Publications by authors named "Yilin Wang"

436 Publications

High Resolution and Labeling Free Studying the 3D Microstructure of the Pars Tensa-Annulus Unit of Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:720383. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.

Hearing loss is a serious illness affecting people's normal life enormously. The acoustic properties of a tympanic membrane play an important role in hearing, and highly depend on its geometry, composition, microstructure and connection to the surrounding annulus. While the conical geometry of the tympanic membrane is critical to the sound propagation in the auditory system, it presents significant challenges to the study of the 3D microstructure of the tympanic membrane using traditional 2D imaging techniques. To date, most of our knowledge about the 3D microstructure and composition of tympanic membranes is built from 2D microscopic studies, which precludes an accurate understanding of the 3D microstructure, acoustic behaviors and biology of the tissue. Although the tympanic membrane has been reported to contain elastic fibers, the morphological characteristic of the elastic fibers and the spatial arrangement of the elastic fibers with the predominant collagen fibers have not been shown in images. We have developed a 3D imaging technique for the three-dimensional examination of the microstructure of the full thickness of the tympanic membranes in mice without requiring tissue dehydration and stain. We have also used this imaging technique to study the 3D arrangement of the collagen and elastic fibrillar network with the capillaries and cells in the pars tensa-annulus unit at a status close to the native. The most striking findings in the study are the discovery of the 3D form of the elastic and collagen network, and the close spatial relationships between the elastic fibers and the elongated fibroblasts in the tympanic membranes. The 3D imaging technique has enabled to show the 3D waveform contour of the collagen and elastic scaffold in the conical tympanic membrane. Given the close relationship among the acoustic properties, composition, 3D microstructure and geometry of tympanic membranes, the findings may advance the understanding of the structure-acoustic functionality of the tympanic membrane. The knowledge will also be very helpful in the development of advanced cellular therapeutic technologies and 3D printing techniques to restore damaged tympanic membranes to a status close to the native.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.720383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532514PMC
October 2021

Discovery and computational studies of 2-phenyl-benzoxazole acetamide derivatives as promising P2YR antagonists with anti-gout potential.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Oct 19;227:113933. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address:

The P2Y nucleotide receptor, a subtype of P2Y receptors, is implicated in many human inflammatory diseases. Based on the identification of favorable residues of two screening hits in the almost symmetrical P2Y binding domain, we describe the structural optimization of previously identified virtual screening hits 6 and 7 that result in the development of P2YR antagonists with a novel 2-phenyl-benzoxazole acetamide chemical scaffold. Notably, compound 52 showed potent P2YR antagonistic activity (IC = 2 nM), and a stronger inhibitory effect on MSU-induced inflammatory in vitro, better than a previously described P2YR antagonist PPTN. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that compound 52 also had satisfactory inhibitory activity on the inflammatory response of gout flares in mice. Moreover, P2YR antagonist 52 decreased paw swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration through cAMP/NLRP3/GSDMD signaling pathways in MSU-induced acute gouty arthritis mice. The discussions on the binding mechanism that employ MM/GBSA free energy calculations/decompositions also provide some useful clues for further structural designing of compound 52. Taken together, 2-phenyl-benzoxazole acetamide derivative 52 with potent P2YR antagonistic activity and in vivo potency could be a promising strategy for gout therapy and deserves further optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113933DOI Listing
October 2021

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. in captive wild animals in zoos in Henan, China.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Oct 18;17(1):332. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, No. 15 Longzihu University Area, Zhengzhou New District, Zhengzhou, 450046, P. R. China.

Background: Captive wild animals in zoos infected with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. can be sources of zoonotic infections and diseases. Therefore, to investigate the distribution of these pathogens in captive wild animals of zoos in Henan, China, a total of 429 fresh fecal samples were collected from six zoos in Henan, China. The infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. were determined by PCR analysis of corresponding loci. Positive results for Cryptosporidium (C. parvum and C. hominis) were subtyped based on the (gp60) gene.

Results: The overall prevalence was 43.1% (185/429), and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. were 2.8% (12/429), 0.5% (2/429), 20.8% (89/429), and 19.1% (82/429), respectively. Five Cryptosporidium species, namely, C. hominis, C. parvum, C. muris, C. andersoni, and C. macropodum, were identified in this study. Cryptosporidium parvum was further subtyped as IIdA19G1. Two Giardia duodenalis assemblages (A and E) were also identified. A total of 20 Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes were detected, including 18 known (BEB6, D, HND-1, CD7, SDD1, Henan-IV, KIN-1, CHK1, Peru8, Henan-V, CHG11, CHG-1, CHS9, CHG21, Type-IV, CHC9, CM5, and CHB1) and 2 novel genotypes (CHWD1 and CHPM1). A total of nine subtypes of Blastocystis sp. (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST10, ST13, and ST14) were identified in captive wild animals in zoos in the present study. Cryptosporidium andersoni, nine Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and five Blastocystis subtypes were here first identified in new hosts.

Conclusions: Our study has expanded the host ranges of these four pathogens. The data indicate that animals in zoos can commonly be infected with these four zoonotic pathogens, and animals in zoos are potential sources of zoonotic infections in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-03035-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8522229PMC
October 2021

A Nomogram for Predicting Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Patients with Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

World Neurosurg 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for predicting the risk of venous thromboembolism among critically ill patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage.

Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with primary intracerebral hemorrhage within 24 hours of onset were screened from January 2019 to April 2021. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to screen out the independent predictors that were significantly associated with venous thromboembolism. A nomogram was constructed based on the results of a multivariate regression analysis. Discrimination and calibration were used to evaluate its performance. A decision curve analysis was used to assess its clinical utility.

Results: A total of 369 patients were enrolled in this study. The nomogram included three predictors from the regression analysis: D-Dimer value, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score and Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.794, indicating good discrimination of the nomogram. The nomogram demonstrated calibration curves with slight deviation from the ideal predictions. Decision curve analysis showed that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful.

Conclusions: The nomogram composed of D-Dimer value, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score and Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission can predict the risk of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients with intracerebral hemorrhage accurately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.10.071DOI Listing
October 2021

Sesamin Protects against and Ameliorates Rat Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury with Involvement of Activating Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 Signaling Pathway.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 29;2021:5147069. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044 Liaoning, China.

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) may induce cell/tissue injuries, leading to multiple organ failure. Based on our preexperiments, we proposed that sesamin could protect against and ameliorate intestinal I/R injuries and related disorders with involvement of activating Nrf2 signaling pathway. This proposal was evaluated using SD intestinal I/R injury rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation- (H/R-) injured rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cell line (IEC-6 cells) . Sesamin significantly alleviated I/R-induced intestinal histopathological injuries and significantly reduced serum biochemical indicators ALT and AST, alleviating I/R-induced intestinal injury in rats. Sesamin also significantly reversed I/R-increased TNF-, IL-6, IL-1, and MPO activity in serum and MDA in tissues and I/R-decreased GSH in tissues and SOD in both tissues and IEC-6 cells, indicating its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress effects. Further, sesamin significantly decreased TUNEL-positive cells, downregulated the increased Bax and caspase-3 protein expression, upregulated the decreased protein expression of Bcl-2 in I/R-injured intestinal tissues, and significantly reversed H/R-reduced IEC-6 cell viability as well as reduced the number of apoptotic cells among H/R-injured IEC-6 cell, showing antiapoptotic effects. Activation of Nrf2 is known to ameliorate tissue/cell injuries. Consistent with sesamin-induced ameliorations of both intestinal I/R injuries and H/R injuries, transfection of Nrf2 cDNA significantly upregulated the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, respectively. On the contrary, either Nrf2 inhibitor (ML385) or Nrf2 siRNA transfection significantly decreased the expression of these proteins. Our results suggest that activation of the Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 signaling pathway is involved in sesamin-induced anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects in protection against and amelioration of intestinal I/R injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5147069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494576PMC
September 2021

Effects of revegetation on the composition and diversity of bacterial and fungal communities of sandification land soil, in Southern China.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Oct 8;193(11):706. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

College of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, Jiangxi, China.

This study aimed to research the effects of forest (Pinus elliottii, slash pine) and shrub (Vitex trifolia) plantation on the soil microbial community in sandification land by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS rRNA genes and combined with the soil properties analysis to explore the driving factors. Finally, the results showed that the dominant bacterial phyla were Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Acidobacteria; the shrub and forest plantation significantly increasing the proportion of Acidobacteria, while decreasing the proportion of Proteobacteria. For the fungal community, forest plantation was significantly changing the community structure at the phylum level that shifted from Ascomycota to Basidiomycota, and the ectomycorrhizal fungi take the most abundant with genus Rhizopogon predominant. The soil bacterial Chao1 and Shannon indices were significantly increased after revegetation, while the soil fungal Shannon diversity in the forest land that significantly correlated with soil total organic carbon and C/N was lower than that in the sandy and shrub land (p < 0.05). Besides, the bacterial and fungal communities were significantly affected by soil water content among all analyzed soil properties. Our results suggest that the revegetation significantly increasing the soil bacterial diversity that correlated with soil water content, total organic carbon, and available phosphorus, but there was no significant change in community structure. In contrast, slash pine plantation changes the fungal community structure and diversity dramatically. This change and possible succession of fungal community with stand age increasing may lead to the fragility of the plantation, which deserves continuous attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09508-xDOI Listing
October 2021

Targeting mitochondria-inflammation circle by renal denervation reduces atheroprone endothelial phenotypes and atherosclerosis.

Redox Biol 2021 Sep 29;47:102156. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China; Department of Cardiology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin, 300192, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The disruption of mitochondrial redox homeostasis in endothelial cells (ECs) can cause chronic inflammation, a substantial contributor to the development of atherosclerosis. Chronic sympathetic hyperactivity can enhance oxidative stress to induce endothelial dysfunction. We determined if renal denervation (RDN), the strategy reducing sympathetic tone, can protect ECs by ameliorating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced inflammation to reduce atherosclerosis.

