Publications by authors named "Ying Lin"

928 Publications

SOX9 inactivation affects the proliferation and differentiation of human lung organoids.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jun 10;12(1):343. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research (Ministry of Education), Cancer Research Institute, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Background: The regulation of the transcription factor sex-determining region Y-box transcription factor 9 (SOX9) in lung development has been described in mouse, but the same principles apply to human lung development is unknown due to a lack of appropriate experimental approaches and models.

Methods: Here, we used gene editing technology to inactivate SOX9 in human embryonic stem cells that were then induced to differentiate into lung organoids to investigate the role of SOX9 in human lung epithelium development.

Results: Complete knockout of the transactivation domain of SOX9 by gene editing resulted in indels in both alleles of SOX9. SOX9 hESCs could be induced to differentiate into lung progenitor organoids. In vitro long-term expansion showed that SOX9 inactivation did not affect the differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells, but promoted apoptosis and reduced proliferative capacity in the organoids. When lung progenitor organoids were transplanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice, expression of the club cell marker secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB1A1) was detected in SOX9 transplants but was absent in wild-type (WT) transplants. The maturation of goblet cells was also affected by SOX9 inactivation, as evidenced by the presence of mucin 5 AC (MUC5AC) in the cytoplasm of SOX9 grafts as compared to WT grafts in which most MUC5AC was secreted into the lumen. In vivo lung orthotopic transplantations showed that SOX9 inactivation had a limited effect on the differentiation of alveolar cells and lung regeneration in injured mice.

Conclusions: SOX9 modulates the proliferative capacity of lung epithelium but is not an indispensable transcription factor in the regulation of human lung epithelium development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02422-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of continuity of care on anticoagulant therapy and quality of life after heart valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5568-5579

Department of Nursing, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Valvular heart disease (VHD) is a leading cause of heart diseases and death, and heart valve replacement (HVR) plays a fundamental role in treating valve disease and improving the function of valves. The lack of continuity of care (CC, also known as transitional care) for postoperative patients after discharge often results in a variety of complications, bringing severe pain to the patients and diminishing their quality of life.

Methods: We systematically searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Cochrane databases, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chongqing VIP, and Wanfang Data. The methodological quality of the included articles was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.2 software.

Results: A total of 14 RCTs (involving 1,825 patients), all in Chinese language, were included in the analysis, including 920 patients in the CC group and 905 patients in the control group (receiving the routine care). Meta-analysis showed that, compared with the control group, the CC group had significantly higher anticoagulation therapy adherence [RR =1.36, 95% CI: (1.25,1.48), P<0.00001], higher awareness of anticoagulation [RR =1.14, 95% CI: (1.09, 1.18), P<0.0001], and lower incidences of anticoagulation complications and adverse events [RR =0.24, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.35), P<0.00001]. In addition, the 5 domains reflecting quality of life including physical domain [MD =2.38, 95% CI: (1.30, 3.46), P<0.0001], psychological domain [MD =2.92, 95% CI: (1.47, 4.37), P<0.0001], levels of independence [MD =4.03, 95% CI: (1.04, 7.01), P=0.008], social relationships [MD=2.56, 95% CI: (1.81, 3.32), P<0.00001], and environment [MD =4.15, 95% CI: (1.16,7.14), P=0.007] were also significantly improved.

Discussion: Our results showed CC can effectively improve patients' anticoagulation therapy adherence and raise their awareness about medications, reduce the incidences of complications and adverse events, and thus improve the patients' quality of life. However, only a limited number of high-quality RCTs were included in our current analysis, and studies with more rigorous designs are warranted to further validate the impacts of CC on anticoagulation therapy adherence and quality of life after HVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1167DOI Listing
May 2021

Continuous activation of polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells during pregnancy is critical for fetal development.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The maternal immune system is vital in maintaining immunotolerance to the semiallogeneic fetus for a successful pregnancy. Although studies have shown that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in maintaining feto-maternal tolerance, little is known about the role of MDSCs in pregnancies with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Here, we reported that the activation of polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) during pregnancy was closely associated with fetal growth. In humans, class E scavenger receptor 1 (SR-E1), a distinct marker for human PMN-MDSCs, was used to investigate PMN-MDSC function during pregnancy. Continuous activation of SR-E1 PMN-MDSCs was observed in all stages of pregnancy, accompanied by high cellular levels of ROS and arginase-1 activity, mediated through STAT6 signaling. However, SR-E1 PMN-MDSCs in pregnancies with IUGR showed significantly lower suppressive activity, lower arginase-1 activity and ROS levels, and decreased STAT6 phosphorylation level, which were accompanied by an increase in inflammatory factors, compared with those in normal pregnancies. Moreover, the population of SR-E1 PMN-MDSCs was negatively correlated with the adverse outcomes of newborns from pregnancies with IUGR. In mice, decreases in cell population, suppressive activity, target expression levels, and STAT6 phosphorylation levels were also observed in the pregnancies with IUGR compared with the normal pregnancies, which were rescued by the adoptive transfer of PMN-MDSCs from pregnant mice. Interestingly, the growth-promoting factors (GPFs) secreted by placental PMN-MDSCs in both humans and mice play a vital role in fetal development. These findings collectively support that PMN-MDSCs have another new role in pregnancy, which can improve adverse neonatal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-021-00704-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the many-lined sun skink (Eutropis multifasciata) and comparison with other Scincomorpha species.

