Publications by authors named "Yimin Cai"

83 Publications

A genetic variant conferred high expression of CAV2 promotes pancreatic cancer progression and associates with poor prognosis.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 8;151:94-105. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Key Laboratory for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Aim: This study aimed to identify the functional genes and genetic variants associated with the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and reveal the mechanism underlying their prognostic roles.

Methods: First, we implement a two-stage exome-wide association study in a total of 1070 patients to identify the genetic variant correlated with PDAC prognosis. Then we performed fine mapping through bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assays to reveal the causal functional variant and prognostic gene. Next, we established the gene knockdown, knockout, and overexpression cell lines with small interfering RNA, CRISPR/Cas9, and lentivirus, respectively, and investigated the gene function on cell proliferation and migration in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we performed the RNA-seq to elucidate downstream genes and mechanisms altering PDAC prognosis.

Results: We identified the CAV1-CAV2 locus tagged by rs8940 was significantly associated with PDAC prognosis, and rs10249656 in the 3'untranslated region of CAV2 was the real functional variant, which upregulated CAV2 expression through abolishing miR-548s binding. We observed upregulated CAV2 in PDAC and the higher expression correlated with worse prognosis. Transient knockdown of CAV2 inhibited PDAC migration without affecting proliferation rate. Knockout of CAV2 suppressed PDAC progression and metastasis, whereas stable overexpression of CAV2 promoted. Overexpressed CAV2 promoted the PDAC progression and metastasis via perturbing genes in the focal adhesion (CCND1, IGTA1, and ZYX) and extracellular matrix organisation (PLOD2, CAST, and ITGA1) pathways mechanically.

Conclusion: These findings shed light on an important role of CAV2 on PDAC progression and the prognostic impact of its genetic variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.04.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Lymphocyte Non-Specific Function Detection Facilitating the Stratification of Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:641378. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Inadequate tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics, especially for discrimination between active TB (ATB) and latent TB infection (LTBI), are major hurdle in the reduction of the disease burden. The present study aims to investigate the role of lymphocyte non-specific function detection for TB diagnosis in clinical practice.

Methods: A total of 208 participants including 49 ATB patients, 64 LTBI individuals, and 95 healthy controls were recruited at Tongji hospital from January 2019 to October 2020. All subjects were tested with lymphocyte non-specific function detection and T-SPOT assay.

Results: Significantly positive correlation existed between lymphocyte non-specific function and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) spot number. CD4 T cell non-specific function showed the potential for differentiating patients with negative T-SPOT results from those with positive T-SPOT results with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.732 (95% CI, 0.572-0.893). The non-specific function of CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells was found significantly lower in ATB patients than in LTBI individuals. The AUCs presented by CD4 T cell non-specific function, CD8 T cell non-specific function, and NK cell non-specific function for discriminating ATB patients from LTBI individuals were 0.845 (95% CI, 0.767-0.925), 0.770 (95% CI, 0.683-0.857), and 0.691 (95% CI, 0.593-0.789), respectively. Application of multivariable logistic regression resulted in the combination of CD4 T cell non-specific function, NK cell non-specific function, and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) spot number as the optimally diagnostic model for differentiating ATB from LTBI. The AUC of the model in distinguishing between ATB and LTBI was 0.939 (95% CI, 0.898-0.981). The sensitivity and specificity were 83.67% (95% CI, 70.96%-91.49%) and 90.63% (95% CI, 81.02%-95.63%) with the threshold as 0.57. Our established model showed superior performance to TB-specific antigen (TBAg)/PHA ratio in stratifying TB infection status.

Conclusions: Lymphocyte non-specific function detection offers an attractive alternative to facilitate TB diagnosis. The three-index diagnostic model was proved to be a potent tool for the identification of different events involved in TB infection, which is helpful for the treatment and management of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.641378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092189PMC
April 2021

Endowing 2,6-bis-triazolyl-pyridine of poor extraction with superior efficiency for actinide/lanthanide separation at high acidity by anchoring to a macrocyclic scaffold.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 26;416:125745. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China. Electronic address:

Exploring nitrogen-containing extractants for recovering hazardous minor actinides that are workable in solutions of high acidity has been a challenge in nuclear waste treatment. Herein, we report our findings that 2,6-bis-triazolyl-pyridine (PyTri), which is ineffective as a hydrophobic ligand for minor actinide separation, turns into an excellent extractant that exhibits unexpectedly high efficiency and selectivity (SF = 172, 1 M HNO) when attaching to pillar[5]arene platform. Surprisingly, the distribution ratio of Am(III) (D) is 4300 times higher than that of the acyclic PyTri ligand. The solvent extraction performance of this pillar[5]arene-achored PyTri not only far exceeds the best known pillar[5]arene ligands reported to date, but also stays comparable to other reported outstanding extractants. Slope analysis indicates that each P[5]A-PyTri can bind two metal ions, which is further corroborated by spectroscopic characterizations. Thermodynamic studies imply that the extraction process is exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Complexation investigation via EXAFS technique and DFT calculations strongly suggest that each Eu(III) ion is coordinated to three PyTri arms through a nine-coordination mode. This work provides a N-donor extractant that can operate at high acidity for minor actinide partitioning and implicates a promising approach for transforming poor extractants into superior ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125745DOI Listing
March 2021

