Publications by authors named "Ying Shi"

840 Publications

Correction to: Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in severe preeclampsia.

J Mol Histol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan Province, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-021-10043-9DOI Listing
November 2021

Associations between radiographic features, clinical features and ultrasound of thumb-base osteoarthritis: A secondary analysis of the COMBO study.

Int J Rheum Dis 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Rheumatology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital and Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: To investigate the associations of ultrasound and radiographic features of thumb-base osteoarthritis (OA) with thumb-base pain and hand function at baseline and 12 weeks.

Method: Data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in participants with symptomatic radiographic thumb-base OA were analyzed. Participants who finished follow up were included in this secondary analysis. Pain and hand function were assessed using self-reported measures. All participants underwent ultrasound examinations for synovitis, power Doppler signal (PDS), and osteophytes, and underwent radiography for osteophytes, joint space narrowing (JSN), and subchondral bone sclerosis at baseline. Hand pain and function were reassessed after the 12-week follow up. The associations of ultrasound and radiographic findings with clinical features were further evaluated, using linear regression analyses, after adjustment for relevant confounding factors.

Results: A total of 166 participants (average age 66.2 years; 76.5% female) were included. At baseline, radiographic JSN and subchondral bone sclerosis were associated with hand function. There was a significant association between ultrasound-detected PDS and patient's global assessment (PGA) at baseline. Baseline radiographic JSN was significantly associated with the changes in stiffness and PGA from baseline to 12 weeks. There was no association between ultrasound features and changes in the clinical outcomes over 12 weeks.

Conclusion: This study indicates that radiographic features significantly correlate with hand function, and ultrasound PDS is closely related to the PGA at baseline in thumb-base OA. Radiographic JSN may be a predictor for stiffness and PGA in thumb-base OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.14248DOI Listing
November 2021

A Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Film Loaded with AFCP Nanoparticles for Inhibiting Formation of Enamel White Spot Lesions.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 16;16:7623-7637. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Stomatology Hospital, School of Stomatology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Research of Zhejiang Province, Cancer Center of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310006, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study investigated the effects of mineralizing film consisting of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and amorphous fluorinated calcium phosphate (AFCP) nanoparticles on enamel white spot lesions (WSLs).

Material And Methods: The AFCP nanoparticles and mineralizing film were prepared via nanoprecipitation and solvent evaporation, respectively. They were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and fluoride ion selective electrode. Thirty-two human enamel slices (4 mm × 4 mm × 1.5 mm) were highly polished and randomly assigned to four groups: negative control (no treatment); pure HPMC film; mineralizing film; GC Tooth Mousse Plus (contains 10% CPP-ACP and 0.2% NaF). Subsequently, samples were challenged by a modified pH-cycling and characterized by color measurement, Micro-CT, SEM/EDX, and nanoindentation.

Results: The mineralizing film could sustain release of Ca, P and F ions over 24 h and maintain AFCP nanoparticles in metastable state over 8~12 h. During 4 weeks of pH cycling, the mineralizing film group exhibited least color change (∆E), mineral loss and lesion depth (120 ± 10 µm) among four groups ( < 0.05). SEM findings revealed that the porosities among enamel crystals increased in negative control and pure HPMC film groups after pH cycling, whereas in mineralizing film group, the original microstructure of enamel was well conserved and mineral deposits were detected between enamel prisms. Mineralizing film group demonstrated a least reduction of nanomechanical properties such as elastic modulus of 77.02 ± 6.84 GPa and hardness of 3.62 ± 0.57 GPa ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The mineralizing film might be a promising strategy for prevention and management of WSLs via inhibiting enamel demineralization and promoting enamel remineralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S335549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8605885PMC
November 2021

Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as a film and hydrogel carrier for ACP nanoprecursors to deliver biomimetic mineralization.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Nov 22;19(1):385. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Stomatology Hospital, School of Stomatology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center for Oral Biomaterials and Devices, Zhejiang Provincial Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Research of Zhejiang Province, Cancer Center of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310006, China.

Demineralization of hard tooth tissues leads to dental caries, which cause health problems and economic burdens throughout the world. A biomimetic mineralization strategy is expected to reverse early dental caries. Commercially available anti-carious mineralizing products lead to inconclusive clinical results because they cannot continuously replenish the required calcium and phosphate resources. Herein, we prepared a mineralizing film consisting of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and polyaspartic acid-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (PAsp-ACP) nanoparticles. HPMC which contains multiple hydroxyl groups is a film-forming material that can be desiccated to form a dry film. In a moist environment, this film gradually changes into a gel. HPMC was used as the carrier of PAsp-ACP nanoparticles to deliver biomimetic mineralization. Our results indicated that the hydroxyl and methoxyl groups of HPMC could assist the stability of PAsp-ACP nanoparticles and maintain their biomimetic mineralization activity. The results further demonstrated that the bioinspired mineralizing film induced the early mineralization of demineralized dentin after 24 h with increasing mineralization of the whole demineralized dentin (3-4 µm) after 72-96 h. Furthermore, these results were achieved without any cytotoxicity or mucosa irritation. Therefore, this mineralizing film shows promise for use in preventive dentistry due to its efficient mineralization capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-01133-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8607665PMC
November 2021

