Publications by authors named "Ying-Ze Zhang"

146 Publications

Titanium Alloy Gamma Nail versus Biodegradable Magnesium Alloy Bionic Gamma Nail for Treating Intertrochanteric Fractures: A Finite Element Analysis.

Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To using finite element analysis to investigate the effects of the traditional titanium alloy Gamma nail and a biodegradable magnesium alloy bionic Gamma nail for treating intertrochanteric fractures.

Methods: Computed tomography images of an adult male volunteer of appropriate age and in good physical condition were used to establish a three-dimensional model of the proximal femur. Then, a model of a type 31A1 intertrochanteric fracture of the proximal femur was established, and the traditional titanium alloy Gamma nails and biodegradable magnesium alloy bionic Gamma nails were used for fixation, respectively. The von Mises stress, the maximum principal stress, and the minimum principal stress were calculated to evaluate the effect of bone ingrowth on stress distribution of the proximal femur after fixation.

Results: In the intact model, the maximum stress was 5.8 MPa, the minimum stress was -11.7 MPa, and the von Mises stress was 11.4 MPa. The maximum principal stress distribution of the cancellous bone in the intact model appears in a position consistent with the growth direction of the principal and secondary tensile zones. After traditional Gamma nail healing, the maximum stress was 32 MPa, the minimum stress was -23.5 MPa, and the von Mises stress was 31.3 MPa. The stress concentration was quite obvious compared with the intact model. It was assumed that the nail would biodegrade completely within 12 months postoperatively. The maximum stress was 18.7 MPa, the minimum stress was -12.6 MPa, and the von Mises stress was 14.0 MPa. For the minimum principal stress, the region of minimum stress value less than -10 MPa was significantly improved compared with the traditional titanium alloy Gamma nail models. Meanwhile, the stress distribution of the bionic Gamma nail model in the proximal femur was closer to that of the intact bone, which significantly reduced the stress concentration of the implant.

Conclusion: The biodegradable magnesium alloy bionic Gamma nail implant can improve the stress distribution of fractured bone close to that of intact bone while reducing the risk of postoperative complications associated with traditional internal fixation techniques, and it has promising clinical value in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12973DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of Clinical and Radiological Outcomes Between Upper Fibular Curvature and Non-Curvature with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Following Proximal Fibular Osteotomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study with Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 20;13(4):1369-1377. Epub 2021 May 20.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Objective: To evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of proximal fibular osteotomy (PFO) in treating medial knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients with upper fibular curvature and non-curvature.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. From January 2016 to January 2017, a total of 51 patients (nine males and 42 females) at a mean age of 63.7 years (range 48-79 years) with medial KOA who underwent PFO procedure at the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University were included in the study. The patients were divided into the two groups, namely curvature group (28 patients, six males and 22 females, aged 62.6 ± 7.7 years) and non-curvature group (23 patients, three males and 20 females, aged 64.5 ± 7.6 years). Perioperative parameters and Kellgren-Lawrence classification were recorded and analyzed in the two groups, respectively. All patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months at the first year of post-operation, and then every 6 months from the second year of post-operation. A telephone survey with standard questionnaire survey, including Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scoring system, was used to evaluate postoperative clinical outcomes. Radiological results were assessed using the femorotibial angle (FTA), hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), and settlement value of medial tibial platform (MTP) in the two groups.

Results: The average follow-up periods of the curvature group and the non-curvature group were 34.8 ± 6.1 and 33.9 ± 5.4 months, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups of demographic data in terms of number of patients, age, body mass index (BMI), gender, KOA side, and Kellgren-Lawrence classification (P > 0.05). The VAS scores of the curvature group and non-curvature group were (3.53 ± 1.62 vs 3.68 ± 1.43 at 1 month, 3.46 ± 0.79 vs 3.57 ± 0.66 at 3 months, and 2.43 ± 0.88 vs 2.83 ± 0.94 at 6 months, both P > 0.05), while significant differences were found from 12 months post-operation (1.54 ± 0.72 vs 2.03 ± 0.85 at 12 months, and 1.04 ± 0.69 vs 1.74 ± 0.75 at 24 months, both P < 0.05). The HSS scores of the curvature group and non-curvature group were (79.67 ± 5.14 vs 78.25 ± 6.37 at 1 month, 84.65 ± 3.76 vs 83.18 ± 3.64 at 3 months, and 86.27 ± 3.13 vs 85.49 ± 3.25 at 6 months, both P > 0.05), while significant differences were found from 12 months post-operation (90.64 ± 4.32 vs 87.71 ± 5.63 at 12 months, and 92.93 ± 2.07 vs 90.06 ± 2.08 at 24 months, both P < 0.05). In addition, the FTA and settlement value of the curvature group were lower than the non-curvature group (177.18 ± 1.52 vs 178.35 ± 1.86, and 5.29 ± 1.74 vs 6.49 ± 2.09, both P < 0.05) while the HKA were higher than the non-curvature group (175.32 ± 2.34 vs 173.83 ± 2.64, P < 0.05) at the final follow-up.

Conclusions: Medial KOA patients with upper fibular curvature is an optimal surgical indication for PFO surgery, with the advantages of pain relief, better functional recovery, and alignment correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.13011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274210PMC
June 2021

Atlas of Human Skeleton Hardness Obtained Using the Micro-indentation Technique.

Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 11;13(4):1417-1422. Epub 2021 May 11.

The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objectives: Measure and systematically evaluate the distribution of microhardness in the human skeleton.

Methods: Three fresh corpses were obtained, aged 62 (male), 45 (female), and 58 years (male). Soft tissues were removed, and all axial and unilateral appendicular bones were freshly harvested. All three skeletons were examined by X-ray and computed tomography (CT) to exclude skeletal pathology. Only bones from donors with no known skeletal pathology were included in the study. Axial and unilateral appendicular skeleton bones from each of the three donors were obtained, except for ear ossicles, hyoid bone, tailbone, and 14 phalanges of the foot, for which samples were difficult to obtain. Precision bone specimens with a thickness of 3 mm, which were cut with a Buehler IsoMet 11-1280-250 low-speed diamond saw (Buehler, USA), were obtained from all important anatomic sites in a direction perpendicular to the mechanical axis of each bone. Micro-indentation (the Vickers hardness test) was performed on the surface of each specimen using a microhardness tester with a diamond indenter. Hardness value (HV) was computed for each indentation. Each bone specimen was divided into several regions of interest. Indentations were carefully made and computed. Then we analyzed the data to identify hardness distribution rules at different anatomic sites.

Results: In total, 5360 indentations were made in 1072 regions of interest in each donor. Hardness of the axial and appendicular bones were all inhomogeneous depending on the anatomic sites, but the distribution of microhardness followed certain rules. The mean hardness value ranged from 24.46 HV (HV = hardness value, kgf/mm ) for the sacrum to 53.20 HV for the shaft of the tibia. The diaphysis was harder than the metaphysis, and the proximal and distal epiphysis had lower values (8.85%- 40.39%) than the diaphysis. Among the long bone diaphyses, the tibia cortical bone (51.20 HV) was the hardest, harder than the humerus (47.25 HV), the ulna (43.26 HV), the radius (42.54 HV), and the femur (47.53 HV). However, in some anatomic sites such as the lumbar vertebra (cortical bone 32.86 HV, cancellous bone 31.25 HV), the cortical shells were sometimes not harder than the internal cancellous bones. The lumbar vertebra (32.86 HV) was harder than the cervical vertebra (28.51 HV) and the thoracic vertebra (29.01 HV).

