Publications by authors named "Yingying Guo"

148 Publications

Decreased bioavailability of both inorganic mercury and methylmercury in anaerobic sediments by sorption on iron sulfide nanoparticles.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 30;424(Pt B):127399. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Methylmercury (MeHg), derived via inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms, is a neurotoxic contaminant causing concern worldwide. Establishing how to reduce Hg(II) methylation and MeHg bioavailability is essential for effective control of Hg pollution. Iron sulfide nanoparticles (FeS) is a promising passivator for Hg(II) methylation. However, its effect on the fate of MeHg in aquatic systems remains poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of FeS on Hg(II) bioavailability, MeHg production and bioavailability in aquatic environments. Results demonstrated that FeS rapidly sorbed Hg(II) and MeHg, with sorption affected by pH, chloride ion and dissolved organic matter. Hg-specific biosensor analysis showed that Hg(II) sorbed onto FeS significantly reduced its bioavailability to microorganisms. Double stable isotope (Hg(II) and MeHg) addition revealed that FeS significantly inhibited MeHg production in anaerobic sediments. Furthermore, synthetic gut juice extraction suggested that FeS decrease concentrations of bioavailable MeHg and Hg(II), reducing their integration into food webs. However, the sorbed MeHg and Hg(II) in sediments can be released after FeS oxidation, potentially enhancing the risk of exposure to aquatic organisms. Overall, these findings increase our understanding of Hg transformation and exposure risks in aquatic systems, providing valuable information for the development of in situ Hg remediation systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127399DOI Listing
September 2021

Dark Reduction of Mercury by Microalgae-Associated Aerobic Bacteria in Marine Environments.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Oct 29;55(20):14258-14268. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Redox transformation of mercury (Hg) is critical for Hg exchange at the air-sea interface and it can also affect the methylation of Hg in marine environments. However, the contributions of microalgae and aerobic bacteria in oxic seawater to Hg reduction are largely unknown. Here, we studied the reduction of Hg mediated by microalgae and aerobic bacteria in surface marine water and microalgae cultures under dark and sunlight conditions. The comparable reduction rates of Hg with and without light suggest that dark reduction by biological processes is as important as photochemical reduction in the tested surface marine water and microalgae cultures. The contributions of microalgae, associated free-living aerobic bacteria, and extracellular substances to dark reduction were distinguished and quantified in 7 model microalgae cultures, demonstrating that the associated aerobic bacteria are directly involved in dark Hg reduction. The aerobic bacteria in the microalgae cultures were isolated and a rapid dark reduction of Hg followed by a decrease of Hg was observed. The reduction of Hg and re-oxidation of Hg were demonstrated in aerobic bacteria spp. using double isotope tracing (Hg and Hg). These findings highlight the importance of algae-associated aerobic bacteria in Hg transformation in oxic marine water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03608DOI Listing
October 2021

Vitrification with microinjection of single seminiferous tubules: an efficient cryopreservation approach for limited testicular tissue.

Reprod Biomed Online 2021 Oct 3;43(4):687-699. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Andrology, the Center for Men's Health, Urologic Medical Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, China. Electronic address:

Research Question: Is vitrification with microinjection of single seminiferous tubules an efficient cryopreservation approach for limited testicular tissue?

Design: Testicular tissue from 10 patients with normal spermatogenesis were assigned to a fresh control group or one of the following cryopreservation procedures: uncontrolled slow freezing (USF) using either 1.5 or 2.1 M DMSO combined with sucrose and vitrification with or without single seminiferous tubules microinjection.

Results: Single seminiferous tubules microinjected with cryoprotective agents (CPA) enhanced the penetration of CPA compared with CPA-treated testicular tissue fragments. Microinjection of seminiferous tubules (VLP) maintained tubule structural integrity and germ cell numbers, and reduced spermatogonial apoptosis after cryopreservation compared with vitrification without microinjection (apoptosis rate: VLP versus vitrification without microinjection, P = 0.047; VLP versus USF, P= 0.049). Freezing of single seminiferous tubules using 0.25-ml straws and traditional sperm freezing methods protected sperm retrieval and recovery rates, and the progressive motility index.

Conclusions: Vitrification of single seminiferous tubule with microinjection of low CPA concentration is an effective approach to testicular cryopreservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2021.06.026DOI Listing
October 2021

The development of genus-specific and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the authentication of Patagonian toothfish and Antarctic toothfish in commercial seafood products.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Aquatic Product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs; Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, China.

Background: The substitution or mislabeling of toothfish is an issue of significant concern for seafood authorities; it also reduces the effectiveness of marine conservation and management programs for its over-exploitation and illegal trafficking, boosting the need for identification methods.

Results: Two species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the identification of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) and a genus-specific real-time PCR assay for Dissostichus spp. identification were developed based on fragments of the 16S rRNA and COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. These methods were confirmed to be rapid, simple, and sensitive (absolute sensitivity of 0.0002 ng μL and relative sensitivity of 0.1 g kg with good specificity). These methods can be applied to processed and commercial fish products.

