Publications by authors named "YiMin Chen"

95 Publications

MicroRNA-363-3p promote the development of acute myeloid leukemia with RUNX1 mutation by targeting SPRYD4 and FNDC3B.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25807

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University.

Background: Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in most of hematological malignancies, especially in acute myeloid leukemia. In the present study, we aimed to identify the key genes and microRNAs based on acute myeloid leukemia with RUNX1 mutation. The newly finding targeted genes and microRNA associated with RUNX1 may benefit to the clinical treatment in acute myeloid leukemia.

Material/methods: The gene and miRNA expression data sets relating to RUNX1 mutation and wild-type adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Differentially expressed miRNAs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by edgeR of R platform. Gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses were performed by Metascape and Gene set enrichment analysis. The protein-protein interaction network and miRNA-mRNA regulatory network were performed by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database and Cytoscape software.

Results: A total of 27 differentially expressed miRNAs (25 upregulated and 2 downregulated) and 561 DEGs (429 upregulated and 132 downregulated) were identified. Five miRNAs (miR-151b, miR-151a-5p, let-7a-2-3p, miR-363-3p, miR-20b-5p) had prognostic significance in AML. The gene ontology analysis showed that upregulated DEGs suggested significant enrichment in MHC class II protein complex, extracellular structure organization, blood vessel development, cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation, embryonic morphogenesis, regulation of cell adhesion, and so on. Similarly, the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in secretory granule lumen, extracellular structure organization. In the gene set enrichment analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, the RUNX1 mutation was associated with adherent junction, WNT signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, cell adhesion molecules CAMs, MAPK signaling pathway. Eleven genes (PPBP, APP, CCR5, HLA-DRB1, GNAI1, APLNR, P2RY14, C3AR1, HTR1F, CXCL12, GNG11) were simultaneously identified by hub gene analysis and module analysis. MicroRNA-363-3p may promote the development of RUNX1 mutation AML, targeting SPRYD4 and FNDC3B. In addition, the RUNX1 mutation rates in patient were obviously correlated with age, white blood cell, FAB type, risk(cyto), and risk(molecular) (P < .05).

Conclusion: Our findings have indicated that multiple genes and microRNAs may play a crucial role in RUNX1 mutation AML. MicroRNA-363-3p may promote the development of RUNX1 mutation AML by targeting SPRYD4 and FNDC3B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025807DOI Listing
May 2021

Predicting opioid use disorder and associated risk factors in a Medicaid managed care population.

Am J Manag Care 2021 Apr;27(4):148-154

AmeriHealth Caritas Family of Companies, 200 Stevens Dr, Philadelphia, PA 19113. Email:

Objectives: Medicaid managed care organizations are developing comprehensive strategies to reduce the impact of opioid use disorder (OUD) among their members. The goals of this study were to develop and validate a predictive model of OUD and to predict future OUD diagnosis, resulting in proactive, person-centered outreach.

Study Design: We utilized machine learning methodology to select a multivariate logistic regression and identify predictors.

Methods: Using 2016-2018 data, we used a staged approach to test and validate the predictive accuracy of our model. We identified OUD, the dependent variable, using an industry-standard definition. We included a series of patient demographic, chronic condition, social determinants of health (SDOH), opioid-related, and health utilization indicators captured in administrative data.

Results: Caucasian (odds ratio [OR], 1.65), male (OR, 1.57), and younger (aged 40-64 years compared with 18-39 years: OR, 0.75) members had greater odds of being diagnosed with an OUD. Members with an SDOH vulnerability had 26% higher odds than those without a documented issue. From a prescribing perspective, we found that having an opioid dose of 120 morphine milligram equivalents and contiguous 5-day supply increased odds of OUD by 1.87 times, and an opioid supply of 30 days or longer increased the odds of OUD by 1.56 times.

Conclusions: We built the necessary machine learning infrastructure to identify members with greater than 50% probability of developing OUD. The generated list strategically informs and guides person-centered care and interventions. Through application of these results, we strive to proactively reduce OUD-related structural barriers and prevent OUD from occurring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.37765/ajmc.2021.88617DOI Listing
April 2021

Symmetry Analysis of Oriental Polygonal Pagodas Using 3D Point Clouds for Cultural Heritage.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 9;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Ancient pagodas are usually parts of hot tourist spots in many oriental countries due to their unique historical backgrounds. They are usually polygonal structures comprised by multiple floors, which are separated by eaves. In this paper, we propose a new method to investigate both the rotational and reflectional symmetry of such polygonal pagodas through developing novel geometric models to fit to the 3D point clouds obtained from photogrammetric reconstruction. The geometric model consists of multiple polygonal pyramid/prism models but has a common central axis. The method was verified by four datasets collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a hand-held digital camera. The results indicate that the models fit accurately to the pagodas' point clouds. The symmetry was realized by rotating and reflecting the pagodas' point clouds after a complete leveling of the point cloud was achieved using the estimated central axes. The results show that there are RMSEs of 5.04 cm and 5.20 cm deviated from the perfect (theoretical) rotational and reflectional symmetries, respectively. This concludes that the examined pagodas are highly symmetric, both rotationally and reflectionally. The concept presented in the paper not only work for polygonal pagodas, but it can also be readily transformed and implemented for other applications for other pagoda-like objects such as transmission towers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916231PMC
February 2021

