Publications by authors named "Yingwei Wang"

149 Publications

The nonlinear optical transition bleaching in tellurene.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Nanophotonics and Devices, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, 932 South Lushan Road, Changsha, Hunan 410083, P. R. China.

To date, outstanding linear and nonlinear optical properties of tellurene, caused by multiple two-dimensional (2D) phases and optical anisotropy, have attracted considerable interest for potential nanophotonics applications. In this work, the ultrafast nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of α-tellurene have been studied -scan and pump-probe techniques at a broadband spectral region. Typical saturable absorption and band filling effects are observed in tellurene due to the Pauli exclusion principle. Analysis using density functional theory (DFT) computation shows the enhancements in NLO response within the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectral region are owing to the increased optical intraband transition in tellurene. Moreover, the effects of varying the photon energy of the probe pulse were explored. Our results indicated that probe pulses with higher photon energies can make smaller differential transmission signal, this effect is found to be negatively correlated with calculated joint density of states (JDOS). These results offer insights into the intrinsic photophysics of 2D tellurene, driving its applications in photonic and optoelectronic fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr03639dDOI Listing
September 2021

68Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT Imaging for Fibrous Dysplasia of the Bone.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University/Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; and Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: 68Ga-labeled quinoline-based fibroblast activation protein inhibitors (68Ga-FAPIs) are promising agents for tumor imaging. However, some nonneoplastic lesions can also cause increased FAPI uptake. We report a case of a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia who showed widespread and intense metabolic activity on 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT. Physicians should be aware that fibrous dysplasia can also cause elevated FAPI activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003896DOI Listing
September 2021

Detection of Oesophageal Fistula by Radionuclide Salivagram SPECT/CT.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:612122. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Purpose: Videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is currently the most widely used clinical examination method for diagnosis of oesophageal fistula, but it has many limitations. Therefore, we evaluated radionuclide salivagram single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) as a new method of oesophageal fistula diagnosis.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the data of 11 patients (10 men and 1 woman, aged 41 to 70 years, with an average age of 58.6 years) who had clinically suspected oesophageal fistula from January 2019 to October 2020. They underwent radionuclide salivagram SPECT/CT and VFSS examinations, and we analysed and compared the results of the two examinations.

Results: A total of 11 patients were included in this study. Ten underwent both salivagram and VFSS examinations. One patient was unable to swallow the contrast agent; therefore, only salivagram was performed, and we excluded this patient from the VFSS analysis. A total of 11 patients underwent salivagram examinations, of which 6 were positive and 5 were negative. A total of 10 patients were tested by VFSS, of which 6 results were positive and 4 were negative.

Conclusion: Radionuclide salivagram SPECT/CT and VFSS are complementary, which can greatly improve the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of oesophageal fistula. When the patient cannot perform the VFSS, or the clinical symptoms are inconsistent with the VFSS imaging findings, the salivagram is an ideal test method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.612122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421790PMC
August 2021

The potential utility of [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 as a novel broad-spectrum oncological and non-oncological imaging agent-comparison with [F]FDG.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, No. 25 Taiping St, Jiangyang District, Luzhou, 646000, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the detection performance of [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 and [F]FDG PET/CT in the patients with various oncological and non-oncological lesions.

Methods: A total of 123 patients underwent contemporaneous [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 and [F]FDG PET/CT were included in this prospective study. The maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) was measured to compare oncological and non-oncological lesion uptake. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of [F]FDG and [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 PET/CT for detecting primary, metastatic, and non-oncological lesions were calculated and compared to evaluate the detection efficacy.