Methods And Results: ApoE deficient (ApoE) mice were conducted RDN or sham operation before 20-week high-fat diet feeding. Atherosclerosis, EC phenotype and mitochondrial morphology were determined. In vitro, human arterial ECs were treated with norepinephrine to determine the mechanisms for RDN-inhibited endothelial inflammation. RDN reduced atherosclerosis, EC mitochondrial oxidative stress and inflammation. Mechanistically, the chronic sympathetic hyperactivity increased circulating norepinephrine and mitochondrial monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) activity. MAO-A activation-impaired mitochondrial homeostasis resulted in ROS accumulation and NF-κB activation, thereby enhancing expression of atherogenic and proinflammatory molecules in ECs. It also suppressed mitochondrial function regulator PGC-1α, with involvement of NF-κB and oxidative stress. Inactivation of MAO-A by RDN disrupted the positive-feedback regulation between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation, thereby inhibiting EC atheroprone phenotypic alterations and atherosclerosis.

Conclusions: The interplay between MAO-A-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and inflammation in ECs is a key driver in atherogenesis, and it can be reduced by RDN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498003PMC
September 2021

Characterization of full-length LINE-1 insertions in 154 genomes.

Genomics 2021 Sep 15;113(6):3804-3810. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America; Center for Genomic Sciences, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are retrotransposons that contribute to genetic variation in the human genome. LINE-1 elements in larger-scale studies are challenging to identify using sequencing technologies due to cost and scalability. We developed an approach using optical mapping for detection of full-length LINE-1 insertions and 10× sequencing for confirmation. We found 51 true positive full-length LINE-1 insertions, of which 4 are novel insertions, in NA12878. Repeating our analysis on a larger sample set representing 26 populations, we identified 329 full-length LINE-1 elements, of which 123 are novel. 24.8% of these 329 LINE-1 insertions were shared amongst all 5 superpopulations (AFR, AMR, EUR, EAS, SAS). The African superpopulation has a higher percentage of population-specific LINE-1 insertions than any other superpopulation. These data indicate that our approach can provide high-speed, cost-effective, and increased accuracy for LINE-1 detection. These data also provide an insight into variations of LINE-1 elements between different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.09.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Sprayed copper peroxide nanodots for accelerating wound healing in a multidrug-resistant bacteria infected diabetic ulcer.

Nanoscale 2021 Oct 1;13(37):15937-15951. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Laboratory Science, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Vascular dysfunction and bacterial infection are key factors for the non-healing of diabetic ulcers. Growth factors and antibiotics seem to effectively target both issues. However, the short half-life and high cost of growth factors and the antibiotics resistance of bacteria greatly limit their further widespread applications. Novel strategies or agents with both angiogenic and antibacterial activities are urgently desirable. Copper peroxide (CuO) nanodots were reported to be decomposed into Cu and HO under mild acid conditions (pH 5.5). Considering that both decomposed products are acknowledged antibacterial agents (Cu, HO) and angiogenesis activator (Cu), we believe that CuO nanodots are suitable for diabetic ulcer treatment because the pathological environment of infected chronic wounds is mildly acidic with pH 5.5-5.6. As expected, experiments showed that CuO nanodots possessed excellent bactericidal properties against , , , and even methicillin-resistant (MRSA). CuO nanodots induced the high expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), subsequently promoting the cell migration and tube formation for angiogenesis. In particular, CuO nanodots exhibited good dispersibility and sprayable behavior in water. experiments demonstrated that the spayed CuO nanodots in the wound area could effectively combat MRSA, reduce inflammation, promote angiogenesis, and consequently accelerate wound healing. Moreover, the sprayed CuO nanodots in the wound sites caused negligible system toxicity. This study provides proof-of-principle evidence for applying the sprayed CuO nanodots for infected diabetic ulcer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04687jDOI Listing
October 2021

A three-dimensional bioprinting technique, based on a gelatin/alginate hydrogel, for the tissue engineering of hair follicle reconstruction.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China. Electronic address:

Hair loss remains a challenging clinical problem that influences the quality of life. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has become a valuable tool for fabricating tissue constructs for transplantation and other biomedical applications. Although some simple organs, such as skin and cartilage, have been successfully simulated, it remains challenging to make hair follicles (HFs), which are highly complex organs. The tissue engineering of human HFs has been a long-standing challenge, and progress with this has lagged behind that with other lab-grown tissues. This is principally due to a lack of availability of a platform that can successfully recapitulate the microenvironmental cues required to maintain the requisite cellular interactions for hair neogenesis. In this study, we used a 3D bioprinting technique based on a gelatin/alginate hydrogel to construct a multilayer composite scaffold with cuticular and corium layers to simulate the microenvironment of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in the human body. This new approach permits the controllable formation of self-aggregating spheroids of DPCs in a physiologically relevant extracellular matrix and the initiation of epidermal-mesenchymal interactions, which results in HF formation in vivo. In conclusion, our 3D-bioprinted multilayer composite scaffold prepared using a gelatin/alginate hydrogel provides a suitable 3D microenvironment for DPCs to induce HF formation. The ability to regenerate entire HFs should have a significant impact on the medical management of hair loss. This method may also have critical applications for skin tissue engineering, with its appendages, for other purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.09.014DOI Listing
September 2021

miR‑4792 regulates inflammatory responses in ‑infected microglia.

Int J Mol Med 2021 11 9;48(5). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Dermatology, Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200434, P.R. China.

