Publications by authors named "Ying Jin"

654 Publications

Significant Variability in Surrogate Informed Consent Rates in ARDS and PETAL Network Multicenter Trials.

Chest 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.09.008DOI Listing
September 2021

The Mechanism of Warburg Effect-Induced Chemoresistance in Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 3;11:698023. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Although chemotherapy can improve the overall survival and prognosis of cancer patients, chemoresistance remains an obstacle due to the diversity, heterogeneity, and adaptability to environmental alters in clinic. To determine more possibilities for cancer therapy, recent studies have begun to explore changes in the metabolism, especially glycolysis. The Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer that refers to the preference of cancer cells to metabolize glucose anaerobically rather than aerobically, even under normoxia, which contributes to chemoresistance. However, the association between glycolysis and chemoresistance and molecular mechanisms of glycolysis-induced chemoresistance remains unclear. This review describes the mechanism of glycolysis-induced chemoresistance from the aspects of glycolysis process, signaling pathways, tumor microenvironment, and their interactions. The understanding of how glycolysis induces chemoresistance may provide new molecular targets and concepts for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.698023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446599PMC
September 2021

MKRN1 Ubiquitylates p21 to Protect against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Myocardial Apoptosis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 30;2021:9360339. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Although chronic intermittent hypoxia- (IH-) induced myocardial apoptosis is an established pathophysiological process resulting in a poor prognosis for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study is aimed at exploring the role of makorin ring finger protein 1 (MKRN1) in IH-induced myocardial apoptosis and elucidating its molecular activity. First, the GSE2271 dataset was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to identify the differentially expressed genes. Then, an SD rat model of IH, together with rat cardiomyocyte H9C2 and human cardiomyocyte AC16 IH models, was constructed. TUNEL, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect cell apoptosis. Dihydroethidium staining was conducted to analyze the concentration of reactive oxygen species. In addition, RT-qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were performed to measure the expression levels of MKRN1 and p21. The direct interaction between MKRN1 and p21 was determined using coimmunoprecipitation and ubiquitination analysis. MKRN1 expression was found to be downregulated in IH rat myocardial tissues as well as in H9C2 and AC16 cells. Upregulated expression of MKRN1 in H9C2 and AC16 cells alleviated the IH-induced reactive oxygen species production and cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, MKRN1 promoted p21 protein ubiquitination and the proteasome pathway degradation to negatively regulate p21 expression. Thus, MKRN1 regulates p21 ubiquitination to prevent IH-induced myocardial apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9360339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423574PMC
August 2021

Genomic temporal heterogeneity of circulating tumour DNA in unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer under first-line treatment.

Gut 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China

Objective: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) sequencing is increasingly used in the clinical management of patients with colorectal cancer. However, the genomic heterogeneity in ctDNA during treatments and its impact on clinical outcomes remain largely unknown.

Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study (NCT04228614) of 171 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who underwent first-line treatment and prospectively collected blood samples with or without tumour samples from patients at baseline and sequentially until disease progression or last follow-up.

Results: The RAS/BRAF alterations in paired baseline tissue and plasma samples from 63 patients displayed a favourable concordance (81.0%, 51/63). After a period of first-line treatment (median time between baseline and last liquid biopsy, 4.67 months), 42.6% (26/61) of RAS-mutant patients showed RAS clearance and 50.0% (5/10) of BRAF-mutant patients showed BRAF clearance, while 3.6% (3/84) and 0.7% (1/135) of patients showed new RAS or BRAF mutations in ctDNA. Patients with plasma RAS/BRAF clearance showed similar progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with patients who remained RAS/BRAF wild-type, while much better outcomes than those who remained RAS/BRAF mutant. Patients who gained new RAS/BRAF mutations showed similar prognosis as those who maintained RAS/BRAF mutations, and shorter PFS and OS than those who remained RAS/BRAF wild-type.

Conclusion: This prospective, serial and large-scale ctDNA profiling study reveals the temporal heterogeneity of mCRC-related somatic variants, which should be given special attention in clinical practice, as evidenced by the finding that the shift in plasma RAS/BRAF mutational status can yield a drastic change in survival outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324852DOI Listing
September 2021

An integrated method for hybrid distribution with estimation of demand matching degree.

J Comb Optim 2021 Aug 20:1-27. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200127 China.

Timely and effective distribution of relief materials is one of the most important aspects when fighting with a natural or a man-made disaster. Due to the sudden and urgent nature of most disasters, it is hard to make the exact prediction on the demand information. Meanwhile, timely delivery is also a problem. In this paper, taking the COVID-19 epidemic as an example, we propose an integrated method to fulfill both the demand estimation and the relief material distribution. We assume the relief supply is directed by government, so it is possible to arrange experts to evaluate the situation from aspects and coordinate supplies of different sources. The first part of the integrated method is a fuzzy decision-making process. The demand degrees on relief materials are estimated by extending COPRAS under interval 2-tuple linguistic environment. The second part includes the demand degrees as one of the inputs, conducts a hybrid distribution model to decide the allocation and routing. The key point of hybrid distribution is that each demand point could be visited by different vehicles and each vehicle could visit different demand points. Our method can also be extended to include both relief materials and medical staffs. A real-life case study of Wuhan, China is provided to illustrate the presented method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10878-021-00787-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378531PMC
August 2021

Autophagic degradation of CCN2 (cellular communication network factor 2) causes cardiotoxicity of sunitinib.