Genomics 2021 May 27;113(4):2526-2536. Epub 2021 May 27.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Characterizating the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of an organism allows detailed genomic studies in systematics and evolution. The present study decodes the mitogenome (17,062 bp) of the many-lined sun skink, Eutropis multifasciata, using next-generation sequencing. To compare the diversity of mitogenomic structure and investigate intraspecific evolutionary relationships among the Asian Scincomorpha, the mitogenomes of 46 other species were examined concurrently. Within the group, the size of mitogenomes varied predominantly in the length at their control regions. The Ka/Ks ratios of 12 protein codon genes (PCGs) were lower than 1.00, demonstrating that they were under relaxed or moderate purifying selection. However, the ND5 had a Ka/Ks ratio >1, and was considered to be under positive selection. Currently there are two superfamilies in Scincomorpha (i.e. Scincoidea and Lacertoidea), but phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference and Maximum-Likelihood Estimations produced phylogenetic trees with three clades in Scincomorpha ((Scincoidea + Lacertoidea (part)) + Gymnophthalmidae)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.05.030DOI Listing
May 2021

[Research progress on application of biochar in cultivation of agriculture and Chinese materia medica].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 May;46(10):2461-2466

National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

Biochar is a kind of solid material with high aromatization and rich in carbon, which is formed by pyrolysis of biomass at high temperature(250-700 ℃) under anoxic or hypoxic conditions. It has the characteristics of large specific surface area and rich pores. In recent years, as a good soil conditioner, biochar has gradually improved its advantages in improving soil rhizosphere micro ecological environment, promoting plant growth and development, and enhancing plant resistance, etc. It has been proved that biochar can affect the growth and development of plants by improving soil physical and chemical properties, adjusting microbial community structure, participating in the metabolic process in plants, and inducing plants to enhance resistance. This paper summarized the research progress of biochar application in agriculture and introduced the ecological effects and mechanism of biochar on plant seed germination, seedling growth, crop yield and stress resistance. Combined with the characteristics of Chinese materia medica, this paper expounds the application potential of biochar in improving the content of secondary metabolites of Chinese materia medica and alleviating continuous cropping obstacles of Chinese materia medica, etc. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research of biochar in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, allelopathy and heavy metal stress of medicinal plants, so as to provide reference for the application of biochar in the cultivation of Chinese materia medica.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210123.107DOI Listing
May 2021

Gene Environment Interactions in the Etiology of Neural Tube Defects.

Front Genet 2021 10;12:659612. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Center for Precision Environmental Health, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

Human structural congenital malformations are the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Estimates from the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) determine that close to 3% of all United States newborns present with birth defects; the worldwide estimate approaches 6% of infants presenting with congenital anomalies. The scientific community has recognized for decades that the majority of birth defects have undetermined etiologies, although we propose that environmental agents interacting with inherited susceptibility genes are the major contributing factors. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most prevalent human birth defects and as such, these malformations will be the primary focus of this review. NTDs result from failures in embryonic central nervous system development and are classified by their anatomical locations. Defects in the posterior portion of the neural tube are referred to as meningomyeloceles (spina bifida), while the more anterior defects are differentiated as anencephaly, encephalocele, or iniencephaly. Craniorachischisis involves a failure of the neural folds to elevate and thus disrupt the entire length of the neural tube. Worldwide NTDs have a prevalence of approximately 18.6 per 10,000 live births. It is widely believed that genetic factors are responsible for some 70% of NTDs, while the intrauterine environment tips the balance toward neurulation failure in at risk individuals. Despite aggressive educational campaigns to inform the public about folic acid supplementation and the benefits of providing mandatory folic acid food fortification in the United States, NTDs still affect up to 2,300 United States births annually and some 166,000 spina bifida patients currently live in the United States, more than half of whom are now adults. Within the context of this review, we will consider the role of maternal nutritional status (deficiency states involving B vitamins and one carbon analytes) and the potential modifiers of NTD risk beyond folic acid. There are several well-established human teratogens that contribute to the population burden of NTDs, including: industrial waste and pollutants [e.g., arsenic, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)], pharmaceuticals (e.g., anti-epileptic medications), and maternal hyperthermia during the first trimester. Animal models for these teratogens are described with attention focused on valproic acid (VPA; Depakote). Genetic interrogation of model systems involving VPA will be used as a model approach to discerning susceptibility factors that define the gene-environment interactions contributing to the etiology of NTDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.659612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143787PMC
May 2021

Normal reference intervals of prognostic nutritional index in healthy adults: A large multi-center observational study from Western China.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 May 21:e23830. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sichuan Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Sichuan Cancer Hospital & Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Background: It has been widely reported that the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) played a pivotal role in nutritional assessment of surgical patients and tumor prognosis. In order to improve the accuracy of evaluation in Western China, we established reference intervals (RIs) of PNI in healthy controls.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study on healthy ethnic Han adults (18-79 years) was conducted to explore the influences of age, gender, study centers, and instruments on PNI and to establish RIs. The data came from a healthy routine examination center database and laboratory information system (LIS) of four centers in Western China, and there were 200 persons selected randomly for verification of RIs.