Conclusions: The distribution of microhardness in the human skeleton follows certain rules. These distribution rules could be used to predict the mechanical properties of bone and progress in this field could provide data for the basis of a new three-dimensional printing technique, which may lead to new perspectives for custom-made implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274143PMC
June 2021

Associations Between Periosteal Reaction of Proximal Tibial and Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis.

Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 7;13(4):1327-1335. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Objective: To evaluate and analyze the potential relationship between periosteal reaction and medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and to assess the independent risk factors for the development of periosteal reaction associated with medial compartment KOA.

Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study. From January 2019 to December 2019 at the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, a total of 363 patients (726 knees) with medial compartment KOA were enrolled in this study according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 91 males and 272 females, with an mean age of 57.9 ± 12.8 years (range, 18-82 years). Among these patients, 206 patients (412 knees) were allocated to the periosteal reaction group (44 males and 162 females) and 157 patients (314 knees) were allocated to the non-periosteal reaction group (47 males and 110 females). The classification of KOA severity was based on Kellgren and Lawrence (K-L) grading system. The malalignment of the lower extremities in coronal plane was evaluated as medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA). Patients demographics and radiographic parameters were recorded in the two groups. Intra-observer and inter-observer reliabilities of all radiological measurements were analyzed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Univariate analyses were conducted for comparison of differences with continuous variables between patients with periosteal reaction and without periosteal reaction. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors of radiographic parameters for periosteal reaction.

Results: The overall incidence of periosteal reaction associated with medial compartment KOA was 56.7%. Furthermore, we observed that the incidence of periosteal reaction significantly increased with age and correlated with K-L grade progression (P < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. In the multivariate logistical regression analysis, HKA and JLCA were identified as independent risk factors of the development of periosteal reaction in patients with medial compartment KOA (odds ratio [OR], 0.594; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.544-0.648; P < 0.05; OR, 0.851; 95% confidence interval CI 0.737-0.983; P < 0.05; respectively), with other radiographic parameters including MTPA (OR 0.959; 95% CI 0.511-0.648; P > 0.05), LDFA (OR 0.990; 95% CI 0.899-1.089; P > 0.05), and JSW (OR 1.005; 95% CI 0.865-1.167; P > 0.05).

Conclusions: In this retrospective study, patients with lower HKA and higher JLCA were identified as independent risk factors for the development of periosteal reaction, which occurred most commonly adjacent to the lateral of proximal tibia diaphysis, and thus we concluded that periosteal reaction may be an anatomical adaptation for medial compartment KOA based upon these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274206PMC
June 2021

Age- and Gender-Specific Epidemiologic Characteristics of Major Intra-Articular Fractures: Five-Year Data from a Level 1 Trauma Center.

Orthop Surg 2021 May 30;13(3):900-907. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Trauma Emergency Center, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Orthopaedics Research Institution of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Biomechanics of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of major intra-articular fractures.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled patients with major intra-articular fractures who were treated in the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 2015 to December 2019. A total of 11,084 patients (7,338 [66.20%] males and 3,746 [33.80%] females) meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. The distribution characteristics of intra-articular fractures involving shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle, and subtalar joints were identified.The potential associations between fractures and various other factors, such as age, gender, sites, were explored.

Results: There were 74 cases (0.67%) of shoulder fractures, 1,941 cases (17.51%) of elbow fractures, 1,155 cases (10.42%) of wrist fractures, 520 cases (4.69%) of hip fractures, 3,118 cases (28.13%) of knee fractures, 2,156 cases (19.45%) of ankle fractures, and 2,120 cases (19.13%) of subtalar fractures. The overall male-to-female ratio was 1.96:1. The highest proportion age group of major intra-articular fractures included the ages 45-54 years. For males, the highest proportion age group was 45-54 years, for females, it was 55-64 years. The knee joint fracture was the most common type, accounting for 28.13%. For male and female patients, knee fractures accounted for 26.19% and 31.93%, respectively, with a male to female ratio of 1.13:1. The proportion of shoulder fractures was the smallest among this investigation, accounting for 0.67%. For male and female patients, shoulder fractures accounted for 0.44% and 1.12%, respectively, with a male to female ratio of 0.76:1. The age group with the highest proportion of shoulder joint fractures was ≥65 year olds (41.89%), with a male to female ratio of 0.76:1. The age group with the highest risk of elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle, and subtalar joint fracture was 5-14 year olds (33.59%) with a male to female ratio of 3.29:1, 5-14 year olds (23.98%) with a male to female ratio of 6.91:1, 45-54 year olds (26.92%) with a male to female ratio of 5.67:1, 45-54 year olds (24.60%) with a male to female ratio of 1.68:1, 25-34 year olds (20.36%) with a male to female ratio of 2.30:1, 45-54 year olds (27.41%) with a male to female ratio of 9.02:1, respectively. The most common site of intra-articular fractures in different age groups was corresponding as follows: 0-4 year olds (elbow), 5-14 year olds (elbow), 15-24 year olds (ankle), 25-34 year olds (subtalar joint), 35-44 year olds (subtalar joint), 45-54 year olds (knee), 55-64 year olds (knee), 65-74 year olds (knee), and ≥75 year olds (knee).

Conclusion: The current study revealed the age- and gender-specific epidemiological characteristics of major intra-articular fractures, providing a basis for clinical evaluation and practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126914PMC
May 2021

An Autograft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Results in Better Biomechanical Performance and Tendon-Bone Incorporation Than Does a Hybrid Graft in a Rat Model.

Am J Sports Med 2020 12 3;48(14):3515-3524. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: The biomechanical and tendon-bone incorporation properties of allograft-augmented hybrid grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction compared with traditional autografts are unknown.

Hypothesis: Using an autograft for ACL reconstruction yields better results on biomechanical testing, radiographic analysis, and histological evaluation versus using a hybrid graft.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: A total of 66 adult male Sprague Dawley rats underwent unilateral ACL reconstruction with an autograft (AT group; n = 33) or a hybrid graft (HB group; n = 33). The grafts used in both groups were harvested from the peroneus longus tendon and were fixed by suturing to the surrounding periosteum. Samples were harvested for biomechanical testing, micro-computed tomography (CT), and histological evaluation at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Bone tunnels on the femoral and tibial sides were divided into 3 subregions: intra-articular (IA), midtunnel (MT), and extra-articular (EA). A cylinder-like volume of interest in the bone tunnel and a tubular-like volume of interest around the bone tunnel were used to evaluate new bone formation and bone remodeling, respectively, via micro-CT.