Improving ensiling characteristics by adding lactic acid bacteria modifies in vitro digestibility and methane production of forage-sorghum mixture silage.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 21;11(1):1968. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

Improving the nutrition of livestock is an important aspect of global food production sustainability. This study verified whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant could promote ensiling characteristics, nutritive value, and in vitro enteric methane (CH) mitigation of forage sorghum (FS) mixture silage in attacking malnutrition in Zebu beef cattle. The FS at the soft dough stage, Cavalcade hay (CH), and cassava chip (CC) were obtained. The treatments were designed as a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. Factor A was FS prepared without or with CH, CC, and CH + CC. Factor B was untreated or treated with Lactobacillus casei TH14. The results showed that all FS mixture silages preserved well with lower pH values below 4.0 and higher lactic acid contents above 56.4 g/kg dry matter (DM). Adding LAB boosted the lactic acid content of silages. After 24 h and 48 h of in vitro rumen incubation, the CC-treated silage increased in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) with increased total gas production and CH production. The LAB-treated silage increased IVDMD but decreased CH production. Thus, the addition of L. casei TH14 inoculant could improve lactic acid fermentation, in vitro digestibility, and CH mitigation in the FS mixture silages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81505-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820244PMC
January 2021

Chemical composition, characteristics concerned with fermentative quality and microbial population of ensiled pearl millet and sorghum stover in semi-arid West Africa.

Anim Sci J 2020 Jan;91(1):e13463

Institute of Environment and Agriculture Research (INERA), Koudougou, Burkina Faso.

To effectively utilize crop by-product resources for ruminant feed in semi-arid West Africa, we studied the chemical composition, characteristics concerned with fermentative quality, and microbial population of ensiled pearl millet stover (PMS) and sorghum stover (SS) in Mozambique. After panicle harvest, the PMS and SS were exposed in the field for 7, 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 120 days under natural weather conditions. The fresh stover silages were prepared and stored for 120 days. With increased exposure time, the dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen contents increased, whereas the crude protein, ether extract, gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and true protein contents decreased. After 120 days of field exposure, aerobic bacteria dominated both stovers, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) decreased to below detectable levels. After 120 days of ensiling, LAB dominated the silage of both crops, while the harmful microorganisms as aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast, and mold were reduced or below detectable levels. Both silages did not produce more lactic acid to reduce the pH value, but they preserved nutrients well during ensiling. Therefore, PMS and SS can be prepared as silage for ruminant feed in semi-arid West Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757160PMC
January 2020

Highly efficient actinide(III)/lanthanide(III) separation by novel pillar[5]arene-based picolinamide ligands: A study on synthesis, solvent extraction and complexation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 03 8;405:124214. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China. Electronic address:

Selective extraction of highly radiotoxic actinides(III) is an important and challenging task in nuclear wastewater treatment. Many proposed ligands containing S or P atoms have drawbacks including high reagent consumption and possible secondary pollution after incineration. The present work reports five novel pillar[5]arene-based extractants that are anchored with picolinamide substituents of different electronic nature by varying spacer. These ligands reveal highly efficient separation of actinides(III) over lanthanides(III). Specifically, almost all of these ligands could extract Am(III) over Eu(III) selectively at around pH 3.0 (SF>11) with fast extraction kinetics. Variation of the pyridine nitrogen basicity via changing para-substitution leads to an increase in the distribution ratios by a factor of over 300 times for Am(III) with an electron-withdrawing group compared to those with an electron donating group. Investigation of complexation mechanism by slope analysis, NMR, IR, EXAFS, and DFT techniques indicates that each ligand binds two metal ions by pyridine nitrogen and amide oxygen. Finally, these ligands do not show obvious decrease in both extraction and separation ability after being exposed to 250 kGy absorbed gamma radiation. These results demonstrate the potential application of pillar[5]arene-picolinamides for actinide(III) separation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124214DOI Listing
March 2021

CancerImmunityQTL: a database to systematically evaluate the impact of genetic variants on immune infiltration in human cancer.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(D1):D1065-D1073

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Key Laboratory of Environmental Health of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Tumor-infiltrating immune cells as integral component of the tumor microenvironment are associated with tumor progress, prognosis and responses to immunotherapy. Genetic variants have been demonstrated to impact tumor-infiltrating, underscoring the heritable character of immune landscape. Therefore, identification of immunity quantitative trait loci (immunQTLs), which evaluate the effect of genetic variants on immune cells infiltration, might present a critical step toward fully understanding the contribution of genetic variants in tumor development. Although emerging studies have demonstrated the determinants of germline variants on immune infiltration, no database has yet been developed to systematically analyze immunQTLs across multiple cancer types. Using genotype data from TCGA database and immune cell fractions estimated by CIBERSORT, we developed a computational pipeline to identify immunQTLs in 33 cancer types. A total of 913 immunQTLs across different cancer types were identified. Among them, 5 immunQTLs are associated with patient overall survival. Furthermore, by integrating immunQTLs with GWAS data, we identified 527 immunQTLs overlapping with known GWAS linkage disequilibrium regions. Finally, we constructed a user-friendly database, CancerImmunityQTL (http://www.cancerimmunityqtl-hust.com/) for users to browse, search and download data of interest. This database provides an informative resource to understand the germline determinants of immune infiltration in human cancer and benefit from personalized cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778991PMC
January 2021

Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in patients with cancer in Wuhan, China: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study.