GenDet: Meta Learning to Generate Detectors From Few Shots.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Feb 1;PP. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Object detection has made enormous progress and has been widely used in many applications. However, it performs poorly when only limited training data is available for novel classes that the model has never seen before. Most existing approaches solve few-shot detection tasks implicitly without directly modeling the detectors for novel classes. In this article, we propose GenDet, a new meta-learning-based framework that can effectively generate object detectors for novel classes from few shots and, thus, conducts few-shot detection tasks explicitly. The detector generator is trained by numerous few-shot detection tasks sampled from base classes each with sufficient samples, and thus, it is expected to generalize well on novel classes. An adaptive pooling module is further introduced to suppress distracting samples and aggregate the detectors generated from multiple shots. Moreover, we propose to train a reference detector for each base class in the conventional way, with which to guide the training of the detector generator. The reference detectors and the detector generator can be trained simultaneously. Finally, the generated detectors of different classes are encouraged to be orthogonal to each other for better generalization. The proposed approach is extensively evaluated on the ImageNet, VOC, and COCO data sets under various few-shot detection settings, and it achieves new state-of-the-art results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3053005DOI Listing
February 2021

Transformation from Antiferromagnetic Target Skyrmion to Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion by Unzipping Process through a Confined Nanostructure.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Heping road 3-11, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110819, CHINA.

The manipulation of magnetic skyrmion has been attracting considerable attention for the fundamental physical perspective and promising applications in spintronics, ascribed to their nontrivial topology and emergent electrodynamics. However, there is a hindrance to the transmission of a skyrmion in the racetrack memory due to the skyrmion Hall effect (SHE). Antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials provide a possibility to overcome the SHE in high-velocity data writing. Herein, we systematically investigate the generation and motion of an AFM target skyrmion under the spin-polarized current. We found that the AFM target skyrmion can reach a velocity of 1088.4 m/s under the current density of 8 × 1012 A m-2, which is lower than 1269.8 m/s for the AFM skyrmion. This slowdown can be ascribed to the deformation of AFM target skyrmion in the process of motion on a nanotrack. In addition, we observed a transformation from AFM target skyrmion to AFM skyrmion by the unzipping process through a constricted nanostructure which is mediated by the formation of AFM domain wall. Two energy barriers need to be overcome in this dynamic process, i.e. 2.93 × 104 eV from AFM target skyrmion to AFM domain wall, and 7.625 × 103 eV from AFM domain wall to AFM skyrmion. Our results provide guidance for future target skyrmion-based devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abe079DOI Listing
January 2021

Synthesis and Evaluation of Fluorine-18 Labeled 2-Phenylquinoxaline Derivatives as Potential Tau Imaging Agents.

Mol Pharm 2021 03 21;18(3):1176-1195. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

In this study, three pairs of optically pure F-labeled 2-phenylquinoxaline derivatives were evaluated as Tau imaging agents for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The chiral 2-fluoromethyl-1,2-ethylenediol side chain was attached to the 2-phenylquinoxaline backbone to increase hydrophilicity, thereby improving the binding affinity of the probe to tangles and their selectivity toward Tau tangles over β-amyloid plaques (Aβ). These probes displayed excellent fluorescent properties and high selectivity for tangles on brain sections from transgenic mice (rTg4510) and AD patients. Quantitative binding assays with AD homogenates showed that the probes and have a high affinity ( = 4.1 and 10.3 nM, respectively) and high selectivity (30.5-fold and 34.6-fold, respectively) for tangles over Aβ. The high affinity and selectivity of and for tangles were further confirmed with autoradiography on AD brain tissue in vitro. In addition, they displayed sufficient blood-brain barrier penetration (7.06% and 10.95% ID/g, respectively) and suitable brain kinetics (brain/brain = 10.1, 6.5 respectively) in normal mice. Ex vivo metabolism studies and micro-positron emission computed tomography (PET) revealed high brain biostability, good brain kinetic properties, and low nonspecific binding for . Together, these results demonstrate that and are promising PET probes for Tau tangles imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c01078DOI Listing
March 2021

Structure-Relaxivity Mechanism of an Ultrasmall Ferrite Nanoparticle T MR Contrast Agent: The Impact of Dopants Controlled Crystalline Core and Surface Disordered Shell.

Nano Lett 2021 01 15;21(2):1115-1123. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.