Results: The study subjects consisted of 123 patients (69 men and 54 women; mean age 56.11 ± 11.94 years). Among the 102 patients with either newly diagnosed (82 patients) or previously treated solid tumor (20 patients), a total of 88 solid primary malignant tumors in 84/102 patients were detected. Two patients had two primary tumors each and 1 patient had three primary tumors. Among them, 58/102 and 43/102 patients had nodal (376 lesions) and distant metastases (406 lesions), respectively. Eight patients had hematological neoplasm. No malignant oncological diseases were detected in the remaining 13 patients. A total of 145 non-oncological lesions and benign tumors in 52/123 patients were detected incidentally. [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 PET/CT demonstrated a significantly higher uptake and detection rate for the primary (SUVmax 10.98 ± 5.83 vs. 8.36 ± 6.43, p < 0.001; sensitivity 97.67 vs. 84.89%; and accuracy 96.59 vs. 82.95%, X = 0.538, p = 0.021), nodal (SUVmax 10.50 ± 5.98 vs. 8.20 ± 6.29, p = 0.011; sensitivity 97.59 vs. 84.72%; and accuracy 97.34 vs. 84.31%, X = 2.067, p < 0.001), and distant metastatic lesions (SUVmax 9.64 ± 6.45 vs. 6.74 ± 4.83; p < 0.001; sensitivity 98.01 vs. 65.59%; and accuracy 97.04 vs. 65.51%, X = 4.897, p < 0.001) of solid tumor than did [F]FDG PET/CT. [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 PET/CT demonstrated a lower activity (SUVmax: 6.84 ± 4.67 vs. 13.09 ± 7.29, p < 0.001) and detection rate (sensitivity 50.65 vs. 96.75%, and accuracy 51.28 vs. 95.51%, X = 5.166, p < 0.001) for multiple myeloma and lymphoma compared to [F]FDG PET/CT. [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 and [F]FDG PET/CT PET/CT demonstrated a comparative activity (SUVmax 6.40 ± 3.95 vs. 5.74 ± 15.78, p = 0.729) and detection efficacy (sensitivity 86.52 vs. 72.34%, and accuracy 84.83 vs. 72.41%, X = 9.460, p = 0.007) for non-oncological lesion and benign tumor detection.

Conclusions: Except for myeloma and lymphoma, [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 PET/CT showed a superior detection efficacy for detecting various primary and metastatic lesions than [F]FDG PET/CT. A comparative detection utility for non-oncological lesion was obtained with both tracers. [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 could be used as a broad-spectrum tumor and inflammatory imaging agent in the clinical especially for various solid tumors and non-oncological lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05522-wDOI Listing
August 2021

18F-FDG PET/CT of Primary Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Sep;46(9):766-767

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; and Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma in the trachea is a very rare tumor. A 40-year-old woman presented with persisting cough and wheezing over 2 months. A CT scan showed a mass in the tracheal wall. The bronchoscopic biopsy confirmed adenoid cystic carcinoma. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed to evaluate the tracheal mass, which showed an FDG-avid mass in the right posterior tracheal wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003747DOI Listing
September 2021

FAPI PET/CT research progress in digestive system tumours.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, No 25 TaiPing St, Jiangyang District, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, PR China; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, PR China; Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, 646000, PR China. Electronic address:

F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography has been used in clinical practice for many years. This modality is of great value for tumour diagnosis, staging, and efficacy evaluations, but it has many limitations in the diagnosis and treatment of digestive system tumours. Fibroblast activation protein is highly expressed in gastrointestinal tumours. Various isotope-labelled fibroblast activation protein inhibitors are widely used in clinical research. These inhibitors have low background uptake in the brain, liver and oral/pharyngeal mucosa and show good contrast between the tumour and background, which makes up for the lack of fluorodeoxyglucose in the diagnosis of digestive system tumours. It better displays the primary tumours, metastases and regional lymph nodes of digestive system tumours, such as oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer and liver cancer, and also provides a new method for treating these tumours. Based on this background, this article introduces the current research status of fibroblast activation protein inhibitor positron emission tomography/computed tomography in various types of digestive system malignant tumours to provide more valuable information for diagnosing and treating digestive system tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.07.011DOI Listing
August 2021

Dermatomyositis on 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT in a Patient With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy often associated with malignancies. 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT was performed on a 58-year-old man with newly diagnosed dermatomyositis. 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT showed multiple increased FAPI activity in whole-body muscles and nasopharyngeal lesion. A biopsy of the nasopharyngeal lesion confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma. 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT can provide a "1-stop" imaging method for patients with dermatomyositis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003809DOI Listing
July 2021

The Role of Elastase in Corneal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exoproteins.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 07;62(9)

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun-Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To investigate the role of elastase in corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction caused by the exoproteins secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Methods: Exoproteins obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture supernatant were analyzed by shotgun proteomics approach. In vitro multilayered rabbit corneal epithelial barrier model prepared by air-liquid interface technique (CECs-ALI) were treated with 2 µg/ml exoproteins and/or 8 mM elastase inhibitor. Then the epithelial barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay and tight junction proteins immunofluorescence. Cell viability and the apoptosis rate were examined by CCK8 assay and flow cytometry. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β levels were measured by ELISA. Mice cornea treated with exoproteins and/or elastase inhibitor were evaluated in vivo and in vitro.