Metabolomic Analysis Reveals the Therapeutic Effects of MBT1805, a Novel Pan-Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist, on α-Naphthylisothiocyanate-Induced Cholestasis in Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:732478. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Therapeutic drugs that are used to treat cholestatic liver disease are limited; however, the results of clinical trials on primary biliary cholangitis treatment targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are encouraging. In this study, we aimed to identify the effects of MBT1805, a novel balanced PPARα/γ/δ agonist, on cholestasis induced by α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms through untargeted and bile acid-targeted metabolomic analysis. Levels of serum biochemical indicators (transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin) and liver histopathology were analyzed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of MBT1805 on ANIT-induced cholestasis in C57BL/6 mice. Untargeted and bile acid-targeted metabolomic analysis of liver tissues was performed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MC/MC). qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were carried out to measure the expression of key enzymes and transporters regulating bile acid synthesis, biotransformation, and transport. MBT1805 significantly improved abnormal levels of liver biochemical indicators and gallbladder enlargement induced by ANIT. Histopathological analysis showed that MBT1805 effectively relieved ANIT-induced necrosis, vacuolation, and inflammatory infiltration. Untargeted metabolomic analysis identified 27 metabolites that were involved in the primary biliary acid biosynthesis pathway. In addition, bile acid-targeted metabolomics showed that MBT1805 could alleviate the abnormal bile acid content and composition induced by ANIT. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and Western blot results confirmed that MBT1805 could effectively regulate bile acid synthesis, biotransformation, and transport which helps relieve cholestasis. MBT1805 is a potential candidate drug for cholestasis, with a balanced PPARα/γ/δ activation effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.732478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585842PMC
October 2021

Empowering patients with the PREPARE advance care planning program results in reciprocal clinician communication.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Nov 10. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: The patient-directed PREPAREforYourCare.org program empowers patients to participate in advance care planning (ACP) discussions with clinicians. Our goal was to determine whether PREPARE could reciprocally increase clinician ACP communication.

Methods: In a secondary analysis of two trials evaluating the efficacy of PREPARE plus an easy-to-read advance directive (AD) versus an AD alone, patients were included if they were ≥55 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, and had ≥2 chronic conditions. We audio-recorded postintervention primary care visits and used the validated clinician-patient participation coding scheme to calculate the number of clinician ACP utterances concerning information-giving, recommendations, or supportive talk. We examined differences by study arm using mixed effects negative binomial models, stratifying by language. To assess possible mediation, we adjusted for active patient participation (e.g., asking questions or stating preferences).

Results: Three hundred ninety-three visits were audio-recorded (177 in PREPARE arm and 216 in AD-only arm). Recordings included 179 clinicians (mean 2.2 [SD 1.9] patients each). Patients' mean age was 66 ± 8 years, 31% had limited health literacy, and 25% were Spanish-speaking. Exactly 67% of recordings included information-giving, 85% recommendations, and 62% supportive talk. PREPARE resulted in 51% more clinician supportive talk versus the AD alone (mean 4.5 [8.9] vs. 2.9 [6.0] utterances; incidence rate ratio 1.51 [95% CI 1.02-2.24]). Effects were most pronounced among Spanish speakers. There were no differences in information-giving or recommendations. After adjusting for active patient participation, no differences in supportive talk remained.

Conclusions: The patient-directed PREPARE program was associated with greater clinician supportive ACP communication with older adults compared with an AD alone; the effect was most pronounced among Spanish speakers and was mediated by active patient participation. Thus, PREPARE helps patients be more engaged communicators, which in turn encourages clinicians to be more supportive of patients. Enhanced patient-clinician communication represents an important mechanism by which PREPARE may decrease disparities in ACP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17540DOI Listing
November 2021

Risk Factors for Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease With Glomerular Etiology in Hospitalized Children.

Front Pediatr 2021 22;9:752717. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

To Identify association between risk factors to Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 in children with glomerular diseases in children in China. The Hospital Quality Monitoring System database was used to extract data for the study cohort. The primary outcome included progression to CKD stage 5 or dialysis. Cox regression was used to assess potential risk factors. Patients with lower stages (CKD stage 1 and 2) and higher stages (CKD stage 3 and 4) at baseline were analyzed separately. Of 819 patients (4,089 hospitalization records), 172 (21.0%) patients reached the primary outcome during a median followed-up of 11.4 months. In the lower stages group, factors associated with the primary outcome included older age [Hazard Ratio (HR), 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.34] and out-of-pocket payment (HR, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.57-10.95). In the higher stages group, factors associated with the primary outcome included CKD stage 4 (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.48-3.62) and hypertension (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.29-3.07). The medical migration rate was 38.2% in this study population. There are different risk factors for progression to the primary outcome in different stages in CKD with glomerular etiology. Further prospective studies are needed to assess these risk factors. The high medical migration rate reflected the regional disparities in the accessibility of pediatric kidney care between regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.752717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8570116PMC
October 2021

The Crystallisation, Microphase Separation and Mechanical Properties of the Mixture of Ether-Based TPU with Different Ester-Based TPUs.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Oct 10;13(20). Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Advanced Manufacturing Institute of Polymer Industry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142, China.