Lancet Oncol 2020 07 29;21(7):893-903. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Immunology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: COVID-19 has spread globally. Epidemiological susceptibility to COVID-19 has been reported in patients with cancer. We aimed to systematically characterise clinical features and determine risk factors of COVID-19 disease severity for patients with cancer and COVID-19.

Methods: In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort study, we included all adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with any type of malignant solid tumours and haematological malignancy who were admitted to nine hospitals in Wuhan, China, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between Jan 13 and March 18, 2020. Enrolled patients were statistically matched (2:1) with patients admitted with COVID-19 who did not have cancer with propensity score on the basis of age, sex, and comorbidities. Demographic characteristics, laboratory examinations, illness severity, and clinical interventions were compared between patients with COVID-19 with or without cancer as well as between patients with cancer with non-severe or severe COVID-19. COVID-19 disease severity was defined on admission on the basis of the WHO guidelines. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, cancer type, tumour stage, and antitumour treatments, were used to explore risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity. This study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR2000030807.

Findings: Between Jan 13 and March 18, 2020, 13 077 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the nine hospitals in Wuhan and 232 patients with cancer and 519 statistically matched patients without cancer were enrolled. Median follow-up was 29 days (IQR 22-38) in patients with cancer and 27 days (20-35) in patients without cancer. Patients with cancer were more likely to have severe COVID-19 than patients without cancer (148 [64%] of 232 vs 166 [32%] of 519; odds ratio [OR] 3·61 [95% CI 2·59-5·04]; p<0·0001). Risk factors previously reported in patients without cancer, such as older age; elevated interleukin 6, procalcitonin, and D-dimer; and reduced lymphocytes were validated in patients with cancer. We also identified advanced tumour stage (OR 2·60, 95% CI 1·05-6·43; p=0·039), elevated tumour necrosis factor α (1·22, 1·01-1·47; p=0·037), elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (1·65, 1·03-2·78; p=0·032), reduced CD4+ T cells (0·84, 0·71-0·98; p=0·031), and reduced albumin-globulin ratio (0·12, 0·02-0·77; p=0·024) as risk factors of COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer.

Interpretation: Patients with cancer and COVID-19 were more likely to deteriorate into severe illness than those without cancer. The risk factors identified here could be helpful for early clinical surveillance of disease progression in patients with cancer who present with COVID-19.

Funding: China National Natural Science Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30309-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259911PMC
July 2020

Microbial Community and FermentationDynamics of Corn Silage Prepared withHeat-Resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria in a HotEnvironment.

Microorganisms 2020 May 12;8(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu 6111130, China.

To develop a silage fermentation technique to adapt to global climate changes, the microbiome and fermentation dynamics of corn silage inoculated with heat-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) under high-temperature conditions were studied. Corn was ensiled in laboratory silo, with and without two selected strains, LS358 and LR753, two type strains ATCC 11741and ATCC 7469. The ensiling temperatures were designed at 30 °C and 45 °C, and the sampling took place after 0, 3, 7, 14, and 60 days of fermentation. The higher pH and dry matter losses were observed in the silages stored at 45 °C compared to those stored at 30 °C. Silages inoculated with strains LS358 and LR753 at 30 °C had a lower ratio of lactic acid/acetic acid. The dominant bacterial genera gradually changed from and to in silages during ensiling at 30 °C, while the bacterial community became more complex and fragmented after 7 d of ensiling at 45 °C. The high temperatures significantly led to a transformation of the LAB population from homo-fermentation to hetero-fermentation. This study is the first to describe microbial population dynamics response to high temperature during corn ensiling, and the results indicate that 753 shows potential ability to improve silage fermentation in tropics and subtropics. bacteria community; fermentation dynamics; high temperature; lactic acidbacteria; corn silage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285033PMC
May 2020

Ensiling characteristics of total mixed ration prepared with local feed resources in Mozambique and their effects on nutrition value and milk production in Jersey dairy cattle.

Anim Sci J 2020 Jan-Dec;91(1):e13370

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

To effectively utilize total mixed ration (TMR) prepared with locally available feed resources, we studied the nutritional value and milk production in Jersey dairy cattle fed a local general diet (LGD) and fermented TMR in Mozambique. Ten head of Jersey dairy cattle with 337 ± 19.8 kg body weight, aged 3-4 years in mid location were used in this study. The LGD diet was designed following the general feeding method of local smallholding farms; it contained native grass, Napier grass, wheat bran, and mineral-vitamin mix. Fermented TMR was prepared using Napier grass, corn bran, wheat bran, formula feed, and mineral-vitamin mix. Fermented TMR was preserved as good quality, with a relatively low pH and high lactic acid content. Compared to LGD, fermented TMR significantly improved the dry matter intake and digestibility in dairy cattle. Milk yield was significantly higher in dairy cattle fed with TMR than in those fed with LGD, by 3.75 L/d; milk quality was not significantly different between treatments. The results confirmed that LGD had a low dry matter intake and milk yield, and fermented TMR prepared with local feed resources can attain good quality and improve milk yield in dairy cattle in Mozambique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13370DOI Listing
September 2020

N-methyladenosine mRNA methylation of regulates AKT signalling to promote PTEN-deficient pancreatic cancer progression.