Results: In the AT group, there were significantly higher failure loads and stiffness at 8 weeks (failure load: 3.04 ± 0.40 vs 2.09 ± 0.54 N, respectively; = .006) (stiffness: 3.43 ± 0.56 vs 1.75 ± 0.52 N/mm, respectively; < .001) and 12 weeks (failure load: 9.10 ± 1.13 vs 7.14 ± 0.94 N, respectively; = .008) (stiffness: 4.45 ± 0.75 vs 3.36 ± 0.29 N/mm, respectively; = .008) than in the HB group. With regard to new bone formation in the bone tunnel, in the AT group, the bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) was significantly higher than in the HB group on the tibial side at 8 weeks (IA: 22.21 ± 4.98 vs 5.16 ± 3.98, respectively; < .001) (EA: 19.66 ± 7.19 vs 10.85 ± 2.16, respectively; = .030) and 12 weeks (IA: 30.50 ± 5.04 vs 17.11 ± 7.31, respectively; = .010) (MT: 21.15 ± 2.58 vs 15.55 ± 4.48, respectively; = .041) (EA: 20.75 ± 3.87 vs 10.64 ± 3.94, respectively; = .003). With regard to bone remodeling around the tunnel, the BV/TV was also significantly higher on the tibial side at 8 weeks (MT: 33.17 ± 8.05 vs 15.21 ± 7.60, respectively; = .007) (EA: 25.19 ± 6.38 vs 13.94 ± 7.10, respectively; = .030) and 12 weeks (IA: 69.46 ± 4.45 vs 47.80 ± 6.16, respectively; < .001) (MT: 33.15 ± 3.88 vs 13.76 ± 4.07, respectively; < .001) in the AT group than in the HB group. Sharpey-like fibers had formed at 8 weeks in the AT group. A large number of fibroblasts withdrew at 12 weeks. In the AT group, the width of the interface was significantly narrower at 4 weeks (85.86 ± 17.49 vs 182.97 ± 14.35 μm, respectively; < .001), 8 weeks (58.86 ± 10.99 vs 90.15 ± 11.53 μm, respectively; = .002), and 12 weeks (42.70 ± 7.96 vs 67.29 ± 6.55 μm, respectively; = .001) than in the HB group.

Conclusion: Using an autograft for ACL reconstruction may result in improved biomechanical properties and tendon-bone incorporation compared with a hybrid graft.

Clinical Relevance: Augmenting small autografts with allograft tissue may result in decreased biomechanical performance and worse tendon-bone incorporation, increasing the risk of graft failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520967668DOI Listing
December 2020

Triplanar Chevron Osteotomy: A Newly Proposed Method to Treat Hallux Valgus Deformities.

Orthop Surg 2020 Dec 19;12(6):1826-1834. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Trauma Centre, Department of Orthopaedics, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To present a novel method called triplanar chevron osteotomy to treat hallux valgus (HV).

Methods: This is a retrospective study. In this study, the CT data of HV patients with painful callosities were evaluated retrospectively between 1 June 2018 and 1 June 2020. CT data from 49 consecutive patients (59 feet) with HV were evaluated. The average age at the time of surgery was 49.6 years (range, 30-63 years). The apex of the chevron osteotomy procedure was located at the center of the first metatarsal and was defined as the line formed by the central point perpendicular to the fourth metatarsal bone. The cut planes of the plantarward oblique chevron osteotomy (POCO) were defined as follows: chevron osteotomy along with 20° of plantarward obliquity. The triplanar osteotomy incision was made using the POCO method, with the direction inclined by 10° distally. The intermetatarsal angle (IMA), the HV angle (HVA), the projection of the second metatarsal (PSM), the metatarsal protrusion index (MPI), and the metatarsal protrusion distance (MPD) were all calculated before and after the operations. The length of the first metatarsal was measured and calculated with an equation.

Results: The results showed that the HVA was significantly decreased after surgery (32.7° ± 4.6° vs 14.9° ± 2.1°, t = 25.583, P < 0.001) in the triplanar, traditional, and POCO groups. The IMA was also significantly decreased (14.7° ± 2.0°) compared with the results before surgery (8.0° ± 1.1°, t = 22.739, P < 0.001) in these groups. Compared with traditional osteotomy and POCO, there were no differences in correcting deformities on axial planes for the HVA (14.5° ± 1.7° vs 14.9° ± 2.1°, t = 1.835, P = 0.072) and IMA (8.1° ± 1.1° vs 8.0° ± 1.1°, t = -0.97, P = 0.336). There was a statistically significant decrease following surgery in terms of the PSM, MPI, and MPD after triplanar osteotomy. The length of the first metatarsal increased (10.9 ± 1.3 mm), as measured through three-dimensional images in the triplanar osteotomy group. The length was calculated as follows: H = L2 * Tan θ ≈ L/COS β * Tan θ.

Conclusion: The new triplanar osteotomy technique is safe and effective for treating HV, and in simulation experiments reveals potential benefits of correction and preventing transfer metatarsalgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767668PMC
December 2020

Prophylactic Closed Suction Drainage Is Irrelevant to Accelerated Rehabilitation after Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Closed Distal Femur Fractures.

Orthop Surg 2020 Dec 12;12(6):1768-1775. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To investigate whether closed suction drainage (CSD) is related to accelerated rehabilitation of patients after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for closed distal femur fractures.

Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. Between October 2018 and June 2020, 160 closed distal femur fracture patients who were prepared for ORIF were prospectively randomized into two groups: a CSD group with the mean age of 57.91 ± 14.38 years (32 [40%] men and 48 [60%] women) and a non-CSD group with the mean age of 59.73 ± 17.55 years (27 [34%] men and 54 [66%] women). Wound visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores, peri-wound skin temperature, hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, hidden blood loss (HBL), dressing change, period of wound oozing, postoperative blood transfusion, and length of postoperative hospital stay were recorded. Postoperative wound complications, namely wound infections, wound haematoma, wound dehiscence, erythema of wound, and lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were collected. All the patients were administrated by a single surgical team and followed up for 1 month after the ORIF.

Results: The patients without CSD were identified with lower peri-wound skin temperature and wound VAS pain scores during the first three postoperative days (36.69 ± 0.33 vs 36.86 ± 0.38 °C, P = 0.002; 1.88 ± 0.82 vs 3.15 ± 1.15, P = 0.000). However, both the peri-wound skin temperature and wound VAS pain scores did not differ significantly between the two groups on the fifth postoperative day. In addition, patients with CSD had a longer length of postoperative hospitalization time (11.45 ± 5.95 vs 9.78 ± 4.64 days, P = 0.049). There was no statistically significant difference between CSD and non-CSD groups within 1 month after the ORIF regarding blood loss, period of wound oozing, and postoperative complications, such as incidence of wound infection, haematoma, erythema, dehiscence, and lower limb DVT.

Conclusion: Prophylactic CSD after primary ORIF for closed distal femur fractures not only had no significant advantage to minimize blood loss and wound complications, but increased local inflammation and postoperative hospital stay, and thus we suggest that prophylactic CSD after primary ORIF for closed distal femur fractures is not recommended for optimized clinical pathways and accelerated recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767690PMC
December 2020

Age-related dynamic deformation of the femoral shaft and associated osteoporotic factors: a retrospective study in Chinese adults.

Arch Osteoporos 2020 10 7;15(1):157. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050051, Hebei, China.

Dynamic skeletal deformation with ageing showed important signs of degenerative and osteoporotic diseases. We found that both femoral bowing and cortical thickness were correlated with ageing in a Chinese population. Further, femoral cortical index, an osteoporotic indicator, was negatively correlated with femoral bowing angle. Hence, more attention should be paid to these femoral morphological changes to avoid fragility fractures and failed internal fixation.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether morphological parameters of the femoral shaft are in age-related deformation and identify correlations between parameters of femoral cortical thickness and femoral shaft bowing.