Results: Elastase (24.2%) is one of the major components of exoproteins. After 2 µg/ml exoproteins were applied to CECs-ALI for two hours, TEER decreased from 323.2 ±  2.7 to 104 ± 6.8 Ω/cm2 (P < 0.001). The immunofluorescence results showed a distinct separation in tight junction and significant degradation of ZO-1 and occludin (P < 0.05). Elastase inhibitor (8 mM) alleviated the decrease in TEER value (234 ± 6.8 Ω cm2) induced by exoproteins. Inhibition of elastase decreased the apoptosis rate of CECs treated with exoproteins from 30.2 ± 3.8% to 7.26 ± 1.3% and the levels of inflammatory factors (P < 0.05). Mice corneal epithelium defect could be induced by exoproteins and protected by elastase inhibitor.

Conclusions: Elastase plays a critical role in corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoproteins via damaging tight junctions. The inhibition of elastase could protect the corneal epithelial barrier via reducing virulence and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.9.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316690PMC
July 2021

Overcoming barriers in photodynamic therapy harnessing nano-formulation strategies.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Aug 5;50(16):9152-9201. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Institute of Microscale Optoelectronics, and Otolaryngology Department and Biobank of the First Affiliated Hospital, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, P. R. China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been extensively investigated for decades for tumor treatment because of its non-invasiveness, spatiotemporal selectivity, lower side-effects, and immune activation ability. It can be a promising treatment modality in several medical fields, including oncology, immunology, urology, dermatology, ophthalmology, cardiology, pneumology, and dentistry. Nevertheless, the clinical application of PDT is largely restricted by the drawbacks of traditional photosensitizers, limited tissue penetrability of light, inefficient induction of tumor cell death, tumor resistance to the therapy, and the severe pain induced by the therapy. Recently, various photosensitizer formulations and therapy strategies have been developed to overcome these barriers. Significantly, the introduction of nanomaterials in PDT, as carriers or photosensitizers, may overcome the drawbacks of traditional photosensitizers. Based on this, nanocomposites excited by various light sources are applied in the PDT of deep-seated tumors. Modulation of cell death pathways with co-delivered reagents promotes PDT induced tumor cell death. Relief of tumor resistance to PDT with combined therapy strategies further promotes tumor inhibition. Also, the optimization of photosensitizer formulations and therapy procedures reduces pain in PDT. Here, a systematic summary of recent advances in the fabrication of photosensitizers and the design of therapy strategies to overcome barriers in PDT is presented. Several aspects important for the clinical application of PDT in cancer treatment are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs01370fDOI Listing
August 2021

Sublytic C5b-9 triggers glomerular mesangial cell proliferation via enhancing FGF1 and PDGFα gene transcription mediated by GCN5-dependent SOX9 acetylation in rat Thy-1 nephritis.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21751

Key Laboratory of Immunological Environment and Disease, Department of Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) is an animal model of human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN), accompanied by glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Although sublytic C5b-9 formed on GMC membrane could induce cell proliferation, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we first demonstrated that the level of SRY related HMG-BOX gene 9 (SOX9), general control nonderepressible 5 (GCN5), fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and platelet-derived growth factor α (PDGFα) was all elevated both in the renal tissues of Thy-1N rats (in vivo) and in the GMCs (in vitro) with sublytic C5b-9 stimulation. Then, we not only discovered that sublytic C5b-9 caused GMC proliferation through increasing SOX9, GCN5, FGF1 and PDGFα expression, but also proved that SOX9 and GCN5 formed a complex and combined with FGF1 and PDGFα promoters, leading to FGF1 and PDGFα gene transcription. More importantly, GCN5 could mediate SOX9 acetylation at lysine 62 (K62) to enhance SOX9 binding to FGF1 or PDGFα promoter and promote FGF1 or PDGFα synthesis and GMC proliferation. Besides, the experiments in vivo also showed that FGF1 and PDGFα expression, GMC proliferation and urinary protein secretion in Thy-1N rats were greatly reduced by silencing renal SOX9, GCN5, FGF1 or PDGFα gene. Furthermore, the renal tissues of MsPGN patients also exhibited positive expression of these genes mentioned above. Collectively, our findings indicate that GCN5, SOX9 and FGF1/PDGFα can form an axis and play an essential role in sublytic C5b-9-triggered GMC proliferation, which might provide a novel insight into the pathogenesis of Thy-1N and MsPGN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002814RRDOI Listing
July 2021