Ultrasmall ferrite nanoparticles (UFNPs) have emerged as powerful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T nanoprobe for noninvasive visualization of biological events. However, the structure-relaxivity relationship and regulatory mechanism of UFNPs remain elusive. Herein, we developed chemically engineered 3.8 nm ZnFeO@ZnMnFeO (denoted as ZnF@ZnMnF) nanoparticles with precise dopants control in both crystalline core and disordered shell as a model system to assess the impact of dopants on the relaxometric properties of UFNPs. It is determined that the core-shell dopant architecture allows the optimal tuning of r relaxivity for ZnF@ZnMnF up to 20.22 mM s, which is 5.2-fold and 6.5-fold larger than that of the original UFNPs and the clinically used Gd-DTPA. Moreover, the high-performing UFNPs nanoprobe, when conjugated with a targeting moiety AMD3100, enables the MRI detection of small lung metastasis with greatly enhanced sensitivity. Our results pave the way toward the chemical design of ultrasensitive T nanoprobe for advanced molecular imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04574DOI Listing
January 2021

Case Report: Treatment of Anti-MDA5-Positive Amyopathic Dermatomyositis Accompanied by a Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Diseases With Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy Combined With Cyclosporine A and Hydroxychloroquine.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 27;7:610554. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Patients with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody-positive amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) often develop rapidly progressive interstitial lung diseases (RP-ILD), with poor treatment success. Many studies have shown that this is the main cause of death in patients with anti-MDA5 antibody-positive ADM. A 37-years-old woman developed a cough, shortness of breath, and a rash on both hands, which resembled Gottron's signs. Upon laboratory examination, the results were as follows: antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive; anti-Ro52 antibody positive; and anti-MDA5 antibody positive. Pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan showed pulmonary interstitial inflammatory changes, and mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema. She was finally diagnosed with anti-MDA5 antibody-positive ADM accompanied by RP-ILD. She was first given high-dose-steroid pulse therapy with methylprednisolone (500 mg per day for 3 days) followed by methylprednisolone (40 mg, daily), cyclosporine A (100 mg, twice per day), and hydroxychloroquine (200 mg, twice per day). Since her discharge from our hospital in March of 2018, she has maintained the methylprednisolone therapy (tapered to 10 mg daily), cyclosporine A (100 mg, twice per day), and hydroxychloroquine (200 mg, twice per day). Pulmonary HRCT scans taken on 4, 9, and 26 months after her discharge from our hospital showed that the interstitial pneumonitis had significantly improved and that mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema had been gradually absorbed. The patient can now participate in regular work and activities of daily living. The treatment of methylprednisolone pulse therapy combined with cyclosporine A and hydroxychloroquine may be an option for the RP-ILD accompanied by anti-MDA-positive ADM. After the acute phase, this combination therapy strategy is helpful to the disease control of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.610554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732655PMC
November 2020

Bioinformatics Analysis Identifies Key Genes and Pathways in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Associated with DNMT3A Mutation.

Biomed Res Int 2020 23;2020:9321630. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510000, China.

Background: DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) mutation was one of the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which was associated with poor prognosis and appeared to be a potential biomarker. Herein, we aimed to identify the key genes and pathways involved in adult AML with DNMT3A mutations and to find possible therapeutic targets for improving treatment.

Methods: The RNA sequencing datasets of 170 adult AML patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. EdgeR of the R platform was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed by Metascape and DAVID. And protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and clustering modules were analyzed with the STRING database and Cytoscape software.

Results: Mutated DNMT3A resulted in a shorter overall survival (OS) in AML patients and obviously associated with age, blast percentage in peripheral blood, and FLT3 mutation. A total of 283 DEGs were detected, of which 95 were upregulated and 188 were downregulated. GO term analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in neutrophil degranulation, myeloid cell differentiation, stem cell proliferation, positive regulation of neurological system process, leukocyte migration, and tissue morphogenesis. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the pathway of cancer, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and transcriptional misregulation in cancer may play a crucial role in DNMT3A mutation AML. Seven hub genes (BMP4, MPO, THBS1, APP, ELANE, HOXA7, and VWF) had a significant prognostic value.

Conclusion: Bioinformatics analysis in the present study provided novel targets for early diagnosis and new strategies for treatment for AML with DNMT3A mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9321630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707947PMC
November 2020

Use of the Gout Impact Scale to Evaluate Quality of Life in Chinese Subjects with Gout: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Sep 29;26:e925593. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Rheumatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND To use a gout-specific quality of life (QoL) tool, the Gout Impact Scale (GIS), to evaluate characteristics of gout affecting QoL in subjects with gout. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 169 individuals with gout completed the 24-item GIS and a general questionnaire regarding gout characteristics. The reliability and validity of the GIS were verified by Cronbach's a and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. The impact of gout characteristics on the QoL of subjects with gout was assessed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. RESULTS The 169 subjects with gout included 149 (88.2%) men and 20 (11.8%) women, of median age 43 years. The reliability of the GIS was appropriate (0.84-0.90), except for Gout Medication Side Effects (0.69) and Unmet Gout Treatment Need (0.59). Exploratory factor analysis showed that construct validity was acceptable, with a cumulative variance contribution rate of 5 common factors of 70.09% and factor loading >0.5 between each pair of items of the GIS. Univariate analysis showed that male sex was positively correlated with Well-being During Attack (p<0.05), and that source of medical expenses, current cigarette use and drinking were significantly correlated with Unmet Gout Treatment Need (p<0.05 each). A family history of gout, gout flares, and attack frequency were significantly correlated with total GIS, Well-being During Attack, and Gout Concern during Attack (p<0.05 each). Multivariate analysis suggested that history of gouty arthritis, acute attack and attack frequency had a considerable impact on QoL (p<0.05 each). CONCLUSIONS The GIS showed acceptable reliability and validity in identifying associations between poor QoL and gout characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.925593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532695PMC
September 2020