The difference in compatibility at the molecular level can lead to a change of microphase separation structure of thermoplastic polyurethanes blend systems, which will improve their thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, TDI-polyester based TPU was blended with MDI-polyether-based TPU and MDI-polyester based TPU, with different ratios. In the blend system, the obvious reduction of the melting temperature of the high-temperature TDI-polyester based TPU component indicates its hard segments can be mutually integrated with the other component. For TDI-polyester based TPU/MDI-polyether based TPU blends, their similar hard segment ratio and similar chemical structure of the soft segment give the molecular chains of the two components better compatibility. The aggregation structure of the two kinds of chains can rearrange at the molecular level which makes the hard domains mutually integrate to form a new phase separation structure with larger phase region distance. As a result, the yield strength of this blend increased by almost 143% when the elongation at break was only reduced by 12%. In contrast, the other group of blends still partly maintain their respective micro domains, forming a weak interface and leading to a decreased of elongation at break.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13203475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8538422PMC
October 2021

Intramolecular charge transfer dynamics in the excited states of diphenylamine substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 12;267(Pt 1):120463. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China. Electronic address:

The excited state dynamics processes of two diphenylamine substituted symmetric 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives in different solvents were studied through femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. It was revealed that in cyclohexane, the locally excited (LE) state relaxes to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state within 2 ps timescale, then decays to the ground state. In tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, the ICT state can be stabilized via solvation, so besides the LE → ICT conversion within 1 ps, another ICT → solvent stabilized ICT (SSICT) conversion in the 1-200 ps time scale could also be observed, and eventually decay to the ground state. Whereas, ICT → SSICT process in acetonitrile is slower than that in tetrahydrofuran, which leads to radiationless deactivation dominates the ICT state deactivation process and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. These results offer a guidance to understand the relationship of low fluorescence quantum efficiency and excited state deactivation mechanism of organic π-conjugated molecules, which would be very helpful for designing new advanced opto-electronic materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120463DOI Listing
October 2021

Isolation of Novel Mycobacterium Species from Skin Infection in an Immunocompromised Person.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 11;27(11):2944-2947

We investigated a case of cutaneous infection in an immunocompromised patient in China that was caused by a novel species within the Mycobacterium gordonae complex. Results of whole-genome sequencing indicated that some strains considered to be M. gordonae complex are actually polyphyletic and should be designated as closely related species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201//eid2711.210426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8544998PMC
November 2021

Ceftazidime-Avibactam-Based Versus Tigecycline-Based Regimen for the Treatment of Carbapenem-Resistant -Induced Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Oct 15:1-14. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No. 300 GuangZhou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the safety profile and outcomes of a ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI)-based regimen and compare them with those of a tigecycline (TGC)-based regimen in intensive care unit (ICU) for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant (CRKP), which is classified into hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Methods: Clinical and microbiological cure rates, 28-day survival rates, and safety evaluation findings were compared between patients treated with CAZ-AVI-based regimen and those treated with TGC-based regimen in this retrospective study. Conventional multivariate logistic regression analysis and regression adjustment analysis with propensity score (PS) were performed to control for confounding variables.

Results: A total of 105 cases of critically ill ICU patients with CRKP-induced HAP or VAP were included in the present study from July 2019 to September 2020; 62 patients (59%) received TGC-based regimen and 43 patients (41%) received CAZ-AVI-based regimen. The most common concomitant agent in the CAZ-AVI group and TGC group was carbapenem (44.2% versus 62.9%,  = 0.058), while only a small proportion of the study population received CAZ-AVI and TGC monotherapy (20.9% versus 6.5%,  = 0.027). The clinical and microbiological cure rates of the CAZ-AVI group were superior to those of the TGC group [51.2% versus 29.0% ( = 0.022) and 74.4% versus 33.9% ( < 0.001), respectively]. No significant differences in the 28-day survival rates were identified between the two groups (69.8% versus 66.1%,  = 0.695). Conventional multivariate logistic regression and PS analyses showed that patients who had used CAZ-AVI were more likely to have achieved a clinical cure [4.767 (95%CI 1.694-13.414), P=0.003;3.405 (95%CI 1.304-8.889), P=0.012] and microbiological success [6.664 (95%CI 2.626-16.915), P<0.001;7.778 (95%CI 2.717-22.265), P<0.001] than patients who used TGC. However, the difference in the 28-day survival rates between the two groups was not significant. According to the safety evaluation findings, the CAZ-AVI group exhibited a generally lower incidence of adverse reactions compared with that in the TGC group.

Conclusions: CAZ-AVI may be a suitable alternative for TGC in the treatment of critically ill patients with CRKP-induced HAP or VAP. These observations require further confirmation in larger randomized prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00542-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517067PMC
October 2021

Ceftazidime-Avibactam-Based Versus Tigecycline-Based Regimen for the Treatment of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae-Induced Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Dec 15;10(4):2721-2734. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No. 300 GuangZhou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the safety profile and outcomes of a ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI)-based regimen and compare them with those of a tigecycline (TGC)-based regimen in intensive care unit (ICU) for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), which is classified into hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Methods: Clinical and microbiological cure rates, 28-day survival rates, and safety evaluation findings were compared between patients treated with CAZ-AVI-based regimen and those treated with TGC-based regimen in this retrospective study. Conventional multivariate logistic regression analysis and regression adjustment analysis with propensity score (PS) were performed to control for confounding variables.