Results: Five thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine healthy candidates were enrolled. PNI showed a marked gender dependence, and males had significantly higher PNI than females across all ages (p < 0.01). We found that PNI is significantly different between age groups (p < 0.01), the value of PNI tended to decrease with age increasing. There is also an obvious influence of centers and instruments on PNI (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: We established reference intervals of PNI in healthy Han Chinese population in Western China and validated successfully. Further established RIs will lead to better standardizations of PNI for clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23830DOI Listing
May 2021

Delayed brain development of Rolandic epilepsy profiled by deep learning-based neuroanatomic imaging.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, the First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objectives: Although Rolandic epilepsy (RE) has been regarded as a brain developmental disorder, neuroimaging studies have not yet ascertained whether RE has brain developmental delay. This study employed deep learning-based neuroanatomic biomarker to measure the changed feature of "brain age" in RE.

Methods: The study constructed a 3D-CNN brain age prediction model through 1155 cases of typically developing children's morphometric brain MRI from open-source datasets and further applied to a local dataset of 167 RE patients and 107 typically developing children. The brain-predicted age difference was measured to quantitatively estimate brain age changes in RE and further investigated the relevancies with cognitive and clinical variables.

Results: The brain age estimation network model presented a good performance for brain age prediction in typically developing children. The children with RE showed a 0.45-year delay of brain age by contrast with typically developing children. Delayed brain age was associated with neuroanatomic changes in the Rolandic regions and also associated with cognitive dysfunction of attention.

Conclusion: This study provided neuroimaging evidence to support the notion that RE has delayed brain development.

Key Points: • The children with Rolandic epilepsy showed imaging phenotypes of delayed brain development with increased GM volume and decreased WM volume in the Rolandic regions. • The children with Rolandic epilepsy had a 0.45-year delay of brain-predicted age by comparing with typically developing children, using 3D-CNN-based brain age prediction model. • The delayed brain age was associated with morphometric changes in the Rolandic regions and attentional deficit in Rolandic epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08048-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Addressing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Decontamination: Methylene Blue and Light Inactivates SARS-CoV-2 on N95 Respirators and Medical Masks with Maintenance of Integrity and Fit.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 May 21:1-83. Epub 2021 May 21.

W21C Research and Innovation Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate SARS-CoV-2-exposed masks and respirators. We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.

Design: The two arms of the study included: 1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment, and 2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination (5CD) to determine maintenance of PPE performance.

Methods: MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on three N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and two medical mask (MM) models. We inoculated FFR and MM materials with three coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and treated with 10 µM MB and exposed to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5CD using multiple US and international test methods and compared to the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.

Results: Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all three coronaviruses with 99.8 - to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and MMs tested. FFR and MM integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas one FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.

Conclusions: MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating three tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5CD. MBL decontamination is effective, low-cost and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in all-resource settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2021.230DOI Listing
May 2021

Disease burden from COVID-19 symptoms among inpatients at the temporary military hospitals in Wuhan: a retrospective multicentre cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 05 18;11(5):e048822. Epub 2021 May 18.

Meifeng Branch, The No. 900 Hospital of Joint Logistics Support Troop of PLA, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: We aimed to establish a set of disability weights (DWs) for COVID-19 symptoms, evaluate the disease burden of inpatients and analyse the characteristics and influencing factors of the disease.

Design: This was a multicentre retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: The medical records generated in three temporary military hospitals in Wuhan.

Participants: Medical records of 2702 inpatients generated from 5 February to 5 April 2020 were randomly selected for this study.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: DWs of COVID-19 symptoms were determined by the person trade-off approach. The inpatients' medical records were analysed and used to calculate the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The mean DALY was evaluated across sex and age groups. The relationship between DALY and age, sex, body mass index, length of hospital stay, symptom duration before admission and native place was determined by multiple linear regression.

Results: For the DALY of each inpatient, severe expiratory dyspnoea, mild cough and sore throat had the highest (0.399) and lowest (0.004) weights, respectively. The average synthetic DALY and daily DALY were 2.29±1.33 and 0.18±0.15 days, respectively. Fever and fatigue contributed the most DALY at 31.36%, whereas nausea and vomiting and anxiety and depression contributed the least at 7.05%. There were significant differences between sex and age groups in both synthetic and daily DALY. Age, body mass index, length of hospital stay and symptom duration before admission were strongly related to both synthetic and daily DALY.

Conclusions: Although the disease burden was higher among women than men, their daily disease burdens were similar. The disease burden in the younger population was higher than that in the older population. Treatment at the hospitals relieved the disease burden efficiently, while a delay in hospitalisation worsened it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-048822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130755PMC
May 2021

Two factors affecting the success rate of the second non-invasive prenatal screening after initial no-call result: experience from a single tertiary center in China.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210004, China Center of Genetic Medicine, Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210004, China.