Autophagy 2021 Aug 25:1-22. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research of Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R.China.

Excessive macroautophagy/autophagy is one of the causes of cardiomyocyte death induced by cardiovascular diseases or cancer therapy, yet the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We and other groups previously reported that autophagy might contribute to cardiomyocyte death caused by sunitinib, a tumor angiogenesis inhibitor that is widely used in clinic, which may help to understand the mechanism of autophagy-induced cardiomyocyte death. Here, we found that sunitinib-induced autophagy leads to apoptosis of cardiomyocyte and cardiac dysfunction as the cardiomyocyte-specific heterozygous mice are resistant to sunitinib. Sunitinib-induced maladaptive autophagy selectively degrades the cardiomyocyte survival mediator CCN2 (cellular communication network factor 2) through the TOLLIP (toll interacting protein)-mediated endosome-related pathway and cardiomyocyte-specific knockdown of through adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) mimics sunitinib-induced cardiac dysfunction , suggesting that the autophagic degradation of CCN2 is one of the causes of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity and death of cardiomyocytes. Remarkably, deletion of (high mobility group box 1) inhibited sunitinib-induced cardiomyocyte autophagy and apoptosis, and the HMGB1-specific inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA) significantly mitigated sunitinib-induced autophagy, cardiomyocyte death and cardiotoxicity. Our study reveals a novel target protein of autophagic degradation in the regulation of cardiomyocyte death and highlights the pharmacological inhibitor of HMGB1 as an attractive approach for improving the safety of sunitinib-based cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1965712DOI Listing
August 2021

Research Progress on Natural Compounds Exerting an Antidepressant Effect through Anti-inflammatory.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634. Singapore.

Depression is a common mental illness that belongs to the category of emotional disorders that causes serious damage to the health and life of patients, while inflammation is considered to be one of the important factors that causes depression. In this case, it might be important to explore the possible therapeutic approach by using natural compounds exerting an anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effect, which it filed has not been systematically reviewed recently. Hence, this review aims to systematically sort the literature related to the mechanism of exerting an antidepressant effect through anti-inflammatory actions, and to summarize the related natural products in the past 20 years, in terms of a number of inflammatory related pathways (i.e., the protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, monoamine neurotransmitters (5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine) (5-HT and NE), the nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, proinflammatory cytokines, neurotrophins, or cytokine-signaling pathways), which might provide a useful reference for the potential treatment of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867328666210820115259DOI Listing
August 2021

Optimizing the Performance of Pure ALOHA for LoRa-Based ESL.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 26;21(15). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Automation, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

(1) Background: The scientific development in the field of industrialization demands the automization of electronic shelf labels (ESLs). COVID-19 has limited the manpower responsible for the frequent updating of the ESL system. The current ESL uses QR (quick response) codes, NFC (near-field communication), and RFID (radio-frequency identification). These technologies have a short range or need more manpower. LoRa is one of the prominent contenders in this category as it provides long-range connectivity with less energy harvesting and location tracking. It uses many gateways (GWs) to transmit the same data packet to a node, which causes collision at the receiver side. The restriction of the duty cycle (DC) and dependency of acknowledgment makes it unsuitable for use by the common person. The maximum efficiency of pure ALOHA is 18.4%, while that of slotted ALOHA is 36.8%, which makes LoRa unsuitable for industrial use. It can be used for applications that need a low data rate, i.e., up to approximately 27 Kbps. The ALOHA mechanism can cause inefficiency by not eliminating fast saturation even with the increasing number of gateways. The increasing number of gateways can only improve the global performance for generating packets with Poisson law having a uniform distribution of payload of 1~51 bytes. The maximum expected channel capacity usage is similar to the pure ALOHA throughput. (2) Methods: In this paper, the improved ALOHA mechanism is used, which is based on the orthogonal combination of spreading factor (SF) and bandwidth (BW), to maximize the throughput of LoRa for ESL. The varying distances (D) of the end nodes (ENs) are arranged based on the K-means machine learning algorithm (MLA) using the parameter selection principle of ISM (industrial, scientific and medical) regulation with a 1% DC for transmission to minimize the saturation. (3) Results: The performance of the improved ALOHA degraded with the increasing number of SFs and as well ENs. However, after using K-mapping, the network changes and the different number of gateways had a greater impact on the probability of successful transmission. The saturation decreased from 57% to 1~2% by using MLA. The RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) plays a key role in determining the exact position of the ENs, which helps to improve the possibility of successful transmission and synchronization at higher BW (250 kHz). In addition, a high BW has lower energy consumption than a low BW at the same DC with a double-bit rate and almost half the ToA (time on-air).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21155060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348389PMC
July 2021

mHealth in hyper-connected Hong Kong: examining attitudes and access to mobile devices and health information among older Chinese residents.

Mhealth 2021 20;7:43. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

International Research Centre for the Advancement of Health Communication, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Background: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is one of the most technologically advanced and interconnected cities in the world in terms of ownership of internet-enabled mobile devices. mHealth programs that make use of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets to maximise access to health information, have been identified as having great potential for ageing communities for the management of health and social care needs. This paper reports the findings of a two-stage exploratory research project which examined the experiences and perceptions of Hong Kong residents aged over 60 years in relation to mHealth technologies and health literacy.

