Publications by authors named "Ying Wu"

1,926 Publications

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Molecular Epidemiology of Human Sapovirus Among Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Western Canada.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Jul 21:JCM0098621. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Sapovirus is increasingly recognized as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, however studies of prevalence, genetic diversity and strain-specific clinical implications have been scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we used reverse transcription real-time PCR and sequencing of the partial major capsid protein VP1 gene to analyze stool specimens and rectal swabs obtained from 3347 children with AGE and 1355 asymptomatic controls (all <18 years old) collected between December 2014 and August 2018 in Alberta, Canada. Sapovirus was identified in 9.5% (317/3347) of the children with AGE and 2.9% of controls. GI.1 (36%) was the predominant genotype identified, followed by GI.2 (18%), GII.5 (8%) and GII.3 (6%). Rare genotypes GII.1, GII.2, GV.1, GII.4, GIV.1, GI.3 and GI.7 were also seen. Sapovirus was detected year-round, peaking during the winter months of November to January. The exception was the 2016-2017 season when GI.2 overtook GI.1 as the predominant strain with a high detection rate persisting into April. We did not observe significant difference in the severity of gastroenteritis by genogroup or genotype. Repeated infection by sapovirus of different genogroups occurred in three controls who developed AGE later. Our data suggests that sapovirus is a common cause of AGE in children with high genetic diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00986-21DOI Listing
July 2021

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Diabetes-Related Chronic Kidney Disease From 1990 to 2019.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 1;12:672350. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem largely caused by diabetes. The epidemiology of diabetes mellitus-related CKD (CKD-DM) could provide specific support to lessen global, regional, and national CKD burden.

Methods: Data were derived from the GBD 2019 study, including four measures and age-standardized rates (ASRs). Estimated annual percentage changes and 95% CIs were calculated to evaluate the variation trend of ASRs.

Results: Diabetes caused the majority of new cases and patients with CKD in all regions. All ASRs for type 2 diabetes-related CKD increased over 30 years. Asia and Middle socio-demographic index (SDI) quintile always carried the heaviest burden of CKD-DM. Diabetes type 2 became the second leading cause of CKD and CKD-related death and the third leading cause of CKD-related DALYs in 2019. Type 2 diabetes-related CKD accounted for most of the CKD-DM disease burden. There were 2.62 million incident cases, 134.58 million patients, 405.99 thousand deaths, and 13.09 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of CKD-DM worldwide in 2019. Age-standardized incidence (ASIR) and prevalence rate (ASPR) of type 1 diabetes-related CKD increased, whereas age-standardized death rate (ASDR) and DALY rate decreased for females and increased for males. In high SDI quintile, ASIR and ASPR of type 1 diabetes-related CKD remained the highest, with the slowest increase, whereas the ASDR and age-standardized DALY rate remained the lowest there. In high SDI quintile, ASIR of type 2 diabetes-related CKD was the highest, with the lowest increasing rate. In addition, type 2 diabetes-related CKD occurred most in people aged 80-plus years worldwide. The main age of type 2 diabetes-related CKD patients was 55-64 years in Asia and Africa. The prevalence, mortality, and DALY rate of type 2 diabetes-related CKD increased with age. As for incidence, there was a peak at 80 years, and after age of 80, the incidence declined. CKD-DM-related anemia was mainly in mild to moderate grade.

Conclusions: Increasing burden of CKD-DM varied among regions and countries. Prevention and treatment measures should be strengthened according to CKD-DM epidemiology, especially in middle SDI quintile and Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.672350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281340PMC
July 2021

Myeloperoxidase in the pericardial fluid improves the performance of prediction rules for postoperative atrial fibrillation.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Beijing Chao-yang Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, P.R. China.

Objectives: After surgery, inflammation is a prominent factor influencing postoperative atrial fibrillation. Myeloperoxidase is a major contributor to inflammatory responses after surgical tissue damage. We evaluated whether myeloperoxidase is associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation clinically and in an animal model.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Myeloperoxidase concentrations in blood and pericardial fluid were determined at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 hours after coronary artery bypass grafting. Myeloperoxidase activity in blood, pericardial fluid, and atrium were also evaluated in a canine coronary artery bypass grafting model. Electrophysiologic, histologic, and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to explore underlying mechanisms.

Results: Postoperative atrial fibrillation occurred in 45 of 137 patients (32.8%). Patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation had significantly higher serum and pericardial myeloperoxidase levels. Individual clinical and surgical factors had moderate predictive value (area under the curve, 0.760) for postoperative atrial fibrillation. Discrimination improved remarkably when myeloperoxidase was combined with other parameters (area under the curve, 0.901). Pericardial myeloperoxidase at 6 hours postoperatively was the strongest independent predictor of postoperative atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 19.215). The rate of postoperative atrial fibrillation increased exponentially across pericardial myeloperoxidase grades. Compared with controls, coronary artery bypass grafting-treated dogs showed higher atrial fibrillation vulnerability and maintenance, shorter atrial effective refractory period, attenuated connexin 43 expression, and increased myocardial and pericardial myeloperoxidase activity. Connexin 43 expression and atrial effective refractory period were strongly negatively correlated with myocardial and pericardial myeloperoxidase activity.

Conclusions: Myeloperoxidase is linked to postoperative atrial fibrillation, and the ability to predict postoperative atrial fibrillation was remarkably improved by adding pericardial myeloperoxidase. Myeloperoxidase-related atrial structural and electrical remodeling is a physiologic substrate for this arrhythmia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.06.027DOI Listing
June 2021

Dynamics in Bacterial Community Affected by Mesoscale Eddies in the Northern Slope of the South China Sea.

