Publications by authors named "Ying Xu"

2,327 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Koumine modulates spinal microglial M1 polarization and the inflammatory response through the Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway, ameliorating diabetic neuropathic pain in rats.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jun 29;90:153640. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, P.R. China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), a complication of diabetes, has serious impacts on human health. As the pathogenesis of DNP is very complex, clinical treatments for DNP is limited. Koumine (KM) is an active ingredient extracted from Gelsemium elegans Benth. that exerts an inhibitory effect on neuropathic pain (NP) in several animal models.

Purpose: To clarify the anti-NP effect of KM on rats with DNP and the molecular mechanisms involving the Notch- Jκ recombination signal binding protein (RBP-Jκ) signaling pathway.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered streptozocin (STZ) by intraperitoneal injection to induce DNP. The effect of KM on mechanical hyperalgesia in rats with DNP was evaluated using the Von Frey test. Microglial polarization in the spinal cord was examined using western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. The Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway was analysed using western blotting.

Results: KM attenuated DNP during the observation period. In addition, KM alleviated M1 microglial polarization in STZ-induced rats. Subsequent experiments revealed that Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway was activated in the spinal cord of rats with DNP, and the activation of this pathways was decreased by KM. Additionally, KM-mediated analgesia and deactivation of the Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway were inhibited by the Notch signaling agonist jagged 1, indicating that the anti-DNP effect of KM may be regulated by the Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway.

Conclusions: KM is a potentially desirable candidate treatment for DNP that may inhibit microglial M1 polarization through the Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153640DOI Listing
June 2021

Improved intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of astaxanthin via poly (ethylene glycol)-graft-chitosan nanoparticle: preparation, in vitro evaluation and pharmacokinetics in rats.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Center for Nano Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, China.

Background: Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a kind of food-derived active ingredients (FDAI) with functions of antioxidant, antidiabetic, and nontoxicity, but its poor solubility and low bioavailability hinder further application in food industry. In this study, a novel carrier, polyethylene glycol grafted chitosan (PEG-g-CS), was applied in enhancing bioavailability of astaxanthin firstly. It encapsulated astaxanthin completely by solvent evaporation to manufacture ASTA-PEG-g-CS nanoparticle for improving absorption.

Results: The morphological characteristic of ASTA-PEG-g-CS nanoparticle showed individual and spherical, with a particle size below 200 nm and zeta potential about -26 mV. PEG-g-CS could encapsulate astaxanthin well by profiles of ATR-IR and XRD, and the encapsulated astaxanthin released fast in 15 min from in vitro release study. After rat single-pass intestinal perfusion study, low concentration of ASTA-PEG-g-CS nanoparticle (0.2 μg mL ^-1) had better absorption in intestine, especially jejunum could absorb most astaxanthin without change of concentration. Additionally, in vivo release study demonstrated that ASTA-PEG-g-CS nanoparticle enhanced oral bioavailability significantly.

Conclusion: This novel carrier, polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafted chitosan (PEG-g-CS), provided a simple way to encapsulate natural function food which improved the bioavailability of hydrophobic ingredients completely. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11435DOI Listing
July 2021

Maize and common bean seed exudates mediate part of nonhost resistance to prior to infection.

Phytopathology 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Northeast Agricultural University, 12430, Agricultural College, Harbin, Harbin, China;

does not infect nonhost maize () but infects nonhost common bean () under inoculation. Soybean seed exudates participate in mediating host resistance to prior to infection. This study aims to elucidate the role of seed exudates in mediating the nonhost resistance to prior to infection. The behaviors of zoospores in response to the seed exudates were determined using an assay chamber and a concave slide. The proteomes of zoospores in response to the seed exudates were analyzed with the tandem mass tag (TMT) method. The key proteins were quantitatively verified by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Maize seed exudates exerted a repellent effect on zoospores. This result explains why zoospores sense repelling signaling molecules that weaken and strongly inhibit chemotaxis signals in the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. Common bean seed exudates did not exhibit any attraction to the zoospores because the G protein signaling pathway, had no significant change. The proteins protecting the cell membrane structure were significantly downregulated, and the early apoptosis signal glutathione was enhanced in zoospores responding to common bean seed exudates, which resulted in dissolution of the cysts. Maize and common bean seed exudates mediate part of the nonhost resistance to via different mechanisms prior to infection. The immunity of maize to is due to the repellent effect of maize seed exudates on zoospores. Common bean seed exudates participate in mediating nonhost resistance by dissolving cysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-05-21-0213-RDOI Listing
July 2021

Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis With Acute Kidney Injury: Short-Term Recovery Predicts Long-Term Outcome.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:641655. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Kidney involvement is common in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV). It tends to be aggressive, and in some patients, the kidney involvement may reach the criteria of acute kidney injury (AKI). Here, we aim to describe the clinical characteristics of these patients and find risk factors for poor outcomes.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with AAV in our hospital from February 2003 to February 2017 were included. Those who reached the KDIGO AKI criteria were reclassified according to the KDIGO AKI stage. The clinical features of these patients were analyzed. Also, according to the variation of serum creatinine 3 months after AKI episode, patients were further divided into two groups: patients whose serum creatinine (Scr) level at the third month decreased by 30% or more from the peak Scr level was classified into G1 and others were classified into G2. Long-term renal and survival outcomes of these patients were analyzed with a Cox model. The renal endpoint was reaching end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the survival endpoint was death. Nomograms were built based on cox models.