Increased 68Ga-FAPI Uptake in Neurofibromatosis in a Patient With Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University; and Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; and Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: A 48-year-old man presented with a painless enlarging mass on his right thigh for 2 months. He had a history of neurofibromatosis. MRI showed a mass in his right thigh. Malignant tumor was suspected. He was enrolled in the clinical trial of 68Ga-FAPI in solid tumors. Multiple increased FAPI uptake was observed in the right thigh mass, lung, and mediastinal lymph nodes, which were confirmed being pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma by biopsy. In addition, widespread metabolic activity was also observed in his cutaneous fibroma nodules. This case showed that benign neurofibromatosis can cause FAPI uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003716DOI Listing
May 2021

68Ga-FAPI PET/CT Imaging of Graves Ophthalmopathy in a Patient With Esophageal Cancer.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; and Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT has been used in the assessment of a variety of malignancies. In addition, FAPI uptake in nonmalignant diseases has also been reported. Herein, we present a case of Graves ophthalmopathy detected by 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003703DOI Listing
May 2021

Characterization of PROM1 p.Arg373Cys Variant in a Cohort of Chinese Patients: Macular Dystrophy Plus Peripheral Bone-Spicule Degeneration.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 05;62(6):19

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: The PROM1 p.Arg373Cys variant has been reported to cause dominant Stargardt disease, cone-rod dystrophy, and occasionally retinitis pigmentosa. This study aimed to evaluate the common phenotype associated with this variant in Chinese patients.

Methods: Variants in PROM1 were collected from in-house exome data. Potential pathogenic variants were selected, verified, and then confirmed by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analysis. Ocular phenotypes were reviewed and further clarified by ophthalmologic examinations.

Results: The heterozygous c.1117C>T (p.Arg373Cys) variant was identified in four unrelated families, and biallelic variants were detected in three families. Of the 10 patients from four families with the p.Arg373Cys variant, six patients from three families who underwent full fundus examination demonstrated various degrees of macular dystrophy, as well as typical bone-spicule pigment deposits in the peripheral retina. The remaining four patients did not undergo a full dilated fundus examination. A relatively preserved zone was observed between the macular and peripheral lesions. Electroretinography results showed cone and rod involvement in three patients.

Conclusions: Unlike Stargardt disease alone, which was considered to be the main phenotype of the p.Arg373Cys variant, all patients with full-field fundus examination in our study presented with macular dystrophy plus peripheral retinopathy resembling retinitis pigmentosa. Different phenotypes associated with the p.Arg373Cys variant may actually reflect different stages of the same disease: a predominant central cone phenotype at an early stage and peripheral rod involvement as degeneration progresses. Evaluation of the full fundus, especially the peripheral region in additional patients, is expected to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.6.19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142721PMC
May 2021

Fabry-Perot cavity enhanced three-photon luminescence of atomically thin platinum diselenide.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(19):9031-9038

Institute of Photonic Chips, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China and Centre for Artificial-Intelligence Nanophotonics, School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.

Two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), exhibit intriguing physical properties that lead to both fundamental research and technology development. The recently emerged platinum diselenide (PtSe2), as a new member of the TMDs, has attracted increasing attention because of its good air stability, large refractive index and high electron mobility. However, being atomically thin significantly hinders its interaction with light, severely limiting the spontaneous or stimulated linear and nonlinear emission. Particularly, its nonlinear up-converted emission has not been fully exploited yet. Here, we experimentally observed the distinct enhancement of nonlinear up-converted luminescence of CVD-grown PtSe2 atomic layers on a SiO2/Si substrate with the assistance of the Fabry-Perot cavity resonance. The laser irradiance dependent luminescence study reveals the three-photon process of this nonlinear emission for the first time. Compared with non-resonant excitation, the luminescence enhancement can be up to six times because of the optical interference induced local field enhancement at the excitation wavelength. Leveraging this three-photon luminescence, nonlinear optical imaging and encryption were demonstrated for exploring information security applications. These results will pave the way for integrating nonlinear optical devices with the PtSe2 2D material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00348hDOI Listing
May 2021

