. CHR subjects of the intervention group performed attention and memory training via a Specific Memory Attention Resource and Training (SMART) application in their smart phones for 10 min per day, five days per week for three months. Both groups were followed up for three months. At baseline and follow-up phases, cognitive function was measured using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). In the follow-up, the intervention group completed the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) to provide feedback to improve SMART.

Results: There is a significant group by time interaction effect in the Attention/Vigilance domain, which is significantly better in the intervention group than in the control group at 3- month follow-up. The improvement in Attention/Vigilance in the intervention group is significantly related to the amount of cognitive training time. Global Assessment of Function (GAF) reduction rate at baseline could predict the improvement of Attention/Vigilance. MARS results indicate that CHR subjects were receptive of SMART.

Conclusion: Mobile technology can be applied to improve cognitive function of CHR individuals, especially in the Attention/Vigilance domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102587DOI Listing
April 2021

Individualized risk components guiding antipsychotic delivery in patients with a clinical high risk of psychosis: application of a risk calculator.

Psychol Med 2021 Feb 17:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institute of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, PR China.

Background: Antipsychotics are widely used for treating patients with psychosis, and target threshold psychotic symptoms. Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by subthreshold psychotic symptoms. It is currently unclear who might benefit from antipsychotic treatment. Our objective was to apply a risk calculator (RC) to identify people that would benefit from antipsychotics.

Methods: Drawing on 400 CHR individuals recruited between 2011 and 2016, 208 individuals who received antipsychotic treatment were included. Clinical and cognitive variables were entered into an individualized RC for psychosis; personal risk was estimated and 4 risk components (negative symptoms-RC-NS, general function-RC-GF, cognitive performance-RC-CP, and positive symptoms-RC-PS) were constructed. The sample was further stratified according to the risk level. Higher risk was defined based on the estimated risk score (20% or higher).

Results: In total, 208 CHR individuals received daily antipsychotic treatment of an olanzapine-equivalent dose of 8.7 mg with a mean administration duration of 58.4 weeks. Of these, 39 (18.8%) developed psychosis within 2 years. A new index of factors ratio (FR), which was derived from the ratio of RC-PS plus RC-GF to RC-NS plus RC-CP, was generated. In the higher-risk group, as FR increased, the conversion rate decreased. A small group (15%) of CHR individuals at higher-risk and an FR >1 benefitted from the antipsychotic treatment.

Conclusions: Through applying a personal risk assessment, the administration of antipsychotics should be limited to CHR individuals with predominantly positive symptoms and related function decline. A strict antipsychotic prescription strategy should be introduced to reduce inappropriate use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721000064DOI Listing
February 2021

Enhancing EEG-Based Classification of Depression Patients Using Spatial Information.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 3;29:566-575. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Background: Depression has become a leading mental disorder worldwide. Evidence has shown that subjects with depression exhibit different spatial responses in neurophysiological signals from the healthy controls when they are exposed to positive and negative stimuli.

Methods: We proposed an effective electroencephalogram-based detection method for depression classification using spatial information. A face-in-the-crowd task, including positive and negative emotional facial expressions, was presented to 30 participants, including 16 depression patients and 14 healthy controls. Differential entropy and the genetic algorithm were used for feature extraction and selection, and a support vector machine was used for classification. A task-related common spatial pattern (TCSP) was proposed to enhance the spatial differences before the feature extraction.

Results And Discussion: We achieved a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation classification result of 84% and 85.7% for positive and negative stimuli, respectively, using TCSP, which is statistically significantly higher than 81.7% and 83.2%, respectively, acquired without the TCSP (p < 0.05). We also evaluated the classification performance using individual frequency bands and found that the contribution of the gamma band was predominant. In addition, we evaluated different classifiers, including k-nearest neighbor and logistic regression, which showed similar trends in the improvement of classification by employing TCSP.

Conclusion: The results show that our proposed method, employing spatial information, significantly improves the accuracy of classifying depression patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2021.3059429DOI Listing
March 2021

Band-Gap Tunability in Partially Amorphous Silicon Nanoparticles Using Single-Dot Correlative Microscopy.