Investigating the factors that influence the inflammatory response of microglial cells is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) play an important role in inducing host defenses and activating the immune response during microbial infection; however, the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in cryptococcal meningitis remain poorly defined. In a previous study, the authors assessed the miRNA profiles of THP‑1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cells) cells following infection. In the present study, it was found that miR‑4792 expression was downregulated in BV2 cells infected with , whilst that of its target gene, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), was upregulated. Infected cells in which miR‑4792 was overexpressed exhibited a decreased EGFR transcript expression, reduced mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, following antifungal treatment in patients with cryptococcal meningitis, the levels of miR‑4792 in the cerebrospinal fluid significantly increased, whilst the expression of EGFR significantly decreased. In addition, receiver operator characteristic analysis revealed miR‑4792 (AUC=0.75) and EGFR (AUC=0.79) as potential diagnostic markers in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5031DOI Listing
November 2021

Genomic landscape of mitochondrial DNA insertions in 23 bat genomes: characteristics, loci, phylogeny, and polymorphism.

Integr Zool 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, China.

The transfer of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome gives rise to the nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (NUMTs), considered as a driving force in genome evolution. In this study, NUMTs in 23 bat genomes were investigated and compared systematically. The results showed that NUMTs existed in 22 genomes except for Noctilio leporinus, suggesting that mitochondrial fragment insertion in the nuclear genome was a common event in bat genomes. However, remarkable variations in NUMTs number, cumulative length, and proportion in the nuclear genome were discovered across bat species. Further orthologous NUMT loci analysis of the Phyllostomidae family indicated that the NUMTs insertion events in bat genomes were homoplasy-free. The NUMTs were mainly inserted into the intergenic regions, particularly, co-localized with repetitive sequences (especially transposable elements). However, several NUMTs were inserted into genes, some of which were in the exon region of functional genes. One NUMT in the genome of Pteropus alecto surprisingly matched with cDNA of ATP8B3 that provided evidence of NUMTs with coding function. Phylogenic analysis on NUMTs originating from COXI and COXII loci highlighted 2 clusters of Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera for Chiroptera. Seven NUMTs from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum were amplified, and the sequencing results confirmed the reliability of the NUMT analysis. One of them was polymorphic for the presence or absence of the NUMT insertion, and each genotype of NUMT loci showed a distinct regional distribution pattern. The information obtained in this study provides novel insights into the NUMT organization and features in bat genomes and establishes a basis for further studying of the evolution of bat species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12582DOI Listing
September 2021

Onset of High Methane Combustion Rates over Supported Palladium Catalysts: From Isolated Pd Cations to PdO Nanoparticles.

JACS Au 2021 Apr 25;1(4):396-408. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States.

Industrial low-temperature methane combustion catalyst Pd/AlO suffers from HO-induced deactivation. It is imperative to design Pd catalysts free from this deactivation and with high atomic efficiency. Using a small-pore zeolite SSZ-13 as support, herein we report well-defined Pd catalysts with dominant active species as finely dispersed Pd cations, uniform PdO particles embedded inside the zeolite framework, or PdO particles decorating the zeolite external surface. Through detailed reaction kinetics and spectroscopic and microscopic studies, we show that finely dispersed sites are much less active than PdO nanoparticles. We further demonstrate that HO-induced deactivation can be readily circumvented by using zeolite supports with high Si/Al ratios. Finally, we provide a few rational catalyst design suggestions for methane oxidation based on the new knowledge learned in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.0c00109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395651PMC
April 2021

Predicting the Quality of Compressed Videos With Pre-Existing Distortions.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 3;30:7511-7526. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Because of the increasing ease of video capture, many millions of consumers create and upload large volumes of User-Generated-Content (UGC) videos to social and streaming media sites over the Internet. UGC videos are commonly captured by naive users having limited skills and imperfect techniques, and tend to be afflicted by mixtures of highly diverse in-capture distortions. These UGC videos are then often uploaded for sharing onto cloud servers, where they are further compressed for storage and transmission. Our paper tackles the highly practical problem of predicting the quality of compressed videos (perhaps during the process of compression, to help guide it), with only (possibly severely) distorted UGC videos as references. To address this problem, we have developed a novel Video Quality Assessment (VQA) framework that we call 1stepVQA (to distinguish it from two-step methods that we discuss). 1stepVQA overcomes limitations of Full-Reference, Reduced-Reference and No-Reference VQA models by exploiting the statistical regularities of both natural videos and distorted videos. We also describe a new dedicated video database, which was created by applying a realistic VMAF-Guided perceptual rate distortion optimization (RDO) criterion to create realistically compressed versions of UGC source videos, which typically have pre-existing distortions. We show that 1stepVQA is able to more accurately predict the quality of compressed videos, given imperfect reference videos, and outperforms other VQA models in this scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3107213DOI Listing
September 2021

ST-GREED: Space-Time Generalized Entropic Differences for Frame Rate Dependent Video Quality Prediction.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 1;30:7446-7457. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