Gut 2020 12 20;69(12):2180-2192. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Key Laboratory for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Tongji Medical College, Wuhan, China

Objective: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Thus far, most drugs have failed to significantly improve patient survival. N-methyladenosine (mA) plays an important role in the progression of PDAC, but its aberrant regulation driven by germline variants in human diseases remains unclear.

Design: We first performed an exome-wide association analysis in 518 PDAC patients with overall survival and replicated in an independent population containing 552 PDAC patients. Then, a series of biochemical experiments in vitro and in vivo were conducted to investigate potential mechanisms of the candidate variant and its target gene underlying the PDAC progression. Moreover, the PIK3CB-selective inhibitor KIN-193 was used to block PDAC tumour growth.

Results: We identified a missense variant rs142933486 in that is significantly associated with the overall survival of PDAC by reducing the mA level, which facilitated its mRNA and protein expression levels mediated by the mA 'writer' complex (METTL13/METTL14/WTAP) and the mA 'reader' YTHDF2. The upregulation of is widely found in PDAC tumour tissues and significantly correlated with the poor prognosis of PDAC, especially in PTEN-deficient patients. We further demonstrated that overexpression substantially enhanced the proliferation and migration abilities of PTEN-deficient PDAC cells and activated AKT signalling pathway. Remarkably, KIN-193, a PIK3CB-selective inhibitor, is shown to serve as an effective anticancer agent for blocking PTEN-deficient PDAC.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate aberrant mA homoeostasis as an oncogenic mechanism in PDAC and highlight the potential of as a therapeutic target for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-320179DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of inoculants on the fermentation characteristics and in vitro digestibility of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) silage on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Anim Sci J 2020 Jan-Dec;91(1):e13364

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

To effectively use local available grass resources to cover the winter feed shortage on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, direct-cut and wilted reed canary grass (RCG) silages were prepared by using a rolled-bale system, and their ensiling characteristics and in vitro digestibility were studied. Silages were treated without (control) or with inoculants including LP (Lactobacillus plantarum), LPLB (L. plantarum, L. buchneri), and LPLBc (L. plantarum, L. buchneri, and cellulase), and were stored at ambient temperature (5.7-14.6°C) for 90 days. Compared with control, the inoculated silages increased (p < .05) lactic acid and acetic acid contents, and reduced (p < .05) final pH value and ammonia-N ratio of total N. The highest WSC content (41.2 g/kg DM) occurred for LPLB-inoculated silage, whereas LPLBc-treated silage displayed the lowest contents of NDF (522.9 g/kg DM) and ADF (275.5 g/kg DM). In addition, LPLBc-inoculated silage had the highest in vitro gas production (51.0 ml/g DM), in vitro DM digestibility (619.3 g/kg DM), and metabolic energy (9.6 kJ/kg DM). These results confirmed that treatments with inoculants at ensiling could improve silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of RCG, and this could be a potential winter feed for animals on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13364DOI Listing
August 2020

CpG-methylation-based risk score predicts progression in colorectal cancer.

Epigenomics 2020 04 17;12(7):605-615. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics & Ministry of Education Key Lab of Environment & Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, PR China.

To identify patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who are at a truly higher risk of progression, which is key for individualized approaches to precision therapy. We developed a predictor associated with progression-free interval (PFI) using The Cancer Genome Atlas CRC methylation data. The risk score was associated with PFI in the whole cohort (p < 0.001). A nomogram consisting of the risk score and other significant clinical features was generated to predict the 3- and 5-year PFI in the whole set (area under the curve: 0.79 and 0.71, respectively). The risk score based on 23 DNA-methylation sites may serve as the basis for improved prediction of progression in patients with CRC in future clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2019-0300DOI Listing
April 2020

Risk SNP-Mediated Enhancer-Promoter Interaction Drives Colorectal Cancer through Both and .