Microb Ecol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Mesoscale eddies are common oceanographic processes that can enhance primary productivity by transporting nutrients to the euphotic zone. In the northern South China Sea (SCS), eddies were frequently found to promote the exchange between the nutrient-rich shelf water and the oligotrophic water at the slope area. However, the response of bacterial community to eddy perturbations remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the variation of bacterial community under the impact of eddies in early spring and summer. The results showed that both the summer cyclonic eddy and spring anticyclonic eddy enhanced the bacterial abundance in surface water. The bacterial community composition and their functional potentials of surface samples were also influenced by the summer cyclonic eddy, while no significant change was observed in the case of spring anticyclonic eddy. Salinity and nutrients, which varied between the inside and outside of the eddies, were the significant factors explaining the differentiation of the community composition and related functions. Taken together, the results of our present study reveal the effects of mesoscale eddies on the bacterial community and associated metagenomes, providing a better understanding of the dynamics of bacteria in the slope ecosystem of the SCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01816-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma: Comparison of the value of inflammation-based scores in predicting progression-free survival of patients receiving transarterial chemoembolization.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jul;17(3):740-748

Department of Medicine MedicalOncologist Chemotherapy and Minimally Invasive Treatment of Malignant Tumors, Jinshazhou Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine International Tumor Medicine Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Context And Aims: The identification of inflammation-related prognostic heterogeneity in intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can reveal more effective first-line treatments. Our study aimed to compare the intermediate-stage HCC patients' different inflammation-based scores in predicting their progression-free survival (PFS) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).

Materials And Methods: We analyzed retrospectively a total of 128 intermediate-stage HCC patients who received first-line TACE treatment. We used the Cox-proportional hazards modeling to identify the independent prognostic factors. We compared the inflammation-based scores abilities to predict the PFS through the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curves.

Results: The multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were the independent prognostic factors for PFS (P < 0.05). The PLR predicted the intermediate-stage HCC patients' PFS receiving the TACE treatment better than other inflammation-based scores (e.g., the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), the modified GPS, the Prognostic Index, the Prognostic Nutritional Index, the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, and the systemic immune-inflammation index) (P < 0.05). An easy-to-use novel inflammation score based on tumor size - PLR-size score significantly improved the PFS prediction performance (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: As a first-line treatment, TACE was not well suitable for all intermediate-stage HCC patients, while the PLR was a better inflammation-based score than others. Tumor size should be regarded as an essential variable in affecting intermediate-stage HCC patients' first-line treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_29_21DOI Listing
July 2021

Substitutions at Loop Regions of TMUV E Protein Domain III Differentially Impair Viral Entry and Assembly.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:688172. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Research Center of Avian Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Flavivirus envelope protein (E) plays an important role in cellular infection, especially in virulence and antigenicity. E domain III of Tembusu virus (TMUV) is highly conserved among flaviviruses and contains four loop regions. However, the functions of the loop regions of TMUV E domain III in the viral life cycle have not yet been discovered. In this study, using a reverse genetics system, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on loops I, II, III, and IV of TMUV E domain III. Mutant 6 (S388A.G389A.K390A) showed better proliferation than the wild-type virus, while mutants 1-5 exhibited decreased infectivity, as determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Based on a TMUV replicon system, the mutations exhibited no apparent effect on TMUV RNA replication. Subcellular fractionation assays and packaging system assays indicated that mutations in loops II-IV (T332A, T332S, S365A.S366A.T367A, and S388A.G389A.K390A, respectively) disrupted virion assembly. Moreover, loops I-IV played an important role in virus binding and entry, while mutant 6 (S388A.G389A.K390A) exhibited robust activity in virus entry. Taken together, our findings indicated the critical role of the loop regions in TMUV E domain III in the virus entry and assembly process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.688172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273266PMC
June 2021

Individualized mobile health interventions for cardiovascular event prevention in patients with coronary heart disease: study protocol for the iCARE randomized controlled trial.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jul 13;21(1):340. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Nursing, Capital Medical University, 10 You-an-men Wai Xi-tou-tiao, Feng-Tai District, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: Mobile health-based individualized interventions have shown potential effects in managing cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to assess whether or not mHealth based individualized interventions delivered by an Individualized Cardiovascular Application system for Risk Elimination (iCARE) could reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events in individuals with coronary heart disease.

Methods: This study is a large-scale, multi-center, parallel-group, open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial. This study will be conducted from September 2019 to December 2025. A total of 2820 patients with coronary heart disease will be recruited from two clinical sites and equally randomized into three groups: the intervention group and two control groups. All participants will be informed of six-time points (at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after discharge) for follow-up visits. Over a course of 36 months, patients who are randomized to the intervention arm will receive individualized interventions delivered by a fully functional iCARE that using various visualization methods such as comics, videos, pictures, text to provide individualized interventions in addition to standard care. Patients randomized to control group 1 will receive interventions delivered by a modified iCARE that only presented in text in addition to routine care. Control group 2 will only receive routine care. The primary outcome is the incidence of major cardiovascular events within 3 years of discharge. Main secondary outcomes include changes in health behaviors, medication adherence, and cardiovascular health score.

Discussion: If the iCARE trial indeed demonstrates positive effects on patients with coronary heart disease, it will provide empirical evidence for supporting secondary preventive care in this population. Results will inform the design of future research focused on mHealth-based, theory-driven, intelligent, and individualized interventions for cardiovascular risk management.