Methods: One hundred twenty patients (mean 50 years, range 18~104 years) who had received standard long-standing anteroposterior and femoral lateral radiographs from October 2016 to October 2019 were included in this retrospective study. The sagittal femoral bowing angle (sFBA), sagittal femoral cortical index (sFCI), coronal femoral bowing angle (cFBA), and coronal femoral cortical index (cFCI) were measured by two orthopaedists separately. All the participants' demographic data, including age, sex, body laterality, height, and weight, were collected. The Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, two-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis.

Results: The mean age of the male and female participants was 46.95 ± 15.25 and 52.22 ± 15.61 years, respectively. Two-way ANOVA revealed that females had a significantly lower sFCI than males at the right side (P < 0.05). There were no significant interactions between sex or body laterality and the sFBA, cFBA, sFCI, and cFCI groups (P > 0.05). Pearson correlation revealed that sFCI was strongly correlated with sFBA (r = - 0.535, P < 0.05) and cFBA (r = - 0.535, P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that both age (β = 0.304 and 0.308 respectively) and sFCI (β = - 0.322 and - 0.414 respectively) were two independent predictors associated with sFBA and cFBA respectively.

Conclusions: The femoral shaft bowing of the Chinese population was positively correlated with ageing, whereas the sagittal femoral cortical thickness negatively correlated with ageing. A high FBA occurred in femoral shafts with a low sFCI, which revealed that femoral shaft bowing was associated with femoral cortical thickness. During femur-related surgery in older patients, more attention should be paid to these femoral morphological changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-020-00834-0DOI Listing
October 2020

Volar, Splitting, and Collapsed Type of Die-Punch Fracture Treated by Volar Locking Plate (VLP): A Retrospective Study.

Orthop Surg 2020 Jun 28;12(3):869-877. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Orthopedics, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To compare the results of different types of die-punch fractures treated by volar locking plate (VLP).

Methods: Between January 2013 and February 2018, a total of 71 patients with die-punch fracture of distal radius were treated by VLP and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Of them, 18 were classified as volar type, 24 as splitting type, and 28 as collapsed type of fracture, based on the preoperative radiographs and CT scans. The minimum follow-up period was 12 months. Radiological parameters, wrist function, range of motion (ROM), and complications were evaluated and compared. Pearson chi-square test was used to assess the difference of gender distribution, injury side, dominance, mechanism, type and classification of fracture, and postoperative complications, when necessary (P < 0.05), followed by pairwise comparisons using partitions of chi-square test. Two-tailed P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For pairwise comparisons, adjustment of statistical level as P < 0.017 (0.05/3) was used. SPSS 21.0 was used to perform all the analyses.

Results: The mean follow-up time was 14.5 months, and at the mean of postoperative 8 weeks all patients obtained bony union, without delayed or non-union. The grip strength was 26.6 ± 7.9 kg for patients in volar fracture group, 27.0 ± 9.4 kg in splitting group, and 26.2 ± 9.4 kg in collapsed group, without significant difference (P = 0.628).The disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) (9.2 ± 10.0 for volar group, 8.8 ± 7.9 for splitting group, and 10.6 ± 8.7 for collapsed group) or Gartland-Werley score (5.1 ± 2.8 for volar group, 4.8 ± 3.2 for splitting group, and 6.4 ± 2.7 for collapsed group) either did not differ among the three groups (all P > 0.05). There was a poorer ROM in the group of collapsed fractures, but the difference was non-significant for any parameter (P > 0.05). As for radiographic parameters, we did not find any significant difference for volar tilt, radial inclination, radial height, and ulnar variance (all P > 0.05), except for articular step-off (P < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed a significantly greater step-off (1.2 mm vs 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm) and higher rate of total complications in group of collapsed fracture (39.3%), compared to either volar (10.5%) or splitting type (12.5%).

Conclusions: The collapsed type of die-punch fracture posed a greater articular step-off and a higher rate of complications, especially secondary wrist osteoarthritis, which deserved more attention in clinical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307222PMC
June 2020

The diverse functions of Siglec-15 in bone remodeling and antitumor responses.

Pharmacol Res 2020 05 26;155:104728. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, PR China. Electronic address:

Siglec-15 is an immunoreceptor that binds to its ligand to exert diverse functions in osteoclast development, bone resorption, and even tumor-associated macrophage-mediated T cell immunity. Siglec-15 is a highly conserved member of the Siglec family and is constitutively expressed in osteoclasts, macrophages and dendritic cells. The activation domain in Siglec-15 can transmit a positive signal to regulate osteoclastogenesis via the formation of a complex with DAP12. In tumors, Siglec-15 is negatively regulated by IFN-γ, thus influencing effector T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Importantly, this tumor-associated function of Siglec-15 is similar to that identified for PD-L1/PD-1 in normalization cancer immunotherapy. Cell-directed therapies are increasingly urgent and of clinical interest for their potential for reduced side effects and increased safety. Therefore, targeting Siglec‑15 might lead to novel discoveries for the clinical treatment of bone and tumor diseases or related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104728DOI Listing
May 2020

Proximal fibular osteotomy alleviates medial compartment knee osteoarthritis in a mouse model.

Int Orthop 2020 06 10;44(6):1107-1113. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No. 139 Ziqiang Road, Qiaoxi District, Shijiazhuang, 050051, Hebei, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of proximal fibular osteotomy (PFO), and to determine if PFO could delay degeneration of the medial compartment of the knee joint in a mouse model.

Methods: An animal model of destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) was used to induce post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). PFO was performed to examine the effectiveness of PFO on protection against medial compartment knee OA. Micro-CT was used to observe osteosclerosis development in the subchondral bone, and Safranin O-fast green staining was used to evaluate the progression of articular cartilage destruction. The condylar-plateau angle (CPA) and anatomical femorotibial angle (aFTA) were measured to determine whether knee alignment was changed after PFO.

Results: PFO treatment could decrease osteophyte formation and osteosclerosis development in the subchondral bone, as observed by micro-CT. The value of the ratio of trabecular bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) of DMM+PFO group was lower than that of DMM group. PFO also inhibited the progression of articular cartilage destruction. DMM + PFO group displayed decreased maximal and summed OA scores, as compared with DMM group. Moreover, the change of knee alignment was reduced by PFO, which might be the mechanism of PFO alleviating medial compartment knee OA.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that PFO could alleviate medial compartment knee OA in a mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-020-04497-xDOI Listing
June 2020

An Often Easily Missed Injury in the Presence of Orthopaedic Trauma: A Case Series of Derived Injury.

Orthop Surg 2020 Feb 20;12(1):337-342. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Derived disaster is a common concept in emergencies such as earthquakes. With the progress of society, the incidence of fractures caused by high-energy trauma has increased year by year. After the first injury, the possibility of derived injury caused by the original injury also increases rapidly. Orthopaedic surgeons, especially trauma orthopaedic surgeons, lack sufficient understanding and recognition of this kind of injury. The purpose of this article is to present a case series of an often missed injury pattern that is associated with an original injury. The diagnosis of derived injury may go unrecognized in a considerable number of cases and delayed treatment decreases the success rate of soft tissue repairing; therefore, a high index of suspicion and a proper early diagnosis is of paramount importance. We also describe the current surgical management used by the authors, and propose the concept of "derived injury", studying its clinical significance in traumatic orthopaedics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031595PMC
February 2020

hsa_circ0021347 as a Potential Target Regulated by B7-H3 in Modulating the Malignant Characteristics of Osteosarcoma.