Cancer Res 2020 05 3;80(9):1804-1818. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Key Laboratory for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 colorectal cancer risk loci, most of the biological mechanisms associated with these loci remain unclear. Here we first performed a comprehensive expression quantitative trait loci analysis in colorectal cancer tissues adjusted for multiple confounders to test the determinants of germline variants in established GWAS susceptibility loci on mRNA and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression. Combining integrative functional genomic/epigenomic analyses and a large-scale population study consisting of 6,024 cases and 10,022 controls, we then prioritized rs174575 with a C>G change as a potential causal candidate for colorectal cancer at 11q12.2, as its G allele was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.36; = 2.57 × 10). rs174575 acted as an allele-specific enhancer to distally facilitate expression of both FADS2 and lncRNA AP002754.2 via long-range enhancer-promoter interaction loops, which were mediated by E2F1. AP002754.2 further activated a transcriptional activator that upregulated FADS2 expression. FADS2, in turn, was overexpressed in colorectal cancer tumor tissues and functioned as a potential oncogene that facilitated colorectal cancer cell proliferation and xenograft growth and by increasing the metabolism of PGE2, an oncogenic molecule involved in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. Our findings represent a novel mechanism by which a noncoding variant can facilitate long-range genome interactions to modulate the expression of multiple genes including not only mRNA, but also lncRNA, which provides new insights into the understanding of colorectal cancer etiology. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides an oncogenic regulatory circuit among several oncogenes including , and underlying the association of rs174575 with colorectal cancer risk, which is driven by long-range enhancer-promoter interaction loops. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/9/1804/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-2389DOI Listing
May 2020

Community of natural lactic acid bacteria and silage fermentation of corn stover and sugarcane tops in Africa.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Aug 22;33(8):1252-1264. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Japan International Research Center for Agriculture Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan.

Objective: To effectively utilize crop by-product resources to address the shortage of animal feed during the dry season in Africa, the community of natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of corn stover and sugarcane tops and fermentation characteristics of silage were studied in Mozambique.

Methods: Corn stover and sugarcane tops were obtained from agricultural field in Mozambique. Silage was prepared with LAB inoculant and cellulase enzyme and their fermentation quality and microbial population were analyzed.

Results: Aerobic bacteria were the dominant population with 107 colony-forming unit/g of fresh matter in both crops prior to ensiling, while 104 to 107 LAB became the dominant bacteria during ensiling. Lactobacillus plantarum was more than 76.30% of total isolates which dominated silage fermentation in the LAB-treated sugarcane top silages or all corn stover silages. Fresh corn stover and sugarcane tops contain 65.05% to 76.10% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 6.52% to 6.77% crude protein (CP) on a dry matter basis, and these nutrients did not change greatly during ensiling. Corn stover exhibits higher LAB counts and watersoluble carbohydrates content than sugarcane top, which are naturally suited for ensiling. Meanwhile, sugarcane tops require LAB or cellulase additives for high quality of silage making.

Conclusion: This study confirms that both crop by-products contain certain nutrients of CP and NDF that could be well-preserved in silage, and that they are potential roughage resources that could cover livestock feed shortages during the dry season in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322639PMC
August 2020

Effects of external Mn activities on OsNRAMP5 expression level and Cd accumulation in indica rice.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 8;260:113941. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Jiangxi Super-rice Research and Development Center, Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanchang, 330200, China.

Manganese (Mn) transporter OsNRAMP5 was widely reported to regulate cadmium (Cd) uptake in rice. However, the relationship between OsNRAMP5 expression level and Cd accumulation, impacts of external ion activities on OsNRAMP5 expression level and Cd accumulation are still unclear. Investigations of the relationship between OsNRAMP5 expression level and Cd accumulation in three indica rice genotypes were conducted under various external Mn activities ranging from Mn deficiency to toxicity in EGTA-buffered nutrient solution. Results in this work indicated that OsNRAMP5 expression level in roots significantly up-regulated at Mn phytotoxicity compared to that at Mn deficiency, which may stimulate by the increasing uptake of Mn. Our work also demonstrated that root Cd concentration of all the tested rice decreased notably when external Mn activity reached the level of toxicity. This may explain by the increasing competition between the excess Mn and Cd as well as the disorder of element absorption caused by root damage at Mn toxicity. Our work also revealed that the relationship between OsNRAMP5 expression level in roots and Cd accumulation in roots was insignificant for all the tested genotypes. Besides, OsNRAMP5 expression level in roots seemed more related to root Mn accumulation. The fact that function of OsNRAMP5 mainly focuses on Mn uptake, together with the fact that many transporter genes involved in Cd uptake might result in the insignificant correlation between OsNRAMP5 expression level and Cd accumulation in roots. At last, multi-level regulating and processing of the process from gene expression to protein translation might account for the inconsistent relationship between root OsNRAMP5 expression level and Cd accumulation in roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113941DOI Listing
May 2020

Controlling the selective synthesis of [2]- and [3]rotaxanes by intermolecular steric hindrance between the macrocyclic hosts.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Jan 24;56(7):1066-1069. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan, China.

Two hydrogen-bonded azo-macrocycles with little disparity of the side chains in steric hindrance exhibited a substantial difference in complexation (slow/fast exchange) towards bipyridinium. Inspired by this finding, these macrocycles were applied to efficiently and selectively construct [2]- and [3]rotaxanes through one-pot synthesis. The origin of the selectivity in this novel approach was elucidated by comparing single crystal structures, DFT calculations and stepwise synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc08253kDOI Listing
January 2020

Comparative analysis of ensiling characteristics and protein degradation of alfalfa silage prepared with corn or sweet sorghum in semiarid region of Inner Mongolia.

Anim Sci J 2020 Jan-Dec;91(1):e13321. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Japan.