Results: Of 141 AAV patients included, during the median follow-up period of 64.0 (IQR 34.8, 85.4) months, 36 (25.5%) patients reached renal endpoints, and 22 (15.6%) patients died. The median renal survival time was 35.9 (IQR 21.3, 72.6) months and the median survival time was 48.4 (IQR 26.8, 82.8) months. Multivariate analysis showed that poor recovery of Scr level at 90 days (P < 0.001, RR = 9.150, 95%CI 4.163-20.113), BVAS score (P = 0.014, RR = 1.110, 95% CI1.021-1.207), and AKI stage 3 (P = 0.012 RR = 3.116, 95%CI 1.278-7.598) were independent risk factors for renal endpoints; poor recovery of Scr level at 90 days (P = 0.010, RR = 3.264, 95%CI 1.326-8.035), BVAS score (P = 0.010, RR = 1.171, 95%CI 1.038-1.320) and age (P = 0.017, RR = 1.046, 95%CI 1.008-1.086) were independent risk factors for all-cause death. The c-index of nomograms is 0.830 for the renal outcome and 0.763 for the survival outcome.

Conclusion: KDIGO AKI stage 3 is the risk factor for ESRD in AAV patients with AKI. The BVAS score and level of kidney function recovery at 90 days are the independent risk factors for both ESRD and all-cause death and are of predictive value for the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.641655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299708PMC
July 2021

A Small Vimentin-Binding Molecule Blocks Cancer Exosome Release and Reduces Cancer Cell Mobility.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:627394. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Medicine & Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein with diverse roles in health and disease far beyond its structural functions. Exosomes or small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are key mediators for intercellular communication, contributing to tissue homeostasis and the progression of various diseases, especially the metastasis of cancers. In this study, we evaluated a novel vimentin-binding compound (R491) for its anti-cancer activities and its roles in cancer exosome release. The compound R491 induced a rapid and reversible intracellular vacuolization in various types of cancer cells. This phenotype did not result in an inhibition of cancer cell growth, which was consistent with our finding from a protein array that R491 did not reduce levels of major oncoproteins in cancer cells. Morphological and quantitative analyses on the intracellular vacuoles and extracellular exosomes revealed that in response to R491 treatment, the exosomes released from the cells were significantly reduced, while the exosomes retained as intra-luminal vesicles inside the cells were subsequently degraded. Vim cells had lower amounts of vimentin and accordingly, lower amounts of both the retained and the released exosomes than Vim cells had, while the vimentin-binding compound R491 inhibited only the release of exosomes. Further functional tests showed that R491 significantly reduced the migration and invasion of cancer cells and decreased the amount of exosome in the blood in mice. Our study suggests that vimentin promotes exosome release, and small-molecule compounds that target vimentin are able to both block cancer exosome release and reduce cancer cell motility, and therefore could have potential applications for inhibiting cancer invasive growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.627394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297618PMC
July 2021

TGF-β1-mediated exosomal lnc-MMP2-2 increases blood-brain barrier permeability via the miRNA-1207-5p/EPB41L5 axis to promote non-small cell lung cancer brain metastasis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 20;12(8):721. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Clinical Medicine, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China.

Brain metastases remain a major problem in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is highly increased during lung cancer brain metastasis; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. We previously found that lnc-MMP2-2 is highly enriched in tumor growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated exosomes and regulates the migration of lung cancer cells. This study aimed to explore the role of exosomal lnc-MMP2-2 in the regulation of BBB and NSCLC brain metastasis. Here, using endothelial monolayers and mouse models, we found that TGF-β1-mediated NSCLC-derived exosomes efficiently destroyed tight junctions and the integrity of these natural barriers. Overexpression of lnc-MMP2-2 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells increased vascular permeability in endothelial monolayers, whereas inhibition of lnc-MMP2-2 alleviated these effects. Furthermore, lnc-MMP2-2 knockdown markedly reduced NSCLC brain metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, through luciferase reporter assays, RNA pull-down assay, and Ago2 RNA immunoprecipitation assay, we showed that lnc-MMP2-2 served as a microRNA sponge or a competing endogenous RNA for miR-1207-5p and consequently modulated the derepression of EPB41L5. In conclusion, TGF-β1-mediated exosomal lnc-MMP2-2 increases BBB permeability to promote NSCLC brain metastasis. Thus, exosomal lnc-MMP2-2 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against lung cancer brain metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04004-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292445PMC
July 2021

Statistical modeling of longitudinal medical cost trajectory: renal cell cancer care cost analyses.

Biostatistics 2020 Jul 16. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA.