Results: A total of 105 cases of critically ill ICU patients with CRKP-induced HAP or VAP were included in the present study from July 2019 to September 2020; 62 patients (59%) received TGC-based regimen and 43 patients (41%) received CAZ-AVI-based regimen. The most common concomitant agent in the CAZ-AVI group and TGC group was carbapenem (44.2% versus 62.9%, P = 0.058), while only a small proportion of the study population received CAZ-AVI and TGC monotherapy (20.9% versus 6.5%, P = 0.027). The clinical and microbiological cure rates of the CAZ-AVI group were superior to those of the TGC group [51.2% versus 29.0% (P = 0.022) and 74.4% versus 33.9% (P < 0.001), respectively]. No significant differences in the 28-day survival rates were identified between the two groups (69.8% versus 66.1%, P = 0.695). Conventional multivariate logistic regression and PS analyses showed that patients who had used CAZ-AVI were more likely to have achieved a clinical cure [4.767 (95%CI 1.694-13.414), P=0.003;3.405 (95%CI 1.304-8.889), P=0.012] and microbiological success [6.664 (95%CI 2.626-16.915), P<0.001;7.778 (95%CI 2.717-22.265), P<0.001] than patients who used TGC. However, the difference in the 28-day survival rates between the two groups was not significant. According to the safety evaluation findings, the CAZ-AVI group exhibited a generally lower incidence of adverse reactions compared with that in the TGC group.

Conclusions: CAZ-AVI may be a suitable alternative for TGC in the treatment of critically ill patients with CRKP-induced HAP or VAP. These observations require further confirmation in larger randomized prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00542-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517067PMC
December 2021

Preparation of Quaternary Amphiphilic Block Copolymer PMA--P (NVP/MAH/St) and Its Application in Surface Modification of Aluminum Nitride Powders.

Molecules 2021 Sep 28;26(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Electronics and Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

Poly(methyl acrylate)--poly(-vinyl pyrrolidone/maleic anhydride/styrene) (PMA--P (NVP/MAH/St)) quaternary amphiphilic block copolymer prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) was used to improve the anti-hydrolysis and dispersion properties of aluminum nitride (AIN) powders that were modified by copolymers. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Hydrogen nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (H-NMR). The results demonstrate that the molecular weight distribution of the quaternary amphiphilic block copolymers is 1.35-1.60, which is characteristic of controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution. Through charge transfer complexes, NVP/MAH/St produces a regular alternating arrangement structure. After being treated with micro-crosslinking, AlN powder modified by copolymer PMA--P(NVP/MAH/St) exhibits outstanding resistance to hydrolysis and can be stabilized in hot water at 50 °C for more than 14 h, and the agglomeration of powder particles was improved remarkably.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510412PMC
September 2021

Crystallization, Structure and Significantly Improved Mechanical Properties of PLA/PPC Blends Compatibilized with PLA-PPC Copolymers Produced by Reactions Initiated with TBT or TDI.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Advanced Manufacturing Institute of Polymer Industry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142, China.

Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-Poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) block copolymer compatibilizers are produced in incompatible 70wt%PLA/PPC blend by initiating transesterification with addition of 1% of tetra butyl titanate (TBT) or by chain extension with addition of 2% of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The above blends can have much better mechanical properties than the blend without TBT and TDI. The elongation at break is dramatically larger (114% with 2% of TDI and 60% with 1% of TBT) than the blend without TDI and TBT, with a slightly lower mechanical strength. A small fraction of the copolymer is likely formed in the PLA/PPC blend with addition of TBT, and a significant amount of the copolymer can be made with addition of TDI. The copolymer produced with TDI has PPC as a major content (~70 wt%) and forms a miscible interphase with its own Tg. The crystallinity of the blend with TDI is significantly lower than the blend without TDI, as the PLA blocks of the copolymer in the interphase is hardly to crystallize. The average molecular weight increases significantly with addition of TDI, likely compensating the lower mechanical strength due to lower crystallinity. Material degradation can occur with addition of TBT, but it is very limited with 1% of TBT. However, compared with the blends without TBT, the PLA crystallinity of the blend with 1%TBT increases sharply during the cooling process, which likely compensates the loss of mechanical strength due to the slightly material degradation. The added TDI does not have any significant impact on PLA lamellar packing, but the addition of TBT can make PLA lamellar packing much less ordered, presumably resulted from much smaller PPC domains formed in the blend due to better compatibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13193245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512864PMC
September 2021

Effect of Stimulus Frequency on Air-Conducted Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials.

J Int Adv Otol 2021 Sep;17(5):422-425

Department of Geriatrics, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the effect of stimulus frequency on air-conducted cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP and oVEMP) in healthy subjects.

Methods: The study included 45 healthy subjects who underwent the VEMP tests. Different stimulus frequencies (250-1500 Hz) were used for air-conducted cVEMP and oVEMP.

Results: In cVEMP, P1 and N1 latencies were significantly affected by different frequencies (P < .01). The amplitude at 500 Hz was significantly larger than those at other frequencies (P < .01).There was no significant main effect of frequency on asymmetry ratio (AR) (P > .05). In oVEMP, there was a tendency for the N1 and P1 latencies to decrease from 250 Hz to 1500 Hz (P < .01). The amplitudes at 500 Hz and 1000 Hz were significantly larger than the amplitudes at 250 Hz and 1500 Hz (P < .01).There was no significant main effect of frequency on AR (P > .05).