Biomed Res Int 2019 17;2019:9301989. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Orthopedics, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

In our previous study, we showed that B7-H3 played crucial roles in osteosarcoma (OS) development and might serve as a negative regulator of in osteoimmunology and help tumor cells escape immune surveillance. However, little is known about B7-H3 deficiency and its corresponding circRNA alteration or their relationship with osteosarcoma progression. Therefore, we established stable silencing of B7-H3 in OS cells and validated our results with western blotting and real-time PCR detection. Then, we performed a circRNA array to analyze the differential expression of circRNAs between the control and B7-H3 knockdown cells. The association between target circRNA expression and the clinicopathological features of patients with OS was further analyzed. As a result, hsa_circ0021347 was selected and validated to be significantly downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines and showed a strong negative relationship with B7-H3 expression in OS. In addition, clinicopathological features showed that hsa_circ0021347 in OS tissues was negatively associated with Enneking stage and positively associated with patients' survival. Finally, Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and PANTHER pathway analyses were performed to predict a network of hsa_circ0021347/miRNAs interactions to help us develop potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and design therapeutic strategies for OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9301989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948356PMC
July 2020

Dynamic Change of Lumbar Structure and Associated Factors: A Retrospective Study.

Orthop Surg 2019 Dec 3;11(6):1072-1081. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Key Laboratory of Biomechanics of Hebei Province, Orthopaedic Research Institution of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To determine whether lumbar anatomy parameters are in dynamic change and related factors.

Methods: This is a retrospective study. Participants who did lumbar computed tomography (CT) scanning in Shandong University Qilu Hospital from October 2017 to March 2019 were selected. The 476 participants were randomly selected as male or female, with the age ranging from 17 to 87 years (mean, 55.19; standard deviation, 14.28 years). All the measurements were taken based on the CT scanning image and the measurement of lumbar morphology was conducted using picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). The angle between the horizontal alignment and pedicle center on median sagittal view, the angle between upper endplate and lower endplate on median sagittal view as well as transverse section angle (TSA) using Magerl point in the axial view was determined by reconstructive CT analysis.

Results: In the overall participants, the angle between the horizontal alignment and pedicle center on median sagittal view of lumbar one to three was significantly decreased with aging, from 3.90° ± 2.81° to -4.18° ± 6.86° (P = 0.002), 5.60° ± 2.89° to -4.14° ± 5.90° (P = 0.030), and 4.75° ± 2.95° to -2.87° ± 4.68° (P < 0.001), respectively. Additionally, the angle between the horizontal alignment and pedicle center on median sagittal view in male participants of lumbar two was dramatically decreased, from 4.83° ± 2.79° to -4.45° ± 5.97° (P = 0.30). And that of lumbar three in female participants was significantly decreased, from 4.56° ± 2.52° to -2.88° ± 5.03° (P = 0.029). Furthermore, of the overall participants, the angle between upper endplate and lower endplate on median sagittal view of lumbar one to four was associated with aging (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.015, P < 0.001, respectively). The angle of lumbar one, two and four in male participants and lumbar one to four in female participants were all significantly related to aging (all P < 0.05). Moreover, in the participants overall, the TSA of lumbar one to three was significantly associated with aging (P = 0.015, P = 0.006 and P = 0.007, respectively). In addition, this angle in lumbar one to lumbar four in male participants were all negatively associated with aging (P = 0.017, P = 0.001, P = 0.005 and P = 0.036, respectively).

Conclusion: Lumbar anatomy parameters are in dynamic change in an age and gender dependent manner. During spine surgery in elderly patients, more attention should be paid to these anatomic changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6904611PMC
December 2019

Relationships between Morphological Changes of Lower Limbs and Gender During Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis.

Orthop Surg 2019 Oct;11(5):835-844

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the dynamic changes of key morphology indicators of the lower extremities in the coronal plane with progressing medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with an emphasis on gender-dependent regional differences.

Methods: The radiographs of patients with non-traumatic knee pain and varying degrees of genu varus were reviewed. Radiographs were studied in 1538 lower limbs of 883 consecutive patients who visited our hospital from January to July 2017; all patients had long-standing anteroposterior image-splicing radiographs taken of their lower limbs. Morphological indicators of bones and joints that can change the alignment of lower limbs or reflect cartilage wear and soft-tissue relaxation were selected and measured with the help of picture archiving and communication systems. After comparing the data of different genders, the data of males and females was separated into three age groups, <40 years, 40-60 years, >60 years respectively, and then compared among age groups using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Scatterplots of age and all the measurements were drawn to determine the strength of the relations. The Pearson correlation test was performed to reveal correlations of measurements and age.

Results: Femoral bowing angle (FBA) and joint line convergence angle (JLCA) have obvious differences between different genders (P = 0.001, 0.000, respectively). This suggests that females have greater femoral curvature and joint space angle than males. Significant differences were found in hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), FBA, distal femoral valgus resection angle (DFVRA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), JLCA, and minimum joint space width (min-JSW) by age groups in females (P = 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.003, 0.002, respectively). The difference of mechanical medial distal femoral angle (mMDFA) was significant with P values less than 0.05 deemed significant (P = 0.030). Significant correlations were found between age and all measurements (r = -0.166, 0.253, 0.270, -0.147, 0.089, -0.105, -0.076, respectively, P < 0.01). Whereas, the difference in min-JSW by age group was the only significant one in males (P = 0.001), and no significant correlation was found between age and measurements (r = -0.107, 0.041, 0.134, -0.067, 0.079, -0.134, -0.098, respectively, P > 0.01).

Conclusions: As KOA progressed, both dynamic deformation of lower extremities and degeneration of articular cartilage could be found in females, while no obvious dynamic deformations were found in males. Dynamic deformation of lower extremities was the important feature and the major causative factor of KOA in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819278PMC
October 2019

Law of dynamic deformation of bone.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2019 Nov;132(21):2636-2637

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6846251PMC
November 2019

Chinese expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of infection after fracture fixation.