The Effects of Obesity on Mortality Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Retrospective Study from a Single Center in China.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 27;27:e929912. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Jiangsu Province Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has become a routine surgical procedure for patients with occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis. Worldwide, increasing levels of obesity are associated with ischemic heart disease and systemic comorbidities. This retrospective study from a single center in China aimed to investigate the effects of obesity on patient mortality following CABG surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients undergoing CABG (N=1471) were grouped according to body mass index (BMI) as normal weight (N=596), overweight (N=684), or obese (N=191). Baseline clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was performed for 30-day postoperative mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted, and Cox regression analysis investigated risk and protective factors for long-term mortality, with subgroup analysis for differences between on-pump and off-pump CABG groups. RESULTS The 30-day postoperative mortality was 5.0% in the normal-weight group, 1.3% in the overweight group, and 0% in the obese group. BMI was an independent protective factor for 30-day postoperative mortality (odds ratio=0.748; 95% confidence interval, 0.640-0.874; P<0.001). The 10-year mortality for the groups was 13.2% (normal), 7.8% (overweight), and 12.7% (obese). The >20-year mortality rates for the groups were 33.0% (normal), 41.5% (overweight), and 12.7% (obese). There was no significant correlation between BMI and long-term mortality. Being overweight had a protective effect against long-term mortality in the off-pump CABG subgroup. CONCLUSIONS An "obesity paradox" was identified in postoperative outcomes in patients following CABG surgery, with an increased BMI associated with reduced 30-day postoperative mortality. This association was more significant in the off-pump CABG group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088123PMC
April 2021

Elevated 68Ga-FAPI Activity in Splenic Hemangioma and Pneumonia.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Aug;46(8):694-696

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; and Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: A 59-year-old woman with newly diagnosed pulmonary nodules underwent both 18F-FDG and 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT. Both studies showed similarly increased uptake in pneumonia. However, only 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT showed increased uptake in splenic hemangioma, whereas FDG uptake in the splenic lesion is low. Our case illustrates that splenic hemangioma can also reveal increased FAPI activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003638DOI Listing
August 2021

Sublytic C5b-9 induces glomerular mesangial cell proliferation via ERK1/2-dependent SOX9 phosphorylation and acetylation by enhancing Cyclin D1 in rat Thy-1 nephritis.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Apr 2;53(4):572-590. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Immunology, and Key Laboratory of Immunological Environment and Disease, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211166, China.

Glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) proliferation is a histopathological alteration in human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) or in animal models of MsPGN, e.g., the rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) model. Although sublytic C5b-9 assembly on the GMC membrane can trigger cell proliferation, the mechanisms are still undefined. We found that sublytic C5b-9-induced rat GMC proliferation was driven by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), sry-related HMG-box 9 (SOX9), and Cyclin D1. Here, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was a result of the calcium influx-PKC-α-Raf-MEK1/2 axis activated by sublytic C5b-9, and Cyclin D1 gene transcription was enhanced by ERK1/2-dependent SOX9 binding to the Cyclin D1 promoter (-582 to -238 nt). In addition, ERK1/2 not only interacted with SOX9 in the cell nucleus to mediate its phosphorylation at serine residues 64 (a new site identified by mass spectrometry) and 181 (a known site), but also indirectly induced SOX9 acetylation by elevating the expression of general control non-repressed protein 5 (GCN5), which together resulted in Cyclin D1 synthesis and GMC proliferation. Moreover, our in vivo experiments confirmed that silencing these genes ameliorated the lesions of Thy-1N rats and reduced SOX9 phosphorylation, acetylation and Cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, the renal tissue sections of MsPGN patients also showed higher phosphorylation or expression of ERK1/2, SOX9, and Cyclin D1. In summary, these findings suggest that sublytic C5b-9-induced GMC proliferation in rat Thy-1N requires SOX9 phosphorylation and acetylation via enhanced Cyclin D1 gene transcription, which may provide a new insight into human MsPGN pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00589-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102557PMC
April 2021

A meta-analysis reveals the effectiveness of probiotics and prebiotics against respiratory viral infection.