ACS Appl Nano Mater 2021 Jan 17;4(1):288-296. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) represent one of many types of nanomaterials, where the origin of emission is difficult to assess due to a complex interplay between the core and surface chemistry. Band-gap tunability in Si-NPs is predicted to span from the infrared to the ultraviolet spectral range, which is rarely observed in practice. In this work, we directly assess the size dependence of the optical band gap using a single-dot correlative microscopy tool, where the size of the individual NPs is measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the optical band gap is evaluated from single-dot photoluminescence measured on the very same NPs. We analyze 2-8 nm alkyl-capped Si-NPs prepared by a sol-gel method, followed by annealing at 1300 °C. Surprisingly, we find that the optical band gap is given by the amorphous shell, as evidenced by the convergence of the optical band gap size dependence toward the amorphous Si band gap of ∼1.56 eV. We propose that the structural disorder might be the reason behind the often reported limited emission tunability from various Si-NPs in the literature. We believe that our message points toward a pressing need for development and broader use of such direct correlative single-dot microscopy methods to avoid possible misinterpretations that could arise from attempts to recover size-band gap relation from ensemble methods, as practiced nowadays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.0c02395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836094PMC
January 2021

PKM2 promotes cell metastasis and inhibits autophagy via the JAK/STAT3 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 29;476(5):2001-2010. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Digestive Department, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 100 Hong Kong Road, Jiang'an District, Wuhan, 430015, China.

Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a member of the pyruvate kinase family. It has been recently reported that PKM2 displays non-metabolic activities. Nevertheless, understanding of the role of PKM2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is insufficient. Therefore, our study aimed at exploring the impact of PKM2 on malignant growth, autophagy as well as invasion in HCC. Expression of PKM2 in HCC specimens was examined by qRT-PCR and western blot. PKM2 knock down was generated in vitro by shRNA. Activities of malignant cells as well as downstream pathways were assessed. The MTT assay was carried out to evaluate HCC proliferation, and the FACS assay was conducted to study cell death. Elevated PKM2 levels were observed in HCC samples. Knockdown (KD) of PKM2 triggered apoptosis as well as autophagy and inhibited migration and proliferation of HCC cells. Furthermore, PKM2 KD reinforced JAK/STAT3 pathway stimulation. STAT3 inhibition counteracted the impact of PKM2 on proliferation, autophagy, migration as well as cell death in HCC. To conclude, the findings of our research suggest that PKM2 reinforced metastasis and inhibited autophagy in HCC through the JAK/STAT3 pathway, and that PKM2 could serve as a promising target for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-04041-wDOI Listing
May 2021

3D printing of robust and biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate/nano-hydroxyapatite composites continuous liquid interface production.

J Mater Chem B 2021 02;9(5):1315-1324

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Disease and Biomedical Sciences and Chongqing Municipal Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering of Higher Education and Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401174, China.

Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology with satisfactory speed and accuracy has been a powerful force in biomaterial processing. Early studies on 3D printing of biomaterials mainly focused on their biocompatibility and cellular viability while rarely attempted to produce robust specimens. Nonetheless, the biomedical applications of polymers can be severely limited by their inherently weak mechanical properties particularly in bone tissue engineering. In this study, continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) is applied to construct 3D objects of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) filled polymeric biomaterials with complex architectures. Notably, the bioactive and osteoconductive n-HA endows the 3D prints of poly(ethyleneglycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) composites with a high compression strength of 6.5 ± 1.4 MPa, about 342% improvement over neat PEGDA. This work demonstrates the first successful attempt on CLIP 3D printing of n-HA nanocomposites, providing a feasible, cost-effective and patient-specific solution to various fields in the biomedical industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02182bDOI Listing
February 2021

Autobiographical and episodic memory deficits in schizophrenia: A narrative review and proposed agenda for research.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 02 11;83:101956. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