Injury 2019 Nov 6;50(11):1952-1958. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

Currently, accurate diagnosis and successful treatment of infection after fracture fixation (IAFF) still impose great challenges. According to the onset of infection symptoms after implantation, IAFF is classified as early infection (<2 weeks), delayed infection (2∼10 weeks) and late infection (>10 weeks). Confirmation of IAFF should be supported by histopathological tests of intraoperative specimens which confirm infection, cultures from at least two suspected infection sites which reveal the same pathogen, a definite sinus or fistula which connects directly the bone or the implant, and purulent drainage from the wound or presence of pus during surgery. Diagnosis of IAFF is built on comprehensive assessment of medical history, clinical signs and symptoms of the patient, and imaging and laboratory tests. The gold standard of diagnosis is histopathological tests. Treatment of IAFF consists of radical debridement, adequate irrigation, implant handling, systematic and local antibiotics, reconstruction of osseous and/or soft tissue defects, and functional rehabilitation of an affected limb. Early accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of IAFF play a key role in increasing the cure rate, reducing infection recurrence and disability risk, restoring limb function and improving quality of life of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2019.08.002DOI Listing
November 2019

Hamstring Autograft Versus Hybrid Graft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

Am J Sports Med 2020 03 5;48(4):1014-1022. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hamstring tendon autografts are commonly used for primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Some patients have small hamstring tendons however, which may compromise the clinical outcome of the autograft. To solve this problem, many surgeons use hybrid grafting that involves augmentation of small hamstring autografts with allograft tissue.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the clinical outcomes between primary ACL reconstructions performed with hamstring autografts and those performed with hybrid grafts in terms of patient-reported evaluation, failure rate, and knee stability. The hypothesis was that primary ACL reconstruction performed with hamstring autograft alone will not differ significantly from that performed with a hybrid graft in terms of patient-reported evaluation, failure rate, or knee stability.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Methods: A systematic review was performed to identify prospective and retrospective comparative studies and cohort studies (evidence levels 1-3) comparing outcomes of primary ACL reconstructions performed with hamstring autografting alone and hybrid grafting. Outcomes included patient-reported evaluation, failure rate, and knee stability.

Results: Ten studies were included: 1 of level 2 and 9 of level 3. Collectively, they included 398 autografts and 341 hybrid grafts. Mean respective follow-up durations ranged from 24.0 to 69.6 months and from 24.0 to 70.8 months. Patient-reported evaluations, including Lysholm, Tegner, and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee scores, were reported in 8 of 10 studies. Failure rates were reported in all 10 studies. Results of knee stability examinations-including KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, the pivot-shift test, Lachman test, and overall International Knee Documentation Committee results-were reported in 4 of 10 studies. In this review, there were no statistically significant differences between autografts and hybrid grafts in terms of patient-reported evaluations, failure rates, or KT-1000 measurements.

Conclusion: In this systematic review, there was no significant difference in patient-reported evaluation or failure rate between primary ACL reconstructions performed with autografts alone and those performed with hybrid grafts. Whether there is a substantial difference in knee stability examination results between autografts and hybrid grafts remains unknown, given a relative lack of reports on knee stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546519849483DOI Listing
March 2020

Bone Material Properties of Human Phalanges Using Vickers Indentation.

Orthop Surg 2019 Jun 30;11(3):487-492. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Objective: To investigate the microhardness distribution throughout the human hand phalanges using the Vickers method, which can be used to directly evaluate the bone mechanical properties at tissue level and provide an alternative means to investigate bone quality.

Methods: The phalanges bones involved in this study were collected from three healthy donors; fresh-frozen right limbs were used. The phalanges bones were dissected and cut into 3-mm thick slices perpendicular to the long axis in the phalanges base, the phalanges shaft, and the phalanges head with a low-speed saw and then the slices were polished with sandpaper. A microindenter fitted with a Vickers indenter point was used to measure the Vickers hardness in the plantar, dorsal, medial, and lateral sites of cortical bone in metatarsal shaft and trabecular bone in the metatarsal base and head. The indentation load and dwell time was set to 50 g and 12 s for both the cortical and cancellous tissues in this study. For each site or region, five valid values were recorded and averaged as the Vickers hardness for the site or region.

Results: In total, 96 bone slices were harvested from the base, shaft, and head of the 15 phalanges and 1920 indentations were performed. In general, the Vickers hardness in phalanges was 34.11 ± 7.95 HV. For the 5 phalanges, the 3rd phalanx showed the highest hardness (36.74 ± 7.10 HV), closely followed by the 1st (36.46 ± 5.96 HV) and 2nd (35.28 ± 6.52 HV) phalanx. The hardness in the 4th (31.90 ± 9.15 HV) and 5th (31.19 ± 8.22 HV) phalanx were significantly lower than in the other 3 phalanges. The hardness in the phalanx shaft (38.52 ± 6.67 HV) was significantly higher than that in both the base (30.73 ± 7.46 HV) and head (30.64 ± 6.81 HV) of the phalanx (F = 300.7, P = 0.000); no statistic difference existed between the base and head of the phalanx (P = 0.996). The Vickers hardness in the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx showed statistical difference in Vickers hardness (F = 19.278, P = 0.000). The proximal phalanx showed higher Vickers hardness than the middle phalanx in the 2nd to 5th phalanges (P = 0.002).

Conclusion: This study reported on the Vickers hardness distribution of the human phalanges bone and provides the theoretical basis of differences in hardness, which will benefit the placement of plates and screws in orthopaedic surgery and contribute to the research on ideal artificial bones and 3D-printed orthopaedic implants with inner gradient distribution of hardness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595111PMC
June 2019

An anterior neurovascular interval approach to coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus: a prospective clinical study with short- to mid-term follow-up.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2019 Mar 11;65(3):355-360. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Emergency Center of Trauma, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

Object: To explore the treatment effect of the anterior medial neurovascular interval approach to coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus.

Methods: This prospective study included two female patients who were 30-64 years old, with a mean age of 47 years. Fractures were caused by falling from a bicycle. The time between the injury and operation was 1-2 days, with a mean time interval of 1.5 days. Two patients with coronal shear fracture of the distal humerus were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using anterior neurovascular interval approach.

Results: There were no intraoperative and postoperative neurological and vascular complications or infections, and the fracture was united. At 12 months after the surgery, the patient returned to work without pain, and with a normal range of motion for elbow and forearm rotation. The X-rays revealed excellent fracture union, no signs of heterotopic ossification, and no traumatic arthritis. According to Mayo's evaluation standards for elbow function, a score of 100 is excellent.

Conclusions: The application of the anterior neurovascular interval approach of the elbow in the treatment of shear fracture of the articular surface of the distal humerus, particularly the trochlea of the humerus, can reduce the stripping of the soft tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.65.3.355DOI Listing
March 2019

Anatomical Adaptation of Fibula and its Mechanism of Proximal Partial Fibulectomy Associated with Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis.

Orthop Surg 2019 Apr 6;11(2):204-211. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Editorial Department, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objectives: To reveal the anatomical adaptation of the fibula and its relations to age and settlement of the medial tibial plateau, and to explore the mechanism of proximal partial fibulectomy in treating medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: A retrospective study was performed in the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Weight-bearing full-leg anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of 280 adults (560 knees) obtained from 1 January 2018 to 31 October 2018 were enrolled according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 157 men and 123 women, with an average age of 50.3 ± 14.8 years (range, 19-80 years). Radiographic severity of knee OA was assessed using Kellgren and Lawrence (K-L) grading. The settlement of the medial tibial plateau was evaluated using the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA). Curvatures of the tibia and the fibula were measured as proximal tibial curvature (PTC), distal tibial curvature (DTC), proximal fibular curvature (PFC), and distal fibular curvature (DFC). Two orthopaedic surgeons performed all the radiological measurements for 30 randomly selected patients, and repeated the measurements 1 week later. Based on the satisfactory intra-observer and inter-observer reliabilities (ICC > 0.9), each parameter was analyzed in this study. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine relations between radiological measurements and age.