This study was conducted to evaluate silage fermentation and protein degradation of alfalfa prepared with corn or sweet sorghum (SS) at different mixing ratios. The chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and protein degradation of alfalfa prepared with and without corn or SS at mixing ratios of 7:3, 1:1, and 3:7 on a fresh matter (FM) basis were studied. The alfalfa had the highest crude protein (CP) content and lactate buffering capacity (LBC), but lower water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content than corn and SS. After 60 days of ensiling, the corn and SS silages had good quality, with lower pH and ammonia-N content, and higher dry matter (DM) content than the alfalfa silages. In the alfalfa and corn mixture silages, the DM contents linearly increased with an increase in the proportion of corn, while the pH, non-protein N (NPN), ammonia-N, and peptide-N contents linearly decreased. In the alfalfa and SS mixture silages, the DM and NPN contents linearly increased with an increase in the proportion of SS, while the pH, lactic acid, and ammonia-N contents linearly decreased. This study suggests that alfalfa silage prepared with corn has more positive effect on fermentation quality and inhibiting protein degradation than addition of SS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13321DOI Listing
September 2020

Silage fermentation and ruminal degradation of cassava foliage prepared with microbial additive.

AMB Express 2019 Nov 9;9(1):180. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8686, Japan.

To effectively utilize the tropical cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) foliage (CF) resources, the CF silages were prepared with microbial additives, including Chikuso-1 (CH1, Lactobacillus plantarum), Snow Lact L (SN, L. rhamnosus), Acremonium cellulase (CE), SN + CE and CH1 + CE. Silage fermentation, chemical composition and ruminal degradation were studied in Hainan, China. CF silages prepared with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and CE were well preserved, with a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid, a lower (P < 0.05) pH value, butyric acid content and NH3-N ⁄ total-N compared with the controls. The additive-treated silages showed increased crude protein (CP) content, but decreased (P < 0.05) NDF and ADF contents. Meanwhile, the additive treatment improved relative feed value and ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM), CP, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. In addition, the combination of LAB and CE resulted in better fermentation quality and ruminal degradability compared with LAB or CE single treatment. The results demonstrated that the CF could be prepared as ruminant feed, and the combination of LAB and CE might exert beneficial synergistic effect on silage fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-019-0906-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6842376PMC
November 2019

Dynamic changes and characterization of the protein and carbohydrate fractions of native grass grown in Inner Mongolia during ensiling and the aerobic stage.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Apr 3;33(4):556-567. Epub 2019 Aug 3.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan.

Objective: To improve the utility of native grass resources as feed in China, we investigated the dynamics of protein and carbohydrate fractions among Inner Mongolian native grasses, during ensiling and the aerobic stage, using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System.

Methods: Silages were prepared without or with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant. We analyzed the protein and carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality of silages at 0, 5, 15, 20, 30, and 60 d of ensiling, and the stability at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 d during the aerobic stage.

Results: Inner Mongolian native grass contained 10.8% crude protein (CP) and 3.6% water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) on a dry matter basis. During ensiling, pH and CP and WSC content decreased (p<0.05), whereas lactic acid and ammonia nitrogen (N) content increased (p<0.05). Non-protein N (PA) content increased significantly, whereas rapidly degraded true protein (PB1), intermediately degraded true protein (PB2), total carbohydrate (CHO), sugars (CA), starch (CB1), and degradable cell wall carbohydrate (CB2) content decreased during ensiling (p<0.05). At 30 d of ensiling, control and LAB-treated silages were well preserved and had lower pH (<4.2) and ammonia-N content (<0.4 g/kg of fresh matter [FM]) and higher lactic acid content (>1.0% of FM). During the aerobic stage, CP, extract ether, WSC, lactic acid, acetic acid, PB1, PB2, true protein degraded slowly (PB3), CHO, CA, CB1, and CB2 content decreased significantly in all silages, whereas pH, ammonia-N, PA, and bound true protein (PC) content increased significantly.

Conclusion: Control and LAB-treated silages produced similar results in terms of fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and protein and carbohydrate fractions. Inner Mongolian native grass produced good silage, nutrients were preserved during ensiling and protein and carbohydrate losses largely occurred during the aerobic stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054601PMC
April 2020

Influence of microbial additive on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of delayed sealing silage of Napier grass.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Jul 26;33(7):1103-1112. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan.

Objective: To measure whether a microbial additive could effectively improve the fermentation quality of delayed-sealing (DS) silage, we studied the effects of inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase enzyme on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of DS silage of Napier grass in Africa.

Methods: Quick-sealing (QS) and DS silages were prepared with and without LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant, cellulase enzymes, and their combination. The QS material was directly chopped and packed into a bunker silo. The DS material was packed into the silo with a delay of 24 h from harvest.

Results: In the QS silage, LAB was dominant in the microbial population and produced large amounts of lactic acid. When the silage was treated with LAB and cellulase, the fermentation quality was improved. In the DS silage, aerobic bacteria and yeasts were the dominant microbes and all the silages were of poor quality. The yeast and mold counts in the DS silage were high, and they increased rapidly during aerobic exposure. As a result, the DS silages spoiled faster than the QS silages upon aerobic exposure.