Estimating the current cost of cancer care is important to health policy makers. An indispensable step in cost projection is to estimate cost trajectories from an incident cohort of cancer patients using longitudinal medical cost data, accounting for terminal events such as death, and right censoring due to loss of follow-up. Since the cost of cancer care and survival are correlated, a scientifically meaningful quantity for inference in this context is the mean cost trajectory conditional on survival. We propose a two-stage semiparametric approach to estimate the longitudinal cost trajectories from a joint model of longitudinal medical costs and survival. The longitudinal cost trajectories corresponding to various survival times form a bivariate surface in a triangular area. The cost trajectories are estimated using the tensor products of discretized measurement time and survival, as well as effective ridge penalties for data in 2D arrays. The proposed approach balances the practical considerations of model flexibility, statistical efficiency, and computational tractability. We used the proposed method to estimate the cost trajectories of renal cell cancer patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biostatistics/kxab024DOI Listing
July 2020

Wolfberry-derived zeaxanthin dipalmitate delays retinal degeneration in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa through modulating STAT3, CCL2 and MAPK pathways.

J Neurochem 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, 510632.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited photoreceptor degeneration diseases that causes blindness without effective treatment. The pathogenesis of retinal degeneration involves mainly oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Zeaxanthin dipalmitate (ZD), a wolfberry-derived carotenoid, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects. Here we investigated whether these properties of ZD can delay the retinal degeneration in rd10 mice, a model of RP, and explored its underlying mechanism. One shot of ZD or control vehicle was intravitreally injected into rd10 mice on postnatal day 16 (P16). Retinal function and structure of rd10 mice were assessed at P25, when rods degenerate substantially, using a visual behavior test, multi-electrode-array recordings and immunostaining. Retinal pathogenic gene expression and regulation of signaling pathways by ZD were explored using transcriptome sequencing and Western blotting. Our results showed that ZD treatment improved the visual behavior of rd10 mice and delayed the degeneration of retinal photoreceptors. It also improved the light responses of photoreceptors, bipolar cells and retinal ganglion cells. The expression of genes that are involved in inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress were upregulated in rd10 mice, and were reduced by ZD. ZD further reduced the activation of two key factors, STAT3 and CCL2, down-regulated the expression of the inflammatory factor GFAP, and inhibited ERK and P38, but not the JNK pathways. In conclusion, ZD delays the degeneration of the rd10 retina both morphologically and functionally. Its anti-inflammatory function is mediated primarily through the STAT3, CCL2 and MAPK pathways. Thus, ZD may serve as a potential clinical candidate to treat RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15472DOI Listing
July 2021

Compressive Buckling Fabrication of 3D Cell-Laden Microstructures.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 15:e2101027. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14260, USA.

Tissue architecture is a prerequisite for its biological functions. Recapitulating the three-dimensional (3D) tissue structure represents one of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering. Two-dimensional (2D) tissue fabrication methods are currently in the main stage for tissue engineering and disease modeling. However, due to their planar nature, the created models only represent very limited out-of-plane tissue structure. Here compressive buckling principle is harnessed to create 3D biomimetic cell-laden microstructures from microfabricated planar patterns. This method allows out-of-plane delivery of cells and extracellular matrix patterns with high spatial precision. As a proof of principle, a variety of polymeric 3D miniature structures including a box, an octopus, a pyramid, and continuous waves are fabricated. A mineralized bone tissue model with spatially distributed cell-laden lacunae structures is fabricated to demonstrate the fabrication power of the method. It is expected that this novel approach will help to significantly expand the utility of the established 2D fabrication techniques for 3D tissue fabrication. Given the widespread of 2D fabrication methods in biomedical research and the high demand for biomimetic 3D structures, this method is expected to bridge the gap between 2D and 3D tissue fabrication and open up new possibilities in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202101027DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of High-Fat Diet  on  the Intestinal Flora in Letrozole-Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 25;2021:6674965. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510260, Guangdong, China.

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore whether letrozole and high-fat diets (HFD) can induce obese insulin-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with intestinal flora dysbiosis in a rat model. We compared the changes in the intestinal flora of letrozole-induced rats fed with HFD or normal chow, to explore the effects of HFD and letrozole independently and synergistically on the intestinal flora.

Methods: Five-week-old female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: control (C) group fed with regular diet; L1 group administered with letrozole and fed with regular diet; L2 group received letrozole and fed with HFD; and HFD group fed with HFD. At the end of the experiment, ovarian morphology, hormones, metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammatory status of all rats were studied. 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was used to profile microbial communities, and various multivariate analysis approaches were used to quantitate microbial composition, abundance, and diversity.

Results: Compared to the C group, the increased plasma fasting insulin and glucose, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, testosterone, and malondialdehyde were significantly higher in the L2 group, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the L1 group and L2 group. The indices of Chao1 and the Abundance-based Coverage Estimator (ACE) (-diversity) in the L2 and HFD groups were significantly lower than that in the C group. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) plots and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) test showed obvious separations between the L2 group and C group, between the HFD group and C group, and between the L2 and HFD groups. At the phylum level, and ratio of and (F/B ratio) were increased in the L2 group; was decreased in the L2 and HFD groups. No significant differences in bacterial abundance between the C group and L1 group were observed at the phylum level. Based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) analysis, the bacterial genera (the relative abundance > 0.1%, LDA > 3, < 0.05) were selected as candidate bacterial signatures. They showed that the abundance of was significantly increased in the L1 group; and were enriched in the HFD group, and , , , , , and were enriched in the L2 group.