Conclusions: These approaches can be beneficial for protecting both consumers and producers from economic fraud and might also help protect toothfish from over-exploitation as well as combat illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fisheries. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11507DOI Listing
August 2021

Antitumor Effects of Astaxanthin on Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by up-Regulation of PPARγ.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Aug 2:1-12. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

College of Public Health and, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that is difficult to find and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to explore the chemoprevention effect of Astaxanthin (AST) and reveal the possible mechanism of AST on the development of esophageal cancer based on PPARγ. We found that a stable and strong binding between PPARγ molecules and AST molecules using Autodock 4.0 software. AST significantly inhibited the viability of EC109 cells in a dose and time dependent manners (all  < 0.05), and up-regulated the protein expression level of PPARγ from the concentration of 6.25 µM ( < 0.05). Animal experiment showed that AST significantly decreased the incidences of NMBzA-induced esophageal carcinogenesis at 50 mg/kg AST in F344 rats ( < 0.05). AST inhibited the oxidative stress by improving the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, and increasing the protein of PPARγ, Bax/Bcl-2, Caspase-3 in esophagus tissue, especially in the 50 mg/kg of AST intervention group (all  < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that protective effect of AST on esophageal cancer by inhibiting oxidative stress, up-regulating PPARγ, and activating the apoptotic pathway, which could provide a basis for clinical application of AST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1952449DOI Listing
August 2021

Simultaneous removal of phosphorous and nitrogen by ammonium assimilation and aerobic denitrification of novel phosphate-accumulating organism Pseudomonas chloritidismutans K14.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 21;340:125621. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aqua-Ecology and Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China. Electronic address:

Pseudomonas chloritidismutans K14, a novel phosphate-accumulating organism with the capacity to perform ammonium assimilation, aerobic denitrification, and phosphorus removal, was isolated from aquaculture sediments. It produced no hemolysin, and showed susceptibility to most antibiotics. Optimum conditions were achieved with sodium pyruvate as a carbon source, a C/N ratio of 10, pH of 7.5, temperature of 27 °C, P/N ratio of 0.26, and shaking at 140 rpm. Under optimum conditions, the highest removal efficiencies of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate were 99.82%, 99.11%, and 99.78%, respectively; the corresponding removal rates were 6.27, 4.51, and 4.99 mg/L/h. The strain removed over 98% of phosphorus, and over 87% of chemical oxygen demand. The highest biomass nitrogen during ammonium assimilation was 99.18 mg/L; no gaseous nitrogen was produced. The genes involved in nitrogen and phosphorus removal were amplified by PCR. This study demonstrated the potential application prospects of strain K14 for nitrogen and phosphorus removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125621DOI Listing
November 2021

The multi-functional reovirus σ3 protein is a virulence factor that suppresses stress granule formation and is associated with myocardial injury.

PLoS Pathog 2021 07 8;17(7):e1009494. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

The mammalian orthoreovirus double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein σ3 is a multifunctional protein that promotes viral protein synthesis and facilitates viral entry and assembly. The dsRNA-binding capacity of σ3 correlates with its capacity to prevent dsRNA-mediated activation of protein kinase R (PKR). However, the effect of σ3 binding to dsRNA during viral infection is largely unknown. To identify functions of σ3 dsRNA-binding activity during reovirus infection, we engineered a panel of thirteen σ3 mutants and screened them for the capacity to bind dsRNA. Six mutants were defective in dsRNA binding, and mutations in these constructs cluster in a putative dsRNA-binding region on the surface of σ3. Two recombinant viruses expressing these σ3 dsRNA-binding mutants, K287T and R296T, display strikingly different phenotypes. In a cell-type dependent manner, K287T, but not R296T, replicates less efficiently than wild-type (WT) virus. In cells in which K287T virus demonstrates a replication deficit, PKR activation occurs and abundant stress granules (SGs) are formed at late times post-infection. In contrast, the R296T virus retains the capacity to suppress activation of PKR and does not mediate formation of SGs at late times post-infection. These findings indicate that σ3 inhibits PKR independently of its capacity to bind dsRNA. In infected mice, K287T produces lower viral titers in the spleen, liver, lungs, and heart relative to WT or R296T. Moreover, mice inoculated with WT or R296T viruses develop myocarditis, whereas those inoculated with K287T do not. Overall, our results indicate that σ3 functions to suppress PKR activation and subsequent SG formation during viral infection and that these functions correlate with virulence in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291629PMC
July 2021

[Application of non-stationary phase separation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the analysis of trace metal-containing nanoparticles in the environment].