University Hospital of Strasbourg - Department of Psychiatry, University of Strasbourg, INSERM U1114, FMTS, France. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia is associated with memory disorders that affect patients in their daily life. Patients complain about difficulty to remember knowledge that has been recently learnt together with its context (episodic memory, EM) but also more complex events that have been personally experienced (autobiographical memory, AM). While deficits at both encoding and retrieval have been shown to account for EM disorders in schizophrenia, the cognitive mechanisms involved in AM disorders are more difficult to approach. This is partly explained by the conceptual difference between EM and AM. Some methodological limitations inherent to the AM research also reduce the possibility to investigate the early processing of complex and dynamic real-life events at encoding; rather the retrieval processes engaged have therefore been the focus of the bulk of extant research. The aim of this review is to summarize the main findings related to EM and AM research in patients with schizophrenia, to discuss the putative mechanisms that may account for patients' AM impairment, based in particular on the literature about EM, and to provide an agenda for future research aiming to further elucidate the role of encoding deficits in AM in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2020.101956DOI Listing
February 2021

Preparative separation of high-purity trans- and cis-ferulic acid from wheat bran by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jan 2;1636:461772. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address:

Ferulic acid stereoisomers are the most abundant phenolic acids in cereal bran. However, it is challenging to separate them because of the similar structures and properties. In this study, a preparative separation method of ferulic acid stereoisomers from the crude extract of wheat bran was successfully developed. The method contained a two-step separation, the traditional counter-current chromatography (CCC, hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol: water = 2:5:2:4) was followed with a pH-zone-refining CCC (hexane: ethyl acetate: acetonitrile: water = 2:5:2:2, 10 mmol L trifluoroacetic acid in organic stationary phase and 10 mmol L ammonia in aqueous mobile phase). Trans-ferulic acid and cis-ferulic acid with HPLC high purity over than 99% and 98% can be yielded in large-scale separation. Moreover, it is found that different proton affinity, deprotonation ability and interaction site of hydrogen bond result in distinct partition behavior of stereoisomers, which is illustrated by quantitative analysis of molecular surface. This contributes to our in-depth understanding of the separation mechanism toward pH-zone refining CCC. The developed method can be applied in the exploitation of ferulic acids and related phenolic acids from other resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2020.461772DOI Listing
January 2021

Preparative separation of high-purity trans- and cis-ferulic acid from wheat bran by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jan 2;1636:461772. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address:

Ferulic acid stereoisomers are the most abundant phenolic acids in cereal bran. However, it is challenging to separate them because of the similar structures and properties. In this study, a preparative separation method of ferulic acid stereoisomers from the crude extract of wheat bran was successfully developed. The method contained a two-step separation, the traditional counter-current chromatography (CCC, hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol: water = 2:5:2:4) was followed with a pH-zone-refining CCC (hexane: ethyl acetate: acetonitrile: water = 2:5:2:2, 10 mmol L trifluoroacetic acid in organic stationary phase and 10 mmol L ammonia in aqueous mobile phase). Trans-ferulic acid and cis-ferulic acid with HPLC high purity over than 99% and 98% can be yielded in large-scale separation. Moreover, it is found that different proton affinity, deprotonation ability and interaction site of hydrogen bond result in distinct partition behavior of stereoisomers, which is illustrated by quantitative analysis of molecular surface. This contributes to our in-depth understanding of the separation mechanism toward pH-zone refining CCC. The developed method can be applied in the exploitation of ferulic acids and related phenolic acids from other resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2020.461772DOI Listing
January 2021

MK-Curve improves sensitivity to identify white matter alterations in clinical high risk for psychosis.