Methods: This study collected data from older Hong Kong residents at a community centre. Data were collected at two stages in July and August 2019. Stage one involved a one-on-one interview at Centre A with each research participant. The self-report surveys included seven questions about mobile phone ownership and a 16-item gerontechnology survey previously used in Hong Kong. Stage two of the data collection involved three discussion groups with the research participants that were run over a 3-week period.

Results: (I) Providing health information via digital devices was considered promising and acceptable by most of our participants. (II) Major concerns that impeded the elders' use of digital devices were their lack of the necessary skills to use these gadgets and their loss of memory. (III) Many participants stated their concern that they found it difficult to recall information immediately after being taught. (IV) Most participants had problems in reading because of low literacy levels or some age-related eye-diseases. (V) Video instructions were preferred by participants as audio and visual input is more useful than rather than static written information with heavy reading requirements.

Conclusions: Participants were interested in using mHealth technologies. Education and ongoing support in their use is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/mhealth-20-123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326963PMC
July 2021

Molecular mechanisms of opioid tolerance: From opioid receptors to inflammatory mediators (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 15;22(3):1004. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Acupuncture and Neurology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310053, P.R. China.

Opioids are considered the most effective analgesics for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain. However, prolonged opioid use can induce a certain level of tolerance to its analgesic effects, leading to a reduction in its effectiveness, addiction and abuse. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying opioid tolerance may provide insights into this phenomenon and aid in the development of novel methods to combat the side effects of opioid tolerance. The present review focused on two major contributors to tolerance, opioid receptors and inflammatory mediators. The molecular mechanisms involved in the desensitization of the opioid receptors were briefly described, including their phosphorylation, internalisation and recycling. Subsequently, the effects of Toll like receptor 4/NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3-mediated proinflammatory responses in opioid tolerance were discussed, aiming in supporting the identification of novel therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311239PMC
September 2021

Electroacupuncture alleviates the transition from acute to chronic pain through the p38 MAPK/TNF-α signalling pathway in the spinal dorsal horn.

Acupunct Med 2021 Jul 24:9645284211020766. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Acupuncture and Rehabilitation, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing City, China.

Background: Hyperalgesic priming (HP) is a model of the transition from acute to chronic pain. Electroacupuncture (EA) could inhibit pain development through the peripheral dorsal root ganglia; however, it is unclear whether it can mitigate the transition from acute to chronic pain by attenuating protein expression in the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathway in the spinal dorsal horn.

Aims: We aimed to determine whether EA could prevent the transition from acute to chronic pain by affecting the p38 MAPK/TNF-α pathway in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model established using HP.

Methods: We first randomly subdivided 30 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats into 5 groups ( = 6 per group): control (N), sham HP (Sham-HP), HP, HP + SB203580p38 MAPK (HP+SB203580), and HP + Lenalidomide (CC-5013) (HP+Lenalidomide). We then randomly subdivided a further 30 male SD rats into 5 groups ( = 6 per group): Sham-HP, HP, sham EA (Sham EA), EA (EA), and EA + U-46619 p38 MAPK agonist (EA+U-46619). We assessed the effects of EA on the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and p38 MAPK/TNF-α expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats subjected to chronic inflammatory pain.

Results: Rats in the EA group had reduced p38 MAPK and TNF-α expression and had significantly reduced mechanical hyperalgesia compared with rats in the other groups.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that EA could increase the mechanical pain threshold in rats and inhibit the transition from acute pain to chronic pain. This mechanism could involve reduced p38 MAPK/TNF-α expression in the spinal dorsal horn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09645284211020766DOI Listing
July 2021

Perimenopausal giant hydatidiform mole complicated with preeclampsia and hyperthyroidism: A case report and literature review.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 10;16(1):1038-1042. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) commonly occurs in reproductive females, but is extremely rare in perimenopausal females. In this study, we reported a case of hydatidiform mole in a 48-year-old perimenopausal female admitted due to a giant uterine mass of 28 weeks' gestational size. The serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level ranged from 944 to 1,286 mIU/mL before treatments. The signs of preeclampsia and hyperthyroidism were relatively prominent. Hysterectomy was performed and chemotherapy was scheduled when the serum HCG level remained at a plateau, about 528 mIU/mL. The symptoms of preeclampsia and hyperthyroidism were relieved after treatment. Accordingly, we concluded that GTD could occur in perimenopausal woman and hysterectomy usually is the optimal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276328PMC
July 2021

Distributed Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Time-Varying Formation Control of Unmanned Airships With Limited Communication Ranges Against Input Saturation for Smart City Observation.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jul 20;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

This article investigates the distributed fault-tolerant time-varying formation control problem for multiple unmanned airships (UAs) against limited communication ranges and input saturation to achieve the safe observation of a smart city. To address the strongly nonlinear functions caused by the time-varying formation flight with limited communication ranges and bias faults, intelligent adaptive learning mechanisms are proposed by incorporating fuzzy neural networks. Moreover, Nussbaum functions are introduced to handle the input saturation and loss-of-effectiveness faults. The distinct features of the proposed control scheme are that time-varying formation flight, actuator faults including bias and loss-of-effectiveness faults, limited communication ranges, and input saturation are simultaneously considered. It is proven by Lyapunov stability analysis that all UAs can achieve a safe formation flight for the smart city observation even in the presence of actuator faults. Hardware-in-the-loop experiments with open-source Pixhawk autopilots are conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3095431DOI Listing
July 2021