Se Pu 2021 Aug;39(8):855-869

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Engineered metal-containing nanoparticles (MCNs), which have unique physical and chemical properties, are widely used in various fields such as medicine, pharmaceuticals, and microelectronics as well as in daily supplies. These MCNs are inevitably released into the environment during production and use, thus posing a threat to bacterial communities, animals, plants, and human health. There are also abundant natural MCNs in the environment, which play an important role in the environmental cycle of metals. The shape, size, and surface properties of MCNs have a significant impact on their migration, chemical and physical transformation, and biological intake in the environment. Therefore, the analysis and detection of MCNs in the environment should be aimed not only at quantifying their concentration and chemical composition, but also at determining their shape, particle size, and surface charge. In addition, for the detection of MCNs in the environment, challenges due to their low concentrations and the interference from complex environmental matrices must be overcome. A single detection technique is often insufficient for the analysis and detection of MCNs in a complex environment matrix. Therefore, the development of an effective and reliable online hyphenated technique is urgently needed for the separation and detection of MCNs in the environment. Such online hyphenated techniques should be able to eliminate the interference by complex matrices, improve the particle size detection range, and reduce the element detection limit. The online hyphenation of stationary phase-based separation techniques such as liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can effectively separate MCNs according to their particle size, with low element detection limits. However, these stationary phase-based separation techniques have a shortcoming of the adsorption of nanoparticles on the stationary phase, which leads to blockage of separation channels and low recoveries of nanoparticles. The online hyphenation of a non-stationary phase separation technique with ICP-MS also shows strong nanoparticle separation ability and low element detection limits, so that the problem of colloid blockage in stationary phase-based separation can be resolved. This method is very promising for the rapid and accurate characterization of the particle size distribution and chemical composition of MCNs. However, it cannot provide information about the nanoparticle number concentration of MCNs and the elemental content of a single MCN. In complex environmental samples, pure MCNs cannot be effectively distinguished from MCNs with environmental corona having different thicknesses or pure MCNs adsorbed on/hetero-agglomerated with inorganic/organic colloids. Online coupling single-particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS), an emerging particle detection technique with non-stationary phase separation, can effectively help overcome the above shortcomings. This method can provide information on the hydrodynamic diameter, metal mass-derived diameter, total number concentration, size-dependent number, and size-dependent mass concentration of MCNs. Therefore, it enables comprehensive characterization of MCNs based on a variety of three-dimensional contour plot chromatograms. This review summarizes the separation mechanisms and applicable detectors for three commonly used non-stationary phase separation techniques: hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and field-flow fractionation (FFF). In addition, it focuses on the characteristics and applications of online-coupling non-stationary phase separation with ICP-MS and SP-ICP-MS. Regarding FFF, this review focuses on the separation techniques that are suitable for online coupling with ICP-MS, such as sedimentation FFF and flow FFF (symmetrical flow FFF, asymmetrical flow FFF, and hollow fiber flow FFF). In addition, the characteristics of the online hyphenation of three non-stationary phase separations, HDC, CE, and flow FFF, with ICP-MS are compared, including the separation mechanism, sample volume, analytical time, detection sensitivity, size range, size resolution, recovery, reproducibility, and capability for ion analysis. Finally, this review proposes the prospects for future development of the online hyphenation of non-stationary phase separation techniques with ICP-MS and SP-ICP-MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.12016DOI Listing
August 2021

Individualized lncRNA differential expression profile reveals heterogeneity of breast cancer.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 15;40(27):4604-4614. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Bioinformatics, College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key regulatory roles in breast cancer. However, population-level differential expression analysis methods disregard the heterogeneous expression of lncRNAs in individual patients. Therefore, we individualized lncRNA expression profiles for breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) using the method of LncRNA Individualization (LncRIndiv). After evaluating the robustness of LncRIndiv, we constructed an individualized differentially expressed lncRNA (IDElncRNA) profile for BRCA and investigated the subtype-specific IDElncRNAs. The breast cancer subtype-specific IDElncRNA showed frequent co-occurrence with alterations of protein-coding genes, including mutations, copy number variation and differential methylation. We performed hierarchical clustering to subdivide TNBC and revealed mesenchymal subtype and immune subtype for TNBC. The TNBC immune subtype showed a better prognosis than the TNBC mesenchymal subtype. LncRNA PTOV1-AS1 was the top differentially expressed lncRNA in the mesenchymal subtype. And biological experiments validated that the upregulation of PTOV1-AS1 could downregulate TJP1 (ZO-1) and E-Cadherin, and upregulate Vimentin, which suggests PTOV1-AS1 may promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and lead to migration and invasion of TNBC cells. The mesenchymal subtype showed a higher fraction of M2 macrophages, whereas the immune subtype was more associated with CD4 + T cells. The immune subtype is characterized by genomic instability and upregulation of immune checkpoint genes, thereby suggesting a potential response to immunosuppressive drugs. Last, drug response analysis revealed lncRNA ENSG00000230082 (PRRT3-AS1) is a potential resistance biomarker for paclitaxel in BRCA treatment. Our analysis highlights that IDElncRNAs can characterize inter-tumor heterogeneity in BRCA and the new TNBC subtypes indicate novel insights into TNBC immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01883-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266678PMC
July 2021

LncRNA CTD-2528L19.6 prevents the progression of IPF by alleviating fibroblast activation.

Cell Death Dis 2021 06 10;12(6):600. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmacology (State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical factors for regulating multiple biological processes during organ fibrosis. However, the mechanism of lncRNAs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains incompletely understood. In the present study, two sets of lncRNAs were defined: IPF pathogenic lncRNAs and IPF progression lncRNAs. IPF pathogenic and progression lncRNAs-mRNAs co-expression networks were constructed to identify essential lncRNAs. Network analysis revealed a key lncRNA CTD-2528L19.6, which was up-regulated in early-stage IPF compared to normal lung tissue, and subsequently down-regulated during advanced-stage IPF. CTD-2528L19.6 was indicated to regulate fibroblast activation in IPF progression by mediating the expression of fibrosis related genes LRRC8C, DDIT4, THBS1, S100A8 and TLR7 et al. Further studies showed that silencing of CTD-2528L19.6 increases the expression of Fn1 and Collagen I both at mRNA and protein levels, promoted the transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and accelerated the migration and proliferation of MRC-5 cells. In contrast, CTD-2528L19.6 overexpression alleviated fibroblast activation in MRC-5 cells induced by TGF-β1. LncRNA CTD-2528L19.6 inhibited fibroblast activation through regulating the expression of LRRC8C in vitro assays. Our results suggest that CTD-2528L19.6 may prevent the progression of IPF from early-stage and alleviate fibroblast activation during the advanced-stage of IPF. Thus, exploring the regulatory effect of lncRNA CTD-2528L19.6 may provide new sights for the prevention and treatment of IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03884-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192779PMC
June 2021