Fashion Retrieval via Graph Reasoning Networks on a Similarity Pyramid.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2020 Sep 18;PP. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Matching clothing images from customers and online shopping stores has rich applications in E-commerce. Existing algorithms mostly encode an image as a global feature vector and perform retrieval via global representation matching. However, discriminative local information on clothes is submerged in this global representation, resulting in sub-optimal performance. To address this issue, we propose a novel Graph Reasoning Network (GRNet) on a Similarity Pyramid, which learns similarities between a query and a gallery cloth by using both initially pairwise multi-scale feature representations and matching propagation for unaligned ones. The query local representations at each scale are aligned with those of the gallery via a novel adaptive window pooling module. The similarity pyramid is represented by a Graph of similarity, where nodes represent similarities between clothing components at different scales, and the final matching score is obtained by message passing along edges. In GRNet, graph reasoning is solved by training a graph convolutional network, enabling to align salient clothing components to improve clothing retrieval. To facilitate future researches, we introduce a new benchmark FindFashion, containing rich annotations of bounding boxes, views, occlusions, and cropping. Extensive experiments show GRNet obtains new state-of-the-art results on three challenging benchmarks and all settings on FindFashion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2020.3025062DOI Listing
September 2020

Exploring New Blue Carbon Plants for Sustainable Ecosystems.

Trends Plant Sci 2020 11 24;25(11):1067-1070. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Engineering Technology Innovation Center for Marine Biological Resource Exploitation, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Oceans harbor a large diversity of biocommunities that are promising yet undervalued for playing a role in carbon capture and storage (CCS). To counter the increasing global climate change, exploring new oceanic opportunities by the incorporation of new blue carbon (BC) plants for CCS may help in achieving sustainable ecosystems on which human society depends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2020.07.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Efficacy of a Novel Ophthalmic Antimicrobial Drug Combination Toward a Large Panel of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Ocular Isolates From Around the World.

Cornea 2020 Oct;39(10):1278-1284

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY.

Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of keratitis requiring urgent antimicrobial treatment. However, rising antibiotic resistance has rendered current ophthalmic antibiotics increasingly ineffective. First, a diverse, ocular S. aureus strain set was evaluated for resistance to 6 commonly used ophthalmic antibiotics. Next, a recently discovered antimicrobial drug combination containing polymyxin B/trimethoprim (PT) + rifampin that displayed impressive efficacy toward S. aureus in both in vitro and in vivo studies was evaluated as a potential novel keratitis therapeutic through testing this combination's efficacy against the clinical strain set.

Methods: A total of 163 S. aureus isolates were collected either commercially or from the Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, vancomycin, erythromycin, tobramycin, rifampin, and PT were determined for the entire strain set to establish the incidence of resistance to current treatment options among a contemporary clinical isolate set and compared with the performance of PT + rifampin.

Results: Among all 163 isolates tested, high rates of antibiotic resistance were found toward erythromycin (69% resistance), moxifloxacin (33%), levofloxacin (40%), and tobramycin (17%). Conversely, the entire strain set, including multidrug resistant isolates, was sensitive to PT + rifampin, demonstrating the potency of this combination.

Conclusions: We established that antibiotic resistance is pervasive among clinical S. aureus isolates, underscoring the concern for the effectiveness of current ophthalmic antibiotics. The drug combination of PT + rifampin, however, eradicated 100% of isolates tested, demonstrating the ability to overcome existing circulating resistance factors, and as such, might represent a promising therapeutic for S. aureus keratitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000002414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483989PMC
October 2020

IncDet: In Defense of Elastic Weight Consolidation for Incremental Object Detection.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Jun 29;PP. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Elastic weight consolidation (EWC) has been successfully applied for general incremental learning to overcome the catastrophic forgetting issue. It adaptively constrains each parameter of the new model not to deviate much from its counterpart in the old model during fine-tuning on new class data sets, according to its importance weight for old tasks. However, the previous study demonstrates that it still suffers from catastrophic forgetting when directly used in object detection. In this article, we show EWC is effective for incremental object detection if with critical adaptations. First, we conduct controlled experiments to identify two core issues why EWC fails if trivially applied to incremental detection: 1) the absence of old class annotations in new class images makes EWC misclassify objects of old classes in these images as background and 2) the quadratic regularization loss in EWC easily leads to gradient explosion when balancing old and new classes. Then, based on the abovementioned findings, we propose the corresponding solutions to tackle these issues: 1) utilize pseudobounding box annotations of old classes on new data sets to compensate for the absence of old class annotations and 2) adopt a novel Huber regularization instead of the original quadratic loss to prevent from unstable training. Finally, we propose a general EWC-based incremental object detection framework and implement it under both Fast R-CNN and Faster R-CNN, showing its flexibility and versatility. In terms of either the final performance or the performance drop with respect to the upper bound of joint training on all seen classes, evaluations on the PASCAL VOC and COCO data sets show that our method achieves a new state of the art.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3002583DOI Listing
June 2020

Identification of the key genes and microRNAs in adult acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3 mutation by bioinformatics analysis.