Biosci Rep 2021 03;41(3)

The Basic Research Division of Virology Institute, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Experimental experience suggests that microbial agents including probiotics and prebiotics (representative microbial agents) play a critical role in defending against respiratory virus infection. We aim to systematically examine these agents' effect on respiratory viral infection and encourage research into clinical applications. An electronic literature search was conducted from published data with a combination of a microbial agents search component containing synonyms for microbial agents-related terms and a customized search component for respiratory virus infection. Hazard ratio (HR), risk ratio (RR) and standard deviation (SD) were employed as effect estimates. In 45 preclinical studies, the mortality rates decreased in the respiratory viral infection models that included prebiotics or prebiotics as interventions (HR: 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-0.87; P=0.002). There was a significant decrease in viral load due to improved gut microbiota (SD: -1.22; 95% CI: -1.50 to -0.94; P<0.001). Concentrations of interferon (IFN)-α (SD: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.33-1.77; P=0.004), IFN-γ (SD: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.01-1.65; P=0.05) and interleukin (IL)-12 (SD: 2.42; 95% CI: 0.32-4.52; P=0.02), IL-1β (SD: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.40; P=0.94) increased, whereas those of TNF-α (SD: -0.58; 95% CI: -1.59 to 0.43; P=0.26) and IL-6 (SD: -0.59; 95% CI: -1.24 to 0.07; P=0.08) decreased. Six clinical studies had lower symptom scores (SD: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.26; P=0.61) and less incidence of infection (RR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.64-1.01; P=0.06). Our research indicates that probiotics and prebiotics pose a defensive possibility on respiratory viral infection and may encourage the clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20203638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955103PMC
March 2021

Extensive Phylogenetic Analysis of Piscine Orthoreovirus Genomic Sequences Shows the Robustness of Subgenotype Classification.

Pathogens 2021 Jan 7;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A4P3, Canada.

(PRV) belongs to the family and has been described mainly in association with salmonid infections. The genome of PRV consists of about 23,600 bp, with 10 segments of double-stranded RNA, classified as small (S1 to S4), medium (M1, M2 and M3) and large (L1, L2 and L3); these range approximately from 1000 bp (segment S4) to 4000 bp (segment L1). How the genetic variation among PRV strains affects the virulence for salmonids is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular phylogeny of PRV based on an extensive sequence analysis of the S1 and M2 segments of PRV available in the GenBank database to date (May 2020). The analysis was extended to include new PRV sequences for S1 and M2 segments. In addition, subgenotype classifications were assigned to previously published unclassified sequences. It was concluded that the phylogenetic trees are consistent with the original classification using the PRV genomic segment S1, which differentiates PRV into two major genotypes, I and II, and each of these into two subgenotypes, designated as Ia and Ib, and IIa and IIb, respectively. Moreover, some clusters of country- and host-specific PRV subgenotypes were observed in the subset of sequences used. This work strengthens the subgenotype classification of PRV based on the S1 segment and can be used to enhance research on the virulence of PRV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825714PMC
January 2021

Association between the Interleukin-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Afr Health Sci 2020 Mar;20(1):351-358

Department of traumatology,Tiantai people's hospital, Tiantai, Zhejiang 317200, China.

Background: Inconsistent results have been reported from studies investigating the relationship of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) -1082 G/A polymorphism and the susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, a thorough literature review of relatedstudies was performed in this meta-analysis to examine the association of the interleukin-10(IL-10) -1082 G/A polymorphism with HCC susceptibility.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched for literature on the relationship between interleukin-10(IL-10) -1082 G/A polymorphism and the risk of HCC in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected studies were analyzed using the Stata 12.0 software. Finally, the strength of the associations was evaluated using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

Results: A total of six case-control studies were enrolled into the current meta-analysis, which included a total of 911 patients and 1889 control subjects. Our data revealed no association between the IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism and the risk of HCC (GG vs AA:OR=0.84, 95%CI=0.57-1.25; AG vs AA:OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.70-1.05; Dominant model: OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.70-1.03; and Recessive model: OR=0.92, 95%CI = 0.64-1.32). Similarly, no association was found in sub-group analysis based on ethnicity.

Conclusion: The results of our study suggest no association between IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism and the risk of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v20i1.40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750095PMC
March 2020

Clinical and Genetic Analysis of 63 Families Demonstrating Early and Advanced Characteristic Fundus as the Signature of CRB1 Mutations.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 03 24;223:160-168. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To reveal the characteristics of ocular changes in patients with biallelic CRB1 mutations.

Design: Comparative exome sequencing and retrospective case series on clinical data.