The long non-coding RNA PFI protects against pulmonary fibrosis by interacting with splicing regulator SRSF1.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Oct 12;28(10):2916-2930. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology (State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, P. R. China.

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a type of interstitial pneumonia with complex etiology and high mortality, characterized by progressive scarring of the alveolar interstitium and myofibroblastic lesions. Recently, there has been growing appreciation of the importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNAs in lung fibrosis. We used a qRT-PCR assay to identify dysregulated lncRNAs in the lungs of mice with experimental, bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and a series of molecular assays to assess the role of the novel lncRNA NONMMUT060091, designated as pulmonary fibrosis inhibitor (PFI), which was significantly downregulated in lung fibrosis. Functionally, knockdown of endogenous PFI by smart silencer promoted proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in primary mouse lung fibroblasts (MLFs). In contrast, overexpression of PFI partially abrogated TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis both in MLFs and in the human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Similarly, PFI overexpression attenuated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis compared with wild type (WT) mice. Mechanistically, using chromatin isolation by RNA purification-mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS) and an RNA pull-down assay, PFI was found to directly bind Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1), and to repress its expression and pro-fibrotic activity. Furthermore, silencing of SRSF1 inhibited TGF-β1-induced proliferation, differentiation, and ECM deposition in MRC-5 cells by limiting the formation of the EDA+Fn1 splicing isoform; whereas forced expression of SRSF1 by intratracheal injection of adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) ablated the anti-fibrotic effect of PFI in BLM-treated mice. Overall, these data reveal that PFI mitigated pulmonary fibrosis through negative regulation of the expression and activity of SRSF1 to decrease the formation of the EDA+Fn1 splicing isoform, and suggest that PFI and SRSF1 may serve as potential targets for the treatment of lung fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00792-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481258PMC
October 2021

Aging and phytoavailability of newly introduced and legacy cadmium in paddy soil and their bioaccessibility in rice grain distinguished by enriched isotope tracing.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 4;417:125998. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Phytoavailability of Cadmium (Cd) plays a critical role in its accumulation in soil-rice systems. However, differential aging and phytoavailability of newly introduced Cd (Cd) and legacy Cd (Cd) in the soil-rice system remains unknown. Moreover, distinguishing their aging and phytoavailability is challenging. Enriched Cd isotope was introduced into a series of pot experiments, combined with sequential extraction and isotope dilution (Cd isotopic spike), to investigate the aging and distribution of Cd and Cd under different treatments. The treatments included simulated acid rain, slaked lime, and biochar. Cd aged quickly than Cd in flooded soil and its availability was similar to that of Cd after tillering stage. The grain Cd contents were positively correlated to Cd concentrations in the overlying water. Acid rain reduced the soil pH, increasing the grain Cd, while slaked lime reduced grain Cd content. The acidic biochar used in this study increased grain Cd, possibly through soil acidification-induced Cd release. The differences in bioaccumulation and translocation factors between Cd and Cd in rice plants under slaked lime and biochar treatments suggested their different in vivo complexations and translocations. Analysis of bioaccessibility of Cd and Cd in rice grains provided valuable insights regarding human Cd exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125998DOI Listing
September 2021

Bach2 regulates autophagy to modulate UVA-induced photoaging in skin fibroblasts.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 06 18;169:304-316. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

National Innovation and Attracting Talents "111" base, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China. Electronic address:

Senescence is a cellular process that can be initiated by certain stressors such as UVA irradiation. The mechanism by which skin cells protect themselves from the UVA-induced senescence has not been fully investigated. Here, we demonstrate that Bach2 modulates the extent of UVA-induced photoaging through regulation of autophagy in skin fibroblasts. In fact chronic exposure of skin fibroblasts to UVA resulted in a significant decrease in Bach2 expression, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, knockdown of Bach2 in skin fibroblasts led to an increased expression of cell senescence-related genes, which further enhanced the UVA irradiation-induced photoaging. On the other hand, the overexpression of Bach2 resulted in a decrease in the expression of cell senescence-related genes. We also demonstrate that the knockdown of Bach2 in skin fibroblasts can lead to a decreased expression of autophagy-related genes and vice versa, suggesting that autophagy is involved in Bach2-mediated regulation of senescence in skin fibroblasts. Additionally, inhibition of autophagy with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA suppressed the expression of autophagy-related proteins and promoted cell senescence. Furthermore, knockout of Atg5 or Atg7 in embryonic mouse fibroblasts led to a significant increase in the expression of cell senescence-related genes. Immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that Bach2 directly interacts with Beclin-1, Atg3, Atg7, and LC3 in fibroblasts. Taken together, these findings revealed a critical role for Bach2 in suppressing the UVA irradiation-induced cell senescence via autophagy in skin fibroblasts. Bach2 can therefore be a potential target for the therapy of UV-induced photoaging because of its ability to regulate the process of autophagy in the skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.04.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Weight Loss and the Risk of Dementia: A Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2021 ;18(2):125-135

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Weight loss is a common phenomenon among the elderly and is identified as an important indicator of health status. Many epidemiology studies have investigated the association between weight loss and dementia, but the results were inconsistent.