Conclusion: The optimal stimulus frequency of the cVEMP is 500 Hz and for the oVEMP is 500Hz or 1000Hz. Due to the absence of impact of stimulus frequency, AR is the best parameter of VEMP for clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/iao.2021.8836DOI Listing
September 2021

Förster resonance energy transfer outpaces Auger recombination in CdTe/CdS quantum dots-rhodamine101 molecules system upon compression.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(17):27171-27180

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and Auger recombination in quantum dots (QDs)-molecules system are important mechanisms for affecting performance of their optoelectronic and photosynthesis devices. However, exploring an effective strategy to promote FRET and suppress Auger recombination simultaneously remains a daunting challenge. Here, we report that FRET process is promoted and Auger recombination process is suppressed in CdTe/CdS QDs-Rhodamine101 (Rh101) molecules system upon compression. The greatly improved FRET is attributed to the shortened donor-acceptor distance and increased the number of molecules attached to QDs induced by pressure. The reduced Auger recombination is ascribed to the formation of an alloy layer at the core/shell interface. The FRET can occur 70 times faster than Auger recombination under a high pressure of 0.9 GPa. Our findings demonstrate that high pressure is a robust tool to boost FRET and simultaneously suppress Auger recombination, and provides a new route to QDs-molecules applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.434341DOI Listing
August 2021

Changes in older adults' life space during lung cancer treatment: A mixed methods cohort study.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Division of Geriatrics, University of California, San Francisco and San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Maintenance of function during cancer treatment is important to older adults. Characteristics associated with pretreatment life-space mobility and changes during non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment remain unknown.

Methods: This mixed methods cohort study recruited adults age ≥65 with advanced NSCLC starting palliative chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or targeted therapy from a Comprehensive Cancer Center, Veterans Affairs, and safety-net clinic. Patients completed geriatric assessments including Life-Space Assessment (LSA) pretreatment and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months after treatment initiation. LSA scores range from 0 to 120 (greater mobility); LSA <60 is considered restricted. We used mixed-effects models to examine pretreatment LSA, change from 0 to 1 month, and change from 1 to 6 months. A subgroup participated in semistructured interviews pretreatment and at 2 and 6 months to understand the patient experience of life-space change. For each interview participant, we created joint displays of longitudinal LSA scores juxtaposed with illustrative quotes.

Results: Among 93 patients, median age was 73 (range 65-94). Mean pretreatment LSA score was 67.1. On average, LSA declined 10.1 points from pretreatment to 1 month and remained stable at 6 months. Pretreatment LSA score was associated with several demographic, clinical, geriatric assessment, and symptom characteristics. LSA decline at 1 month was greater among patients with high anxiety (slope = -12.6 vs. -2.3, p = 0.048). Pretreatment body mass index <21 kg/m was associated with LSA improvement from 1 to 6 months (slope = 4.1 vs. -0.04, p = 0.003). Joint displays illustrated the impact of different life-space trajectories on patients' lives in their words.

Conclusion: Older adults with NSCLC have low pretreatment life space with many developing restricted life space during treatment. Incorporating life-space assessments into clinical cancer care may help older adults concretely visualize how treatment might impact their daily function to allow for informed decision making and identify early changes in mobility to implement supportive interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17474DOI Listing
October 2021

Direct bandwidth measurement of multimode waveguides based on an optical sampling technique.

Opt Lett 2021 Oct;46(19):4908-4911

We demonstrate direct bandwidth measurement of 11-cm-long multimode polymer waveguides based on an optical sampling technique for the first time, to our knowledge. The pulse shape can be recovered after transmission due to the advantages such as high bandwidth and high refresh rate of optical sampling technology. A reduction in averaged bandwidth (bandwidth-length product) from 241 GHz (27 GHz·m) to 180 GHz (20 GHz·m) of straight waveguides is observed when using mode scramblers to fully stimulate the higher-order modes. The effects such as bending and crossing structure of the waveguides on the bandwidth are also investigated. The proposed method is effective for measuring the bandwidth and dispersion of meter- and centimeter-long waveguides, fibers, and optical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.433898DOI Listing
October 2021

Efficient Cycloaddition of CO and Aziridines Activated by a Quadruple-Interpenetrated Indium-Organic Framework as a Recyclable Catalyst.

Inorg Chem 2021 Oct 30;60(20):15383-15389. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Renewable Energy Conversion and Storage Center, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Material Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

On the basis of the global warming effect, it is of great significance to convert CO into the high value-added products oxazolidinones, but investigations on main-group-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as heterogeneous catalysts still have not been reported so far. In this work, a quadruple-interpenetrated porous indium-based MOF, {[NH(CH)][In(CPT)]·3CHCN·3DMA} (), is constructed from the organic ligand 3,5-bis(4'-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazole through solvothermal reactions, and N adsorption proves that the framework has a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas with 2024 m/g. The catalytic research on CO conversion reveals that compound has high reactivity for the cycloaddition of CO with aziridines, and the product 3-ethyl-5-phenyloxazolidin-2-one can be obtained with a yield of 99% under mild conditions. In addition, exhibits excellent activity for different kinds of substrates and can be reused at least five cycles without any significant deactivation, suggesting that is a potential candidate for the chemical conversion of CO and aziridines. Mechanistic explorations indicate that the high efficiency of is attributed to the indium center in the framework as a Lewis acid site, and the large porosity can enrich substrates. Importantly, behaved as the first main-group MOF-based catalyst in the reported coupling reaction of CO with aziridines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c02034DOI Listing
October 2021

Risk and staging of postoperative bleeding and pressure sores in elderly urological patients.

Minerva Surg 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Urology Surgery, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5691.21.09091-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Can Color Doppler Ultrasound Challenge the Paradigm in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy?