Background: One inevitable shortcoming of non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS)/cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing is the uninterpretable ("no-call") result, which is mainly caused by an insufficient fetal fraction. This study was performed to investigate the factors associated with a successful second NIPS in these cases and determine the optimal management for women with initial no-call results.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of women who underwent NIPS with initial no-call results due to an insufficient fetal fraction from 2017 to 2019 in our center. We compared these women's maternal and pregnancy information with the data of women who had attained a successful second NIPS result and women who had received no-call results for a second time.

Results: Among the 33,684 women who underwent NIPS, 137 with a no-call result underwent a retest. Comparison between the 87 (63.50%) women with a successful retest and the other 50 (36.50%) women showed a significant difference in both the initial fetal fraction and maternal body mass index (BMI), whereas the other factors showed no significant differences. In addition, with an initial fetal fraction of < 2.00%, the retest success rate was very limited.

Conclusions: We identified two major factors associated with a successful NIPS retest: the initial fetal fraction and the maternal BMI. These findings suggest the need for specialized management for this subset of women and would be instructional for the counseling for these women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001531DOI Listing
May 2021

Constructing a nitrogen-doped carbon and nickel composite derived from a mixed ligand nickel-based a metal-organic framework toward adjustable microwave absorption.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(20):9204-9216

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Functionalization for Inorganic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710021, China.

The rational design of nanostructures for absorbers has great potential in the microwave absorption field. In this work, a mixed ligand nickel metal-organic framework (ML-Ni MOF) was first prepared by the self-assembly of pyrazine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid with nickel ions. Then, the as-prepared ML-Ni MOF was used as a precursor to fabricate a nitrogen-doped carbon and nickel composite (ML-Ni/C). With the molar ratio of pyrazine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid of 1 : 1, the flower-like ML-Ni MOF was obtained. After pyrolysis, the ML-Ni MOF-derived ML-Ni/C composite showed an optimal reflection loss value of -65.33 dB with a thickness of 2.4 mm and a corresponding effective absorbing bandwidth (EAB, RL ≤ -10 dB) of 5.1 GHz. Besides, the broadest EAB of 7.6 GHz was achieved when the thickness was about 2.8 mm. This strategy paves a new way to design novel MOFs as precursors for fabricating absorbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr01607eDOI Listing
May 2021

Retro-orbital injection of FITC-dextran combined with isolectin B4 in assessing the retinal neovascularization defect.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 May 11;21(1):208. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Jinsui Road 7, Tianhe District, 510000, Guangzhou, China.

Background: A reliable and effective method is required to deliver agent that can aid the in vivo imaging of retinal vessels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate retro-orbital (RO) injection of fluorescein-labeled isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-dextran) as a method of demonstrating retinal neovascularization (NV) and avascular areas in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice.

Methods: Different concentrations of FITC-dextran were used to compare the efficacy of this agent in perfusing the retinal vessels. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate the safety of RO injection. The vitreous blood vessels and extent of NV were assessed in P17 OIR mice using FITC-dextran and compared with the corresponding measurements obtained following isolectin B4 staining or the combination of both methods.

Results: The fluorescence of small vessels and neovascular tufts could be observed clearly following RO injection of 0.05 ml of 25 mg/ml or 50 mg/ml FITC-dextran. No visible damage to tissues adjacent to the injection site was discovered. Vitreous blood flow was gradually reduced from P0 to P5 and eventually disappeared in P17 OIR mice, as demonstrated by FITC-dextran perfusion. The retinal NV areas assessed by isolectin B4 were larger than those assessed by FITC-dextran, but the retinal avascular areas were smaller. The combination of both methods could conduce to distinguish non-functional blood vessels.

Conclusions: RO injection of FITC-dextran combined with isolectin B4 is an effective, optimal method for assessing the NV area and avascular area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-01969-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112026PMC
May 2021

Mothers' voices and white noise on premature infants' physiological reactions in a neonatal intensive care unit: A multi-arm randomized controlled trial.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Mar 26;119:103934. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Associate Professor, Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: A few positive effects of mothers' voice on physiological outcomes have been studied and limited studies have focused on the level of cortisol. In addition, white noise has recently been found to be beneficial for human sleep, but studies in premature infants were limited and no study has compared the effects of mothers' voice and white noise on premature infants.

Objective: To examine the effects of mothers' voice and white noise on sleep-wake patterns, salivary cortisol levels, weight gain, heart rate, and oxygen saturation of premature infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods: This was a three-group randomized controlled trial. A total of 103 medically stable premature infants in incubators were recruited from the NICU of a women's and children's hospital in China between March and December 2017 and were randomized into three groups: the mothers' voice group (n = 34), the white noise group (n = 34), and the routine care group (n = 35). Mothers' voice, white noise, and no voice were provided to the three groups for 20 min at a time, three times a day for four consecutive days. The sound levels of the mothers' voice and white noise were controlled between 50 and 55 dB. Sleep-wake patterns, salivary cortisol level, and weight were measured at pre-test and post-test whereas heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured every five-minute at 11am, 2pm, 5pm for four-consecutive days.