Results: The mean MPTA, PTC, DTC, PFC, and DFC were 85.4° ± 2.8°, 176.2° ± 1.9°, 176.8° ± 1.8°, 176.8° ± 1.9°, and 177.0° ± 2.0°, respectively. Ninety-three knees of K-L grade I were categorized as non-knee OA, and 467 knees of K-L grades II-IV were categorized as knee OA. The MPTA, PTC, and PFC of the knee OA group were significantly smaller than those of non-knee OA group (P < 0.05). The K-L grade of knee OA significantly increased with age (χ  = 182.169, P < 0.01). The multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that the MPTA and fibular curvatures were negatively correlated with age (the regression equation is age = 561.165-0.945 MPTA-0.937 PFC-0.959 DFC, P < 0.05), and the MPTA was negatively correlated with PFC (the regression equation is MPTA = 7.827 + 0.099 DFC, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The proximal curve of the fibula increased in patients with medial compartment knee OA, and this change was positively correlated with age and settlement of the medial tibial plateau. This anatomical adaptation of the fibula was associated with greater fibular axial load and the pulling from the peroneus longus. The proximal partial fibulectomy procedure effected a receptive foot pronation to reduce KAM and rebalance the biceps-proximal fibula-peroneus longus complex, consequently achieving medial compartment unloading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594497PMC
April 2019

Incidence of Low-energy Upper Extremity Fractures and the Risk Factors in Chinese People 50 years or Older.

Orthop Surg 2019 Apr 1;11(2):304-310. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To investigate the incidence of low-energy upper extremity fractures and identify the associated risk factors in Chinese people aged 50 years or older.

Methods: This study was a part of the Chinese National Fracture Survey, which was performed between January and May 2015 and aimed to investigate the epidemiology of traumatic fractures in China in 2014. The China National Fracture Study (CNFS) was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (number ChiCTR-EPR-15005878). A stratified multistage cluster randomized sampling method was used to recruit subjects and the survey was conducted through a questionnaire. The relevant results have been published elsewhere. In the current study, 154 099 Chinese men and women aged 50 years or older were included for data collection and analysis. Low-energy fractures were defined as fractures that were caused by simple falls from standing height. Individuals who had low-energy upper extremity fractures were included in the case group and the remainder were included in the control group. Univariate and multivariate logistics regression analysis models were constructed to investigate the independent risk factors, after adjustment for confounding variables.

Results: In total, 184 patients sustained low-energy upper extremity fractures in 2014, indicating that the overall incidence was 119.4/100 000 persons, with 57.4 and 180.9/100 000 person-years in men and women. Approximately 80% of fractures occurred at home and on the common road (other than high way). In men, alcohol consumption (OR, 2.12; 95%CI, 1.11-4.06), residence at ≥2nd floor without an elevator (OR, 2.86; 95%CI, 1.16-7.06), sleep duration<7 h/day (OR, 2.77; 95%CI, 1.42-5.37), and history of past fractures (OR, 3.10; 95%CI, 1.21-7.93) were identified as significant risk factors. In women, obesity (BMI ≥ 28.0) (OR, 1.86; 95%CI, 1.31-2.66), living in the central region in China (OR, 1.53; 95%CI, 1.01-2.31), living at a higher latitude (40°-49.9°N) (OR, 1.79; 95%CI, 1.02-3.14), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.40; 95%CI, 1.58-3.63), more births (OR, 1.45; 95%CI, 1.15-1.83), sleep duration <7 h/day (OR, 2.21; 95%CI, 1.53-3.20), and history of past fracture (OR, 2.70; 95%CI, 1.52-4.80) were identified as significant risk factors.

Conclusion: Based on these results, health policies that focus on decreasing alcohol consumption and encouraging individuals to improve their quality and duration of sleep should be implemented in China. The significance of moving to a ground floor or to a building equipped with an elevator for men, and maintaining a healthy body weight for women should be emphasized to prevent upper extremity fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594479PMC
April 2019

Bone Hardness of Different Anatomical Regions of Human Radius and its Impact on the Pullout Strength of Screws.

Orthop Surg 2019 Apr 25;11(2):270-276. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To investigate the bone hardness of different anatomical regions of the human radius and its impact on the pullout strength of screws.

Methods: Fresh radius bones were obtained from three donated cadavers. They were divided into three parts: proximal metaphysis, shaft, and distal metaphysis. The proximal metaphysis contains the head, neck, and radial tuberosity. The distal metaphysis includes the palmaris radius and the styloid process. The shaft of the radius was divided into nine segments of equal length. The bone hardness of three radiuses, one from each cadaver, was measured by Vickers microindentation hardness tests, and the screw pullout strength was examined in the other three radiuses using a materials testing machine. The trend between radius hardness and pullout strength was analyzed by using an analysis of variance randomized block design. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the linear correlation between the bone hardness and the pullout strength of the human radius.

Results: The mean hardness ranged from 33.30 HV (the head) to 43.82 HV (the diaphysis). The hardest part of the radius was the shaft, with a value of 42.54 ± 5.59 HV. The proximal metaphysis had a hardness value of 34.15 ± 6.48 HV, and the distal metaphysis hardness value was 35.24 ± 5.17 HV. The shaft was 23.5% harder than the proximal metaphysis and 20% harder than the distal metaphysis. The microhardness test demonstrated that the bone hardness value of the diaphysis was significantly higher than those of both the proximal and distal metaphysis of the radius (both P < 0.05). The mean pullout strength values ranged from 552 N (the distal metaphysis) to 2296 N (the diaphysis). The greatest pullout strength of the radius was observed for the shaft, with a pullout strength of 1727.96 ± 111.44 N. The pullout strength of the proximal metaphysis was 726.33 ± 236.39 N, and the pullout strength of the distal metaphysis was 590.67 ± 36.30 N. The pullout strength of the shaft was 138% greater than that of the proximal metaphysis and 190% greater than that of the distal metaphysis. The pullout strength was also higher in the diaphysis than at both ends of the radius (both P < 0.05). A positive correlation was found between bone hardness and pullout strength (R = 0.927, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Bone hardness and screw pullout strength are higher in the diaphysis of the radius than at either end. The pullout strength is positively related to bone hardness in the human radius.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594527PMC
April 2019

Biomechanical Comparison of Three Internal Fixation Techniques for Stabilizing Posterior Pelvic Ring Disruption: A 3D Finite Element Analysis.

Orthop Surg 2019 Apr 21;11(2):195-203. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Orthopaedics, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To compare the biomechanical stability and compatibility of two iliosacral screws (ISS), a tension band plate (TBP), and a minimally invasive adjustable plate (MIAP) for treating Tile C pelvic fractures.

Methods: Three groups of finite element models of the intact pelvis, including the main ligament and the proximal one-third of both femurs, were developed to simulate vertical sacral fractures and treated with the three abovementioned internal fixation techniques. A 500 N vertical load, a 500 N vertical load plus a 10 Nm moment of forward sagittal direction, and 500 N vertical load plus a 10 Nm moment of right lateral direction were applied to the sacrum to simulate standing status, bending status, and flexion status, respectively. The maximum displacement value, the stress value, and the stress value of the fracture interface were compared among the three internal fixation techniques.