Int J Med Sci 2020 18;17(9):1269-1280. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510000, China.

: Associated with poor prognosis, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutation appeared frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein, we aimed to identify the key genes and miRNAs involved in adult AML with FLT3 mutation and find possible therapeutic targets for improving treatment. : Gene and miRNA expression data and survival profiles were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. EdgeR of R platform was applied to identify the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs (DEGs, DE-miRNAs). Gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed by Metascape and DAVID. And protein-protein interaction network, miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and clustering modules analyses were performed by STRING database and Cytoscape software. : Survival analysis showed FLT3 mutation led to adverse outcome in AML. 24 DE-miRNAs (6 upregulated, 18 downregulated) and 250 DEGs (54 upregulated, 196 downregulated) were identified. Five miRNAs had prognostic value and the results matched their expression levels (miR-1-3p, miR-10a-3p, miR-10a-5p, miR-133a-3p and miR-99b-5p). GO analysis showed DEGs were enriched in skeletal system development, blood vessel development, cartilage development, tissue morphogenesis, cartilage morphogenesis, cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation, response to growth factor, cell-substrate adhesion and so on. The KEGG analysis showed DEGs were enriched in PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. Seven genes (LAMC1, COL3A1, APOB, COL1A2, APP, SPP1 and FSTL1) were simultaneously identified by hub gene analysis and module analysis. SLC14A1, ARHGAP5 and PIK3CA, the target genes of miR-10a-3p, resulted in poor prognosis. : Our study successfully identified molecular markers, processes and pathways affected by FLT3 mutation in AML. Furthermore, miR-10a-3p, a novel oncogene, might involve in the development of FLT3 mutation adult AML by targeting SLC14A1, ARHGAP5 and PIK3CA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.46441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294926PMC
March 2021

N,O-Benzamide difluoroboron complexes as near-infrared probes for the detection of β-amyloid and tau fibrils.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Jul;56(53):7269-7272

Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China.

In this study, a series of organo difluoroboron probes with a BF2 benzamide moiety was designed, prepared and evaluated. Among them, 2c displayed the best optical and biological properties, and may be used as a useful near-infrared fluorescent probe for the detection of Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc02820gDOI Listing
July 2020

Serum uric acid level is associated with the incidence of heterotopic ossification following elbow trauma surgery.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 May;29(5):996-1001

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common complication after surgery for elbow trauma. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism and has several physiological and pathogenic roles. However, the relationship between HO and uric acid has not been explored. This retrospective study aimed to assess the relationship between HO and serum uric acid (SUA).

Material And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 155 patients undergoing elbow trauma surgery in our hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. One hundred patients were included according to the inclusion criteria. They were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of HO, and the SUA level was compared between groups using the independent samples t test. The optimal prognostic cutoff value was obtained using the maximum value of the Youden index.

Results: The SUA level was significantly higher in the HO group than in the non-HO group (362.0 ± 87.4 μmol/L vs. 318.3 ± 87.0 μmol/L; P < .05). Using the maximum value of Youden index, 317.5 μmol/L was determined to be the optimal SUA cutoff value for the prediction of HO, with a sensitivity of 68.75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.67%-80.05%) and specificity of 55.77% (95% CI, 42.34%-68.40%).

Conclusions: Our study was the first to find that the high SUA level is a risk factor for HO of the elbow joint after trauma. Moreover, 317.5 μmol/L is the SUA threshold predicting the occurrence and development of HO of the elbow, with high sensitivity and specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.01.071DOI Listing
May 2020

Prediction of cesarean hysterectomy in placenta previa complicated with prior cesarean: a retrospective study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Feb 7;20(1):81. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, 510080, People's Republic of China.

Background: The prevalence of both placenta previa and cesarean are on the rise. Multiple adverse outcomes are critically increased when placenta previa is subsequent to prior cesarean. The purpose of the present study is to develop a pre-surgical method for predicting adverse outcomes in pregnancy complicated with both placenta previa and prior cesarean.

Methods: Clinical data was obtained from the medical history system at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from February 2003 to December 2016. All cases with a final diagnosis of "placenta previa/low lying placenta (ICD:O44.001-105)" and "scarred uterus complicated with pregnancy (ICD: O34.200-202)" were collected and reviewed. Hysterectomy was taken as the primary outcome; and blood loss was taken as the secondary outcome.

Results: Of 219 pregnant women in the final analysis, 25 received a hysterectomy following delivery, and 48 had blood loss exceeding 1000 ml. Pre-surgical risk factors for hysterectomy are ultrasonic signs of vascular lacunae, central placenta previa, and loss of normal hypoechoic retroplacental zone. A pre-surgical predictive equation referred to as "Hysterectomy Index in Placenta Previa with Prior cesarean (HIPs)" was generated and each risk factor was weighted to create an 8-point scale. This index yielded an area under the curve of 0.972 for the prediction of hysterectomy.