The H3K36me2 writer-reader dependency in H3K27M-DIPG.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 14;7(29). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Histone H3K27M is a driving mutation in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), a deadly pediatric brain tumor. H3K27M reshapes the epigenome through a global inhibition of PRC2 catalytic activity and displacement of H3K27me2/3, promoting oncogenesis of DIPG. As a consequence, a histone modification H3K36me2, antagonistic to H3K27me2/3, is aberrantly elevated. Here, we investigate the role of H3K36me2 in H3K27M-DIPG by tackling its upstream catalyzing enzymes (writers) and downstream binding factors (readers). We determine that NSD1 and NSD2 are the key writers for H3K36me2. Loss of NSD1/2 in H3K27M-DIPG impedes cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis by disrupting tumor-promoting transcriptional programs. Further, we demonstrate that LEDGF and HDGF2 are the main readers mediating the protumorigenic effects downstream of NSD1/2-H3K36me2. Treatment with a chemically modified peptide mimicking endogenous H3K36me2 dislodges LEDGF/HDGF2 from chromatin and specifically inhibits the proliferation of H3K27M-DIPG. Our results indicate a functional pathway of NSD1/2-H3K36me2-LEDGF/HDGF2 as an acquired dependency in H3K27M-DIPG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg7444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279504PMC
July 2021

Acute P38-Mediated Enhancement of P2X3 Receptor Currents by TNF-α in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

J Inflamm Res 2021 29;14:2841-2850. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Research Center of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning, Hubei, 437100, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and involves in a variety of pain conditions. Some findings suggest that TNF-α may act directly on primary afferent neurons to induce acute pain hypersensitivity through non-transcriptional regulation. This study investigated whether TNF-α had an effect on functional activity of P2X3 receptors in primary sensory neurons. Herein, we report that a brief (5 min) application of TNF-α rapidly enhanced the electrophysiological activity of P2X3 receptors in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons.

Methods: Electrophysiological recordings were carried out on rat DRG neurons, and nociceptive behavior was quantified in rats.

Results: A brief (5 min) exposure of TNF-α rapidly increased P2X3 receptor-mediated and α,β-methylene-ATP (α,β-meATP)-evoked inward currents in a dose-dependent manner. The potentiation of P2X3 receptor-mediated ATP currents by TNF-α was voltage-independent. TNF-α shifted the concentration-response curve for α,β-meATP upwards, with an increase of 31.57 ± 6.81% in the maximal current response to α,β-meATP. This acute potentiation of ATP currents by TNF-α was blocked by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB202190, but not by non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK, but not cyclooxygenase. Moreover, intraplantar injection of TNF-α and α,β-meATP produced a synergistic effect on mechanical allodynia in rats. TNF-α-induced mechanical allodynia was also alleviated after local P2X3 receptors were blocked.

Conclusion: These results suggested that TNF-α rapidly sensitized P2X3 receptors in primary sensory neurons via a p38 MAPK dependent pathway, which revealed a novel peripheral mechanism underlying acute mechanical hypersensitivity by peripheral administration of TNF-α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S315774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254564PMC
June 2021

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is associated with the longer length from clitoris to urethra.

BMC Womens Health 2021 07 5;21(1):266. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Pudong New Area Mental Health Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200124, China.

Background: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a common, recently recognized, psychiatric condition among reproductive women, reflecting abnormal responsivity to ovarian steroids. Moreover, the potential organizational effect of prenatal sex hormones during PMDD has got attentions, but there have been considerably less of researches on this topic. The aim of this research was to investigate the possible role of prenatal androgen in the PMDD.

Methods: Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD), left and right 2D:4D ratios were measured in 77 subjects (25 patients with PMDD), as these anthropometric indicators are considered to indirectly reflect prenatal androgen exposures in utero.

Results: Patients with PMDD had a longer CUMD than controls (25.03 ± 4.73 vs. 22.07 ± 4.30, P = 0.008), while there were no significant difference between PMDD group and control group in the AGD and right and left 2D:4D ratios.

Conclusion: Atypical high prenatal androgen exposure might predispose individuals to be susceptible to PMDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01403-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259395PMC
July 2021

Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Theory of Mind and Executive Function in Major Depressive Disorder and Its Correlation with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial.

Brain Sci 2021 Jun 9;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Shanghai Pudong New Area Mental Health Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200124, China.

Background: Studies have implicated hypofrontality in the pathogenesis of impaired theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF) in major depressive disorder (MDD). These symptoms are usually resistant to treatment. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to reverse hypofrontality. Moreover, BDNF is an effective biomarker of antidepressant effects, but there have been very few studies on the correlation between BDNF and rTMS. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 20 sessions of a 10 Hz unilateral rTMS intervention over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in improving ToM and EF in patients with MDD and its correlation with BDNF.

Methods: A total of 120 MDD patients were enrolled in this randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trial. Each participant received 20 sessions of rTMS at 10 Hz frequency through the active or the sham coil over 4 weeks. ToM was assessed with the facial emotion identification test (FEIT) and hinting task (HT). EF was assessed with the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). BDNF assessments were carried out at baseline and 2-, 4-, 12-, and 24-week follow-ups.