Results: A group difference was found only in weight gain (p = 0.003), with weight gain in the white noise group being significantly higher than the mothers' voice group (Z=-3.447, p = 0.001). Significant declines in total sleep time and sleep efficiency and increases in wake time after sleep onset and average awakening time were only found in the routine-care group between the pre-test and post-test (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in the salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and oxygen saturation levels among the three groups (p>0.05). A significant increase in oxygen saturation during the 20-min intervention was found in white noise group. Non-significant decreases in the heart rate during the 20-min intervention and salivary cortisol levels at post test were noted in all the three groups.

Conclusion: White noise is more useful for encouraging weight gain in preterm infants compared with mothers' voices. White noise might be introduced for use in the care of premature infants in NICUs, and more high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings. Trial Registration No: ChiCTR-INR-17012755.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.103934DOI Listing
March 2021

Anthracycline-containing carboplatin-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer: the neoCARH phase II randomized clinical trial.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 20;13:17588359211009003. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Breast Cancer, Cancer Center, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, No.123 Huifu West, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China.

Background: Although dual blockade HER2-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with excellent outcomes for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, pertuzumab is not available to all patients due to cost. The optimal neoadjuvant chemotherapy for HER2-positive breast cancer in the presence of a single HER2 blockade is unknown. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel/trastuzumab (EC-TH) with docetaxel/carboplatin/trastuzumab (TCH) neoadjuvant setting for HER2-positive breast cancer under the single HER2 blockade.

Methods: Patients with stage II-IIIC HER2-positive breast cancer were randomly assigned to either eight cycles of EC-TH every 3 weeks during all chemotherapy cycles, or six cycles of TCH every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) (defined as the absence of invasive tumor cells in breast and axilla, ypT0/is ypN0).

Results: From May 2017 to November 2019, 140 patients were randomly assigned, and 135 patients were ultimately found evaluable for the primary endpoint. The pCR was recorded in 25 of 67 patients [37.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 25.8-50.0] in the EC-TH group and in 38 of 68 patients (55.9%, 95% CI, 43.3-67.9) in the TCH group ( = 0.032). The most common adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia in 24 of 67 (35.8%) patients in the EC-TH group 27 of 68 (39.7%) in the TCH group ( = 0.642), anemia in 33 of 67 (49.3%) patients in the EC-TH group 34 of 68 (50.0%) in the TCH group ( = 0.931), and thrombocytopenia in five of 67 (7.5%) patients in the EC-TH group 17 of 68 (25.0%) in the TCH group ( = 0.006).

Conclusion: For patients receiving the single HER2 blockade trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer, TCH regimen might be a preferred neoadjuvant therapy.

Trial Registration: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03140553) on 2 May 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17588359211009003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064510PMC
April 2021

Synergistic activity of insulin combined with glucose on Toxoplasma gondii proliferation in Vero cells.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001516DOI Listing
May 2021

Resveratrol and Angiogenin-2 Combined With PEGDA/TCS Hydrogel for the Targeted Therapy of Hypoxic Bone Defects via Activation of the Autophagy Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:618724. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, National and Local Joint Engineering, Research Center of Orthopaedic Biomaterials, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

The guarantee of cell survival under hypoxic conditions and rapid vascularization is a key in tissue engineering strategies for treating bone defects. Our study aimed to establish the protective role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in hypoxic conditions and realize rapid vascularization in bone defects. Resveratrol (Res), a non-flavonoid polyphenolic compound, and angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), a vascular activating factor, were applied to enhance BMSC and HUVEC survival, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis. The morphology, autophagy, viability, apoptosis, cycle, and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs treated with Res were analyzed. The results indicated that Res could improve BMSC survival and differentiation via the autophagy pathway under hypoxic conditions. In addition, Res maintained HUVEC growth and proliferation in a hypoxic and ANG2 double-adverse environment via the autophagy pathway. To simulate a relatively hypoxic environment, small-aperture PEGDA/TCS hydrogels containing Res and ANG2 were prepared. BMSCs were cultured in the PEGDA/TCS scaffold and transplanted into a large tibial defect. CD31 immunofluorescence showed that the density and size of new blood vessels in the bone defect were significantly enhanced by ANG2 and Res at 8 weeks after surgery. H&E, Masson, and immunohistochemical staining results indicated that ANG2 combined with Res could promote new bone formation in defects. All these results suggested that Res combined with ANG2 may be a novel strategy for the targeted therapy of hypoxic bone defects with tissue engineering scaffolds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.618724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079142PMC
April 2021

Estrogen-Related Receptor Influences the Hemolymph Glucose Content by Regulating Midgut Trehalase Gene Expression in the Last Instar Larvae of .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Biological Science Research Center, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China.