Trial Registration: Trial registered 24th December 2016 with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-INR-16010242). URL: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=17398 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02153-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278759PMC
July 2021

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in the rostral ventromedial medulla contributes to the chronification of postoperative pain.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Aims: Chronification of postoperative pain is a common clinical phenomenon following surgical operation, and it perplexes a great number of patients. Estrogen and its membrane receptor (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, GPER) play a crucial role in pain regulation. Here, we explored the role of GPER in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) during chronic postoperative pain and search for the possible mechanism.

Methods And Results: Postoperative pain was induced in mice or rats via a plantar incision surgery. Behavioral tests were conducted to detect both thermal and mechanical pain, showing a small part (16.2%) of mice developed into pain persisting state with consistent low pain threshold on 14 days after incision surgery compared with the pain recovery mice. Immunofluorescent staining assay revealed that the GPER-positive neurons in the RVM were significantly activated in pain persisting rats. In addition, RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that the levels of GPER and phosphorylated μ-type opioid receptor (p-MOR) in the RVM of pain persisting mice were apparently increased on 14 days after incision surgery. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation of GPER-positive neurons in the RVM of Gper-Cre mice could reverse the pain threshold of pain recovery mice. Conversely, chemogenetic inhibition of GPER-positive neurons in the RVM could prevent mice from being in the pain persistent state.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that the GPER in the RVM was responsible for the chronification of postoperative pain and the downstream pathway might be involved in MOR phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13704DOI Listing
July 2021

Rare Variants Analysis of Lysosomal Related Genes in Early-Onset and Familial Parkinson's Disease in a Chinese Cohort.

J Parkinsons Dis 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disorders, Rare Disease Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Genetic studies have indicated that variants in several lysosomal genes are risk factors for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role of lysosomal genes in PD in Asian populations is largely unknown.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze rare variants in lysosomal related genes in Chinese population with early-onset and familial PD.

Methods: In total, 1,136 participants, including 536 and 600 patients with sporadic early-onset PD (SEOPD) and familial PD, respectively, underwent whole-exome sequencing to assess the genetic etiology. Rare variants in PD were investigated in 67 candidate lysosomal related genes (LRGs), including 15 lysosomal function-related genes and 52 lysosomal storage disorder genes.

Results: Compared with the autosomal dominant PD (ADPD) or SEOPD cohorts, a much higher proportion of patients with multiple rare damaging variants of LRGs were found in the autosomal recessive PD (ARPD) cohort. At a gene level, rare damaging variants in GBA and MAN2B1 were enriched in PD, but in SCARB2, MCOLN1, LYST, VPS16, and VPS13C were much less in patients. At an allele level, GBA p. Leu483Pro was found to increase the risk of PD. Genotype-phenotype correlation showed no significance in the clinical features among patients carrying a discrepant number of rare variants in LRGs.

Conclusion: Our study suggests rare variants in LRGs might be more important in the pathogenicity of ARPD cases compared with ADPD or SEOPD. We further confirm rare variants in GBA are involve in PD pathogenecity and other genes associated with PD identified in this study should be supported with more evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-212658DOI Listing
July 2021

High incidence of multi-drug resistance and heterogeneity of mobile genetic elements in Escherichia coli isolates from diseased ducks in Sichuan province of China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 6;222:112475. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Avian Disease Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, PR China; Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, PR China. Electronic address:

Harmonious ecological environment is a major concern with rising feeding and consumption of ducks, as these waterfowl birds can promote the spread of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). Therefore, this study was conducted to know diversity of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), integrons, and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from intestinal contents or pericardial effusion of diseased ducks from 2018 to 2020 in Sichuan, China. The AMR phenotype was determined via disk diffusion test in 165 E. coli isolates. Further, the integrase genes of integron (intI1, intI2 and intI3 genes), gene cassettes (GCs) and MGEs were screened by PCR and sequencing. The results indicated 100% isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 98.8% were multidrug-resistant strains. Highest AMR phenotype was recorded to rifampin (97.0%) followed by ampicillin (95.8%), chloramphenicol (89.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (84.2%), ciprofloxacin (83.0%), cefotaxime (80.0%), streptomycin (75.8%), doxycycline (49.7%), amikacin (10.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (3.6%), polymyxin B (1.2%) and ertapenem (0.6%). Further, class 1 and 2 integrons were found in 87.3% and 17.6% isolates, respectively. All isolates were negative for intI3 gene. The variable region of class 1 and 2 integrons contained total 13 different GCs, including arr-3+dfrA27, dfrA1+aadA1, dfrA17+aadA5, dfrA12, dfrA1+sat2+aadA1, dfrA12+aadA2, dfrA5, aadA2+ere(A)+dfrA32, aac(6')-Ib-cr, aadA22, aadA5, dfrA17, and dfrA27. Moreover, 13 MGEs in 69 different combinations were observed with predominance of IS26 followed by tnpA/Tn21, trbC, ISEcp1, merA, ISAba1, tnsA, tnsB, tnsC, IS1133, tnsD, ISCR3/14, and tnsE. Thus, the monitoring of integrons, MGEs and ARGs is important to understand the complex mechanism of AMR, which might help to introduce interventions for prevention and control of AMR in duck farms in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112475DOI Listing
July 2021

Susceptibility weighted imaging detects prominent veins that precede or coincide with maximal motor disability in a model of multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jun 30;54:103124. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Experimental Imaging Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) has detected veins in the center of white matter lesions and alterations in veins themselves in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the relationship between SWI-detected venous alterations and disease progression is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess alterations in the lumbar spinal cord veins in EAE mice over the disease course using serial SWI.