Conclusion: The effect of letrozole on intestinal flora was not significant as HFD. HFD could destroy the balance of intestinal flora and aggravate the intestinal flora dysbiosis in PCOS. Letrozole-induced rats fed with HFD have many characteristics like human PCOS, including some metabolic disorders and intestinal flora dysbiosis. The dysbiosis was characterized by an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, an expansion of Firmicutes, a contraction of Bacteroidetes, and the decreased microbial richness. Beta-diversity also showed significant differences in intestinal microflora, compared with control rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6674965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257354PMC
June 2021

An integrated exposure and pharmacokinetic modeling framework for assessing population-scale risks of phthalates and their substitutes.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 10;156:106748. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Building Science and Beijing Key Laboratory of Indoor Air Quality Evaluation and Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA. Electronic address:

To effectively incorporate in vitro-in silico-based methods into the regulation of consumer product safety, a quantitative connection between product phthalate concentrations and in vitro bioactivity data must be established for the general population. We developed, evaluated, and demonstrated a modeling framework that integrates exposure and pharmacokinetic models to convert product phthalate concentrations into population-scale risks for phthalates and their substitutes. A probabilistic exposure model was developed to generate the distribution of multi-route exposures based on product phthalate concentrations, chemical properties, and human activities. Pharmacokinetic models were developed to simulate population toxicokinetics using Bayesian analysis via the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Both exposure and pharmacokinetic models demonstrated good predictive capability when compared with worldwide studies. The distributions of exposures and pharmacokinetics were integrated to predict the population distributions of internal dosimetry. The predicted distributions showed reasonable agreement with the U.S. biomonitoring surveys of urinary metabolites. The "source-to-outcome" local sensitivity analysis revealed that food contact materials had the greatest impact on body burden for di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di(isononyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), and di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), whereas the body burden of diethyl phthalate (DEP) was most sensitive to the concentration in personal care products. The upper bounds of predicted plasma concentrations showed no overlap with ToxCast in vitro bioactivity values. Compared with the in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach, the integrated modeling framework has significant advantages in mapping product phthalate concentrations to multi-route risks, and thus is of great significance for regulatory use with a relatively low input requirement. Further integration with new approach methodologies will facilitate these in vitro-in silico-based risk assessments for a broad range of products containing an equally broad range of chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106748DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification of Koumine as a Translocator Protein 18 kDa Positive Allosteric Modulator for the Treatment of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:692917. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Koumine is an alkaloid that displays notable activity against inflammatory and neuropathic pain, but its therapeutic target and molecular mechanism still need further study. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a vital therapeutic target for pain treatment, and recent research implies that there may be allostery in TSPO. Our previous competitive binding assay hint that koumine may function as a TSPO positive allosteric modulator (PAM). Here, for the first time, we report the pharmacological characterization of koumine as a TSPO PAM. The results imply that koumine might be a high-affinity ligand of TSPO and that it likely acts as a PAM since it could delay the dissociation of H-PK11195 from TSPO. Importantly, the allostery was retained , as koumine augmented Ro5-4864-mediated analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in several acute and chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Moreover, the positive allosteric modulatory effect of koumine on TSPO was further demonstrated in cell proliferation assays in T98G human glioblastoma cells. In summary, we have identified and characterized koumine as a TSPO PAM for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Our data lay a solid foundation for the use of the clinical candidate koumine to treat inflammatory and neuropathic pain, further demonstrate the allostery in TSPO, and provide the first proof of principle that TSPO PAM may be a novel avenue for the discovery of analgesics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.692917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264504PMC
June 2021

An Interpretable Computer-Aided Diagnosis Method for Periodontitis From Panoramic Radiographs.

Front Physiol 2021 22;12:655556. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

Periodontitis is a prevalent and irreversible chronic inflammatory disease both in developed and developing countries, and affects about 20-50% of the global population. The tool for automatically diagnosing periodontitis is highly demanded to screen at-risk people for periodontitis and its early detection could prevent the onset of tooth loss, especially in local communities and health care settings with limited dental professionals. In the medical field, doctors need to understand and trust the decisions made by computational models and developing interpretable models is crucial for disease diagnosis. Based on these considerations, we propose an interpretable method called Deetal-Perio to predict the severity degree of periodontitis in dental panoramic radiographs. In our method, alveolar bone loss (ABL), the clinical hallmark for periodontitis diagnosis, could be interpreted as the key feature. To calculate ABL, we also propose a method for teeth numbering and segmentation. First, Deetal-Perio segments and indexes the individual tooth via Mask R-CNN combined with a novel calibration method. Next, Deetal-Perio segments the contour of the alveolar bone and calculates a ratio for individual tooth to represent ABL. Finally, Deetal-Perio predicts the severity degree of periodontitis given the ratios of all the teeth. The Macro F1-score and accuracy of the periodontitis prediction task in our method reach 0.894 and 0.896, respectively, on data set, and 0.820 and 0.824, respectively on data set. The entire architecture could not only outperform state-of-the-art methods and show robustness on two data sets in both periodontitis prediction, and teeth numbering and segmentation tasks, but also be interpretable for doctors to understand the reason why Deetal-Perio works so well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.655556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258157PMC
June 2021