Objective: To examine and determine the association between weight loss and the risk of dementia.

Methods: Eligible cohort studies involving weight loss and dementia were searched from PubMed, Embase, and Ovid databases through October 2018. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the effects of weight loss on the risk of dementia. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity. The Begg's test and Egger's test were used to assess the publication bias.

Results: A total of 20 cohort studies with 38,141 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Weight loss was significantly associated with the risk of dementia (RR=1.26, 95% CI=1.15-1.38). BMI decline ≥0.8 units (RR=1.31, 95% CI=1.10-1.56) and ≥4% (RR=1.19, 95% CI=1.03-1.38) could increase the risk of dementia. The risk of all-cause dementia for people with weight loss increased by 31% (RR=1.31, 95% CI=1.15-1.49), and 25% higher for incident Alzheimer's disease (RR=1.25, 95% CI=1.07-1.46). Weight loss in participants with normal weight had a similar dementia risk (RR=1.21, 95% CI=1.06-1.38) with the overweight individuals (RR=1.22, 95% CI=1.11-1.34).

Conclusion: Weight loss may be associated with an increased risk of dementia, especially for Alzheimer's disease. Maintaining weight stability may help prevent dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205018666210414112723DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of adiposity indicators with hypertension among Chinese adults.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 05 21;31(5):1391-1400. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Obesity has been linked to the development of hypertension, but the comparison of relationships between different obesity parameters with hypertension are scarcely studied with nationally representative Chinese adults samples. We sought to compare the predictive strengths of different obesity indicators to hypertension.

Methods And Results: Data in this study were obtained from the Chinese National Stroke Prevention Project with a nationally representative sample of Chinese aged 40 years and older. A total of 162,880 individuals were included. Multi-level analyses and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the risk of hypertension in relation to different obesity parameters, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid accumulation product index (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI), and body adiposity index (BAI). As results, the BMI, WC, LAP, VAI, and BAI were positively associated with the risk of hypertension (P < 0.001). In total, BMI had the strongest association with hypertension when compared with other obesity indicators, and one SD up of BMI would increase the risk of hypertension by 53.9% (95% CI: 1.514-1.566). For men, WC was most associated with hypertension, and one SD up of WC would increase the risk of hypertension by 73.3% (95% CI: 1.685-1.782). For women, BMI showed the strongest predictive power, one SD up of BMI would increase the risk of hypertension by 51.0% (95% CI: 1.479-1.543).

Conclusions: BMI, WC, LAP, VAI, and BAI are all positively corrected to hypertension, but gender disparities should be considered in predicting hypertension by obesity indicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.01.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of the Time to First Cigarette and the Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Chinese Elderly Population.

J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

Background: Increasing number of studies has suggested the time to first cigarette after waking (TTFC) have significant positive effect on respiratory diseases. However, few of them are focused on Chinese population. This study aims to estimate the impact of TTFC on the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) in Chinese elderly and explore the association in different sub-populations.

Methods: Cross-sectional data of demographic characteristics, living environment, smoking-related variables, and CRD were drawn from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2018. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of the TTFC with the prevalence of CRD.

Results: This study includes 13208 subjects aged 52 years and older, with a mean age of 85.3 years. Of them, 3779 participants are ex- or current smokers (44.9% had the TTFC ≤30 minutes, 55.1% >30 minutes) and 1503 have suffered from CRD. Compared with non-smokers, participants with TTFC ≤30 minutes seemed to have higher prevalence of CRD (OR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.65-2.35) than those with TTFC >30 minutes (OR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.44-2.00), although the difference was statistically insignificant (P=0.12). Compared with TTFC >30 minutes, TTFC ≤30 minutes could drive a higher prevalence of CRD among female participants, those aged 90 years and older, urban residents, and those ex-smokers (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Shorter TTFC relates to higher prevalences of CRD in Chinese older females, those aged 90 years and older, urban residents, and ex-smokers. Delaying TTFC might particially reduce its detrimental impact on respiratory disease in these specific subpopulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200502DOI Listing
March 2021

Structural basis for the different states of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in complex with ACE2.

Cell Res 2021 06 18;31(6):717-719. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Center for Infectious Disease Research, Westlake Laboratory of Life Sciences and Biomedicine, Key Laboratory of Structural Biology of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310024, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00490-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972335PMC
June 2021

Structural basis for bivalent binding and inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection by human potent neutralizing antibodies.

Cell Res 2021 05 17;31(5):517-525. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Center for Infectious Disease Research, Westlake Laboratory of Life Sciences and Biomedicine, Key Laboratory of Structural Biology of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, 18 Shilongshan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310024, China.