Neuroimage 2021 02 4;226:117564. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a diffusion MRI approach that enables the measurement of brain microstructural properties, reflecting molecular restrictions and tissue heterogeneity. DKI parameters such as mean kurtosis (MK) provide additional subtle information to that provided by popular diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, and thus have been considered useful to detect white matter abnormalities, especially in populations that are not expected to show severe brain pathologies. However, DKI parameters often yield artifactual output values that are outside of the biologically plausible range, which diminish sensitivity to identify true microstructural changes. Recently we have proposed the mean-kurtosis-curve (MK-Curve) method to correct voxels with implausible DKI parameters, and demonstrated its improved performance against other approaches that correct artifacts in DKI. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the utility of the MK-Curve method to improve the identification of white matter abnormalities in group comparisons. To do so, we compared group differences, with and without the MK-Curve correction, between 115 individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and 93 healthy controls (HCs). We also compared the correlation of the corrected and uncorrected DKI parameters with clinical characteristics. Following the MK-curve correction, the group differences had larger effect sizes and higher statistical significance (i.e., lower p-values), demonstrating increased sensitivity to detect group differences, in particular in MK. Furthermore, the MK-curve-corrected DKI parameters displayed stronger correlations with clinical variables in CHR individuals, demonstrating the clinical relevance of the corrected parameters. Overall, following the MK-curve correction our analyses found widespread lower MK in CHR that overlapped with lower fractional anisotropy (FA), and both measures were significantly correlated with a decline in functioning and with more severe symptoms. These observations further characterize white matter alterations in the CHR stage, demonstrating that MK and FA abnormalities are widespread, and mostly overlap. The improvement in group differences and stronger correlation with clinical variables suggest that applying MK-curve would be beneficial for the detection and characterization of subtle group differences in other experiments as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873589PMC
February 2021

When to initiate antipsychotic treatment for psychotic symptoms: At the premorbid phase or first episode of psychosis?

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 03 3;55(3):314-323. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. China.

Objective: Antipsychotic drugs are widely used for treating patients with first episode of psychosis, targeting threshold psychotic symptoms. The clinical high risk of psychosis is characterized as subthreshold psychotic symptoms and it is unclear whether they can also benefit from antipsychotic drugs treatment. This study attempted to determine whether initiating antipsychotic drugs treatment in the clinical high risk of psychosis phase was superior to initiating antipsychotic drugs treatment in the first episode of psychosis phase, after the 2-year symptomatic and functional outcomes.

Method: Drawing on 517 individuals with clinical high risk of psychosis from the ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis program, we identified 105 patients who converted to first episode of psychosis within the following 2 years. Patients who initiated antipsychotic drugs while at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR_AP;  = 70) were compared with those who initiated antipsychotic drugs during a first episode of psychosis (FEP_AP;  = 35). Summary scores on positive symptoms and the global function scores at baseline and at 2 months, 1 year and 2 years of follow-up were analyzed to evaluate outcomes.

Results: The CHR_AP and FEP_AP groups were not different in the severity of positive symptoms and functioning at baseline. However, the CHR_AP group exhibited significantly more serious negative symptoms and total symptoms than the FEP_AP group. Both groups exhibited a significant reduction in positive symptoms and function ( < 0.001). Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed group by time interaction for symptomatic ( = 3.196,  = 3,  = 0.024) and functional scores ( = 7.306,  = 3,  < 0.001). The FEP_AP group showed higher remission rates than the CHR_AP group (χ = 22.270,  < 0.001). Compared to initiating antipsychotic drug treatments in the clinical high risk of psychosis state, initiating antipsychotic drugs treatments in the first episode of psychosis state predicted remission in a regression model for FEP_AP (odds ratio = 5.567, 95% confidence interval = [1.783, 17.383],  = 0.003).

Conclusion: For clinical high risk of psychosis, antipsychotic drugs might be not the first choice in terms of long-term remission, which is more reasonable to use at the first episode of psychosis phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004867420969810DOI Listing
March 2021

Subtypes of Clinical High Risk for Psychosis that Predict Antipsychotic Effectiveness in Long-Term Remission.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2021 Jan 12;54(1):23-30. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai.

Introduction: In a previous report, we used canonical correlation analysis to classify individuals with clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis into the 3 subtypes: subtype-1, characterized by extensive negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, appeared to have the highest risk for conversion to psychosis; subtype-2, characterized by thought and behavioral disorganization, with moderate cognitive impairment; subtype-3, characterized by the mildest symptoms and cognitive deficits. The present study attempted to identify these subtypes' response to antipsychotic (AP) treatment.

Methods: A total of 289 individuals with CHR were identified and followed up for 2 years. Individuals with CHR were classified by subtype. Use of APs was examined at 2-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-up interviews that inquired after the subjects' medication history since the first visit. The main outcome was remission, determined according to global assessment of function (GAF) score (i. e., functional outcome) and SIPS positive symptom score (symptomatic outcome) at the follow-up points.