Conclusions: Application of the HIPs score may provide an effective pre-surgical prediction of cesarean hysterectomy in pregnant women complicated with both placenta previa and prior cesarean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2790-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006172PMC
February 2020

Global projections of future urban land expansion under shared socioeconomic pathways.

Nat Commun 2020 Jan 27;11(1):537. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 380 Edwards Street, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

Despite its small land coverage, urban land and its expansion have exhibited profound impacts on global environments. Here, we present the scenario projections of global urban land expansion under the framework of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Our projections feature a fine spatial resolution of 1 km to preserve spatial details. The projections reveal that although global urban land continues to expand rapidly before the 2040s, China and many other Asian countries are expected to encounter substantial pressure from urban population decline after the 2050s. Approximately 50-63% of the newly expanded urban land is expected to occur on current croplands. Global crop production will decline by approximately 1-4%, corresponding to the annual food needs for a certain crop of 122-1389 million people. These findings stress the importance of governing urban land development as a key measure to mitigate its negative impacts on food production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14386-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985221PMC
January 2020

Projecting China's future water footprint under the shared socio-economic pathways.

J Environ Manage 2020 Apr 13;260:110102. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Geo-simulation, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, PR China. Electronic address:

Increasing water scarcity in China is further exacerbated by the rapid socio-economic development and uneven spatial distribution of water resources. Current studies on water footprint have mainly focused on historical accounting and trend analysis at the provincial scale. However, a comprehensive exploration of future water footprint would be vital to a better understanding of future water shortage challenges, and more importantly, would allow the mitigation of water scarcity and inequal water distribution. In this paper, we present an approach to project the future water footprint of China at a fine resolution (0.125 arc-degree) under the shared socio-economic pathway (SSP) scenario framework, which described five future alternative socio-economic development pathways over the 21st century. We first simulated the future spatial patterns of built-up land using the Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS) model and derived the future population growth and urbanization rate from the population projection provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Then future water footprint was projected according a log-transformed linear regression calibrated with historical data during 2007-2012. We found that the total volume of China's water footprint will increase significantly in the future under the SSP1, SSP4 and SSP5 scenarios, reaching up to nearly 400 billion m in 2050, equivalent to almost 40% increase compared to that in 2010. The spatial patterns of future water footprint show dramatic increase (up to 100-130%) in the eastern provinces (Shandong, Henan, and Hebei), and slight decrease were found in the western provinces (Xinjiang, Ningxia, and Qinghai). In addition, the future water footprints were found to share very similar spatial patterns at local pixel scale among different SSP scenarios in three of the largest metropolitan areas of China (Beijing-Hebei-Tianjin, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta). These findings provide extensive knowledge of the future water footprint and suggest a more severe water scarcity in the future from a consumption-oriented perspective. More effective water management policies are urgently needed to mitigate future water resource scarcity and inequality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110102DOI Listing
April 2020

Hypoxia-induced EPHB2 promotes invasive potential of glioblastoma.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2019 1;12(2):539-548. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University Guiyang, Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China.

EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase for ephrin ligands, is overexpressed in various cancers and plays an important role in tumor progression. EPHB2 promotes endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and elicits associated pathologic characteristics of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) such as invasion and migration. However, the mechanisms of the EPHB2 regulatory network in glioma remain enigmatic. Here, we report that EPHB2 is epigenetically overexpressed in hypoxia, a condition highly prevalent in malignancy. Furthermore, HIF-2α is required for EPHB2 stabilization by hypoxia. Lastly, we discovered that the overexpression of EPHB2 promotes GBM invasion by the phosphorylation of paxillin in hypoxia. These findings establish the HIF-2α-EPHB2-paxillin axis as a regulatory mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945092PMC
February 2019

Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of the effects of pomegranate therapy on carotid plaque texture using locality preserving projection.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2020 Feb 12;184:105276. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Electrical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Dietary supplements are expected to confer a smaller beneficial effect than medical treatments. Therefore, there is a need to develop cost-effective biomarkers that can demonstrate the efficacy of such supplements for carotid atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to develop such a biomarker based on the changes of 376 plaque textural features measured from 3D ultrasound images.

Methods: Since the number of features (376) was greater than the number of subjects (171) in this study, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of feature vectors. To generate a scalar biomarker for each subject, elements in the reduced feature vectors produced by PCA were weighted using locality preserving projections (LPP) to capture essential patterns exhibited locally in the feature space. 96 subjects treated by pomegranate juice and tablets, and 75 subjects receiving placebo-matching juice and tablets were evaluated in this study. The discriminative power of the proposed biomarker was evaluated and compared with existing biomarkers using t-tests. As the cost of a clinical trial is directly related to the number of subjects enrolled, the cost-effectiveness of the proposed biomarker was evaluated by sample size estimation.

Results: The proposed biomarker was more able to discriminate plaque changes exhibited by the pomegranate and placebo groups than total plaque volume (TPV) according to the result of t-tests (TPV: p=0.34, Proposed biomarker: p=1.5×10). The sample size required by the new biomarker to detect a significant effect was 20 times smaller than that required by TPV.