[Application Value of Abbreviated Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Elderly Female Breast Cancer Patients].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Jun;43(3):395-401

Department of Breast Surgery,PUMC Hospital,CAMS and PUMC,Beijing 100730,China.

Objective To evaluate the application value of abbreviated comprehensive geriatric assessment(aCGA)in elderly female breast cancer patients. Methods Eight aspects of the traditional CGA were simplified to form the aCGA assessment table,based on which the patients were classified into three grades of A,B and C according to the total scores.This study enrolled the elderly female patients with breast cancer aged 70 years and above who were treated in PUMC Hospital from June 2018 to January 2020.Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group(ECOG)scoring and aCGA grading were performed respectively,and the results of the two methods were compared. Results Of the 162 patients,111(68.5%)were classified by the aGGA method as grade A,43(26.5%)as grade B,and 8(5.0%)as grade C;131(80.9%)cases have concurrent diseases,and the most common complications were hypertension(=89),cardiovascular diseases(=47)and diabetes mellitus(=39).The ECOG score was 0-1 in 133(82.0%)cases,2 in 24(14.8%)cases and 3 in 5(3.2%)cases.The ECOG score showed 133(82.0%)cases with good status and 29 cases with poor status.However,according to the aCGA classification,111 cases were in good health status and 51 cases were in poor health status;the difference in the result between the two groups was statistically significant( =14.24,<0.001).Conclusion Compared with ECOG score,aCGA grading can more comprehensively evaluate the health status of elderly female breast cancer patients and can be applied to the patients aged 70 and above.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.13752DOI Listing
June 2021

Polymorphism of Segmented Grain Boundaries in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.

Nano Lett 2021 Jul 8;21(14):6014-6021. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Key Laboratory for Intelligent Nano Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, and Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China.

Grain boundaries (GBs) are vital to crystal materials and their applications. Although GBs in bulk and two-dimensional materials have been extensively studied, the segmented GBs observed in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers by a sequence of folded segments remain a mystery. We visualize the large-area distribution of the segmented GBs in MoSe monolayers and unravel their structural origin using calculations combined with high-resolution atomic characterizations. Unlike normal GBs in two-dimensional materials with commonly one type of dislocation cores, the segmented GBs consist of two basic elements-4|8 and 4|4|8 cores, whose alloying results in structural diversity and distinctly high stability due to relieved stress fields nearby. The defective polygons can uniquely migrate along the segmented GBs via the movement of single molybdenum atoms, unobtrusively endowing a given GB with variable appearances. Furthermore, the segmented GBs can achieve useful functionalities such as intrinsic magnetism and highly active electrocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01156DOI Listing
July 2021

Highly Deformable High-Performance Paper-Based Perovskite Photodetector with Improved Stability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 5;13(27):31919-31927. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012, China.

Paper-based photodetectors have attracted extensive research interest owing to their environmentally friendly and highly deformable properties. Although perovskite crystals with outstanding optoelectronic properties have proved to be one of the most promising candidates for photodetectors, the development of paper-based photodetectors is hindered by the moisture absorptivity of paper and the instability of perovskite crystals in a humid atmosphere. In this study, we demonstrate a highly deformable and high-performance paper-based perovskite photodetector. The photodetector maintains its excellent performance even after exposure to a relative humidity of 60% for 120 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05828DOI Listing
July 2021

Highly Deformable High-Performance Paper-Based Perovskite Photodetector with Improved Stability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 5;13(27):31919-31927. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012, China.

Paper-based photodetectors have attracted extensive research interest owing to their environmentally friendly and highly deformable properties. Although perovskite crystals with outstanding optoelectronic properties have proved to be one of the most promising candidates for photodetectors, the development of paper-based photodetectors is hindered by the moisture absorptivity of paper and the instability of perovskite crystals in a humid atmosphere. In this study, we demonstrate a highly deformable and high-performance paper-based perovskite photodetector. The photodetector maintains its excellent performance even after exposure to a relative humidity of 60% for 120 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05828DOI Listing
July 2021