Results: The improvement in the ToM (FEIT, HT) in the active rTMS group was significantly different from that in the sham rTMS group (F = 18.09, < 0.001; F = 5.02, = 0.026). There were significant differences in the WCST (categories completed, response errors, response perseverative errors, non-response perseverative errors) after logarithmic transformation at different time points in the active rTMS group (F = 14.71, < 0.001; F = 5.99, = 0.046; F = 8.90, = 0.031; F = 2.31, = 0.048). However, there was no significant difference in log transformed BDNF concentration between the two groups ( = 0.07 to = 1.29, > 0.05). BDNF was negatively correlated with WCST categories completed at the 24th week ( = -0.258, = 0.046).

Conclusions: The results show that rTMS may improve the ToM and EF of patients with MDD and there was no significant correlation with serum BDNF concentration. RTMS can not only be used for treatment of patients with MDD but also has a positive effect on ToM and EF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228992PMC
June 2021

Newly Emerging Pest in China, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Morphology and Molecular Identification with DNA Barcoding.

Insects 2021 Jun 21;12(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China.

The oak flea weevil, Yang et Zhang 1991, is a newly emerging pest that severely damages oak (genus ) in China. The first outbreak occurred in 2020 and caused spectacular damage to all oak forests in Jilin province, northeast China. The lack of key morphological characters complicates the identification of this native pest, especially in larva and pupa stages. This is problematic because quick and accurate species identification is crucial for early monitoring and intervention during outbreaks. Here, we provided the first detailed morphological description of at four life stages. Additionally, we used DNA barcodes from larva and pupa specimens collected from three remote locations for molecular identification. The average pairwise divergence of all sequences in this study was 0.51%, well below the 2% to 3% (K-2-parameter) threshold set for one species. All sample sequences matched the morphospecies (KX657706.1 and KX657707.1), with 99.23% to 100% (sequence identity, E value: 0.00) matching success. The tree based on barcodes placed the specimens into the group, and the phylogenetic relationship between 62 sequences (30 samples and 32 from GeneBank) had high congruence with the morphospecies taxa. The traditional DNA barcodes were successfully transformed into quick response codes with larger coding capacity for information storage. The results showed that DNA barcoding is reliable for identification. The integration of molecular and morphology-based methods contributes to accurate species identification of this newly emerging oak pest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12060568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235397PMC
June 2021

A Questionnaire-Based Study on Clinical REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Subtypes in Multiple System Atrophy.

Eur Neurol 2021 16;84(5):368-374. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objectives: Studies documenting the association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and subtypes of multiple system atrophy (MSA) are rare. In this study, we investigated the presence of clinical RBD in MSA patients and compared the prevalence and severity of RBD in patients with MSA-P and MSA-C subtypes.

Methods: We evaluated 54 consecutive patients presenting with MSA and hospitalized in the neurology ward of Beijing Hospital from February 2012 to June 2020. The healthy control (HC) group consisted of 100 healthy individuals who came to our hospital for physical examination. The clinical diagnosis of RBD was based on the minimal diagnostic criteria of International Classification of Sleep Disorders, revised. The severity of clinical RBD was rated on a digital scale from 0 to 3. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups: MSA-P and MSA-C. The MSA and HC groups were compared in terms of frequency of clinical RBD. The MSA-P and MSA-C subgroups were compared with each other for age, sex, onset age, disease duration, and features of clinical RBD. The correlation between severity of clinical RBD and clinical characteristics of MSA was analyzed in the patient groups.

Results: The frequency of clinical RBD in MSA and HC groups was 70.4% (38/54) and 5% (5/100), respectively. The difference between 2 groups was significant (χ2 = 74.453, p = 0.000). Among the patients, 57.4% (31/54) had the MSA-P subtype. There were no significant differences between MSA-P and MSA-C subtypes in the prevalence (χ2 = 1.734, p = 0.188) and severity (χ2 = 1.776, p = 0.412) of clinical RBD. The onset of clinical RBD during the premotor period was not different between the subtypes of MSA, either in patients' number of preceding the onset of motor symptoms (χ2 = 0.581, p = 0.446) or the preceding time (Z = -0.550, p = 0.582). For the MSA-C patients, there was a negative correlation between the score of severity of the RBD scale and RBD preceding motor symptoms (r = -0.482, p = 0.020).

Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of clinical RBD is unrelated to the subtypes of MSA. The onset of clinical RBD during the premotor period was not different between subtypes of MSA. However, we found that the severity of RBD occurring before the motor symptoms was more than that occurring after the motor symptoms in MSA-C patients. Our results showed that MSA-P and MSA-C patients may have a probable indicator for the similar pathologic mechanism of the disease and its sleep problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517149DOI Listing
June 2021

iPLA2β-mediated lipid detoxification controls p53-driven ferroptosis independent of GPX4.