Methods: EAE mice (n = 8) underwent imaging for SWI using a 9.4T Bruker Avance console at baseline, 7 days (pre-motor dysfunction), 12 days (typical motor dysfunction onset), and 16-18 days (typical peak disease) post-immunization. Naïve controls were imaged alongside EAE mice (n = 3). SWI hypointensities were counted by two subjects and compared between time points.

Results: SWI hypointensities appeared before motor dysfunction onset in most EAE mice. The ratio of SWI hypointensities to baseline was highly variable for EAE mice (0.45-6.75) while less so for controls (0.80-1.31). The time point for the maximum number of SWI hypointensities always preceded or coincided with maximum motor disability.

Conclusion: Venous alterations are detected before the onset of motor disability in some EAE mice using SWI which may relate to inflammation and/or tissue hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.103124DOI Listing
June 2021

Urotensin II induces activation of NLRP3 and pyroptosis through calcineurin in cardiomyocytes.

Peptides 2021 Jul 6:170609. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of International Medical Care Center, Shanghai General Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200080, China. Electronic address:

Cell pyroptosis, a new type of programmed cell death, has been recently reported to play important roles in the development of cardiac remodeling. How cardiomyocyte pyroptosis is induced remains to be elucidated. Urotensin II (UII) has been known closely related to cardiac remodeling and the development of heart failure. Inhibition of UII receptors has been shown to be effective in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. However, it is not clear whether UII might induce cardiomyocyte pyroptosis. We here examined the effect of UII treatment on pyroptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes. Treatment of cardiomyocyes of neonatal rats with UII (500 nmol/l) for 48 hours induced a significant pyroptosis as evidenced by not only increased cell death but also upregulated expression levels of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18 and gasdermin D (GMDSD)-N which are important markers for the identification of cell pyroptosis. All these pyroptosis responses induced by UII were abrogated by an inhibitor of NLRP3. Moreover, the antagonist of UII receptor, Urantide abolished UII- induced cardiomyocyte pyroptosis. Additionally, inhibition of calcineurin by cyclosporin A rather than that of CaMKII by KN93 suppressed the UII-upregulated expression levels of those pyroptosis markers. We therefore demonstrate that UII might induce cardiomyocyte pyroptosis through calcineurin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2021.170609DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative analysis of the morphological and biomechanical properties of normal cornea and keratoconus at different stages.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

Purpose: To compare the morphological and biomechanical properties of normal cornea and keratoconus at different stages.

Methods: A total of 408 patients (517 eyes) with keratoconus were included in this study. According to the Topographic Keratoconus (TKC) grading method, keratoconus was divided into stage I (TKC = 1, 130 eyes), stage II (TKC = 1-2, 2, 164 eyes), stage III (TKC = 2-3, 3, 125 eyes) and stage IV (TKC = 3-4, 4, 98 eyes). A total of 158 normal subjects (158 eyes) were recruited as the normal group. The corneal morphological parameters and biomechanical parameters were obtained with Scheimpflug tomography (Pentacam) and corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (Corvis ST), and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn.

Results: Each corneal morphological and most biomechanical parameters of the keratoconic eyes were significantly different from those of the normal eyes in this study (p < 0.001). ROC curve demonstrated that most parameters in this study showed high efficiency in diagnosing keratoconus (the area under the ROC (AUC) was > 0.9), with the Belin-Ambrósio deviation (BAD-D) and Tomographic and Biomechanical Index (TBI) showing higher efficiency. The efficiency of BAD-D and TBI was high in differentiating keratoconus at different stages (AUC > 0.963). The comparison of ROC curves of keratoconus at different stages did not reveal statistically significant differences for TBI.

Conclusion: BAD-D and TBI can effectively diagnose stage I keratoconus. Moreover, the efficiency of TBI is the same in diagnosing keratoconus at all stages, while the diagnostic efficiency of other parameters increases with the increase in keratoconus stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-01929-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, body mass index, waist divided by height and the risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity: A national longitudinal cohort study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, PR China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CM) is an increasing public health burden. This study aimed to evaluate the association of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), waist divided by height (WHT.5R) and body mass index (BMI) with the risk of CM.

Methods And Results: We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total of 10,521 participants aged 45 years and over were recruited, including 8807 individuals with 0 cardiometabolic diseases at baseline (stage I) and 1714 individuals with 1 cardiometabolic disease at baseline (stage II). CM was defined as self-reporting of two or more of the following conditions: stroke, diabetes and heart disease. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were used to evaluate the incremental predictive value beyond conventional factors. In stage I, an increased risk of CM was observed among participants with WHtR ≥0.5 (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.05-2.97), WC ≥ 90 cm (men) + WC ≥ 80 cm (women) (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.29-3.27), WHT.5R ≥ 6.54 cm (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.16-2.83) or BMI ≥24 kg/m (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.98-2.24). Furthermore, the NRI and IDI of WHtR, WC and WHT.5R were all higher than those of BMI. In stage II, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of WHtR, WC, WHT.5R and BMI were 2.04 (1.24-3.35), 1.89 (1.29-2.77), 1.86 (1.24-2.78) and 1.47 (1.06-2.04), respectively. In addition, WC exhibited the highest NRI and IDI.

Conclusion: WHtR, WC, WHT.5R and BMI are independent predictors of CM in the middle-aged and older Chinese population. WHtR, WC and WHT.5R show better abilities in predicting CM than BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.026DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy of combination of localized closure, ethacridine lactate dressing, and phototherapy in treatment of severe extravasation injuries: A case series.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(18):4599-4606

Department of Burn and Reconstructive Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan Province, China.

Background: The management of severe extravasation injuries is still controversial. Extravasation injuries can be treated in many ways.