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represent promising candidates for clinical intervention against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated a large number of nAbs from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals capable of disrupting proper interaction between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) protein and the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). However, the structural basis for their potent neutralizing activity remains unclear. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of the ten most potent nAbs in their native full-length IgG-form or in both IgG-form and Fab-form bound to the trimeric S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The bivalent binding of the full-length IgG is found to associate with more RBDs in the "up" conformation than the monovalent binding of Fab, perhaps contributing to the enhanced neutralizing activity of IgG and triggering more shedding of the S1 subunit from the S protein. Comparison of a large number of nAbs identified common and unique structural features associated with their potent neutralizing activities. This work provides a structural basis for further understanding the mechanism of nAbs, especially through revealing the bivalent binding and its correlation with more potent neutralization and the shedding of S1 subunit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00487-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966918PMC
May 2021

Effects of prolonged photoperiod on growth performance, serum lipids and meat quality of Jinjiang cattle in winter.

Anim Biosci 2021 Sep 15;34(9):1569-1578. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of prolonged photoperiod on the serum lipids, carcass traits, and meat quality of Jinjiang cattle during winter.

Methods: Thirty-four Jinjiang bulls aged between 14 and 16 months were randomly assigned to two groups that were alternatively subjected to either natural daylight +4 h supplemental light (long photoperiod, LP) or natural daylight (natural photoperiod, NP) for 96 days. The potential effects on the levels of serum lipids, carcass traits, meat quality, and genes regulating lipid metabolism in the intramuscular fat (IMF) of the cattle were evaluated.

Results: Jinjiang cattle kept under LP showed significant increase in both dry matter intake and backfat thickness. the serum glucose and the plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced, while that of melatonin and insulin were observed to be increased. The crude fat contents of biceps femoris muscle and longissimus dorsi muscle were higher in LP than in NP group. In longissimus dorsi muscle, the proportions of C17:0 and C18:0 were significantly higher but that of the C16:1 was found to be significantly lower in LP group. The relative mRNA expressions in IMF of longissimus dorsi muscle, the lipid synthesis genes (proliferatoractivated receptor gamma, fatty acid-binding protein) and the fatty acid synthesis genes (acetyl-coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) were significantly up-regulated in LP group (p<0.05); whereas the hormone-sensitive lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 were significantly down-regulated in LP than in NP group.

Conclusion: Prolonged photoperiod significantly altered the growth performance, hormonal levels, gene expression and fat deposition in Jinjiang cattle. It suggested that the LP improved the fat deposition by regulating the levels of different hormones and genes related to lipid metabolism, thereby improving the fattening of Jinjiang cattle during winter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495339PMC
September 2021

The Paradoxes of Viral mRNA Translation during Mammalian Orthoreovirus Infection.

Viruses 2021 02 11;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853, USA.

De novo viral protein synthesis following entry into host cells is essential for viral replication. As a consequence, viruses have evolved mechanisms to engage the host translational machinery while at the same time avoiding or counteracting host defenses that act to repress translation. Mammalian orthoreoviruses are dsRNA-containing viruses whose mRNAs were used as models for early investigations into the mechanisms that underpin the recognition and engagement of eukaryotic mRNAs by host cell ribosomes. However, there remain many unanswered questions and paradoxes regarding translation of reoviral mRNAs in the context of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about reovirus translation, identifies key unanswered questions, and proposes possible pathways toward a better understanding of reovirus translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13020275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916891PMC
February 2021

Evidence of Foodborne Transmission of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) through the Animal Products Food Supply Chain.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 03 16;55(5):2713-2716. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927281PMC
March 2021

Spatiotemporal impact of major events on air quality based on spatial differences-in-differences model: big data analysis from China.

Nat Hazards (Dordr) 2021 Feb 1:1-22. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Henley Business School, University of Reading, Reading, UK.

In an attempt to investigate the impact of major events on urban air quality in terms of the extent, duration and spatial scope, data on the daily air quality index and the concentrations of individual pollutants are collected in 140 cities of China from January 2, 2015, to November 28, 2017. Based on a spatial differences-in-differences, the impact of major events, such as political conferences, sporting events at the national level, on urban air quality in the dimensions of time and space are explored. It is concluded that major events not only affected the air quality of the host city, but also exercised influence on the air quality of the surrounding areas. Recommendations for mitigating the impact of major events on urban air quality have been proposed, such as establish regional atmospheric environment management system and formulate regional unified standards for pollutant discharge, industrial access and law enforcement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-04517-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847764PMC
February 2021

Cytoprotective Effects of Taurine on Heat-Induced Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells In Vitro.