Results: The results showed that all three internal fixation techniques effectively restored the biomechanical transmission of the injured pelvis. The stress on the implants in the TBP model was 167.47% and 53.41% higher than that in the ISS model and the MIAP model, respectively, and the stress shielding phenomenon of the TBP model was more obvious than in the other two models. Meanwhile, the stress between the fracture interfaces in the TBP fixation models was apparently higher than that in the other two models. However, the vertical displacement of the MIAP model was not significantly different from that in the ISS and TBP model; therefore, strong fixation could be obtained in all three models.

Conclusion: Based on our results, we believe that the stability of Tile C pelvic fracture fixed with MIAP was similar to that of fractures fixed with ISS and TBP, but the stress shielding phenomenon and safety of implants in the TBP models were inferior to those in the MIAP and ISS fixation models. Meanwhile, MIAP and ISS fixation were more helpful to the healing processing than was TBP fixation, especially at the fracture interface of the second and third vertebral body levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594476PMC
April 2019

Establishment of Classification of Tibial Plateau Fracture Associated with Proximal Fibular Fracture.

Orthop Surg 2019 Feb 8;11(1):97-101. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Trauma Center, Key Biomechanics Lab of Hebei Province, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of fibular fractures as an associated injury in tibial plateau fractures according to CT scan. We also attempt to introduce a new morphological sub-classification on this associated injury and to analyze the correlation between this classification and tibial plateau fractures.

Methods: We selected cases with fibular fractures from all the tibial plateau fracture patients. The cases were further divided into 2 groups: unicondylar group and bicondylar group. On the basis of our new classification system of fibular fracture, all the included cases were divided into 5 subgroups.

Results: Finally, a total of 150 cases associated with fibular fractures in 502 tibial plateau fracture cases were identified from our institution database. The incidence of fibular head fracture in tibial plateau fractures was 29.88% (150/502). Seventy-one cases (47.3%) were involved one condyle, and 79 cases (52.7%) involved both. It shows significant difference in the subgroup of avulsion fracture with horizontal fracture line (Type A) which is ratio of 16.9% in unicondylar group and 1.27% in bicondylar group.

Conclusion: A new classification of this associated injury describing the morphology of the fracture fragments may improve operative planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430455PMC
February 2019

Biomechanical comparison of three kinds of fixation in fracture-dislocation of the sacroiliac joint.

Technol Health Care 2019 ;27(1):89-99

Background: Although there are several different kinds of fixation techniques for the sacroiliac fracture-dislocation, the treatment remains a challenge for orthopedic surgeons.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the stability of sacroiliac fracture-dislocation fixed with two iliosacral (IS) screws, tension band plate (TBP), and minimally invasive adjustable plate (MIAP).

Methods: Five human cadavers (L4-pelvic-femora) were used to compare biomechanical stability. The pubic symphysis separation and left sacroiliac dislocation were created. The symphysis pubis was stabilized with a five-hole plate. The sacroiliac joint dislocation fracture was fixed with three kinds of internal fixation in a randomized design. The specimens were fastened in a biomechanical machine with a cycle vertical load. Displacements of the whole specimen and shifts in the fracture gap were recorded.

Results: Under different vertical loads, the shifts in the fracture gap and the displacements of the pelvis fixed with MIAP were similar to those in fractures fixed with two IS screws. However, the shifts in the fracture gap and the displacements of the pelvis fixed with MIAP were significantly smaller than those fixed with TBP.

Conclusions: The stability of the sacroiliac joint dislocation fixed with MIAP was similar to that of dislocation fixed with two IS screws, and MIAP performed better than the TBP under vertical load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-181274DOI Listing
April 2019

Comparison of Proximal Femoral Geometry and Risk Factors between Femoral Neck Fractures and Femoral Intertrochanteric Fractures in an Elderly Chinese Population.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Nov;131(21):2524-2530

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University; Key Laboratory of Biomechanics of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051; Chinese Academy of Engineering, Beijing 100088, China.

Background: Few studies have investigated the differences in proximal femoral geometry and risk factors between patients with different types of hip fracture, especially in elderly Chinese. This study aimed to assess the differences in proximal femoral geometry parameters between patients with femoral neck fractures and patients with intertrochanteric fractures to provide guidance for individualized customized prosthesis and accurate reconstruction of proximal femurs in elderly Chinese patients.

Methods: We retrospectively studied the electronic medical records of 198 elderly patients over 65 years of age who were admitted to the orthopedic department with hip fractures between January 2017 and December 2017 in The Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University. Age, fracture site, gender, and proximal femoral geometry parameters (neck shaft angle [NSA], center edge angle [CEA], femoral head diameter [FHD], femoral neck diameter [FND], femoral neck axial length [FNAL], hip axial length [HAL], and femoral shaft diameter [FSD]) were recorded. Student's t-test was used to compare the continuous variables, Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables, and multiple logistic stepwise regression analysis was used to evaluate the influencing factors of hip fracture type.

Results: Statistically significant differences in NSA (137.63 ± 4.56° vs. 132.07 ± 4.17°, t = 1.598, P < 0.001), CEA (37.62 ± 6.77° vs. 43.11 ± 7.09°, t = 5.597, P < 0.001), FND (35.21 ± 3.25 mm vs. 34.09 ± 3.82 mm, t = 2.233, P = 0.027), and FNAL (99.30 ± 7.91 mm vs. 103.58 ± 8.39 mm, t = 3.715, P < 0.001) were found between the femoral neck fracture group and femoral intertrochanteric fracture group. FHD, FND, FSD, HAL, and FNAL were different between sexes (all P < 0.001). The greater NSA was the risk factor for femoral neck fractures (odds ratio [OR]: 0.70, P < 0.001), greater CEA and longer FNAL were risk factors for femoral intertrochanteric fractures (OR: 1.15, 1.17, all P < 0.001), and greater FND was a protective factor for femoral intertrochanteric fractures (OR: 0.74, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: We demonstrate differences in geometric morphological parameters of the proximal femur in different hip fracture types, as well as an effect of sex. These differences should be considered in the selection of prostheses for fracture internal fixation and hip replacements. These data could help guide the design of individualized customized prostheses and improve the accurate reconstruction of the proximal femur for elderly Chinese hip fracture patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.244118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213826PMC
November 2018

Brave to Advance the Theoretical and Technological Innovation on the Basis of Orthopedic Practice.

Authors:
Ying-Ze Zhang

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Nov;131(21):2521-2523

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University; Key Laboratory of Biomechanics of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051; Chinese Academy of Engineering, Beijing 100088, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.244123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213838PMC
November 2018

Editorial Commentary: Reduce the Failure Risk: A Challenge to Reduce the Risk of Using Hybrid Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

Arthroscopy 2018 10;34(10):2936-2938

The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University.

Hybrid grafting (augmentation of small hamstring autografts with allograft tissue) is preferred by many surgeons for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Although a recent, well-conducted, systematic review reported no significant differences in failure risk between hybrid graft and autograft ACL reconstruction, a trend toward a greater failure risk using the hybrid graft existed in many of the included studies. Three potential causes of hybrid graft ACL reconstruction failure that are absent in autograft ACL reconstruction are different levels of graft revascularization and ligamentization, differences in the tendon-bone healing capacity between the allograft and autograft portions in the bone tunnel, and processing of the graft. Research advances in these areas will further reduce the failure risk of hybrid graft ACL reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2018.07.026DOI Listing
October 2018