Nat Commun 2021 06 15;12(1):3644. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute for Cancer Genetics, and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center,Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Here, we identify iPLA2β as a critical regulator for p53-driven ferroptosis upon reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress. The calcium-independent phospholipase iPLA2β is known to cleave acyl tails from the glycerol backbone of lipids and release oxidized fatty acids from phospholipids. We found that iPLA2β-mediated detoxification of peroxidized lipids is sufficient to suppress p53-driven ferroptosis upon ROS-induced stress, even in GPX4-null cells. Moreover, iPLA2β is overexpressed in human cancers; inhibition of endogenous iPLA2β sensitizes tumor cells to p53-driven ferroptosis and promotes p53-dependent tumor suppression in xenograft mouse models. These results demonstrate that iPLA2β acts as a major ferroptosis repressor in a GPX4-independent manner. Notably, unlike GPX4, loss of iPLA2β has no obvious effect on normal development or cell viability in normal tissues but iPLA2β plays an essential role in regulating ferroptosis upon ROS-induced stress. Thus, our study suggests that iPLA2β is a promising therapeutic target for activating ferroptosis-mediated tumor suppression without serious toxicity concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23902-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206155PMC
June 2021

Impact of sertraline daily treatment regimen on adherence, persistence and healthcare resource utilisation in patients with major depressive disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder: A real-world evidence analysis from the United States.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Oct 5;75(10):e14522. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Medical and Clinical Research Department, Greater China Region, Viatris, Beijing, China.

Objective: To generate real-world evidence (RWE) from the United States to assess the impact of pill burden and the importance of achieving a stable daily dose of sertraline (time taken, number of dose adjustments needed) on adherence/persistence and healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of the PharMetrics Plus database (1 October 2012 to 31 March 2020) in the United States. Eligible patients had major depressive disorder (MDD) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and ≥1 claim for sertraline during index period (1 April 2013 to 31 March 2019, allowing 6-months prior, 1-year post-index follow-up). Patients who achieved stable daily dose of sertraline (>90 days on same dose) were categorised into five cohorts, depending on pill burden/daily dose: Cohort (1): 1 × 50 mg/d; Cohort (2): 1 × 100 mg/d; Cohort (3): 2 × 50 mg/d; Cohort (4): 1.5 × 100 mg/d; Cohort (5): 3 × 50 mg/d. Impact of pill burden on adherence/persistence and HCRU was assessed among cohorts using logistic regression analysis, and between patients who did vs did not stabilise on therapy. P < .05 was considered significant for all analyses.

Results: Of 224 412 eligible patients, 108 729 stabilised on sertraline (50, 100 or 150 mg/d) and formed Cohorts 1-5. Stabilised patients on lower pill burden had statistically higher adherence and were more likely to remain persistent throughout 1-year post-index period vs patients on higher pill burden but same overall dose (100 mg/d [Cohort 2 vs 3] and 150 mg/d [Cohort 4 vs 5], respectively). Patients who did not stabilise had significantly lower adherence/persistence vs patients who achieved stable daily dose (Cohorts 1-5 combined). Persistence improved when stable daily dose was achieved quickly (within 1-4 months) and efficiently (within 1-3 dose adjustments). Probability of HCRU increased for patients who did not stabilise on their initial prescription.

Conclusion: Simplifying treatment regimen and decreasing pill burden improved adherence and/or persistence with sertraline therapy (100 or 150 mg/d). Patients achieving stable daily dose of sertraline in an efficient and timely manner were more likely to remain persistent throughout 1-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14522DOI Listing
October 2021

"Felodipine-indomethacin" co-amorphous supersaturating drug delivery systems: "Spring-parachute" process, stability, in vivo bioavailability, and underlying molecular mechanisms.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Sep 10;166:111-125. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Pharmacy, Jilin Medical University, Jilin City 132013, Jilin Province, China. Electronic address:

Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are one of most commonly used supersaturating drug delivery systems (SDDS) to formulate insoluble active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the development of polymer-guided stabilization of ASD systems faces many obstacles. To overcome these shortcomings, co-amorphous supersaturable formulations have emerged as an alternative formulation strategy for poorly soluble compounds. Noteworthily, current researches around co-amorphous system (CAS) are mostly focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, but more detailed investigations of their supersaturation ("spring-parachute" process), stability, in vivo bioavailability and molecular mechanisms are inadequate and need to be clarified. In present study, we chose pharmacological relevant BCS II drugs to fabricate and characterize "felodipine-indomethacin" CAS. To enrich the current inadequate but key knowledge on CAS studies, we carried out following highlighted investigations including dissolution/solubility, semi-continuous "spring-parachute" process, long-term stability profile of amorphous state, in vivo bioavailability and underlying molecular mechanisms (molecular interaction, molecular miscibility and crystallization inhibition). Generally, the research provides some key information in the field of current "drug-drug" CAS supersaturable formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.05.030DOI Listing
September 2021

Dexmedetomidine Inhibits ASIC Activity Activation of α Adrenergic Receptors in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:685460. Epub 2021 May 24.

Research Center of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning, China.

Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α adrenergic receptor (α-AR) agonist, has been shown to have peripheral analgesic effects in a variety of pain conditions. However, the precise molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are the major player in pain associated with tissue acidosis. Given that both α-ARs and ASICs exist in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, we therefore investigated the effects of DEX on the functional activity of ASICs. Herein, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that DEX suppressed ASIC-mediated and acid-evoked currents and action potentials in dissociated rat DRG neurons. DEX shifted downwards concentration-response curve to protons, with a decrease of 35.83 ± 3.91% in the maximal current response to pH 4.5. DEX-induced inhibition of ASIC currents was blocked by the α-AR antagonist BRL44408 in DRG neurons. DEX also inhibited ASIC3 currents in CHO cells co-expressing ASIC3 and α-ARs, but not in ASIC3 transfected CHO cells without α-ARs expression. DEX-induced inhibition of ASIC currents was mimicked by the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89, and blocked by intracellular application of the G protein inhibitor pertussis toxin and the cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP. In addition, peripherally administration of DEX dose-dependently relieved nociceptive responses to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats through local α-ARs. Our results indicated that DEX inhibited the functional activity of ASICs via α-ARs and intracellular G proteins and cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway in rat DRG neurons, which was a novel potential mechanism that probably mediated peripheral analgesia of DEX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.685460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181722PMC
May 2021

Differential expression of motilin receptors on the endothelium of dog gastrointestinal arteries and motilin-induced motilin receptor dependent relaxation of corresponding arteries.

Peptides 2021 Sep 31;143:170574. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Ultrasound, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Background: Motilin's role in the regulation of vascular tone and hemodynamic besides gastrointestinal motility is concerned. This study aimed to investigate the expression of motilin receptors in gastrointestinal arteries and motilin-induced relaxation.

Material And Methods: The expression of motilin receptors in the left gastric artery (LGA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) of adult dogs (1.5-5 years old) were analyzed by immunochemistry, RT-PCR, and western blotting. Motilin's effects on the gastrointestinal arteries were evaluated in a multi-wire myograph system.

Results: Immunohistochemical staining showed that motilin receptor was expressed on the membranes of endothelial cells with the fluorescence intensity LGA > SMA > IMA (P < 0.01). The motilin receptor's mRNA and protein expression levels shared the same distribution patterns as it in fluorescence intensity (P < 0.01). In isolated LGA preparations precontracted with U46619 (a thromboxaneA2 analog), motilin induced a concentration-dependent relaxation, and the EC was 8.8 × 10 ± 0.9 × 10 M. Motilin-induced relaxation on the three arteries also shared the same pattern as it in fluorescence intensity (P < 0.01) and inhibited by denuded-endothelium and GM-109 (a motilin receptor antagonist) but not by atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist).

Conclusions: Motilin receptors are expressed differentially on the membranes of endothelial cells in dog gastrointestinal arteries with a significantly high expression in the LGA. Motilin-induced relaxation is endothelium- and motilin receptor-dependent. The motilin receptor expressed on the endothelial cell membrane of the LGA is the molecular basis for motilin regulating gastric blood flow under physiological conditions in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2021.170574DOI Listing
September 2021

Preparation of Neural Stem Cells and Progenitors: Neuronal Production and Grafting Applications.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2311:73-108

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a valuable tool for the study of neural development and function as well as an important source of cell transplantation strategies for neural disease. NSCs can be used to study how neurons acquire distinct phenotypes and how the interactions between neurons and glial cells in the developing nervous system shape the structure and function of the CNS. NSCs can also be used for cell replacement therapies following CNS injury targeting astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. With the availability of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neurons prepared from NSCs can be used to elucidate the molecular basis of neurological disorders leading to potential treatments. Although NSCs can be derived from different species and many sources, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), iPSCs, adult CNS, and direct reprogramming of nonneural cells, isolating primary NSCs directly from fetal tissue is still the most common technique for preparation and study of neurons. Regardless of the source of tissue, similar techniques are used to maintain NSCs in culture and to differentiate NSCs toward mature neural lineages. This chapter will describe specific methods for isolating and characterizing multipotent NSCs and neural precursor cells (NPCs) from embryonic rat CNS tissue (mostly spinal cord) and from human ESCs and iPSCs as well as NPCs prepared by reprogramming. NPCs can be separated into neuronal and glial restricted progenitors (NRP and GRP, respectively) and used to reliably produce neurons or glial cells both in vitro and following transplantation into the adult CNS. This chapter will describe in detail the methods required for the isolation, propagation, storage, and differentiation of NSCs and NPCs isolated from rat and mouse spinal cords for subsequent in vitro or in vivo studies as well as new methods associated with ESCs, iPSCs, and reprogramming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1437-2_7DOI Listing
August 2021

Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in postpartum women with suboptimal iodine and selenium and adequate iron status.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Nutrition Science, School of Food and Advanced Technology, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Objective: Postpartum women experience thyroid dysfunction at twice the prevalence of the general population. Adequate biosynthesis of thyroid hormones depends on three trace elements: iodine, selenium and iron. This study aimed to investigate thyroid dysfunction within a cohort of women at six months postpartum in relation to iodine, selenium and iron status.

Design: This cross-sectional study was part of an observational longitudinal cohort Mother and Infant Nutrition Investigation; data obtained at six months postpartum are reported.

Subjects: Mother-infant pairs (n = 87) were recruited at three months postpartum and followed up at six months postpartum (n = 78).

Measurements: Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies were measured. Urinary iodine concentration, breast milk iodine concentration, serum thyroglobulin, plasma selenium, serum ferritin and serum soluble transferrin receptors were determined. Nonparametric data were expressed as median (25th, 75th percentile).