Aim: To present a series of patients with severe extravasation injuries due to infusion who were managed with ethacridine lactate dressing combined with localized closure and phototherapy.

Methods: In this study, we evaluated the data of eight patients, including six from the Department of Burn, one (with colorectal carcinoma) from the Veteran Cadre Department, and one (with leukemia) from the Hematology Department. Of these, three patients were male and five were female. Age of the patients ranged from 10 mo to 72 years, including two children (10 and 19 mo of age). In this study, the infusion was stopped immediately when the extravasation was identified. The extravasation event was managed routinely using a blocking solution. A ring-shaped localized closure was performed using the blocking agents. Moreover, ethacridine lactate dressing and phototherapy were applied for 3-5 d.

Results: In this study, the drugs contained in the infusates were iodixanol, norepinephrine, alprostadil, amino acids, fat emulsion, cefoselis, cefoxitin, and potassium chloride + concentrated sodium chloride. All of the patients achieved complete healing after treatment and no obvious adverse reactions were observed.

Conclusion: The treatment of severe extravasation injuries using a combination of localized closure, ethacridine lactate dressing, and phototherapy resulted in satisfactory outcomes in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i18.4599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223846PMC
June 2021

Comparative Genomics Reveals Potential Mechanisms of Plant Beneficial Effects of a Novel Bamboo-Endophytic Bacterial Isolate Suichang626.

Front Microbiol 2021 18;12:686998. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou, China.

Plant-beneficial microbes have drawn wide attention due to their potential application as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Moso bamboo, which is among the monocots with the highest growth rate, lives perennially with abundant microbes that may benefit annually growing crops. Genome information of moso bamboo associated bacteria remains underexplored. We isolated and identified a novel strain Suichang626 from moso bamboo roots. Growth promoting effects of Suichang626 on both moso bamboo and seedlings of the model dicot were documented in laboratory conditions. To gain insight into the genetic basis of this growth promotion effect, we sequenced the genome of Suichang626. Evidenced by genome-wide phylogeny data, we propose that Suichang626 is a novel strain of . Gene homologs encoding biosynthesis of the plant growth-promoting chemicals, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, were identified in the genome of Suichang626. Comparative genomics was further performed with plant-beneficial and plant/animal pathogenic species of and . Genes related to volatile organic compounds, nitrogen fixation, and auxin biosynthesis were discovered specifically in the plant growth-promoting species of both genera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.686998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250432PMC
June 2021

Study on the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of laurolitsine from in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):884-892

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education, Hainan Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Tropical Herbs, School of Pharmacy, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, P. R. China.

Context: Laurolitsine is an aporphine alkaloid and exhibits potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in ob/ob mice.

Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of laurolitsine.

Materials And Methods: A LC-MS/MS method was established and validated to determine laurolitsine concentrations in the biological matrix of rats (plasma, tissue homogenate, urine and faeces). 10 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for plasma exposure study: 5 rats were injected with 2.0 mg/kg of laurolitsine via the tail vein, and the other 5 rats were administered laurolitsine (10.0 mg/kg) by gavage. 25 SD rats used for tissue distribution study and 5 SD rats for urine and faeces excretion study: rats administered laurolitsine (10.0 mg/kg) by gavage. After administered, serial blood, tissue, urine and faeces were collected. Analytical quantification was performed by a previous LC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution and excretion of laurolitsine were described.

Results: The pharmacokinetic parameters of oral and intravenous administration with were 0.47 and 0.083 h, were 3.73 and 1.67 h, respectively. Oral bioavailability was as low as 18.17%. Laurolitsine was found at a high concentration in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lungs and kidneys (26 015.33, 905.12, 442.32 and 214.99 ng/g at 0.5 h, respectively) and low excretion to parent laurolitsine in urine and faeces (0.03 and 1.20% in 36 h, respectively).

Conclusions: This study established a simple, rapid and accurate LC-MS/MS method to determine laurolitsine in different rat samples and successful application in a pharmacokinetic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1944221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259838PMC
December 2021

CuS/KTaNbO nanocomposite utilizing solar and mechanical energy for catalytic N fixation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 22;603:220-232. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China; Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China. Electronic address:

This work synthesized a novel CuS/KTaNbO (KTN) heterojunction composite and firstly applied it in photocatalytic and piezocatalytic reduction of N to NH. XRD, Raman, XPS, SEM, and TEM analyses indicate that CuS nanoparticles closely adhered to the surface of KTN nanorods, which facilitates the migration of electrons between the two semiconductors. Mott-Schottky and valence band XPS analysis shows that KNbO shows a higher conduction band than CuS, indicating that CuS mainly acts as electron trappers to capture the photogenerated electrons from KTN. Because of the great enhanced spatial separation of photogenerated charge carriers, the CuS/KTN presents much higher performance than pure KNT, which is further confirmed by H NMR analysis of the reaction solution. An interesting finding is that synthesized CuS/KTN not only performs well under light irradiation but also can work in an ultrasonic bath, indicating its great potential in photo/piezocatalytic conversion of N to NH. The optimal 10 %CuS/KTN shows an NH production rate of 36.2 μmol L g h under ultrasonic vibration, which reaches 7.4 times that of KTN. The electrons generated by KTN through the piezoelectric effect can be captured by CuS, which endows the electrons a longer life to participate in the reaction, thereby improving the catalytic reaction performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.06.107DOI Listing
June 2021

Adaptive Multigradient Recursive Reinforcement Learning Event-Triggered Tracking Control for Multiagent Systems.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jul 1;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