Conclusion: DS results in poor silage fermentation and aerobic deterioration. The microbial additive improved QS silage fermentation but was not effective for DS silage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322651PMC
July 2020

Effects of Supplementation of Branches and Leaves Trimmed from Tea Plant on Growth Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Meat Composition of Nanjiang Yellow Goats.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Aug 21;9(9). Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Bovine Low Carbon Farming and Safe Production, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China.

Thirty-two 6-month-old, healthy Nanjiang Yellow goats (34.6 ± 4.16 kg) were randomly divided into four treatments to evaluate the supplementary effects of branches and leaves trimmed from tea tree (BLTT) on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and meat composition in fattening goats. The control goats were fed a basal diet. Treatments 1, 2 and 3 were fed 2%, 4% and 6% of BLTT respectively. After a 60 d feeding trial, blood samples were collected for the analysis of the antioxidant profile and goats were slaughtered to obtain the rumen fluid and carcass samples for determination of rumen fermentation characteristics and meat composition perameters. Increased final body weight was observed in goats fed 4% BLTT compared with control. The activity of superoxide dismutase was increased in the 4% BLTT-treated group, while glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde followed the quadratic curve. Quadratic curves were also observed for villus height, crypt depth and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum. The quadratic effect was obtained for total essential amino acids, and individual amino acids threonine and leucine. The saturated fatty acid C16:0 was decreased with 4% of BLTT supplementation, and a quadratic effect was observed for polyunsaturated fatty acid C18:3 (n-3). To sum up, our findings revealed that BLTT supplementation has a positive effect on body antioxidative status, gastrointestinal development, rumen fermentation characteristics and overall growth performance and meat quality in goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9090590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769452PMC
August 2019

Mechanisms and uncertainties of Zn supply on regulating rice Cd uptake.

Environ Pollut 2019 Oct 24;253:959-965. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Jiangxi Super-rice Research and Development Center, Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Rice, Nanchang, 330200, China.

Application of Zinc (Zn) is considered an effective measure to reduce Cadmium (Cd) uptake and toxicity in Cd-contaminated soils for many plant species. However, interaction between Zn and Cd in rice plant is complex and uncertain. In this study, four indica rice cultivars were selected to evaluate the effect of Zn exposure in an EGTA-buffered nutrient solution under varying Zn activities and a field level of Cd activity to characterize the interaction between Zn and Cd in rice. Severe depression in shoots' biomass, tiller number, and SPAD (Soil and Plant Analyzer Development) value were found at both Zn deficiency and Zn phytotoxicity levels among four tested rice cultivars. There existed a strong antagonism interaction between Zn and Cd in both shoot and root from Zn deficiency to Zn phytotoxicity. The reduction of Cd accumulation in roots and shoots could be explained by the competition between Zn and Cd as well as the dilution effect of increasing biomass. The conflicting effect of Zn supply on Cd uptake may be attributed to the increasing transfer ratio of Cd from root to shoot with the increasing Zn activities and the strong depression of Fe and Mn in shoots with the increasing Zn activities as well as the variation of genotypes. Balance between Zn and Cd should be considered in field application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.07.077DOI Listing
October 2019

A Dynamic Hydrogen-Bonded Azo-Macrocycle for Precisely Photo-Controlled Molecular Encapsulation and Release.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Sep 1;58(36):12519-12523. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, China.

A light-responsive system constructed from hydrogen-bonded azo-macrocycles demonstrates precisely controlled propensity in molecular encapsulation and release process. A significant decrease in the size of the cavity is observed in the course of the E→Z photoisomerization based on the results from DFT calculations and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry. These macrocyclic hosts exhibit a rare 2:1 host-guest stoichiometry and guest-dependent slow or fast exchange on the NMR timescale. With the slow host-guest exchange and switchable shape change of the cavity, quantitative release and capture of bipyridinium guests is achieved with the maximum release of 68 %. This work underscores the importance of slow host-guest exchange on realizing accurate release of organic cations in a stepwise manner under light irradiation. The light-responsive system established here could advance further design of novel photoresponsive molecular switches and mechanically interlocked molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201906912DOI Listing
September 2019

Pillararenes as macrocyclic hosts: a rising star in metal ion separation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Jul;55(55):7883-7898

Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China.

Pillararenes are macrocyclic oligomers of alkoxybenzene akin to calixarenes but tethered at the 2,5-positions via methylene bridges. Benefiting from their unique pillar-shaped architecture favorable for diverse functionalization and versatile host-guest properties, pillararenes decorated with chelating groups worked excellently as supporting platforms to construct extractants or adsorbents for metal ion separation. This feature article provides a detailed summary of pillararenes in Ln/An separation by liquid-liquid extraction and heavy metal separation by solid-liquid extraction. The preorganization effect of the rigid pillararene framework has a profound impact on the extraction of metal ions, and a unique extraction mechanism is observed when employing ionic liquids as solvents. The rich host-guest chemistry of pillararenes enables construction of a wide variety of supramolecular materials as metal ion adsorbents. We also discuss the differences between pillararenes and several well-known macrocycles, with a focus on the metal-ligand coordination and its influencing factors. We hope this review will provide useful information and unleash new opportunities in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc03292dDOI Listing
July 2019

A genetic variant in PIK3R1 is associated with pancreatic cancer survival in the Chinese population.