We consider the problem of conducting frame rate dependent video quality assessment (VQA) on videos of diverse frame rates, including high frame rate (HFR) videos. More generally, we study how perceptual quality is affected by frame rate, and how frame rate and compression combine to affect perceived quality. We devise an objective VQA model called Space-Time GeneRalized Entropic Difference (GREED) which analyzes the statistics of spatial and temporal band-pass video coefficients. A generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) is used to model band-pass responses, while entropy variations between reference and distorted videos under the GGD model are used to capture video quality variations arising from frame rate changes. The entropic differences are calculated across multiple temporal and spatial subbands, and merged using a learned regressor. We show through extensive experiments that GREED achieves state-of-the-art performance on the LIVE-YT-HFR Database when compared with existing VQA models. The features used in GREED are highly generalizable and obtain competitive performance even on standard, non-HFR VQA databases. The implementation of GREED has been made available online: https://github.com/pavancm/GREED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3106801DOI Listing
September 2021

Strong Hydration Ability of Silk Fibroin Suppresses Formation and Recrystallization of Ice Crystals During Cryopreservation.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

The cryopreservation (CP) of cell/tissue is indispensable in medical science. However, the formation of ice during cooling and ice recrystallization/growth in time of thawing present significant risk of cell/tissue damage upon analysis of CP process. Herein, the natural and biocompatible silk fibroin (SF) with regular hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, were first employed as a cryoprotectant (CPA), to the CP of human bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), which has been routinely cyropreserved for cell-based therapies. Addtion of SF can regulate the formation of ice crystals during cooling process because of its strong hydration ability in the comparation to the cryopreservation medium (CM) without SF. Moreover, the devitrification-induced recrystallization/growth of ice during the thawing process is suppressed. Most importantly, the addition of 10 mg mL SF can achieve 81.28% cell viability of cryopreserved hBMSCs as similar as those with the addition of 180 mg mL Ficoll 70 (commercial CPA), and the functions of the cryopreserved hBMSCs are maintained as good as that of the fresh ones. This work is not only significant for meeting the ever-increasing demand of cell therapy, but also trailblazing for designing materials in controlling ice formation and growth during the CP of other cells and tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c00700DOI Listing
August 2021

Plastic and low-cost axial zero thermal expansion alloy by a natural dual-phase composite.

Nat Commun 2021 Aug 4;12(1):4701. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China.

Zero thermal expansion (ZTE) alloys possess unique dimensional stability, high thermal and electrical conductivities. Their practical application under heat and stress is however limited by their inherent brittleness because ZTE and plasticity are generally exclusive in a single-phase material. Besides, the performance of ZTE alloys is highly sensitive to change of compositions, so conventional synthesis methods such as alloying or the design of multiphase to improve its thermal and mechanical properties are usually inapplicable. In this study, by adopting a one-step eutectic reaction method, we overcome this challenge. A natural dual-phase composite with ZTE and plasticity was synthesized by melting 4 atom% holmium with pure iron. The dual-phase alloy shows moderate plasticity and strength, axial zero thermal expansion, and stable thermal cycling performance as well as low cost. By using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, in-situ neutron diffraction and microscopy, the critical mechanism of dual-phase synergy on both thermal expansion regulation and mechanical property enhancement is revealed. These results demonstrate that eutectic reaction is likely to be a universal and effective method for the design of high-performance intermetallic-compound-based ZTE alloys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25036-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8338949PMC
August 2021

Wheat Ear Recognition Based on RetinaNet and Transfer Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Surveying and Mapping Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, China.

The number of wheat ears is an essential indicator for wheat production and yield estimation, but accurately obtaining wheat ears requires expensive manual cost and labor time. Meanwhile, the characteristics of wheat ears provide less information, and the color is consistent with the background, which can be challenging to obtain the number of wheat ears required. In this paper, the performance of Faster regions with convolutional neural networks (Faster R-CNN) and RetinaNet to predict the number of wheat ears for wheat at different growth stages under different conditions is investigated. The results show that using the Global WHEAT dataset for recognition, the RetinaNet method, and the Faster R-CNN method achieve an average accuracy of 0.82 and 0.72, with the RetinaNet method obtaining the highest recognition accuracy. Secondly, using the collected image data for recognition, the of RetinaNet and Faster R-CNN after transfer learning is 0.9722 and 0.8702, respectively, indicating that the recognition accuracy of the RetinaNet method is higher on different data sets. We also tested wheat ears at both the filling and maturity stages; our proposed method has proven to be very robust (the is above 90). This study provides technical support and a reference for automatic wheat ear recognition and yield estimation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21144845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309814PMC
July 2021

"Five-Early" Model: The Magic Weapon against COVID-19.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Oct;49(Suppl 1):82-86

Chongqing University Three Gorges Hospital, Chongqing 404100, China.

Background: COVID-19(2019 novel coronavirus disease)has brought tremendous pressure to the prevention and control of the national epidemic due to its concealed onset, strong infectivity and fast transmission speed.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 226 patients diagnosed with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) in the Chongqing University Three Gorges Hospital were included. The patients' clinical data, including general information, initial symptoms at the onset, time of disease diagnosis, time to treatment in hospital, time of nucleic acid conversion to negative, disease classification, total time of hospitalization were collected. The clinical data of the mild and severe patients were compared.