This article proposes a fault-tolerant adaptive multigradient recursive reinforcement learning (RL) event-triggered tracking control scheme for strict-feedback discrete-time multiagent systems. The multigradient recursive RL algorithm is used to avoid the local optimal problem that may exist in the gradient descent scheme. Different from the existing event-triggered control results, a new lemma about the relative threshold event-triggered control strategy is proposed to handle the compensation error, which can improve the utilization of communication resources and weaken the negative impact on tracking accuracy and closed-loop system stability. To overcome the difficulty caused by sensor fault, a distributed control method is introduced by adopting the adaptive compensation technique, which can effectively decrease the number of online estimation parameters. Furthermore, by using the multigradient recursive RL algorithm with less learning parameters, the online estimation time can be effectively reduced. The stability of closed-loop multiagent systems is proved by using the Lyapunov stability theorem, and it is verified that all signals are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, two simulation examples are given to show the availability of the presented control scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3090570DOI Listing
July 2021

Multi-Scale Low-Discriminative Feature Reactivation for Weakly Supervised Object Localization.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 5;30:6050-6065. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

For weakly supervised object localization (WSOL), how to avoid the network focusing only on some small discriminative parts is a main challenge needed to solve. The widely-used Class Activation Mapping (CAM) based paradigm usually employs Adversarial Learning (AL) strategy to search more object parts by constantly hiding discovered object features, but the adversarial process is difficult to control. In this paper, we propose a novel CAM-based framework with Multi-scale Low-Discriminative Feature Reactivation (mLDFR) for WSOL. The mLDFR framework reactivates the low-discriminative object parts via bottom-up continuous feature maps recalibration and multi-scale object category mapping. Compared with the AL-based methods, our method fully improves the localization power of the network without damaging the classification power and can perform multi-instance localization, which are hard to achieve under the AL-based framework. Moreover, the mLDFR framework is flexible, and can be built on the top of various classical CNN backbones. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our method. With VGG16 as backbone, we achieve 46.96% Cls-Loc top1 err and 66.12% CorLoc on ILSVRC2014, 38.07% Cls-Loc top1 err and 75.04% CorLoc on CUB200-2011, surpassing the state-of-the-arts by a large margin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3091833DOI Listing
July 2021

Longitudinal Follow-Up Studies on the Bidirectional Association between ADL/IADL Disability and Multimorbidity: Results from Two National Sample Cohorts of Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults.

Gerontology 2021 Jun 28:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background And Objectives: Few studies have investigated the bidirectional relationship between disability and multimorbidity, which are common conditions among the older population. Based on the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we aimed to investigate the bidirectional relationship between disability and multimorbidity.

Methods: The activities of daily living (ADLs) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) scales were used to measure disability. In stage I, we used multinomial logistic regression to assess the longitudinal association between ADL/IADL disability and follow-up multimorbidity. In stage II, binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the multimorbidity effect on future disability.

Results: Compared with those free of disability, people with disability possessed ascending risks for developing an increasing number of diseases. For ADL disability, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) values of developing ≥4 diseases were 4.10 (2.58, 6.51) and 6.59 (4.54, 9.56) in CHARLS and SHARE; for IADL disability, the OR (95% CI) values were 2.55 (1.69, 3.84) and 4.85 (3.51, 6.70) in CHARLS and SHARE. Meanwhile, the number of diseases at baseline was associated, in a dose-response manner, with future disability. Compared with those without chronic diseases, participants carrying ≥4 diseases had OR (95% CI) values of 4.82 (3.73, 6.21)/4.66 (3.65, 5.95) in CHARLS and 3.19 (2.59, 3.94)/3.28 (2.71, 3.98) in SHARE for developing ADL/IADL disability.

Conclusion: The consistent findings across 2 national longitudinal studies supported a strong bidirectional association between disability and multimorbidity among middle-aged and elderly adults. Thus, tailored interventions should be taken to prevent the mutual development of disability and multimorbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513930DOI Listing
June 2021

Emergence of a novel pegivirus species in southwest China showing a high rate of coinfection with parvovirus and circovirus in geese.

Poult Sci 2021 May 13;100(8):101251. Epub 2021 May 13.

Research Center of Avian Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, 611130, China; Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, 611130, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, 611130, China.

Previously, we isolated a novel strain of goose pegivirus (GPgV) that infects geese and shows high levels of lymphotropism. This novel pegivirus strain is phylogenetically distinct from previously known Pegivirus species, Pegivirus A-K, and qualifies as a candidate new Pegivirus species, GPgV. GPgV is tentatively named Pegivirus M. Here, to better understand the epidemic of GPgV infection and the coinfection of this virus with other viruses in Southwest China, 25 geese in poor health from Sichuan Province and 24 geese in poor health from the municipality of Chongqing were collected. The geese were tested for 9 types of goose viruses (goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus, GPgV, astrovirus, parvovirus, circovirus, reovirus, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, and avian influenza virus) by RT-PCR or nested RT-PCR. GPgV RNA was detected in 2 out of 25 monoinfections and 8 out of 25 coinfections with other viruses on Sichuan farms and 2 out of 24 monoinfections and 10 out of 24 coinfections on Chongqing farms. Overall, 22 of the 49 (44.9%) geese were positive for GPgV, which indicated a high infection rate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of GPgV coinfection with other epidemic viruses. This study enhances our understanding of the emergence and epidemiology of Pegivirus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254001PMC
May 2021

Enhanced degradation of bisphenol A by mixed ZIF derived CoZn oxide encapsulated N-doped carbon via peroxymonosulfate activation: The importance of N doping amount.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 9;419:126363. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037 Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