Emerging application of metabolomics on Chinese herbal medicine for depressive disorder.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 2;141:111866. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Medicine Sciences, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Depressive disorder is a kind of emotional disorder that is mainly manifested with spontaneous and persistent low mood. Its etiology is complex and still not fully understood. Metabolomics, an important part of system biology characterized by its integrity and systematicness, analyzes endogenous metabolites of small molecules in vivo and examines the metabolic status of the organism. It is widely used in the field of disease research for its unique advantage in the disease molecular marker discovering Due to fewer adverse reactions and high safety, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has great advantages in the treatment of chronic diseases including depression. Metabolomics has been gradually applied to the efficacy evaluation of CHM in treatment of depression and the metabolomics analysis exhibits a systemic metabolic shift in amino acids (such as alanine, glutamic acid, valine, etc.), organic acids (lactic acid, citric acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, etc.), and sugars, amines, etc. These differential metabolites are mainly involved in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, etc. In this review, we have exemplified the study of CHM in animals or clinics on the depression, and revealed that CHM treatment has significantly changed the metabolic disorders associated with depression, promoting metabolic network reorganization through restoring of key metabolites, and metabolic pathways, which may be the main mechanism basis of CHM's treatment on depression. Besides, we further envisioned the future application of metabolomics in the study of CHM treatment of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111866DOI Listing
July 2021

The Reflux Symptoms Before and After Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy of Chinese Patients With Achalasia.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Jul;27(3):377-389

Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background/aims: Achalasia is a rare disease, but the incidence is increasing recently. Peroral esophageal myotomy (POEM) is an effective treatment. Regurgitation is a common symptom before and after POEM. Our aim is to investigate the factors related to preoperative and postoperative reflux symptoms.

Methods: Our study was retrospective. The achalasia patients diagnosed by high-resolution manometry and gastroscopy were divided into reflux group and non-reflux group before and after POEM, respectively. General information, symptoms, POEM information, and manometric results were compared.

Results: (1) Ninety-six of 130 patients had reflux symptoms before POEM. The lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) in the reflux group was significantly higher than the non-reflux group ( = 0.023), while integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) was similar. The reflux group had longer esophagus than the non-reflux group ( = 0.006). Reflux symptoms were not related to subtypes of achalasia. (2) Twenty-five of 84 patients had reflux symptoms after POEM. Postoperative Eckardt scores, LESP, and 4-second IRP (4sIRP) were significantly lower than the preoperative values ( < 0.001). The preoperative values and POEM information were similar between the postoperative 2 groups and there was no significant difference in the presence of preoperative reflux symptoms between 2 groups. The postoperative LESP and 4sIRP were similar between the 2 groups, however, the postoperative UESP was significantly higher in the reflux group than the non-reflux group ( = 0.042). The non-reflux group had more declines in Eckardt scores and LESP than the reflux group.

Conclusion: s The reflux symptoms of achalasia patients without treatment were mainly due to food retention. The postoperative reflux symptoms were not the sign of the excessive relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm20041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266497PMC
July 2021

Effect of Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation on Left Ventricular Function in Asian Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jun 21;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Evidence-based Medicine Center, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Linhai 317000, China.

(1) Background: The effects of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on left ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are important but poorly understood. (2) Purpose: To evaluate the effects of an exercise-based CR program (exercise training alone or combined with psychosocial or educational interventions) compared with usual care on left ventricular function in patients with AMI receiving PCI. (3) Data sources, study selection and data extraction: We searched PubMed, WEB OF SCIENCE, EMBASE, EBSCO, PsycINFO, LILACS and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases (CENTRAL) up to 12th June 2021. Article selected were randomized controlled trials and published as a full-text article. Meta-analysis was conducted with the use of the software Review manager 5.4. (4) Data synthesis: Eight trials were included in the meta-analysis, of which three trials were rated as high risk of bias. A significant improvement was seen in the exercise-based CR group compared with the control group regarding left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (std. mean difference = 1.33; 95% CI:0.43 to 2.23; 0.004), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) (std. mean difference = -3.05; 95% CI: -6.00 to -0.09; = 0.04) and left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) (std. mean difference = -0.40; 95% CI: -0.80 to -0.01; = 0.04). Although exercise-based CR had no statistical effect in decreasing left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), it showed a favorable trend in relation to both. (5) Conclusions: Exercise-based CR has beneficial effects on LV function and remodeling in AMI patients treated by PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234138PMC
June 2021

Preliminary Study on the Utilization of RHA as a Performance Enhancer for Rubber Mortar.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 10;14(12). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Jitoo UHPC(Shandong) New Material Technology Co., Ltd., Shandong Academician Workstation of Ghani Razaqpur, Weihai 264400, China.

In this study, rice husk ash (RHA) was explored as a strength enhancer for mortars containing waste rubber. The effects of RHA on the flow, mechanical strength, chloride resistance, and capillary absorption of rubber mortar were investigated by substituting up to 20% cement with RHA. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of rubber into mortar could be safely achieved by adding RHA as a cement substitute by up to 20% without compromising the compressive strength of mortar. Moreover, the RHA also exerted positive effects on the enhancement of the chloride resistance as well as the capillary absorption of rubber mortars, for which 15% RHA was found to be the optimal dosage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14123216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230525PMC
June 2021

Secondary structure prediction of protein based on multi scale convolutional attention neural networks.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 04;18(4):3404-3422

School of Computer Science and Technology, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China.