Results: Among the 289 individuals with CHR included in the current analysis, 223 (77.2%) were treated using APs for at least 2 weeks during the follow-up period. Individuals with CHR tended to show significant improvement in both symptoms and function after 2 years, but subtypes exhibited significantly different trajectories. Subtype status can predict AP treatment outcome in terms of remission. The likelihood of remission differed significantly among the subtype groups. The remission rates for individuals with subtypes 1-3 treated using AP were 13.5%, 36.1%, and 67.0%, respectively.

Discussion: These subtypes may be of clinical value in AP treatment decision-making in the CHR population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1252-2942DOI Listing
January 2021

Different Trajectories of Panic and the Associated Factors among Unmarried Chinese during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Appl Psychol Health Well Being 2020 12 5;12(4):967-982. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, China.

Background: A large number of the population experienced panic during the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. The current study explored the trajectory of panic and its associated factors to develop promising strategies for controlling the global spread of COVID-19 and improving the mental health emergency management.

Methods: A total of 812 unmarried adults (aged from 18 to 42 years, M = 23.3, SD = 3.45) from all over China participated online in our investigation. A Growth Mixture Model (GMM) was developed and analysed.

Results: Three classes of trajectories for panic were identified: the "continuous decline group (CDG)", the "continuous low group (CLG)," and the "continuous high group (CHG)". With reference to the CDG, people in the CHG were more sensitive to social factors. With reference to the CDG, people in the CLG were more likely to possess some of the following traits: being men, in Hubei Province (center of the pandemic), with a lower income, and less sensitive towards social factors and individual factors. With reference to the CLG, people in the CHG were more likely to be women, located outside of Hubei Province, and more sensitive to social factors, family factors, and individual factors.

Conclusion: Social factors, family factors, and individual factors predicted the different trajectories of panic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675528PMC
December 2020

Anti-inflammatory Dendranacetylene A, a new polyacetylene glucoside from the flower of Ramat.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Sep 29:1-7. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, China.

A new polyacetylene glucoside, Dendranacetylene A (1), and a known compound 8E-decaene-4,6-diyn-1-O--d-glucopyranosyl-(1"→2")--d-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the flowers of (Ramat.) kitam. The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis, and comparing these results with data reported in literatures. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated on RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The two compounds significantly inhibited the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells and exhibited anti-inflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1825425DOI Listing
September 2020

Special Report on the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Clinical EEG and Research and Consensus Recommendations for the Safe Use of EEG.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2021 Jan 25;52(1):3-28. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Clinical Neurophysiology Research Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction: The global COVID-19 pandemic has affected the economy, daily life, and mental/physical health. The latter includes the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in clinical practice and research. We report a survey of the impact of COVID-19 on the use of clinical EEG in practice and research in several countries, and the recommendations of an international panel of experts for the safe application of EEG during and after this pandemic.

Methods: Fifteen clinicians from 8 different countries and 25 researchers from 13 different countries reported the impact of COVID-19 on their EEG activities, the procedures implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and precautions planned or already implemented during the reopening of EEG activities.

Results: Of the 15 clinical centers responding, 11 reported a total stoppage of all EEG activities, while 4 reduced the number of tests per day. In research settings, all 25 laboratories reported a complete stoppage of activity, with 7 laboratories reopening to some extent since initial closure. In both settings, recommended precautions for restarting or continuing EEG recording included strict hygienic rules, social distance, and assessment for infection symptoms among staff and patients/participants.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic interfered with the use of EEG recordings in clinical practice and even more in clinical research. We suggest updated best practices to allow safe EEG recordings in both research and clinical settings. The continued use of EEG is important in those with psychiatric diseases, particularly in times of social alarm such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059420954054DOI Listing
January 2021

Baseline Cortical Thickness Reductions in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: Brain Regions Associated with Conversion to Psychosis Versus Non-Conversion as Assessed at One-Year Follow-Up in the Shanghai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) Study.