The expression of trehalase in the midgut of insects plays an important role in glucose supply to the hemolymph. Energy metabolism is usually regulated by the estrogen-related receptor (ERR). A decrease in ATP levels is caused by the ERR hindering glycolysis. However, the relationship between trehalose accumulation and ERR expression is still unclear. Here, we found that silkworm ERR (BmERR) is concentrated and BmERR expression is strongly correlated with trehalase in the midgut during the last instar silkworm larval stage. We cloned the promoter of the trehalase from (BmTreh) and found that the ERR bound directly to the core response elements of the promoter. Cell level interference and the overexpression of ERR can reduce or enhance BmTreh transcription and promoter activity. Overexpressed transgenic BmERR can significantly increase the expression of BmTreh in the midgut of the last instar silkworm larvae, thereby hydrolyzing trehalose into glucose and releasing it into the hemolymph. Additionally, increased hemolymph glucose content reduces silkworm pupa weight but does not affect silk protein production from the silk gland. Our results suggest a novel function for BmERR through its involvement in BmTreh regulation and expand the understanding of ERR functions in insect trehalose metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122577PMC
April 2021

Model for Identifying High Carotid Body Chemosensitivity in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 21;13:493-501. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The carotid body (CB) is a major peripheral respiratory chemoreceptor. In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), high CB chemosensitivity (CBC) is associated with refractory hypertension and insulin resistance and known to further aggravate OSA. Thus, the identification of high CB (hCBC) among OSA patients is of clinical significance, but detection methods are still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association of CBC with OSA severity and to develop a simplified model that can identify patients with hCBC.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study of subjects who underwent polysomnography (PSG), CBC was measured using the Dejours test. We defined hCBC as a decrease of >12% in respiratory rate (RR) after breathing of pure O. The association of CBC with OSA severity was explored by logistic regression, and a model for identifying hCBC was constructed and confirmed using receiver operating characteristic analysis.

Results: Patients with OSA (n=142) and individuals without OSA (n=38) were enrolled. CBC was higher in patients with OSA than in those without OSA (% decrease in RR, 15.2%±13.3% vs 9.1%±7.5%, P<0.05). Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), fraction of apnea-hypopnea events in rapid-eye-movement sleep (F), and longest time of apnea (LTA) were associated with hCBC independently (odds ratio [OR]=1.048, OR=1.082, and OR=1.024 respectively; all <0.05). The model for identifying hCBC allocated a score to each criterion according to its OR values, ie, 1 (LTA >48.4 s), 2 (AHI >15.7 events/hour), and 3 (F >12.7%). A score of 3 or greater indicated hCBC with a sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 88.2%.

Conclusion: High CBC is associated with the severity of OSA. A simplified scoring system based on clinical variables from PSG can be used to identify hCBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S299646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071699PMC
April 2021

Cysteiniphilum marinum sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, People's Republic of China.

Six aerobic Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from seawater in Guangdong Province, P.R. China. Cells were observed to be Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile and non-spore forming. Growth of the designated type strain 19X3-30 occurred at a temperature range of 14-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C), a pH range of 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7) and up to 7.5% NaCl (optimum, 1.5%; w/v), and was enhanced by CO and L-cysteine supplementation. The major polar lipids identified in strain 19X3-30 were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The principal cellular fatty acids profile showed the presence of anteiso-C, anteiso-C and C (> 8% of total fatty acids), and the respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 8 (UQ-8). According to the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these strains represented a novel species within the family Fastidiosibacteraceae, sharing maximum similarities with Cysteiniphilum litorale DSM 101832 (96.6%) and Cysteiniphilum halobium DSM 103992 (95.3%). Phylogenetic dendrograms based on 16S rRNA gene and protein marker genes from the genomic sequences both indicated that the strains formed a monophyletic lineage closely linked to the genus Cysteiniphilum, which was also supported by the UPGMA dendrogram based on the MALDI-TOF MS profile. The genomic DNA G + C contents of six strains ranged from 38.0% to 38.1%. Based on different taxonomic genomic metrics, phylogeny and phenotypic features, we propose that the strains warrant the assignment to a novel species, for which the name Cysteiniphilum marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 19X3-30 (= KCTC 82154 = CGMCC 1.18585).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-021-01579-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Patient-derived glial enriched progenitors repair functional deficits due to white matter stroke and vascular dementia in rodents.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Apr;13(590)

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Subcortical white matter stroke (WMS) accounts for up to 30% of all stroke events. WMS damages primarily astrocytes, axons, oligodendrocytes, and myelin. We hypothesized that a therapeutic intervention targeting astrocytes would be ideally suited for brain repair after WMS. We characterize the cellular properties and in vivo tissue repair activity of glial enriched progenitor (GEP) cells differentiated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells, termed hiPSC-derived GEPs (hiPSC-GEPs). hiPSC-GEPs are derived from hiPSC-neural progenitor cells via an experimental manipulation of hypoxia inducible factor activity by brief treatment with a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, deferoxamine. This treatment permanently biases these cells to further differentiate toward an astrocyte fate. hiPSC-GEPs transplanted into the brain in the subacute period after WMS in mice migrated widely, matured into astrocytes with a prorepair phenotype, induced endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor proliferation and remyelination, and promoted axonal sprouting. hiPSC-GEPs enhanced motor and cognitive recovery compared to other hiPSC-differentiated cell types. This approach establishes an hiPSC-derived product with easy scale-up capabilities that might be effective for treating WMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz6747DOI Listing
April 2021

Characterization of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Imaging Mass Cytometry.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:620989. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is a major subtype of non-small cell lung cancer. The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) affects the anti-tumor immune response and the patient's prognosis, although the TIME in LUSC patients is incompletely understood.

Methods: We retrospectively collected surgical specimens from patients with previously untreated primary LUSC. Histopathological examination was used to identify tumor regions and adjacent regions, and imaging mass cytometry was used to characterize the immune cells in those regions. The results were compared between regions and between patients.