In this study, mixed metal cobalt zinc oxide embedded nitrogen enriched porous carbon composites (CoZnO-PC) were prepared via pyrolyzing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) encapsulated Co, Zn-bimetal centered zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF). The prepared composites were then used to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for bisphenol A (BPA) removal in water. When mole ratio of Co/Zn was 2/1, the resulted CoZnO-PC possessed spinel structure with prominent degradation capability, in which the introduction of Zn accelerated the PMS activation performance of Co through establishing bimetal synergistic interactions. Both radical and non-radical activation pathways were existed in the CoZnO-PC/PMS system, in which CoZnO dominated the radical pathway whereas PC dominated the non-radical way. Since PVP contained abundant nitrogen atoms and could form strong coordination interactions with the ZIF precursor, the introduction of PVP in the ZIF precursor prevented pore collapsing during pyrolysis process, as well as enhancing the nitrogen content in the pyrolzed composites, which significantly promoted the generation of singlet oxygen. With combined pathways, the CoZnO-PC/PMS system showed a wide pH application range with promising mineralization rate. Meanwhile, the spinel-structured CoZnO-PC was magnetically separable with desirable recyclability. This study presents a novel composite with remarkable performance for the removal of refractory organic pollutants in municipal wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126363DOI Listing
June 2021

Multifaceted Roles of ICP22/ORF63 Proteins in the Life Cycle of Human Herpesviruses.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:668461. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Herpesviruses are extremely successful parasites that have evolved over millions of years to develop a variety of mechanisms to coexist with their hosts and to maintain host-to-host transmission and lifelong infection by regulating their life cycles. The life cycle of herpesviruses consists of two phases: lytic infection and latent infection. During lytic infection, active replication and the production of numerous progeny virions occur. Subsequent suppression of the host immune response leads to a lifetime latent infection of the host. During latent infection, the viral genome remains in an inactive state in the host cell to avoid host immune surveillance, but the virus can be reactivated and reenter the lytic cycle. The balance between these two phases of the herpesvirus life cycle is controlled by broad interactions among numerous viral and cellular factors. ICP22/ORF63 proteins are among these factors and are involved in transcription, nuclear budding, latency establishment, and reactivation. In this review, we summarized the various roles and complex mechanisms by which ICP22/ORF63 proteins regulate the life cycle of human herpesviruses and the complex relationships among host and viral factors. Elucidating the role and mechanism of ICP22/ORF63 in virus-host interactions will deepen our understanding of the viral life cycle. In addition, it will also help us to understand the pathogenesis of herpesvirus infections and provide new strategies for combating these infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.668461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215345PMC
June 2021

Performance and stratified microbial community of vermi-filter affected by Acorus calamus and Epipremnum aureum during recycling of concentrated excess sludge.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 27;280:130609. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, 730070, China.

Vermi-filter combined with wetland plant (VFP) is an eco-friendly and sustainable approach for recycling of excess sludge by joint action of earthworms, wetland plants and microorganisms. However, the effects of wetland plants on sludge decomposition and involved microorganisms are remain unclear. This study investigated the effects of wetland plants on the treatment performance of VFP for concentrated excess sludge and microbial community distribution inside the VFP. The wetland plants' species of Acorus calamus and Epipremnum aureum were separately planted on the surface layer of vermi-reactors by earthworms Eisenia fetida. Results showed that the growth rate of E. fetida in VFPs significantly (P < 0.001) increased by 75%, compared to VF. In addition, the removal rates of total solids and chemical oxygen demand in VFPs could reach 61%-79% and 36%-68%, respectively, displaying a better performance of sludge reduction than in the VF. The surface layer of VFPs was a hotspot for degradation of organic matter, where bacteria played an important role in bio-decomposition rather than eukaryotes. Moreover, wetland plants could significantly (P < 0.001) enrich the eukaryotic population, rather than bacterial population. Compared to the VF, the wetland plants could promote the diversities of bacterial community in VFPs, showing specific functioned genus in different layers. In contrast, A. calamus could be a better candidate than E. aureum in the VFP. This study suggests that the inoculation of wetland plants can improve the performance for treating concentrated excess sludge by changing the biomass of earthworms and the structure of microbial community within the VFP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130609DOI Listing
October 2021

Inverse-design of non-Hermitian potentials for on-demand asymmetric reflectivity.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(11):17001-17010

We propose a genetic algorithm-assisted inverse design approach to achieve 'on- demand' light transport in periodic and non-periodic planar structures containing dielectric and gain-loss layers. The optimization algorithm efficiently produces non-Hermitian potentials from any arbitrarily given real (or imaginary) permittivity distribution for the desired frequency selective and broadband asymmetric reflectivity. Indeed, we show that the asymmetric response is directly related to the area occupied by the obtained permittivity distribution in the complex plane. In particular, unidirectional light reflection can be designed in such a way that it switches from left to right (or vice versa) depending on the operating frequency. Moreover, such controllable unidirectional reflectivity is realized using a stack of dielectric layers while keeping the refractive index and gain-loss within realistic values. We believe this proposal will benefit the integrated photonics with frequency selective one-way communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.421610DOI Listing
May 2021

Microwave photonics interrogation for multiplexing fiber Fabry-Perot sensors.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(11):16652-16664

A microwave photonics interrogation system for multiplexing fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) sensors is demonstrated in this paper. Different from previous FP demodulation schemes, this system aims at quasi-distributed sensing networks composed of FP sensors with a short effective cavity length less than 1 mm. With the help of a dispersion element, the superimposed reflected spectrum from FP sensors based on a hollow core fiber (HCF) can be converted into separate response passbands in the frequency domain simultaneously, whose center frequency will shift linearly with the variations of environment. The experimental results exhibit high linearity and interrogation ability for both the all-FP multiplexing system and hybrid multiplexing system. A strain interrogation sensitivity of 0.938 kHz/µɛ and temperature sensitivity of -0.699 MHz/°C have been realized, corresponding to a FP cavity length demodulation sensitivity of 1.563 MHz/µm. Furthermore, numerical studies about the impacts of the HCF-FP spectrum envelope on the RF response passband, as well as the theoretical minimum detectable cavity length and multiplexing capacity of the system, are also carried out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.424059DOI Listing
May 2021

Rectangular 3-snip punctoplasty versus punch punctoplasty with silicone intubation for acquired external punctal stenosis: a prospective randomized comparative study.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(6):849-854. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province, China.