Results: Fever, cough, sore throat, poor appetite andfatigue were the main symptoms of the diagnosed patients. The time of diagnosis was significantly shorter in the mild patients (4.96 ± 4.10 days) than severe patients (7.63 ± 9.17 days) (P=0.004). Mild patients had shorter time to treatment in hospital (6.09 ± 4.47 vs. 8.71 ± 9.04 days) and less time of nucleic acid conversion to negative (7.58 ± 2.51 vs. 11.6 ± 4.67 days) compared to the severe patients.

Conclusion: The above results can be used as a quantitative basis for the "five-early"(early detection, early screening, early diagnosis, early isolation treatment, and early recovery) model. The government, the masses, and the hospitals' joint prevention and optimization of the "five-early" model will provide important scientific reference for further prevention and control of the epidemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49iS1.3673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266013PMC
October 2020

Multicolor Whole-Genome Mapping in Nanochannels for Genetic Analysis.

Anal Chem 2021 07 7;93(28):9808-9816. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.

Analysis of structural variations (SVs) is important to understand mutations underlying genetic disorders and pathogenic conditions. However, characterizing SVs using short-read, high-throughput sequencing technology is difficult. Although long-read sequencing technologies are being increasingly employed in characterizing SVs, their low throughput and high costs discourage widespread adoption. Sequence motif-based optical mapping in nanochannels is useful in whole-genome mapping and SV detection, but it is not possible to precisely locate the breakpoints or estimate the copy numbers. We present here a universal multicolor mapping strategy in nanochannels combining conventional sequence-motif labeling system with Cas9-mediated target-specific labeling of any 20-base sequences (20mers) to create custom labels and detect new features. The sequence motifs are labeled with green fluorophores and the 20mers are labeled with red fluorophores. Using this strategy, it is possible to not only detect the SVs but also utilize custom labels to interrogate the features not accessible to motif-labeling, locate breakpoints, and precisely estimate copy numbers of genomic repeats. We validated our approach by quantifying the D4Z4 copy numbers, a known biomarker for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and estimating the telomere length, a clinical biomarker for assessing disease risk factors in aging-related diseases and malignant cancers. We also demonstrate the application of our methodology in discovering transposable long non-interspersed Elements 1 (LINE-1) insertions across the whole genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01373DOI Listing
July 2021

Exploring the Psychological Effects of COVID-19 Home Confinement in China: A Psycho-Linguistic Analysis on Weibo Data Pool.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:587308. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

Backgrounds: With the rapid spread of COVID-19, strict home confinement has been implemented in most parts of Chinese regions. Millions of people were not allowed to leave their homes except for special reasons. Home confinement plays an essential role in curbing pandemic and promoting preventive behaviors, but it may affect individuals' mental health as well.

Objects: The objective of this study was to explore the psychological impacts of home confinement.

Materials And Methods: We collected more than 150,360 Weibo messages from 5,370 Chinese active users, and then extracted psycho-linguistic features from these messages. Psycho-linguistic analysis was carried out using the 2 (confinement vs. non-confinement) × 2 (before vs. after confinement) repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA).

Results: The results showed that the frequency of positive emotion words was remarkably decreased during home confinement [ = 7.926, = 0.005, η = 0.001]. In high-endemic subgroup, home confinement also reduced the frequency of exclusion words [ = 4.518, = 0.034, η = 0.001] and inhibition words [ = 10.154, = 0.001, η = 0.003].

Conclusion: Home confinement caused a decline in the use of positive emotion words. This indicates that home confinement can increase the frequency of negative emotions. The changes of exclusion words and inhibition words in high-endemic areas may be related to the high epidemic threat and the urgent need for social distancing in these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.587308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209261PMC
June 2021

Novel Mutations of the ALMS1 Gene in Patients with Alström Syndrome.

Intern Med 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai JiaoTong University, China.

Objective Alström syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by a mutation in the ALMS1 gene. Alström syndrome is clinically characterized by multisystem involvement, including sensorineural deafness, cone-rod dystrophy, nystagmus, obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypogonadism. The diagnosis is thus challenging for patients without this characteristic set of clinical symptoms. We explored the effectiveness of whole-exome sequencing in the diagnosis of Alström syndrome. Methods A girl with symptoms of Alström syndrome was tested and diagnosed with the disease by whole-exome sequencing. Results Whole-exome sequencing revealed two novel variants, c.6160_6161insAT: p.Lys2054Asnfs*21 (exon 8) and c.10823_10824 delAG:p.Glu 3608Alafs*9 (exon16) in the ALMS1 gene, leading to premature termination codons and the domain of ALMS1 protein. Blood sample testing of her asymptomatic parents revealed them to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutations. Assembly showed that the mutations on both alleles were located in conserved sequences. A review of the ALMS1 gene nonsense mutation status was performed. Conclusion We herein report two novel variants of the ALMS1 gene discovered in a Chinese Alström syndrome patient that expand the mutational spectrum of ALMS1 and provided new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying Alström syndrome. Our findings add to the current knowledge concerning the diagnosis and treatment of Alström syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.6467-20DOI Listing
June 2021