J Endourol 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Wuhan Union Hospital, 36630, Urology, Wuhan, Hubei , China;

Objectives: Compare color Doppler (Color) ultrasound-guided puncture to common type-B (Type-B) ultrasound-guided puncture in reducing the incidence of hemorrhagic complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Materials And Methods: A total of 348 patients who received PCNL from September 2017 to December 2018 were divided into Color (231 cases) and Type-B groups (117 cases). The avascular area of the target fornix was pinpointed in the Color group while the middle of the target fornix was the default puncture point in the Type-B group. Tract bleeding, nephrostomy tract creation time, operation time, postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) values and serum creatinine (Scr) concentrations, and stone-free rates were analyzed.

Results: Color Doppler imaging revealed that 35.1% of the cases in the Color group (81/231) had variable artery positioning in the target fornix. Tract bleeding and postoperative Hb reduction in the Color group were significantly lower than the Type-B group (10.8% vs 24.8%, P=0.0007, and 4.87±8.58 vs 7.70±8.90 g/L, P=0.0044, respectively). The postoperative hospitalization of the Color group was also shortened (8.3±5.9 vs 9.7±3.0 d, P<0.0001). Although working channel creation took longer in this group (4.2±0.3 vs 3.6±0.2 min, P<0.0001), there were no significant differences in the total operation time between the two groups (39.2±15.2 vs 36.4±16.5 min, P=0.1097) or postoperative Scr and stone-free rates.

Conclusion: Vascular variation of the fornix is very common. Consistent puncture of the avascular area of the target fornix significantly lowered tract bleeding and postoperative Hb decrease compared to traditional procedures. Color Doppler ultrasound-guided puncture is thus useful to reduce the incidence of severe hemorrhagic complications of PCNL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2021.0368DOI Listing
September 2021

KLF4 Promotes Diabetic Chronic Wound Healing by Suppressing Th17 Cell Differentiation in an MDSC-Dependent Manner.

J Diabetes Res 2021 15;2021:7945117. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Urology, Wuhan Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, China.

Objectives: Diabetic wound inflammation deficiencies lead to ulcer development and eventual amputation and disability. Our previous research demonstrates that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate during inflammation and promote chronic wound healing via the regulation of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential roles of MDSCs and KLF4 in diabetic wound healing.

Methods: An ob/ob mouse pressure ulcer (PU) model was used to evaluate the process of wound healing. The expression levels of KLF4 and IL-17A were measured by real-time PCR, and the population of MDSCs and Th17 cells was measured by flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines were determined by an immunosuppression assay.

Results: KLF4 deficiency in the diabetic PU model resulted in decreased accumulation of MDSCs, increased expansion of Th17 cells, and significantly delayed wound healing. Conversely, KLF4 activation by APTO-253 accelerated wound healing accompanied by increased MDSC populations and decreased numbers of Th17 cells. MDSCs have been proven to mediate Th17 differentiation via cytokines, and our data showed that elevated KLF4 expression in MDSCs resulted in reduced Th17 cell numbers and, thus, decreased levels of cytokines indispensable for Th17 differentiation.

Conclusions: Our study revealed a previously unreported function of KLF4-regulated MDSCs in diabetic wound healing and identified APTO-253 as a potential agent to improve the healing of pressure ulcers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7945117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457977PMC
September 2021

CD147 antibody specifically and effectively inhibits infection and cytokine storm of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants delta, alpha, beta, and gamma.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 09 25;6(1):347. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine & Department of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China.

SARS-CoV-2 mutations contribute to increased viral transmissibility and immune escape, compromising the effectiveness of existing vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. An in-depth investigation on COVID-19 pathogenesis is urgently needed to develop a strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we identified CD147 as a universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Meanwhile, Meplazeumab, a humanized anti-CD147 antibody, could block cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants-alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, with inhibition rates of 68.7, 75.7, 52.1, 52.1, and 62.3% at 60 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, humanized CD147 transgenic mice were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and its two variants, alpha and beta. When infected, these mice developed exudative alveolar pneumonia, featured by immune responses involving alveoli-infiltrated macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and activation of IL-17 signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we proposed that severe COVID-19-related cytokine storm is induced by a "spike protein-CD147-CyPA signaling axis": Infection of SARS-CoV-2 through CD147 initiated the JAK-STAT pathway, which further induced expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA); CyPA reciprocally bound to CD147 and triggered MAPK pathway. Consequently, the MAPK pathway regulated the expression of cytokines and chemokines, which promoted the development of cytokine storm. Importantly, Meplazumab could effectively inhibit viral entry and inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Therefore, our findings provided a new perspective for severe COVID-19-related pathogenesis. Furthermore, the validated universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants can be targeted for COVID-19 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00760-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464593PMC
September 2021

Desulfonation and defluorination of 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) by Rhodococcus jostii RHA1: Carbon and sulfur sources, enzymes, and pathways.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Feb 28;423(Pt A):127052. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, 3136 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Electronic address:

6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) is one per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances commonly detected in the environment. While biotransformation of 6:2 FTSA has been reported, factors affecting desulfonation and defluorination of 6:2 FTSA remain poorly understood. This study elucidated the effects of carbon and sulfur sources on the gene expression of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 which is responsible for the 6:2 FTSA biotransformation. While alkane monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 were highly expressed in ethanol-, 1-butanol-, and n-octane-grown RHA1 in sulfur-rich medium, these cultures only defluorinated 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol but not 6:2 FTSA, suggesting that the sulfonate group in 6:2 FTSA hinders enzymatic defluorination. In sulfur-free growth media, alkanesulfonate monooxygenase was linked to desulfonation of 6:2 FTSA; while alkane monooxygenase, haloacid dehalogenase, and cytochrome P450 were linked to defluorination of 6:2 FTSA. The desulfonation and defluorination ability of these enzymes toward 6:2 FTSA were validated through heterologous gene expression and in vitro assays. Four degradation metabolites were confirmed and one was identified as a tentative metabolite. The results provide a new understanding of 6:2 FTSA biotransformation by RHA1. The genes encoding these desulfonating- and defluorinating-enzymes are potential markers to be used to assess 6:2 FTSA biotransformation in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127052DOI Listing
February 2022

The Role of Respiratory Microbiota in Lung Cancer.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 25;17(13):3646-3658. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Department of Pathology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan, 410078 China.