To fully extract the local and long-range information of amino acid sequences and enhance the effective information, this research proposes a secondary structure prediction model of protein based on a multi-scale convolutional attentional neural network. The model uses a multi-channel multi-scale parallel architecture to extract amino acid structure features of different granularity according to the window size. The reconstructed feature maps are obtained via multiple convolutional attention blocks. Then, the reconstructed feature map is fused with the input feature map to obtain the enhanced feature map. Finally, the enhanced feature map is fed to the Softmax classifier for prediction. While the traditional cross-entropy loss cannot effectively solve the problem of non-equilibrium training samples, a modified correlated cross-entropy loss function may alleviate this problem. After numerous comparison and ablation experiments, it is verified that the improved model can indeed effectively extract amino acid sequence feature information, alleviate overfitting, and thus improve the overall prediction accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021170DOI Listing
April 2021

Snail enhances arginine synthesis by inhibiting ubiquitination-mediated degradation of ASS1.

EMBO Rep 2021 Jun 29:e51780. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Tongren Hospital/Faculty of Basic Medicine, Hongqiao International Institute of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Snail is a dedicated transcriptional repressor and acts as a master inducer of EMT and metastasis, yet the underlying signaling cascades triggered by Snail still remain elusive. Here, we report that Snail promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) migration by preventing non-coding RNA LOC113230-mediated degradation of argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1). LOC113230 is a novel Snail target gene, and Snail binds to the functional E-boxes within its proximal promoter to repress its expression in response to TGF-β induction. Ectopic expression of LOC113230 potently suppresses CRC cell growth, migration, and lung metastasis in xenograft experiments. Mechanistically, LOC113230 acts as a scaffold to facilitate recruiting LRPPRC and the TRAF2 E3 ubiquitin ligase to ASS1, resulting in enhanced ubiquitination and degradation of ASS1 and decreased arginine synthesis. Moreover, elevated ASS1 expression is essential for CRC growth and migration. Collectively, these findings suggest that TGF-β and Snail promote arginine synthesis via inhibiting LOC113230-mediated LRPPRC/TRAF2/ASS1 complex assembly and this complex can serve as potential target for the development of new therapeutic approaches to treat CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.202051780DOI Listing
June 2021

Air-Stable Chiral Single-Molecule Magnets with Record Anisotropy Barrier Exceeding 1800 K.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 28;143(27):10077-10082. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, P. R. China.

Design and synthesis of air-stable and easily tailored high-performance single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are of great significance toward the implementation of SMMs in molecular-based magneto-electronic devices. Here, by introducing electron-withdrawing fluorinated substituents on equatorial ligand, two chiral Dy(III) macrocyclic complexes, -Dy-F () and -Dy-F (), with a record anisotropy barrier exceeding 1800 K and the longest relaxation time approaching 2500 s at 2.0 K for all known air-stable SMMs, were obtained. The nearly perfect axiality of the ground Kramers doublet (KD) enables the open hysteresis loops up to 20 K in the magnetically diluted sample. It is notable that they are structurally rigid with high thermal stability and the apical ligand can be tailored to carry proper surface-binding groups. This finding not only improves the magnetic properties for air-stable SMMs but also provides a new avenue for deposition of SMMs on surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c05279DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of pH-driven zein/tea saponin composite nanoparticles for encapsulation and oral delivery of curcumin.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 18;364:130401. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266003, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this paper was to overcome the challenges of curcumin by zein/tea saponin composite nanoparticles (Z/TSNPs) without any organic reagents and high-energy equipment. The spherical Z/TSNPs exhibited good physical stability, the conditions of which included pH at 5.0-8.0, heating at 80 ℃, ionic strength within 100 mM, and storage at 25 ℃ for 30 days. Meanwhile, Z/TSNPs showed excellent redispersibility. Z/TSNPs were used to encapsulate and deliver curcumin (Cur-Z/TSNPs), showing encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of 83.73% and 22.33%, respectively. Cur-Z/TSNPs exhibited good chemical stability during storage, and the effect of light on Cur-Z/TSNPs was smaller than that of free curcumin. Furthermore, Cur-Z/TSNPs improved the solubilization and bioaccessibility of curcumin about 290 and 5 times, respectively. Besides, the encapsulation changed the crystalline state of curcumin to amorphous, and the pH-driven mechanism was probably related to hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130401DOI Listing
June 2021

Ajuba transactivates N-cadherin expression in colorectal cancer cells through interaction with Twist.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Digestive Endoscopy Center, Shanghai Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Ajuba is a multiple LIM domain-containing protein and functions as a transcriptional coregulator to modulate many gene expressions in various cellular processes. Here, we describe that the LIM domain of Ajuba interacts with Twist, and the Twist box is a pivotal motif for the interaction. Biologically, Ajuba enhances transcription of target gene N-cadherin as an obligate coactivator of Twist. The enhancement is achieved by binding to the E-box element within N-cadherin promoter as revealed by luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Mechanistic investigation demonstrates that Ajuba recruits CBP and Twist to form a ternary complex at the Twist target promoter region and concomitantly enhances histone acetylation at these sites. These findings identify that Twist is a new interacting protein of Ajuba and Ajuba/Twist/CBP ternary complex may be a potential treatment strategy for Twist-related tumour metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16731DOI Listing
June 2021

Increased diagnosis of enlarged vestibular aqueduct by multiplex PCR enrichment and next-generation sequencing of the SLC26A4 gene.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jun 25:e1734. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: The enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the commonest malformation of inner ear accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss in children. Three genes SLC26A4, FOXI1, and KCNJ10 have been associated with EVA, among them SLC26A4 being the most common. Yet, hotspot mutation screening can only diagnose a small number of patients.