Detection of the level of DNMT1 based on self-assembled probe signal amplification technique in plasma.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 25;261:120020. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) is the most abundant DNA methyltransferase in somatic cells, and it plays an important role in the initiation, occurrence, and rehabilitation of tumors. Herein, we developed a novel strategy for the detection of the level of DNMT1 in human plasma using the self-assembled nucleic acid probe signal amplification technology. In this method, the DNMT1 monoclonal antibody (McAb) was immobilized on carboxyl magnetic beads to form immunomagnetic beads and then captured DNMT1 specifically. After that, DNMT1 polyclonal antibody (PcAb) and biotinylated sheep anti-rabbit IgG (sheep anti rabbit IgG-Biotin) were sequentially added into the system to react with DNMT1 and form biotinylated double antibody sandwich immunomagnetic beads. In the presence of the bridging medium streptavidin, the biotinylated double antibody sandwich immunomagnetic beads would form a complex with biotinylated poly-fluorescein (Biotin-poly FAM), and the fluorescence intensity of the complex was proportional to the concentration of DNMT1. Immunomagnetic beads can capture the target DNMT1 in the sample, and Biotin-poly FAM can realize signal amplification. Using these strategies, we got a linear range of the system for DNMT1 level detection was from 2 nmol/L to 200 nmol/L, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05 nmol/L. The method was successfully applied for the determination of DNMT1 in human plasma with the recovery of 101.3-106.0%. Therefore, this method has the potential for the detection of DNMT1 level in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120020DOI Listing
November 2021

Inspecting Insulin Products Using Water Proton NMR. I. Noninvasive vs Invasive Inspection.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2021 Jun 11:19322968211023806. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Bio- and Nano-Technology Center, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: There is a clear need to transition from batch-level to vial/syringe/pen-level quality control of biologic drugs, such as insulin. This could be achieved only by noninvasive and quantitative inspection technologies that maintain the integrity of the drug product.

Methods: Four insulin products for patient self-injection presented as prefilled pens have been noninvasively and quantitatively inspected using the water proton NMR technology. The inspection output is the water proton relaxation rate (HO), a continuous numerical variable rather than binary pass/fail.

Results: Ten pens of each product were inspected. (HO) displays insignificant variation among the 10 pens of each product, suggesting good insulin content uniformity in the inspected pens. It is also shown that transferring the insulin solution out of and then back into the insulin pen caused significant change in (HO), presumably due to exposure to O in air.

Conclusions: Water proton NMR can noninvasively and quantitatively inspect insulin pens. NMR can confirm product content uniformity, but not absolute content. Its sensitivity to sample transferring provides a way to detect drug product tampering. This opens the possibility of inspecting every pen/vial/syringe by manufacturers and end-users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19322968211023806DOI Listing
June 2021

Tryptophan in the diet ameliorates motor deficits in a rotenone-induced rat Parkinson's disease model via activating the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor pathway.

Brain Behav 2021 08 9;11(8):e2226. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, PR China.

Background And Purpose: Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder with motor and nonmotor symptoms, does not have effective treatments. Dietary tryptophan (Trp) supplementation has potential benefits for the treatment of multiple disorders. However, whether additional Trp in the diet could be beneficial for PD remains to beinvestigated. In the present study, the neuroprotective role of dietary Trp on a rotenone-induced rat model of PD was determined.

Methods: The rotenone was injected to build the PD model, and then the rats were treated with Trp in the diet. And then, an open field test, western blot analysis, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed.

Results: We observed that dietary Trp significantly ameliorated impaired motor function, upregulated tyrosine hydroxylase expression, inhibited the nuclear transport of Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in substantia nigra (SN), and downregulated the protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum in rotenone-treated rats. However, these patterns were reversed in response to treatment with ampicillin, an agent that can clean intestinal Trp metabolism flora. Moreover, after using CH223191, an inhibitor of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, dietary Trp could not exert neuroprotective roles in the rotenone-induced rat model of PD.

Conclusion: These results suggest that Trp in the diet can protect against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity to ameliorate motor deficits, which may be mediated through activating AhR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413809PMC
August 2021

One-Step Synthesis of 4-Octyl Itaconate through the Structure Control of Lipase.

J Org Chem 2021 06 4;86(12):7895-7903. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Beijing Bioprocess Key Laboratory and State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology (BUCT), Beijing 100029, P. R. China.

4-Octyl itaconate is a novel antiviral and immunoregulatory small molecule showing great potential in the treatment of various autoimmune diseases and viral infections. It is difficult to selectively esterify the C4 carboxyl group of itaconate acid via one-step direct esterification using chemical catalysts, while the two-step route with itaconic anhydride as an intermediate is environmentally unfriendly and costly. This research investigated the one-step and green synthesis of 4-octyl itaconate through the structure control of lipase, obtaining 4-octyl itaconate with over 98% yield and over 99% selectivity. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations were applied to investigate the reaction mechanism. The cavity pocket of lipases resulted in a 4-octyl itaconate selectivity by affecting distribution of substrates toward the catalytic site. Toluene could enhance monoesterification in the C4 carboxyl group and contribute to a nearly 100% conversion from itaconate acid into 4-octyl itaconate by adjusting the catalytic microenvironment around the lipase, producing a shrinkage effect on the channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c02995DOI Listing
June 2021

Cu-Ag Bimetallic Core-shell Nanoparticles in Pores of a Membrane Microreactor for Enhanced Synergistic Catalysis.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 19;13(21):24795-24803. Epub 2021 May 19.