Recently, the impact of microorganisms on tumor growth and metastasis has attracted great attention. The pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer are related to an increase in respiratory bacterial load as well as changes in the bacterial community because the microbiota affects tumors in many ways, including canceration, metastasis, angiogenesis, and treatment. The microbiota may increase tumor susceptibility by altering metabolism and immune responses, promoting inflammation, and increasing toxic effects. The microbiota can regulate tumor metastasis by altering multiple cell signaling pathways and participate in tumor angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), endothelial cells (ECs), inflammatory factors and inflammatory cells. Tumor angiogenesis not only maintains tumor growth at the primary site but also promotes tumor metastasis and invasion. Therefore, angiogenesis is an important mediator of the interaction between microorganisms and tumors. The microbiota also plays a part in antitumor therapy. Alteration of the microbiota caused by antibiotics can regulate tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover, the microbiota also influences the efficacy and toxicity of tumor immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Finally, the effects of air pollution, a risk factor for lung cancer, on microorganisms and the possible role of respiratory microorganisms in the effects of air pollution on lung cancer are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.51376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416743PMC
August 2021

Absolute Risk of Adverse Obstetric Outcomes Among Twin Pregnancies After In Vitro Fertilization by Maternal Age.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2123634. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Importance: Twin pregnancy is a common occurrence in pregnancies conceived with in vitro fertilization (IVF), but the absolute risk of adverse obstetric outcomes stratified by IVF, twin or singleton pregnancy, and maternal age are unknown.

Objective: To estimate the absolute risk of adverse obstetric outcomes at each maternal age among twin pregnancies conceived with IVF.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study included pregnant women with infants born from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2018, based on the Hospital Quality Monitoring System in China. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021.

Exposures: Twin pregnancy with IVF (IVF-T), singleton pregnancy with IVF (IVF-S), twin pregnancy with non-IVF (nIVF-T), and singleton pregnancy with non-IVF (nIVF-S).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Sixteen obstetric outcomes, including 10 maternal complications (gestational hypertension, eclampsia and preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, placenta previa, placental abruption, placenta accreta, preterm birth, dystocia, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage) and 6 neonatal complications (fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, very low birth weight, macrosomia, malformation, and stillbirth).

Results: Among 16 879 728 pregnant women aged 20 to 49 years (mean [SD] age, 29.2 [4.7] years), the twin-pregnancy rates were 32.1% in the IVF group and 1.5% in the non-IVF group (relative risk, 20.8; 95% CI, 20.6-20.9). The most common adverse obstetric outcomes after pregnancy conceived with IVF were cesarean delivery (88.8%), low birth weight (43.8%), preterm birth (39.6%), gestational diabetes (20.5%), gestational hypertension and preeclampsia and eclampsia (17.5%), dystocia (16.8%), and postpartum hemorrhage (11.9%). The absolute risk of most adverse obstetric outcomes in each subgroup presented in 2 dominant patterns: Pattern A indicated the absolute risk ranging from IVF-T to nIVF-T to IVF-S to nIVF-S, and pattern B indicated the absolute risk ranging from IVF-T to IVF-S to nIVF-T to nIVF-S. Both patterns showed an elevated obstetric risk with increasing maternal age in each subgroup.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, twin pregnancy, IVF, and advanced maternal age were independently associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. Given these findings, promotion of the elective single embryo transfer strategy is needed to reduce multiple pregnancies following IVF technologies. Unnecessary cesarean delivery shouldh be avoided in all pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.23634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433605PMC
September 2021

LINC00937 suppresses keloid fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition by targeting the miR-28-5p/MC1R axis.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Aug 23:18372. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Dermatology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the most recently discovered class of noncoding RNAs. LncRNAs play a crucial role in multiple disorders. However, the role and mechanism of action of lncRNAs in keloids remain unclear. Here, qRT-PCR and western blotting assays were performed to determine the expression of genes and proteins, respectively. MTT assays were carried out to measure the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts. In addition, a luciferase activity assay was conducted to investigate the relationships between LINC00937 and miR-28-5p and between miR-28-5p and MC1R. The results showed that LINC00937 and MC1R were decreased, whereas miR-28-5p was increased in keloid tissues. LINC00937 overexpression in keloid fibroblasts could repress the extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and cell proliferation and promote MC1R expression. Moreover, high expression of miR-28-5p and low expression of LINC00937 were detected in keloid fibroblasts. We further showed that LINC00937 promoted MC1R expression by sponging miR-28-5p. Finally, our data indicated that LINC00937 inhibited the ECM deposition and proliferation of keloid fibroblasts by inhibiting miR-28-5p and facilitating MC1R expression. Overall, LINC00937 suppressed the ECM deposition and proliferation of keloid fibroblasts by acting as an miR-28-5p sponge and promoting MC1R expression. Our data suggested that LINC00937 is a potential target for keloid treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-372DOI Listing
August 2021

[Development of practical liberal courses for students with non-biology majors under the "Double First-class" background].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Aug;37(8):2976-2983

National Demonstration Center for Experimental Biology Education (Zhejiang University), Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China.