Cells 2021 01 28;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

It is a widely known that heat stress induces a reduction in milk production in cows and impairs their overall health. Studies have shown that taurine protects tissues and organs under heat stress. However, there have yet to be studies showing the functions of taurine in mammary alveolar cells-large T antigen (MAC-T) (a bovine mammary epithelial cell line) cells under heat shock. Therefore, different concentrations of taurine (10 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM) were tested to determine the effects on heat-induced MAC-T cells. The results showed that taurine protected the cells against heat-induced damage as shown by morphological observations in conjunction with suppressed the translocation and expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Moreover, taurine not only reversed the decline in antioxidase (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX)) activities but also attenuated the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). Meanwhile, mitochondrial damage (morphology and complex I activity) resulting from heat exposure was mitigated. Taurine also alleviated the rates of cell apoptosis and markedly depressed the mRNA expressions of BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator (BAX) and caspase3. Furthermore, compared with the heat stress (HS) group, the protein levels of caspase3 and cleaved caspase3 were decreased in all taurine groups. In summary, taurine improves the antioxidant and anti-apoptosis ability of MAC-T cells thereby alleviates damage of cells due to heat insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10020258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912084PMC
January 2021

Hyaluronic acid functionalized biodegradable mesoporous silica nanocomposites for efficient photothermal and chemotherapy in breast cancer.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr;32(16):165703

Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China. Department of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, People's Republic of China.

Chemotherapy is one of conventional treatment methods for breast cancer, but drug toxicity and side effects have severely limited its clinical applications. Photothermal therapy has emerged as a promising method that, upon combination with chemotherapy, can better treat breast cancer. In this context, a biodegradable mesoporous silica nanoparticle (bMSN NPs) system was developed for loading doxorubicin (DOX) and IR780, to be potentially applied in the treatment of breast cancer. IR780 is encapsulated in the pores of bMSN NPs by hydrophobic adsorption, while DOX is adsorbed on the surface of the bMSN NPs by hyaluronic acid electrostatically, to form the bMID NPs. Transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectrum and UV absorption spectrum are used to prove the successful encapsulation of IR780 and the loading of DOX. In vitro experiments have shown bMID NPs present an excellent therapeutic effect on breast cancer cells. In vivo fluorescence imaging results have indicated that bMID NPs can accumulate in tumor sites gradually and achieve in vivo long-term circulation and continuous drug release. Furthermore, bMID NPs have provided obvious antitumor effects in breast cancer mouse models, thus evolving as an efficient platform for breast cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abda74DOI Listing
April 2021

Polysaccharides of Hemsl.: Extraction, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 15;2020:8899762. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

School of Pharmacy, Jining Medical University, Rizhao, Shandong 276826, China.

The roots of Hemsl. are a famous traditional Chinese medicinal herb and are also used as health food. However, information about polysaccharides from (SNPS) is very limited. We applied the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) process to extract SNPS. The UAE conditions were optimized using single-factor experiments and response surface analysis. Under the optimized conditions of ultrasonic power of 550 W, extraction time of 26 min, and extraction temperature at 50°C, the highest yield of 13.47% ± 1.63% was obtained, which was in accordance with the predicted value of 13.71%. In comparison with traditional hot water extraction, the optimized UAE method significantly increased the extraction yield with lower extraction temperature and shorter extraction time. Furthermore, the antioxidant evaluation showed that EC values of SNPS were 2.43 ± 0.21, 4.40 ± 0.35, and 0.56 ± 0.062 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl free radical, and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, respectively. The anti-inflammatory potential of SNPS was detected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ICR mice. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that SNPS significantly improved LPS-stimulated inflammatory response by decreasing mRNA and protein expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the extraction process of SNPS established in this study is reliable, and SNPS possesses potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which will provide a theoretical basis for guiding the clinical application of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8899762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755497PMC
December 2020

Developmental Toxicity of Few-Layered Black Phosphorus toward Zebrafish.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 01 24;55(2):1134-1144. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China.

Black phosphorus (BP) has extensive applications in various fields. The release of BP into aquatic ecosystems and the potential toxic effects on aquatic organisms are becoming major concerns. Here, we investigated the developmental toxicity of few-layered BP toward the zebrafish. We found that BP could adsorb on the surface of the chorion and could subsequently penetrate within the embryo. After exposure of embryos to 10 mg/L BP, developmental malformations appeared at 96 hpf, especially heart deformities such as pericardial edema and bradycardia, accompanied by severe circulatory system failure. Using transgenic zebrafish larvae, we further characterized cardiovascular defects with cardiac enlargement and impaired cardiac vessels as indicators of damage to the cardiovascular system upon BP exposure. We performed transcriptomic analysis on zebrafish embryos treated with a lower concentration of 2 mg/L. The results showed disruption in genes associated with muscle development, oxygen involved processes, focal adhesion, and VEGF and MAPK signaling pathways. These alterations also indicated that BP carries a risk of developmental perturbation at lower concentrations. This study provides new insights into the effects of BP on aquatic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c05724DOI Listing
January 2021

Enriched isotope tracing to reveal the fractionation and lability of legacy and newly introduced cadmium under different amendments.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 17;403:123975. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The newly introduced Cd (Cd) has different environmental fates than legacy Cd (Cd) and how to distinguish them in soil under different amendments is crucial for understanding natural aging and engineered remediation of Cd pollution in soil. In this study, enriched stable isotope tracer (Cd) was introduced to distinguish the fate of Cd and Cd in paddy soil under pH adjustment and quicklime, slaked lime, and biochar amendments. The behaviors of Cd and Cd were studied during 56 days of flooding incubation through overlying water analysis, sequential extraction fractionation and lability (exchangeable pool probed by Cd isotopic spike) assessment. The results showed that soil pH is the main driving factor controlling the partition of both Cd and Cd in overlying water. During the incubation, Cd transformed quickly from soluble fraction to residual fraction under all treatments. In addition, at the end of the incubation, Cd concentrations in residual fraction were much higher than that of Cd, suggesting a more thorough aging of Cd than Cd. The labile Cd (ECd) under pH adjustment and biochar amendment decreased during incubation and ECd% was essentially the same with that of ECd% after 28 days, indicating the aging equilibrium of exchangeable pool of Cd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123975DOI Listing
February 2021

Residents' Willingness to Maintain Contracts with Family Doctors: a Cross-sectional Study in China.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 03 2;36(3):622-631. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Most previous studies of the family doctor contract services (FDCS) evaluated its quality by using residents' signing rates, awareness, and satisfaction. We hypothesize that renewal willingness could be another important indicator to examine the quality of FDCS.