Schizophr Bull 2021 03;47(2):562-574

Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, VA Boston Healthcare System, Brockton Division, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: To assess cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) of frontal, temporal, and parietal brain regions in a large clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) sample, and to identify cortical brain abnormalities in CHR who convert to psychosis and in the whole CHR sample, compared with the healthy controls (HC).

Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging, clinical, and cognitive data were acquired at baseline in 92 HC, 130 non-converters, and 22 converters (conversion assessed at 1-year follow-up). CT and SA at baseline were calculated for frontal, temporal, and parietal subregions. Correlations between regions showing group differences and clinical scores and age were also obtained.

Results: CT but not SA was significantly reduced in CHR compared with HC. Two patterns of findings emerged: (1) In converters, CT was significantly reduced relative to non-converters and controls in the banks of superior temporal sulcus, Heschl's gyrus, and pars triangularis and (2) CT in the inferior parietal and supramarginal gyrus, and at trend level in the pars opercularis, fusiform, and middle temporal gyri was significantly reduced in all high-risk individuals compared with HC. Additionally, reduced CT correlated significantly with older age in HC and in non-converters but not in converters.

Conclusions: These results show for the first time that fronto-temporo-parietal abnormalities characterized all CHR, that is, both converters and non-converters, relative to HC, while CT abnormalities in converters relative to CHR-NC and HC were found in core auditory and language processing regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa127DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparative efficacy of add-on rTMS in treating the somatic and psychic anxiety symptoms of depression comorbid with anxiety in adolescents, adults, and elderly patients-A real-world clinical application.

J Affect Disord 2020 11 1;276:305-311. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China. Electronic address:

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective adjuvant treatment for depression. Many patients with depression have comorbid anxiety symptoms. However, previous rTMS studies have focused on patients with depression, and often excluded comorbid anxiety. This real-world study aimed to investigate the comparative efficacy of add-on rTMS in treating the somatic and psychic anxiety symptoms of depression comorbid with anxiety in adolescents, adults and elderly patients.

Methods: This study included 147 depression patients with anxiety symptoms who were treated with at least 10 sessions of rTMS. The symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. This was done to compare the improvement degree of add-on rTMS on somatic and psychic anxiety symptoms in adolescents, adults and elderly patients respectively.

Results: Both somatic and psychic anxiety symptoms were significantly improved after the add-on rTMS in adolescents, adults and elderly patients. The improvement of somatic anxiety was better than that of psychic anxiety after rTMS treatment in elderly patients (t=3.895, P<0.001; t=2.823, P = 0.008).

Limitation: The overall sample was mostly composed of elderly patients, while adolescents and adult patients were fewer.

Conclusions: The add-on rTMS treatment can improve somatic anxiety better than psychic anxiety in depression with anxiety symptoms, especially in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.05.151DOI Listing
November 2020

The 7 Ps marketing mix of home-sharing services: Mining travelers' online reviews on Airbnb.

Int J Hosp Manag 2020 Sep 15;90:102616. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

School of Information Studies, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA.

The 7 Ps model is a very useful tool in helping service firms solve managerial issues in marketing. Guided by the 7 Ps marketing mix framework, a big-data, supervised machine learning analysis was performed with 1,148,062 English reviews of 37,092 Airbnb listings in San Francisco and New York City. The results disclose similar patterns in both markets, where travelers shared their experience about Service Product and Physical Evidence most often; Price and Promotion were the least mentioned elements. Furthermore, through a series of comparisons of Airbnb's 7 Ps marketing mix among the listings managed by different types of hosts, multi-unit and single-unit hosts seem to offer similar services with a small observable difference; whereas superhosts and the ordinary hosts deliver different services. This study makes valuable methodological contributions and provides practical marketing insights for hoteliers and the hosts and webmasters on home-sharing websites. Policymakers should pay special attention to multi-unit hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361117PMC
September 2020

Effect of DAOA genetic variation on white matter alteration in corpus callosum in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

Brain Imaging Behav 2020 Aug 3. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, China.