Results: We identified heterogeneity in the TIME on comparing different patients with LUSC, although the tumor region and adjacent region both exhibited an immune response to the tumor. The TIME typically included a large number of infiltrating and activated T-cells, especially CD8 T-cells, which closely interacted with the tumor cells in the tumor region. There was limited infiltration of B-cells, NK cells, and NKT cells, while the major immune suppressor cells were CD33 myeloid-derived cells. We also identified a novel population of CD3CD4 cells with high expression of Foxp3 and TNFα, which might modulate the tumor microenvironment and play a proinflammatory role in the TIME.

Conclusions: The TIME of LUSC appears to be immunogenic and heterogenous, with predominant infiltration of activated CD8 T-cells. The interactions between the tumor cells and T-cells facilitate the anti-tumor activity. A novel subpopulation of CD3CD4 cells with high TNFα and Foxp3 expression may modulate the tumor microenvironment and play a proinflammatory role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.620989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047498PMC
April 2021

The role of S-nitrosylation of PFKM in regulation of glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 15;12(4):408. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Cancer Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cancer Immunotherapy, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Tumor Immunology Research, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

One of the malignant transformation hallmarks is metabolism reprogramming, which plays a critical role in the biosynthetic needs of unchecked proliferation, abrogating cell death programs, and immunologic escape. However, the mechanism of the metabolic switch is not fully understood. Here, we found that the S-nitrosoproteomic profile of endogenous nitrogen oxide in ovarian cancer cells targeted multiple components in metabolism processes. Phosphofructokinase (PFKM), one of the most important regulatory enzymes of glycolysis, was S-nitrosylated by nitric oxide synthase NOS1 at Cys351. S-nitrosylation at Cys351 stabilized the tetramer of PFKM, leading to resist negative feedback of downstream metabolic intermediates. The PFKM-C351S mutation decreased the proliferation rate of cultured cancer cells, and reduced tumor growth and metastasis in the mouse xenograft model. These findings indicated that S-nitrosylation at Cys351 of PFKM by NOS1 contributes to the metabolic reprogramming of ovarian cancer cells, highlighting a critical role of endogenous nitrogen oxide on metabolism regulations in tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03681-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050300PMC
April 2021

Synergistic Recognition-Triggered Charge Transfer Enables Rapid Visual Colorimetric Detection of Fentanyl.

Anal Chem 2021 04 15;93(16):6544-6550. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

National Collaborative Innovation Center for Nuclear Waste and Environmental Safety, School of National Defence Science & Technology, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, P. R. China.

As a new psychoactive substance, abuse of fentanyl (FTN) is currently spreading around the world, resulting in an urgent need of on-site and rapid analytical methods for detection of FTN. Here, we present a synergistic recognition strategy for rapid, cost-effective, selective, sensitive, and visual colorimetric detection of FTN by taking advantage of Rose Bengal (RB) as the specific probe. This assay is based on the halogen- and hydrogen-bonding interactions between them, generating a charge transfer and accompanying a red shift in the RB absorption band as well as color change from red to purple. The utility of the present visual colorimetric assay is demonstrated in aqueous solution, diluted urine, and domestic sewage samples. A detection limit of 0.7 mg·L in aqueous solution is achieved, and the naked-eye detection of FTN is also realized in different real matrices within 6 min. Moreover, this method is insusceptible to interference from various substances (other opioids, cutting agents of street drugs, FTN precursors, amino acids, and small-molecular amines). Additionally, we successfully fabricate a smartphone-based portable device to determine FTN, which is appropriate for field tests. The present work not only provides the first visual assay for FTN but also reveals the molecular structure-property relationship, which will guide the design and development of various probes for recognizing FTN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00723DOI Listing
April 2021

Cost-efficiency trade-offs of the human brain network revealed by a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 20;236:118040. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

It is widely believed that the formation of brain network architecture is under the pressure of optimal trade-off between reducing wiring cost and promoting communication efficiency. However, the questions of whether this trade-off exists in empirical human brain structural networks and, if so, how it takes effect are still not well understood. Here, we employed a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to directly and quantitatively explore the cost-efficiency trade-off in human brain structural networks. Using this algorithm, we generated a population of synthetic networks with optimal but diverse cost-efficiency trade-offs. It was found that these synthetic networks could not only reproduce a large portion of connections in the empirical brain structural networks but also embed a resembling small-world organization. Moreover, the synthetic and empirical brain networks were found similar in terms of the spatial arrangement of hub regions and the modular structure, which are two important topological features widely assumed to be outcomes of cost-efficiency trade-offs. The synthetic networks had high robustness against random attacks as the empirical brain networks did. Additionally, we also revealed some differences between the synthetic networks and the empirical brain networks, including lower segregated processing capacity and weaker robustness against targeted attacks in the synthetic networks. These findings provide direct and quantitative evidence that the structure of human brain networks is indeed largely influenced by optimal cost-efficiency trade-offs. We also suggest that some additional factors (e.g., segregated processing capacity) might jointly determine the network organization with cost and efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118040DOI Listing
April 2021

Comprehensive Quality Evaluation of American Ginseng for Different Parts and Abnormal Trait Based on the Major Ginsenoside Contents and Morphological Characteristics.