Life sciences are the disciplines most closely related with human beings. As experimental disciplines, life sciences develop rapidly and highly intersect in many scientific fields. Under the "double first-class" initiative, the comprehensive development-oriented talent training system has put forward an urgent need for life sciences literacy and comprehensive ability training of college students. Taking the reform of liberal education curriculum system as an opportunity, we developed a series of eight life sciences practical liberal courses for students with non-biology majors. The courses cover all sub-disciplines or directions of life sciences, and aim to foster interdisciplinary talents with life sciences knowledge and literacy, as well as practical and innovative abilities. These courses could serve as references for experimental teaching centers in colleges and universities to set up practical liberal and experimental courses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200768DOI Listing
August 2021

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Molecular Immunological Characteristics of Lesions in Patients with Halo Nevi When Compared to Stable Vitiligo, Normal Nevocytic Nevi and Cutaneous Melanoma.

J Inflamm Res 2021 24;14:4111-4124. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Institute of Systems Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, People's Republic of China.

Background: Given their similar appearance and histology, halo nevi (HN) were considered as a type of vitiligo. However, whether HN have stronger immune response than stable vitiligo (VL) remains unclear. In addition, the molecular alterations in HN compared with normal nevocytic nevi (NN) and primary cutaneous melanoma (MM) must be determined. This study aimed to systematically characterize the molecular immunological features of HN.

Methods: Skin samples from patients with HN, VL, NN, and MM were obtained with informed consent. Each of the four groups underwent transcriptome sequencing and data analysis were for pairwise comparison. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was conducted to confirm the transcriptional expression of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were closely related to immunity.

Results: A total of 441 and 1507 DEGs were found in the HN/NN and HN/MM groups, respectively. Compared with those of VL, HN lesions contained 162 up-regulated DEGs and 12 down-regulated DEGs. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the up-regulated genes in HN were substantially enriched in immune response, immune deficiency, and immune rejection; biological stimulation (virus, bacteria); and proliferation and activation of immune cells. Immune cell composition analysis also confirmed high expression levels of multiple immunocytes in HN.

Conclusion: The molecular immune mechanisms of HN and VL were similar, but the immune activity of HN was stronger than that of VL. Innate and adaptive immunity were involved in the pathogenesis and progression of HN and VL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S321672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403033PMC
August 2021

Exploring new targets for the treatment of hepatitis-B virus and hepatitis-B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma: A new perspective in bioinformatics.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(33):e26917

Beijing Institute of Hepatology, Beijing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. After infection, patients experience a natural course from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis and even Hepatitis B associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HBV-HCC). With the multi-omics research, many differentially expressed genes from chronic hepatitis to HCC stages have been discovered. All these provide important clues for new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The purpose of this study is to explore the differential gene expression of HBV and HBV-related liver cancer, and analyze their enrichments and significance of related pathways.

Methods: In this study, we downloaded four microarray datasets GSE121248, GSE67764, GSE55092, GSE55092 and GSE83148 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Using these four datasets, patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) differentially expressed genes (CHB DEGs) and patients with HBV-related HCC differentially expressed genes (HBV-HCC DEGs) were identified. Then Protein-protein Interaction (PPI) network analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) functional analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to excavate the functional interaction of these two groups of DEGs and the common DEGs. Finally, the Kaplan website was used to analyze the role of these genes in HCC prognostic.

Results: A total of 241 CHB DEGs, 276 HBV-HCC DEGs, and 4 common DEGs (cytochrome P450 family 26 subfamily A member 1 (CYP26A1), family with sequence similarity 110 member C(FAM110C), SET and MYND domain containing 3(SMYD3) and zymogen granule protein 16(ZG16)) were identified. CYP26A1, FAM110C, SMYD3 and ZG16 exist in 4 models and interact with 33 genes in the PPI network of CHB and HBV-HCC DEGs,. GO function analysis showed that: CYP26A1, FAM110C, SMYD3, ZG16, and the 33 genes in their models mainly affect the regulation of synaptic vesicle transport, tangential migration from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb, cellular response to manganese ion, protein localization to mitochondrion, cellular response to dopamine, negative regulation of neuron death in the biological process of CHB. In the biological process of HBV-HCC, they mainly affect tryptophan catabolic process, ethanol oxidation, drug metabolic process, tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine, xenobiotic metabolic process, retinoic acid metabolic process, steroid metabolic process, retinoid metabolic process, steroid catabolic process, retinal metabolic process, and rogen metabolic process. The analysis of the 4 common DEGs related to the prognosis of liver cancer showed that: CYP26A1, FAM110C, SMYD3 and ZG16 are closely related to the development of liver cancer and patient survival. Besides, further investigation of the research status of the four genes showed that CYP26A1 and SMYD3 could also affect HBV replication and the prognosis of liver cancer.

Conclusion: CYP26A1, FAM110C, SMYD3 and ZG16 are unique genes to differentiate HBV infection and HBV-related HCC, and expected to be novel targets for HBV-related HCC occurrence and prognostic judgement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376394PMC
August 2021
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