Sichuan University, No. 24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, 610065 Chengdu, China.

A bimetallic catalytic membrane microreactor (CMMR) with bimetallic nanoparticles in membrane pores has been fabricated via flowing synthesis. The bimetallic nanoparticle is successfully immobilized in membrane pores along its thickness direction. Enhanced synergistic catalysis can be expected in this CMMR. As a concept-of-proof, Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles have been fabricated and immobilized in membrane pores for -nitrophenol (-NP) hydrogenation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the characterization of the bimetallic core-shell nanostructure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the characterization of the electron transfer behavior between Cu-Ag bimetal have been performed. The Ag shell on the core of Cu can improve the utilization of Ag atoms, and electron transfer between bimetallic components can promote the formation of high electron density active sites as well as active hydrogen with strong reducing properties on the Ag surface. The dispersed membrane pore can prevent nanoparticle aggregation, and the contact between the reaction fluid and catalyst is enhanced. The enhanced mass transfer can be achieved by the plug-flow mode during the process of hydrogenation catalysis. The -NP conversion rate being over 95% can be obtained under the condition of a membrane flux of 1.59 mL·cm·min. This Cu-Ag/PES CMMR has good stability and has a potential application in industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04155DOI Listing
June 2021

A novel visible light-driven TiO photocatalytic reduction for hexavalent chromium wastewater and mechanism.

Water Sci Technol 2021 May;83(9):2135-2145

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033, China E-mail:

Titanium dioxide (TiO) photocatalyst was prepared with a sol-gel method and its characterizations were analyzed TiO photocatalytic reduction of Cr was investigated in visible light irradiation and reduction mechanisms were calculated. Prepared TiO is anatase with a bandgap of about 2.95 eV. Experimental results display that almost 100% of Cr is removed by visible light-driven TiO photocatalytic reduction after 120 min when CrO initial concentration is 1.0 mg·L, TiO dosage is 1.0 g·L, and pH value is 3. In acidic aqueous solution, HCrO is the dominant existing form of Cr and is adsorbed by TiO, forming a complex catalyst HCrO/TiO with an increase in wavelength to the visible light zone, demonstrated by UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, it can be deduced that Cr is adsorbed on the surface of TiO and then reduced to Cr in situ by photoelectrons. Self-assembly of HCrO/TiO complex catalyst and self-reduction of Cr in situ are the key steps to start the visible light-driven TiO photocatalytic reduction. Furthermore, TiO photocatalytic reduction of Cr fits well with pseudo-first-order kinetics and has the potential application to treat chemical industrial wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.116DOI Listing
May 2021

Formic Acid as a Potential On-Board Hydrogen Storage Method: Development of Homogeneous Noble Metal Catalysts for Dehydrogenation Reactions.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jul 7;14(13):2655-2681. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, 932 Lushan Road, Changsha city, Hunan Province, 410083, P. R. China.

Hydrogen can be used as an energy carrier for renewable energy to overcome the deficiency of its intrinsically intermittent supply. One of the most promising application of hydrogen energy is on-board hydrogen fuel cells. However, the lack of a safe, efficient, convenient, and low-cost storage and transportation method for hydrogen limits their application. The feasibility of mainstream hydrogen storage techniques for application in vehicles is briefly discussed in this Review. Formic acid (FA), which can reversibly be converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide through catalysis, has significant potential for practical application. Historic developments and recent examples of homogeneous noble metal catalysts for FA dehydrogenation are covered, and the catalysts are classified based on their ligand types. The Review primarily focuses on the structure-function relationship between the ligands and their reactivity and aims to provide suggestions for designing new and efficient catalysts for H generation from FA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202100602DOI Listing
July 2021

Trimeric Cationic Surfactant Coacervation as a Versatile Approach for Removing Organic Pollutants.

Langmuir 2021 May 6;37(19):5993-6001. Epub 2021 May 6.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science (BNLMS), CAS Key Laboratory of Colloid, Interface and Chemical Thermodynamics, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, and Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

A versatile method to remove a broad spectrum of dye pollutants from wastewater rapidly and efficiently is highly desirable. Here, we report that the complex coacervation of cationic trimeric imine-based surfactants (TIS) with negatively charged hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) can be used for this purpose. The coacervation occurs in a wide concentration and composition range and requires the HPAM and TIS concentrations as low as 0.1 g/L and 0.1 mM, respectively. Dye effluents treated by trimeric surfactants and HPAM complete phase separation within 30 s under turbulent conditions, which generates an exceedingly small volume fraction (0.4%) of viscoelastic coacervate and a clear supernatant with a dye removal efficiency of up to 99.9% for anionic and neutral dyes in dosages of up to 120 mg/L. Crowded molecular arrangement and thick framework in coacervate are responsible for the rapid phase separation rate and low volume fraction. The trimeric imine surfactant/polymer coacervation provides a simple, effective, and sustainable approach for the rapid removal of dyes and other organic pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00557DOI Listing
May 2021
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