Methods: Seventy-four patients from 63 families with biallelic potential pathogenic variants in CRB1 were selected from our in-house exome sequencing. The clinical data were reviewed and evaluated in detail, including best-corrected visual acuity, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electroretinogram (ERG).

Results: Biallelic CRB1 variants, involving 45 variants including 23 novel, were identified in 40 novel families based on exome sequencing. Analyzing clinical data of the 74 individuals from 63 families revealed the following CRB1-associated phenotypes: (1) early-onset reduced visual acuity with congenital nystagmus; (2) 2 types of characteristic retinal changes including yellowish geographic macular degeneration (YMD) or nummular pigment deposits (NPD) at posterior retina with bone-spicule pigmentation at midperipheral retina; (3) undetectable rod and cone responses on ERG; (4) cystoid macular edema or macular atrophy on OCT. YMD and NPD are unique and CRB1-associated. Long-term follow-up examination as well as age- and variant-dependent phenotypic analysis suggested YMD is the early fundus change that would gradually progress to NPD.

Conclusions: YMD and NPD are 2 major characteristic CRB1-associated fundus changes and the former one will advance to the latter with age. Recognizing such characteristic signs associated with biallelic CRB1 variants may be of value in areas without widespread access to genetic testing where a more targeted approach is needed and might be biomarkers for evaluation of effects for future intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2020.10.006DOI Listing
March 2021

Combined toxicity characteristics and regulation of residual quinolone antibiotics in water environment.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 11;263:128301. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Jilin Branch of China Kunlun Contracting Engineering Corporation, No. 888 Binjiangxi Road, Jilin, 132013, China. Electronic address:

In this study, the mixture toxicity index method was used to evaluate the combined toxicity of residual Quinolones (QNs) on algae in twelve groups of water environment reported in the literature. The selected three sets of data (II, Ⅺ, and Ⅻ) combined with full factorial design method were used to analyze the significance of the combined toxicity. Subsequently, molecular docking was used to reveal the significant mechanism of the primary effect of the combined toxicity. Finally, based on the sensitivity analysis method, the acid-base conditions affecting the combined toxicity were screened, and molecular dynamics simulation was used to control the combined toxicity in the water environment. The results of the mixture toxicity index method showed that the combined toxicity in all the twelve groups of water environments was synergistic. The full factorial design method revealed that ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, enrofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and their binary combinations from the combined toxicity system of QNs, were the significant factors that caused the synergistic toxicity of QN on algae. Molecular docking confirmed that the total number of amino acids, the number of significant amino acids, and hydrogen bonds of QNs toxic targets were significantly related to the synergistic effect of the combined toxicity. In addition, the molecular dynamics simulation showed that the binding energy of residual QNs and toxic targets changes with the acid-base conditions of the water environment. Thus, the combined toxicity can be slowed down or reduced by adequately adjusting the acid-base condition of the water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128301DOI Listing
January 2021

Elevated [Ga]Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 activity in degenerative osteophyte in a patient with lung cancer.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 05 12;48(5):1671-1672. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University/Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, No. 25 TaiPing St, Jiangyang District, Luzhou, 646000, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-05090-5DOI Listing
May 2021

LncRNA HOXB-AS3 promotes growth, invasion and migration of epithelial ovarian cancer by altering glycolysis.

Life Sci 2021 Jan 24;264:118636. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Heading Aims: LncRNA HOXB-AS3 is proved as an oncogene in tumors. Herein, we determine the function and mechanism of HOXB-AS3 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells.

Materials And Methods: Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the clinicopathological features of HOXB-AS3 in EOC patients. CCK8, transwell and wound healing assay were used to test the function of HOXB-AS3. Luciferase reporter assay, western blot and glycolysis rate assay were used for further mechanistic studies.

Key Findings: HOXB-AS3 was abundantly expressed in EOC tissues, and higher levels of HOXB-AS3 in EOC patients were significantly associated with disease status and overall survival status. EOC patients with high levels of HOXB-AS3 had strikingly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) times than those with low levels. HOXB-AS3 also might as an independent prognostic factor. Further study revealed knockdown of HOXB-AS3 significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of EOC cells. Mechanistic investigations suggested that knockdown of HOXB-AS3 could decrease lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) expression and the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) by sponging miR-378a-3p.