Results: Thyroid dysfunction was found in 18% of women, and 4% of women had iron deficiency. Median urinary iodine concentration was 85 (43, 134) µg/L, median breast milk iodine concentration was 59 (39, 109) µg/L, and median serum thyroglobulin at 11.4 (8.6, 18.6) µg/L, indicating iodine deficiency. Median plasma selenium concentration was 105.8 (95.6, 115.3) µg/L. Women with marginally lower plasma selenium concentration were 1.12% times more likely to have abnormal TSH concentrations (p = .001).

Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Plasma selenium concentration was the only significant predictor of the likelihood that women had thyroid dysfunction within this cohort, who were iodine deficient and mostly had adequate iron status. Strategies are required to improve both iodine and selenium status to better support maternal thyroid function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14502DOI Listing
May 2021

Spatial distributive effects of public green space and COVID-19 infection in London.

Urban For Urban Green 2021 Jul 13;62:127182. Epub 2021 May 13.

The Martin Centre for Architecture, Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PX, UK.

While public green spaces (PGS) are opined to be central in the pandemic recovery, higher accessibility to PGS also mean a higher risk of infection spread from the raised possibility of people encountering each other. This study explores the distributive effects of accessibility of PGS on the COVID-19 cases distribution using a geo-spatially varying network-based risk model at the borough level in London. The coupled effect of social deprivation with accessibility of the PGS was used as an adjustment factor to identify vulnerability. Results indicate that highly connected green spaces with high choice measure were associated with high risk of infection transmission. Socially deprived areas demonstrated higher possibility of infection spread even with moderate connectivity of the PGS. The study demonstrated that only applying a uniform social distancing measure without characterising the infrastructure and social conditions may lead to higher infection transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117487PMC
July 2021

Evaluation of two sexual-stage antigens as bivalent transmission-blocking vaccines in rodent malaria.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 7;14(1):241. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, Liaoning, China.

Background: Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy for malaria elimination. It is hypothesized that mixing or fusing two antigens targeting different stages of sexual development may provide higher transmission-blocking activity than these antigens used individually.

Methods: A chimeric protein composed of fragments of Pbg37 and PSOP25 was designed and expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami B (DE3). After immunizing mice with individual recombinant proteins Pbg37 and PSOP25, mixed proteins (Pbg37+PSOP25), or the fusion protein (Pbg37-PSOP25), the antibody titers of individual sera were analyzed by ELISA. IFA and Western blot were performed to test the reactivity of the antisera with the native proteins in the parasite. The transmission-blocking activity of the different immunization schemes was assessed using in vitro and in vivo assays.

Results: When Pbg37 and PSOP25 were co-administered in a mixture or as a fusion protein, they elicited similar antibody responses in mice as single antigens without causing immunological interference with each other. Antibodies against the mixed or fused antigens recognized the target proteins in the gametocyte, gamete, zygote, and ookinete stages. The mixed proteins or the fusion protein induced antibodies with significantly stronger transmission-reducing activities in vitro and in vivo than individual antigens.

Conclusions: There was no immunological interference between Pbg37 and PSOP25. The bivalent vaccines, which expand the portion of the sexual development during which the transmission-blocking antibodies act, produced significantly stronger transmission-reducing activities than single antigens. Altogether, these data provide the theoretical basis for the development of combination TBVs targeting different sexual stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04743-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103607PMC
May 2021

Correction to: Effect of chemoradiotherapy on the proportion of circulating lymphocyte subsets in patients with limited‑stage small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Oct;70(10):2877-2879

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Institute of Basic Medicine and Cancer (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, 310022, Zhejiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02929-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Iodine status of postpartum women and their infants aged 3, 6 and 12 months: Mother and Infant Nutrition Investigation (MINI).

Br J Nutr 2021 Apr 16:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Nutrition Science, School of Food and Advanced Technology, College of Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North4474, New Zealand.

To alleviate the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in New Zealand, two strategies, the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt (2009) and a government-subsidised iodine supplement for breast-feeding women (2010), were introduced. Few studies have investigated mother and infant iodine status during the first postpartum year; this study aimed to describe iodine status of mothers and infants at 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum (3MPP, 6MPP and 12MPP, respectively). Partitioning of iodine excretion between urine and breast milk of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) women at 3MPP was determined. In total, eighty-seven mother-infant pairs participated in the study. Maternal and infant spot urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were determined. The percentage of women who took iodine-containing supplements decreased from 46 % at 3MPP to 6 % at 12MPP. Maternal median UIC (MUIC) at 3MPP (82 (46, 157) µg/l), 6MPP (85 (43, 134) µg/l) and 12MPP (95 (51, 169) µg/l) were <100 µg/l. The use of iodine-containing supplements increased MUIC and BMIC only at 3MPP. Median BMIC at all time points were below 75 µg/l. Infant MUIC at 3MPP (115 (69, 182) µg/l) and 6MPP (120 (60, 196) µg/l) were below 125 µg/l. Among EBF women at 3MPP, an increased partitioning of iodine into breast milk (highest proportion 60 %) was shown at lower iodine intakes, along with a reduced fractional iodine excretion in urine (lowest proportion 40 %), indicating a protective mechanism for breastfed infants' iodine status. In conclusion, this cohort of postpartum women was iodine-deficient. Iodine status of their breastfed infants was suboptimal. Lactating women who do not consume iodine-rich foods and those who become pregnant again should take iodine-containing supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711452100129XDOI Listing
April 2021
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