Biomed Res Int 2021 24;2021:8831080. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, China.

The demand for American ginseng, a famous traditional medicine and high-grade healthy food, has increased dramatically over recent years. However, only the main root is popular among consumers, whereas other parts of American ginseng are rarely available in the market. In this study, the contents of 5 major ginsenosides (Re, Rc, Rg, Rd, and Rb) were determined through high-performance liquid chromatography. Our study showed that all these 5 major ginsenosides are found in different parts of American ginseng plants, and the total content in different parts varied significantly in the following order: fibrous root > flower > branch root > main root > leaf > stem. Interestingly, the total content in the fibrous root was approximately 2.24 times higher than that in the main root. Further research indicated that the ginsenoside content in American ginseng with abnormal characteristics (physical deformity caused by disease and discolouration) is similar to that in the normal plant. Interestingly, a positive correlation was observed between the main root diameter and total ginsenoside content, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the main root length and total ginsenoside content. Our comprehensive study revealed that all parts of American ginseng, including the main root with abnormal characteristics, possess medicinal or economic value. Therefore, our results provide feasible evidence to further explore the potential application of American ginseng.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8831080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016571PMC
May 2021

Acupuncture for the treatment of diarrheal-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 7;22(1):253. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

International Acupuncture and Moxibustion Innovation Institute, School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 100029, Beijing, China.

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal diseases. Although acupuncture has become a common alternative therapy for IBS, there is insufficient evidence for its effectiveness. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and feasibility of acupuncture in the treatment of IBS.

Methods/design: This is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. According to the ratio of 1:1:1, 90 patients with irritable bowel syndrome will be randomly divided into specific acupoints (SA) group, non-specific acupoints (NSA) group, and non-acupoints (NA) group. All patients will be treated with acupuncture 12 times within 4 weeks and followed up for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the response rate, the percentage of patients whose average value of worst abdominal pain is 30% better and the days of loose stool is 50% less than the baseline, at week 4 after randomization. The secondary outcomes include the response rates at other time points, IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression scale (PHQ-9), IBS-Quality of Life scale (IBS-QOL), IBS Adequate Relief (IBS-AR), Abdominal Pain Score, Abdominal Bloating Score, Bristol Stool Score (BBS), blinding assessment, and credibility evaluation. Adverse events will be monitored and recorded during the trial.

Trial Registration: Chictr.org.cn ChiCTR2000030670. Registered on 9 March 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05211-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025543PMC
April 2021

Chronic Illness and Income Diversification in Rural China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 24;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Human Resources and Social Security of Shaanxi Province, Xi'an 710000, China.

Off-farm diversification offers an important pathway out of poverty while health-impaired rural farmers can hardly seize the opportunity in developing countries. This paper investigates how chronic illness shapes livelihood structure and income generation in rural China. Our sample consists of 3850 rural households in Southern China and we rely on instrumental variable regressions to identify causal effects. We find that farmers with chronic illness tend to diversify towards local off-farm employments, rather than migrants, since local off-farm employments are more likely to act in a strategically complementary way to farming. Further analysis shows that income returns of diversification tend to be substantially higher for the health-impaired. While the relationship between diversification and income presents a conventional inverted U shape for the healthy, it is best categorized as upward sloping with diminishing marginal effects for farmers with chronic illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036352PMC
March 2021

[Development and evaluation of a novel method for rapid screening of Pichia pastoris strains capable of efficiently expressing recombinant proteins].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Mar;37(3):939-949

School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China.

Pichia pastoris is one of the most widely used recombinant protein expression systems. In this study, a novel method for rapid screening of P. pastoris strains capable of efficiently expressing recombinant proteins was developed. Firstly, the ability to express recombinant proteins of the modified strain GS115-E in which a functional Sec63-EGFP (Enhanced green fluorescent protein) fusion protein replaced the endogenous endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein Sec63 was tested. Next, the plasmids carrying different copy numbers of phytase (phy) gene or xylanase (xyn) gene were transformed into GS115-E to obtain recombinant strains with different expression levels of phytase or xylanase, and the expression levels of EGFP and recombinant proteins in different strains were tested. Finally, a flow cytometer sorter was used to separate a mixture of cells with different phytase expression levels into sub-populations according to green fluorescence intensity. A good linear correlation was found between the fluorescence intensities of EGFP and the expression levels of the recombinant proteins in the recombinant strains (0.8<|R|<1). By using the flow cytometer, high-yielding P. pastoris cells were efficiently screened from a mixture of cells. The expression level of phytase of the selected high-fluorescence strains was 4.09 times higher than that of the low-fluorescence strains after 120 h of methanol induction. By detecting the EGFP fluorescence intensity instead of detecting the expression level and activity of the recombinant proteins in the recombinant strains, the method developed by the present study possesses the greatly improved performance of convenience and versatility in screening high-yielding P. pastoris strains. Combining the method with high-throughput screening instruments and technologies, such as flow cytometer and droplet microfluidics, the speed and throughput of this method will be further increased. This method will provide a simple and rapid approach for screening and obtaining P. pastoris with high abilities to express recombinant proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200629DOI Listing
March 2021