Significance: To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that HOXB-AS3 could crosstalk with miRNA in the cytoplasm and alter glycolysis in cancer cells. Our results improve our understanding of the mechanism of HOXB-AS3 and suggest that HOXB-AS3 can act as a predictor of OS and a target for EOC therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118636DOI Listing
January 2021

A Radical Approach to Making Unnatural Amino Acids: Conversion of C-S Bonds in Cysteine Derivatives into C-C Bonds.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 01 27;60(4):2155-2159. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Emergency, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, and School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, No. 17 Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Here we report a general approach to make unnatural amino acids from readily available cysteine derivatives. This method capitalizes on an intramolecular radical substitution process that generates alkyl radicals through C-S cleavage. The resulting alkyl radicals partook in diverse C-C bond forming events. These reactions proceed under mild, photocatalytic conditions at room temperature, and can be performed open to air. The utility of these transformations is further demonstrated in the straightforward synthesis of various unnatural amino acids and peptides that are difficult to access previously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202012503DOI Listing
January 2021

Precautions for weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation with critically ill COVID-19.

Heart Lung 2020 Nov - Dec;49(6):869-871. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2020.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346788PMC
July 2020

18F-FDG PET/CT Findings of an Isolated Splenic Metastasis From Endometrial Adenocarcinoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Dec;45(12):1018-1019

Department of Spleen and Stomach Diseases, Sichuan Luzhou TCM Hospital, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Splenic metastasis from endometrial carcinoma is rare, especially when the spleen is the sole metastatic site. Herein, we report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of endometrial adenocarcinoma diagnosed 1 year ago. At that time, she underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic node dissection. Restaging F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated an isolated splenic mass with elevated FDG activity. There were no other signs of recurrence. The lesion was surgically resected and diagnosed as a metastasis from the endometrial adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003280DOI Listing
December 2020

Discovery of SK-575 as a Highly Potent and Efficacious Proteolysis-Targeting Chimera Degrader of PARP1 for Treating Cancers.

J Med Chem 2020 10 24;63(19):11012-11033. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

The nuclear protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) has a well-established role in the signaling and repair of DNA and is a validated therapeutic target for cancers and other human diseases. Here, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a series of small-molecule PARP1 degraders based on the proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) concept. Our efforts have led to the discovery of highly potent PARP1 degraders, as exemplified by compound (SK-575). SK-575 potently inhibits the growth of cancer cells bearing BRCA1/2 mutations and induces potent and specific degradation of PARP1 in various human cancer cells even at low picomolar concentrations. SK-575 achieves durable tumor growth inhibition in mice when used as a single agent or in combination with cytotoxic agents, such as temozolomide and cisplatin. These data demonstrate that SK-575 is a highly potent and efficacious PARP1 degrader.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00821DOI Listing
October 2020

Intubation, mortality, and risk factors in critically ill Covid-19 patients: A pilot study.

J Clin Anesth 2020 Dec 7;67:110039. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.110039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476450PMC
December 2020

Glyphosate adsorption onto kaolinite and kaolinite-humic acid composites: Experimental and molecular dynamics studies.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 16;263:127979. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Glyphosate (PMG) has been the most widely used herbicide in the world, and its environmental mobility and fate are mainly controlled by interactions with mineral surfaces. In soil systems, kaolinite is typically associated with humic acids (HAs) in the form of mineral-HA complexes, and hence it is crucial to characterize the molecular-scale interactions that occur between PMG and kaolinite and kaolinite-HA complexes. Batch experiments, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to decipher the molecular interactions between PMG and kaolinite and kaolinite-HA composites. Our results reveal that kaolinite-HA composites adsorb higher concentrations of PMG than does kaolinite alone, likely due to more adsorption sites existed on kaolinite-HA than on kaolinite. FTIR and XPS analysis reveal that the carboxyl, phosphonyl and amino groups of PMG interacted with kaolinite and kaolinite-humic acid via Hydrogen bonds. The ITC results and interaction energy calculations indicate that the adsorption of PMG onto the kaolinite-HA is more energetically favorable relative to that onto kaolinite. MD simulations suggest that the PMG molecule adsorbs parallel to the surface of kaolinite and the composites through hydrogen bonding. Humic acid increases the adsorption of PMG through the creation of H-bond networks between PMG, the kaolinite surface, and humic acid. The results from this study improve our molecular-level understanding of the interactions between PMG and two important components of soil systems, and hence yield valuable information for characterizing the fate and behavior of PMG in soil environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127979DOI Listing
January 2021
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