Methods: Thus, in this study, we designed a new molecular diagnosis panel for EVA based on multiplex PCR enrichment and next-generation sequencing of the exon and flanking regions of SLC26A4. A total of 112 hearing loss families with EVA were enrolled and the pathogenicity of the rare variants detected was interpreted according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines.

Results: Our results showed that 107/112 (95.54%) families carried SLC26A4 biallelic mutations, 4/112 (3.57%) carried monoallelic variants, and 1/112 (0.89%) had none variant, resulting in a diagnostic rate of 95.54%. A total of 49 different variants were detected in those patients and we classified 30 rare variants as pathogenic/likely pathogenic, of which 13 were not included in the Clinvar database.

Conclusion: Our diagnostic panel has an increased diagnostic yield with less cost, and the curated list of pathogenic variants in the SLC26A4 gene can be directly used to aid the genetic counseling to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1734DOI Listing
June 2021

Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 as a potential biomarker for missed abortion in humans.

Fertil Steril 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China; Department of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate whether serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) are associated with missed abortion (MA) in humans.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: University-affiliated hospital.

Patient(s): Patients with MA at 8-12 weeks of gestation.

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measures(s): Serum levels of FGF21 and FABP4 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Placental samples were collected during dilation and curettage surgery, and the expression of FGF21 and its related genes were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Result(s): In the discovery cohort, 78 patients with MA and 79 healthy pregnant women matched for maternal age and body mass index were nested from a prospective cohort. Circulating levels of FGF21 and FABP4 were significantly and independently elevated in patients with MA relative to the levels in the healthy controls. A single measurement of FGF21 serum level effectively discriminated MA with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.73-0.87). Importantly, in our external validation cohort that comprised subjects with MA (n = 34) or induced abortion (n = 27), the FGF21 serum levels achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.96) when identifying those with MA. Nevertheless, expression of FGF21 in the placenta was not associated with its serum concentration. Placental tissues from patients with MA exhibited impaired FGF21 signaling.

Conclusion(s): Our results suggested that serum levels of FGF21 and FABP4 were associated with MA. Circulating FGF21 may serve as a potential biomarker for the recognition of MA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2021.05.098DOI Listing
June 2021

Altruism, Environmental Concerns, and Pro-environmental Behaviors of Urban Residents: A Case Study in a Typical Chinese City.

Front Psychol 2021 7;12:643759. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Sociology and Anthropology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

To investigate the relationships between altruism, environmental concerns, and ordinary people's pro-environmental behaviors that go beyond self-interested NIMBY-ism, we examined measurements of altruism and environmental concerns in a Chinese context and developed a scale that measured people's pro-environmental behaviors at the individual, organizational, and policy level. We then conducted a tailor-made, face-to-face survey ( = 603) and found, first, that old age, gender (being a woman), party affiliation, and education level are positively associated with pro-environmental behaviors at the individual, organizational, and policy levels. We next found that human domination worldviews are negatively associated with individual- and organizational-level pro-environmental behaviors and that eco-centric worldviews are positively associated with individual-level pro-environmental behaviors. Third, we found that altruistic behaviors (prosocial behaviors and/or donations) are positively associated with pro-environmental behaviors. In short, awareness of the ecological crisis and altruism can stimulate people's pro-environmental behaviors in China. Meanwhile, it is doubtful that people care more for the environment after their living standards have improved, because socioeconomic status indicators are not statistically significant for individual-level pro-environmental behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215101PMC
June 2021

Solution processable passivated silicon nanowires.

Nanoscale 2021 Jul;13(26):11439-11445

Hebei Key Lab of Optic-Electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China. and Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe 76021, Germany.

The 1D confinement of silicon in the form of a nanowire revives its newness with the emergence of new optical and electronic properties. However, the development of a production process for silicon nanowires (SiNWs) having a high quality crystalline core and exhibiting good stability in solution with effective outer-shell defect passivation is still a challenge. In this work, SiNWs are prepared from a silicon wafer using solution processing steps, and importantly outer-shell-defect passivation is achieved by in situ grafting of organic molecules based on thin films. Defect passivation and the high quality of the SiNWs are confirmed with thin films on glass and flexible plastic substrates. A dramatic enhancement in both the fluorescence lifetime and infrared photoluminescence is observed. The in situ organic passivation of SiNWs has potential application in all low-dimensional silicon devices including infrared detectors, solar cells and lithium-ion battery anodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02131aDOI Listing
July 2021
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