Objective: To measure residents' willingness to maintain contracts with family doctors and examine the influencing factors.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Participants: 11,250 residents in 31 provincial administrative regions across China.

Main Methods: A multistage stratified random sampling method was used to recruit participants. Univariate analysis, mixed-effect regression model analysis, and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the influencing factors of residents' willingness to maintain contracts with family doctors.

Key Results: About 71.3% participants who contracted with and received healthcare services from family doctors were willing to maintain contracts with family doctors in China. Residents registering as local households (OR = 1.192, 95% CI = 1.039-1.368), enrolled in medical insurance (OR = 1.299, 95% CI = 1.011-1.668), reporting better health (OR = 1.246, 95% CI = 1.100-1.413), with shorter walking time to the nearest healthcare center (compared with > 30 min walking time, < 15 min: OR = 1.209, 95% CI = 1.003-1.458; 15-30 min: OR = 1.288, 95% CI = 1.124-1.475), and trusting in (OR = 4.403, 95% CI = 3.849-5.036) and satisfied with (OR = 18.514, 95% CI = 16.195-21.165) their family doctors had significantly higher willingness to maintain contracts with family doctors.

Conclusions: Residents' willingness to maintain contracts with family doctors could be another evaluation indicator of the quality of FDCS in China. Improving the accessibility and quality of healthcare services from family doctors may increase residents' willingness to keep contracts with family doctors and promote the implementation of FDCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06306-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947157PMC
March 2021

The gain-of-function FAM83H mutation caused hypocalcification amelogenesis imperfecta in a Chinese family.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 May 2;25(5):2915-2923. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Objectives: Autosomal-dominant hypocalcification amelogenesis imperfecta (ADHCAI) is a hereditary disease characterized by enamel defects. ADHCAI is mainly caused by nonsense mutations in a gene called family with sequence similarity 83 member H (FAM83H). To study the pathogenesis of ADHCAI, a Chinese ADHCAI family was investigated.

Materials And Methods: The ultrastructure of enamel was analyzed by micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed to identify the pathogenic gene. The function of the mutant FAM83H was studied by real-time PCR, western blotting, subcellular localization, and protein degradation pathway analyses.

Results: WES identified a known nonsense mutation (c.1915A > T) in exon 5 of the FAM83H gene, causing a truncated protein (p.Lys639*). However, the cases reported herein exhibited significant differences in the clinical phenotype compared with that the previously reported case. An abnormal enamel rod head structure was observed in affected teeth. In vitro functional studies showed altered protein localization and a decreased protein degradation rate for mutant FAM83H.

Conclusions: We verified the FAM83H p.Lys639* protein as a gain-of-function variant causing ADHCAI. Abnormal enamel rod head structure was observed in teeth with mutant FAM83H proteins. We also investigated the molecular pathogenesis and presented data on the abnormal degradation of mutant FAM83H proteins.

Clinical Relevance: This study helped the family members to understand the disease progression and provided new insights into the pathogenesis of ADHCAI. Due to the large heterogeneity of ADHCAI, this study also provided a genetic basis for individuals who exhibit similar clinical phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03609-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Development of duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of oilfish- and escolar-derived components.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 29;101(5):1792-1799. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Aquatic Product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Qingdao, P. R. China.

Background: Oilfish (Ruvettus pretiosus) and escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) are often used to adulterate high-value aquatic products, causing serious economic losses to consumers, and even keriorrhea in severe cases. It was difficult to identify them by morphological features for these two fish were processed into steak or fillet. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to develop an accurate and efficient method for detecting the oilfish- and escolar-derived components.

Results: By comparing the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of oilfish, escolar, and 16 varieties susceptible to adulteration, specific primers/probes were designed, and a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was established to detect oilfish- and escolar-derived components. The specificity and sensitivity of the method were analyzed, and the method was used to analyze 70 commercial samples to evalutate its applicability to actual samples in the market. The method developed was highly specific, without any cross-reaction on the other 16 species, with a limit of detection (LOD) for DNA of 0.0002 ng μL for R. pretiosus and 0.002 ng μL for L. flavobrunneum. In addition, the LOD for mixed muscle tissues was 0.1 g kg . Oilfish- and escolar-derived components were detected in 12 of the 70 commercial samples, a result that is consistent with the classic DNA barcoding test results.

Conclusion: The duplex real-time PCR method developed can be used to detect oilfish and escolar specifically, sensitively and accurately; it provides a good technical support for the identification of authentic aquatic products. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10793DOI Listing
March 2021
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