Conclusion: With the increase in cost-effectiveness afforded by the proposed biomarker, more proof-of-principle studies for novel treatment options could be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105276DOI Listing
February 2020

Serum Uric Acid Shows Inverted "U" Type Correlation with Osteoporosis in Chinese Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients: A Retrospective Study.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Dec 18;25:9702-9711. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Rheumatology, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND This study was to investigate the correlation between osteoporosis and serum uric acid in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, and to further identify potential factors that might be associated with osteoporosis in AS patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 182 AS patients, consisted of 143 male patients and 39 female patients, who visited our hospital from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density (BMD) of orthotopic lumbar vertebrae in patients with AS. The gender, age, disease duration, BMD, T-score, Z-score, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), blood platelet (PLT), and status of treatment with biologics of the patients were collected. Then, the Spearman correlation coefficient and multivariate liner regression analysis were applied to identify the relationship between the factors and BMD, T-score, and Z-score in AS patients. RESULTS Male AS patients between the ages of 16 and 30 years old had a higher risk of osteoporosis (P<0.05). AS patients with uric acid value between 300-360 μmol/L had the highest BMD, T-score, and Z-score. The BMD had a positive correlation with age and disease duration (P<0.01) while had a negative correlation with PLT (P<0.05). BMD in AS patients with elevated ESR was significantly (P<0.05) lower than in AS patients with normal ESR. There were no significant differences in BMD between AS patients with elevated CRP and the patients with normal CRP and PLT. Treatment with TNFi (tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor) did not improve BMD in AS patients. CONCLUSIONS The relationship between uric acid and BMD in AS patients was observed as inverted "U"-type. Keeping uric acid within 300-360 μmol/L might be helpful in preventing AS patients from developing osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.918766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930702PMC
December 2019

T-lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 cytokines in convalescent patients with Epstein-Barr virus-associated aplastic anemia.

Hematology 2020 Dec;25(1):11-16

Clinical Laboratory, Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

The aim of this study was to analyze T-lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 cytokines in convalescent patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated aplastic anemia (AA). Sixty AA patients were enrolled, who were in remission following immunosuppressive therapy, including 34 EBV-negative cases and 26 EBV-positive cases. Their complete blood count (CBC), T-lymphocyte subsets, Th1/Th2 cytokines were analyzed. The correlation between EBV-DNA and T-lymphocyte subsets was evaluated, as well as the relationship between EBV-DNA and Th1/Th2 cytokines. The presence of EBV-DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was also assessed in 60 normal controls. EBV-DNA was detected in 26/60 (43.33%) patients and 21/60 (35.00%) controls. EBV-DNA copy number in AA patients was higher than in controls (Z = -2.138,  = 0.033). The percentage of CD3CD4 T-lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4/CD8 T-lymphocytes in the EBV-negative group were higher than in the EBV-positive group (= 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). EBV was positively correlated with CD3CD8 T-lymphocyte percentages (Pearson R: 0.496, = 0.009). Moreover, EBV was positively correlated with IL-10 and IFN-γ levels (Pearson R: 0.559, = 0.002 and Pearson R: 0.621, = 0.001, respectively). EBV-DNA copy number in AA patients was higher than in normal controls. Both AA and EBV infection may cause changes in the levels of T-lymphocyte subsets. We recommend monitoring the changes in the immune function and EBV infection simultaneously in AA patients, especially following immunosuppressive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16078454.2019.1702304DOI Listing
December 2020

Ellipsoidal magnetite nanoparticles: a new member of the magnetic-vortex nanoparticles family for efficient magnetic hyperthermia.

J Mater Chem B 2020 01;8(3):515-522

Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi'an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi'an 710065, China.

The development of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with novel topological magnetic domain structures, such as the vortex-domain structure, is a promising strategy for improving the application performance of conventional superparamagnetic iron oxides while maintaining their good biocompatibility. Here, we fabricated a new kind of magnetic-vortex nanoparticles, i.e., ellipsoidal magnetite nanoparticles (EMPs), for cancer magnetic hyperthermia. The magnetization configurations and switching behaviours of the EMPs were analyzed by analytical simulations and Lorentz TEM, demonstrating the magnetic vortex structures of both single and coupled EMPs. The EMP treatment of 4T1 cells exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) induced a significant decrease in the cell viability by ∼51.5%, which indicated a much higher cytotoxic effect in comparison with commercial superparamagnetic iron oxides (Resovist, ∼12.0%). In addition, the in vivo high efficacy of 4T1 breast tumor inhibition was also achieved by using EMP-mediated magnetic hyperthermia. Our results not only provide a new type of magnetic-vortex nanoparticles for efficient hyperthermia but also enrich the family of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for various biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9tb00998aDOI Listing
January 2020

Association between IL-6 polymorphisms and sepsis.

Innate Immun 2019 11 31;25(8):465-472. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Trauma Centre, Tiantai People's Hospital, PR China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425919872818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900662PMC
November 2019

A Personalized Behavior Learning System for Human-Like Longitudinal Speed Control of Autonomous Vehicles.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Aug 23;19(17). Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1, Canada.