D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) gene, which plays a crucial role in the process of glutamatergic transmission and mitochondrial function, is frequently linked with the liability for schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate whether the variation of DAOA rs2391191 is associated with alterations in white matter integrity of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients; and whether it influences the association between white matter integrity, cognitive function and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Forty-six patients with FES and forty-nine healthy controls underwent DTI and were genotyped for DAOA rs2391191. Psychopathological assessments were performed by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Cognitive function was assessed by MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Schizophrenia patients presented lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD), mainly spreading over the corpus callosum and corona radiata compared with healthy controls. Compared with patients carrying G allele, patients with AA showed lower FA in the body of corpus callosum, and higher RD in the genu of corpus callosum, right superior and anterior corona radiata, and left posterior corona radiata. In patients carrying G allele, FA in body of corpus callosum was positively correlated with working memory, RD in genu of corpus callosum was negatively associated with the speed of processing, working memory, and the composite score of MCCB, while no significant correlations were found in AA homozygotes. In our study, patients with FES presented abnormal white matter integrity in corpus callosum and corona radiata. Furthermore, this abnormality was associated with the genetic variation of DAOA rs2391191, with AA homozygotes showing less white matter integrity in the corpus callosum. Our findings possibly provide further support to the evidence that DAOA regulates the process of glutamatergic neurotransmission and mitochondrial function in the pathophysiological mechanism of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-020-00368-6DOI Listing
August 2020

Highly Stable Perovskite Supercrystals via Oil-in-Oil Templating.

Nano Lett 2020 Aug 28;20(8):5997-6004. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Inorganic perovskites display an enticing foreground for their wide range of optoelectronic applications. Recently, supercrystals (SCs) of inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have been reported to possess highly ordered structure as well as novel collective optical properties, opening new opportunities for efficient films. Here, we report the large-scale assembly control of spherical, cubic, and hexagonal SCs of inorganic perovskite NCs through templating by oil-in-oil emulsions. We show that an interplay between the roundness of the cubic NCs and the tension of the confining droplet surface sets the superstructure morphology, and we exploit this interplay to design dense hyperlattices of SCs. The SC films show strongly enhanced stability for at least two months without obvious structural degradation and minor optical changes. Our results on the controlled large-scale assembly of perovskite NC superstructures provide new prospects for the bottom-up production of optoelectronic devices based on the microfluidic production of mesoscopic building blocks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431010PMC
August 2020

Cognitive dysfunction in a psychotropic medication-naïve, clinical high-risk sample from the ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) study: Associations with clinical outcomes.

Schizophr Res 2020 12 18;226:138-146. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: 1) to assess generalizability of neurocognitive deficits reported in previous Western clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis studies in a prodromal program in Shanghai, China; and 2) to investigate neurocognition in CHR subjects in relation to a broader range of clinical outcomes (e.g. remission) than presence or absence of psychosis.

Method: Baseline neurocognitive assessments of CHR (n = 217) and healthy control (HC; n = 133) subjects were compared based on 1-year follow-up clinical status using MANOVA. CHR subjects were first divided into 'converter' (CHR-C; n = 41) and 'non-converter' (CHR-NC; n = 155) to psychosis groups and compared to HC and to each other. CHR subjects were then divided into 'remission' (i.e. achieved remission; n = 102), 'symptomatic' (persistent positive symptoms in the absence of conversion; n = 37) and 'poor-outcome' (converted and symptomatic subjects who did not respond to treatment; n = 57) groups.

Results: CHR neurocognitive performance was broadly impaired compared to HC; CHR-C subjects showed lower performance in processing speed and visual learning than CHR-NC. CHRs with poor clinical outcomes showed lower performance on most MCCB tasks compared to HC, particularly in learning and processing speed, as clinical outcome worsened from remission to symptomatic to poor outcome groups.

Conclusions: Level and pattern of baseline neurocognitive weaknesses in SHARP CHR subjects were similar to those in NAPLS-2. Outcome stratification into remission, symptomatic and poor groups was associated with increasing cognitive deficits in learning and processing speed. These findings support cross-cultural generalizability and advance understanding of CHR neurocognitive heterogeneity associated with 1-year clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.06.018DOI Listing
December 2020