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of rectangular 3-snip punctoplasty versus punch punctoplasty Kelly punch with silicone intubation for the management of acquired external punctal stenosis (AEPS).

Methods: A prospective, randomized, comparative study was performed on 123 eyes of 94 patients with AEPS. Patients were recruited into either group of rectangular 3-snip punctoplasty (group A) or group of punch punctoplasty with silicone intubation (group B). Outcomes measured were Munk score, grade of punctal stenosis, fluorescein dye disappearance time test (FDDT) and tear meniscus height (TMH) 6 and 12mo after surgery.

Results: Twelve months after surgery, Munk score, FDDT and TMH significantly decreased in both groups compared with the baseline (all <0.05), and grade of punctal stenosis increased significantly (<0.05). The grade of punctal stenosis, Munk score, FDDT and TMH were better in group B compared with group A at 6 or 12mo (all <0.05). There was a positive correlation between TMH and Munk score (=0.655, <0.001). At the last followed-up, anatomical success was noted in 96.7% eyes in group A and 98.4% eyes in group B (=0.613).

Conclusion: Punch punctoplasty Kelly punch with silicone intubation achieves better outcomes than rectangular 3-snip punctoplasty. The new technique is a simple, minimally invasive, with high anatomical and functional success in patients with AEPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.06.09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165618PMC
June 2021

Combined effects of low-dose gambogic acid and NaI in drug-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells.

Oncol Lett 2021 Aug 4;22(2):588. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, P.R. China.

Radioactive seed brachytherapy is a method for treating drug-resistant, late-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To elucidate the mechanism of low-dose gambogic acid (GA) and NaI in drug-resistant NSCLC cells, the human NSCLC A549 cell line and the drug-resistant A549/cisplatin (DDP) and A549/Taxol cell lines were treated with NaI, low-dose GA or a combination of both in the present study; the control group of each cell line was treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Following treatment, cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis was performed. Apoptosis-related proteins, namely CDK1, cyclin B, mutant p53 (mtp53), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), Bax and Bcl-2, and P-glycoprotein 1 (P-gp), which is known to confer resistance to chemotherapy, were detected using western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. mRNA levels of p53 and HSP90 were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Compared with the PBS control group, the A549, A549/DDP and A549/Taxol cells treated with NaI, GA or a combination of the drugs exhibited G/M arrest and increased percentages of total apoptotic cells, as well as significantly decreased protein levels of CDK1, cyclin B, mtp53, HSP90, Bcl-2 and P-gp, increased protein levels of Bax and decreased mRNA levels of p53 and HSP90. The changes in the combination group were the most evident and were significantly different from the other groups (P<0.001). In conclusion, low-dose GA may be a potential radionuclide sensitizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200936PMC
August 2021

Protective Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Cardiac Fibrosis and Function in Rats With Experimental Myocardial Infarction Involves Inhibition of Collagen Synthesis by Myocardial Fibroblasts Through Downregulating TGF-β1/Smads Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 31;12:696472. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Putian University, Southern Medical University, Putian, China.

To investigate the effect and mechanism of sacubitril/valsartan on myocardial fibrosis in rats following experimental myocardial infarction and in TGF-β1-treated myocardial fibroblasts. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to coronary artery ligation to establish myocardial infarction and intragastrically fed vehicle, valsartan (Val, 32 mg/kg, once-daily) or sacubitril/valsartan (Sac/Val, 68 mg/kg, once-daily) for 4 weeks. In parallel, myocardial fibroblasts (MFs) isolated from neonatal SD rats were exposed to hypoxia and treated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) plus vehicle, Val (10-10 M) or Sac/Val (10-10 M). Rat cardiac function and fibrosis were measured by echocardiography and histological method, respectively. MFs viability and collagen synthesis were determined by cell counting kit-8 and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Protein expressions of TGF-β1, Smad3, phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3), and p-Smad3 subcellular localization were detected by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Sac/Val significantly improved cardiac structure and function in rats after myocardial infarction, including decreased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and interventricular septal thickness, increased ejection fraction, and reduced myocardial collagen volume fraction and type Ⅰ and type Ⅲ collagen levels, and this effect was superior to that of Val. Besides, Sac/Val inhibited myocardial TGF-β1 and p-Smad3 protein expression better than Val. Mechanically, Sac/Val significantly attenuated TGF-β1-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis of MFs, and inhibit Smad3 phosphorylation and nucleus translocation, and this effect outperformed Val. Overexpression and silencing of Smad3 enhanced and reversed the inhibitory effects of Sac/Val on TGF-β1-induced collagen synthesis by MFs, respectively. Sacubitril/valsartan improves cardiac function and fibrosis in rats after experimental myocardial infarction, and this effect is related to the inhibition of collagen synthesis in myocardial fibroblasts by inhibiting the TGF/Smads signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.696472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201773PMC
May 2021