As the main component of an autonomous driving system, the motion planner plays an essential role for safe and efficient driving. However, traditional motion planners cannot make full use of the on-board sensing information and lack the ability to efficiently adapt to different driving scenes and behaviors of different drivers. To overcome this limitation, a personalized behavior learning system (PBLS) is proposed in this paper to improve the performance of the traditional motion planner. This system is based on the neural reinforcement learning (NRL) technique, which can learn from human drivers online based on the on-board sensing information and realize human-like longitudinal speed control (LSC) through the learning from demonstration (LFD) paradigm. Under the LFD framework, the desired speed of human drivers can be learned by PBLS and converted to the low-level control commands by a proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller. Experiments using driving simulator and real driving data show that PBLS can adapt to different drivers by reproducing their driving behaviors for LSC in different scenes. Moreover, through a comparative experiment with the traditional adaptive cruise control (ACC) system, the proposed PBLS demonstrates a superior performance in maintaining driving comfort and smoothness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19173672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6749184PMC
August 2019

Remote and real time control of an FVIO-enzyme hybrid nanocatalyst using magnetic stimulation.

Nanoscale 2019 Oct;11(39):18081-18089

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 1 Xue Fu Avenue, Xi'an, 710127, Shaanxi, China.

Remote modulation of nanoscale biochemical processes in a living system using magnetic stimulation is appealing but is restricted by the lack of a highly efficient nanomediator which can deliver timely and effective response to biological molecules under an external magnetic field. Herein, we report the development of a novel nanocatalyst based on a ferrimagnetic vortex-domain nanoring (FVIO)-enzyme hybrid that enables real-time modulation of enzymatic catalysis under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The role of the FVIO is to provide localized heating immediately upon exposure to an AMF, which efficiently and selectively promotes the activity of conjugated enzymes on the surface. The reaction rate of the as-fabricated FVIO-β-Gal hybrid was shown to be boosted up to 180% of its initial value by localized heat generated under an AMF of 550 Oe in less than 2 s and without heating up the bulk solution. Moreover, the degree of activity acceleration was shown to be tunable by increasing the strength of the AMF. The concept of remote magnetic stimulation of enzymatic reactions has been further applied to other enzymes (e.g. FVIO-KPC and FVIO-GOx), demonstrating the general applicability of this strategy. Since almost all metabolic processes in cells rely on enzymatic catalysis to sustain life, the FVIO-enzyme system developed in this work provides a valuable nanoplatform for spatiotemporally manipulating biochemical reactions, which might pave the way for future remote manipulation of living organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr04289jDOI Listing
October 2019

Automatic epileptic seizure classification in multichannel EEG time series with linear discriminant analysis.

Technol Health Care 2020 ;28(1):23-33

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: An electroencephalogram (EEG) is the most dominant method for detecting epileptic seizures. However, the existing techniques use single-channel EEGs from public databases and the sample size is small.

Objective: This study proposes a strategy to distinguish multichannel EEGs for health control, particularly the interictal and ictal multichannel EEGs of epileptic patients.

Method: We calculated five features (variance, Pearson correlation coefficient, Hoeffding's D measure, Shannon entropy, inter-quartile range), which are based on maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform. These features were then fed into linear discriminant analysis for classification purposes. Finally, the proposed method was tested on data on 34 healthy people, 21 interictal patients and 30 ictal patients taken from a hospital.

Results: Our experimental results show that the accuracy between healthy and epileptic seizures was 96.88% and the area under the curve (AUC) is 1. The accuracy between interictal and epileptic seizures was 94.12% and the AUC was 0.97. We also obtained an accuracy and AUC equal to 1 for discrimination of interictal EEGs from normal. Finally, we obtained an AUC of 0.83 and an accuracy of 85.88% for discrimination in these three classes. Therefore, our study achieves sufficient performance.

Conclusions: Our proposed method can serve as an auxiliary tool for clinicians who wish to make clinical decisions and reduces the burden of detecting epileptic seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-181548DOI Listing
November 2020

Environment-Sensitive Near-Infrared Probe for Fluorescent Discrimination of Aβ and Tau Fibrils in AD Brain.

J Med Chem 2019 07 5;62(14):6694-6704. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry , Beijing Normal University , Beijing 100875 , China.

The early noninvasive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease targeted β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or Tau tangles is a major challenge because of the coshared β-sheet structure of the target. In contrast to tailoring probes to specific amyloids, here, we showed that near-infrared (NIR) environment-sensitive probe could fluorescently discriminate Aβ and Tau from artificial aggregates to pathological change in the brain tissue. The biological evaluation demonstrated that the substantial fluorescence enhancement, large blueshift in the emission upon interactions with the aggregates, and the high binding affinity significantly contributed to the fluorescent discrimination. A simplified Ooshika-Lippert-Mataga equation provided an effective means of correlating with the static relative permittivity (ε) of proteins, elucidating the origin of the distinction capabilities, and quantitatively estimating the dielectric properties of proteins. Moreover, possessed high bioavailability, including sufficient blood-brain barrier penetration, in vivo NIR imaging, and ex vivo histology in living mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00672DOI Listing
July 2019