Cancer Med 2019 07 6;8(7):3575-3582. Epub 2019 May 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Key Laboratory for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies with few early detection tests or effective therapies. PI3K-AKT signaling is recognized to modulate cancer progression. We previously identified that a genetic variant in PKN1 increased pancreatic cancer risk through the PKN1/FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway. In order to investigate the associations between genetic variations in that pathway and pancreatic cancer prognosis, we conducted a two-stage survival analysis in a total of 547 Chinese pancreatic cancer patients. Consequently, a variant, rs13167294 A>C in PIK3R1, was significantly associated with poor survival in both stages and with hazard ratio being 1.32 (95% CI = 1.13-1.56, P = 0.0007) in the combined analysis. Function annotation and prediction suggested that genetic variants in this locus might affect overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients by regulating PIK3R1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601582PMC
July 2019

Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of corn stover during field exposure and their fermentation characteristics of silage prepared with microbial additives.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 Apr 15:1854-1863. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8686, Japan.

Objective: To effectively use corn stover resources as animal feed, we explored the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of corn stover during field exposure and the fermentation characteristics of silage prepared with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase.

Methods: Corn ears including the cobs and shucks were harvested at the ripe stage. The corn stover was exposed in the field under natural weather conditions. Silages were prepared after 0, 2, 4, 7, 15, 30, and 60 d of exposure. Corn stover was chopped into approximately 1-2 cm lengths and then packed into 5 liter plastic silos. The ensiling density was 550.1±20.0 g/L of fresh matter, and the silos were kept at room temperature (10-25°C). Silage treatments were designed as follows: without additives (control), with LAB, with cellulase, and with LAB+cellulase. After 45 d of fermentation, the silos were opened for chemical composition, fermentation quality and in vitro digestion analyses.

Results: After harvest, corn stover contained 78.19% moisture, 9.01% crude protein (CP) and 64.54% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on a dry matter (DM) basis. During field exposure, the DM, NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of corn stover increased, whereas the CP and water-soluble carbohydrate contents and in vitro digestibility of the DM and CP decreased (p<0.05). Compared to the control silage, cellulase-treated silage had lower (p<0.05) NDF and ADF contents. The pH values were lower in silage treated with LAB, cellulase, or LAB+cellulase, and lactic acid contents were higher (p<0.05) than those of the control. Silage treated with cellulase or LAB+cellulase improved (p<0.05) the in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) compared to that of the control or LAB-treated silage.

Conclusion: Corn stover silage should be prepared using fresh materials since stover nutrients are lost during field exposure, and LAB and cellulase can improve silage fermentation and IVDMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819684PMC
April 2019

Microbial community and fermentation characteristic of Italian ryegrass silage prepared with corn stover and lactic acid bacteria.

Bioresour Technol 2019 May 26;279:166-173. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 610000, China. Electronic address:

The bacterial community determined via PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) and the fermentation characteristics of Italian ryegrass (IR, 82% moisture) silage prepared with corn stover (CS) were investigated. A selected strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (L694) and a commercial inoculant stain of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) were used as additives. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) effectively improved silage quality. After fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species in IR + LP and IR + L694 treatments, which led to higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid and lower (P < 0.05) butyric acid production. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus coryniformis were abundantly present in IR + CS + LP and IR + CS + L694 treatments, and acetic acid contents of these were higher (P < 0.05) than those of other silages. This study demonstrated that addition of CS and LAB can change the microbial community and influence the silage fermentation of IR, and PacBio SMRT reveals more specific microbial information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.01.107DOI Listing
May 2019

Changes in microbial population and chemical composition of corn stover during field exposure and effects on silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 Jun 27;32(6):815-825. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan.

Objective: To effectively use corn stover resources as animal feed, the changes in microbial population and chemical composition of corn stover during field exposure, and their silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility were studied.

Methods: Corn cultivars (Jintian, Jinnuo, and Xianyu) stovers from 4 random sections of the field were harvested at the preliminary dough stage of maturity on September 2, 2015. The corn stover exposed in the field for 0, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 180 d, and their silages at 60 d of ensiling were used for the analysis of microbial population, chemical composition, fermentation quality, and in vitro digestibility. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized 3×6 [corn stover cultivar (C)×exposure d (D)] factorial treatment design. Analysis of variance was performed using SAS ver. 9.0 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).

Results: Aerobic bacteria were dominant population in fresh corn stover. After ensiling, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became the dominant bacteria, while other microbes decreased or dropped below the detection level. The crude protein (CP) and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) for fresh stover were 6.74% to 9.51% and 11.75% to 13.21% on a dry matter basis, respectively. After exposure, the CP and WSC contents decreased greatly. Fresh stover had a relatively low dry matter while high WSC content and LAB counts, producing silage of good quality, but the dry stover did not. Silage fermentation inhibited nutrient loss and improved the fermentation quality and in vitro digestibility.

Conclusion: The results confirm that fresh corn stover has good ensiling characteristics and that it can produce silage of good quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6498072PMC
June 2019