Publications by authors named "Yi-Xiang Su"

38 Publications

Optimal gestational weight gain in Chinese pregnant women by Chinese-specific BMI categories: a multicentre prospective cohort study.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Apr 12:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou510080, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To establish optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Chinese pregnant women by Chinese-specific BMI categories and compare the new recommendations with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 guidelines.

Design: Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the OR, 95 % CI and the predicted probabilities of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The optimal GWG range was defined as the range that did not exceed a 1 % increase from the lowest predicted probability in each pre-pregnancy BMI group.

Setting: From nine cities in mainland China.

Participants: A total of 3731 women with singleton pregnancy were recruited from April 2013 to December 2014.

Results: The optimal GWG (ranges) by Chinese-specific BMI was 15·0 (12·8-17·1), 14·2 (12·1-16·4) and 12·6 (10·4-14·9) kg for underweight, normal weight and overweight pregnant women, respectively. Inappropriate GWG was associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with women gaining weight within our proposed recommendations, women with excessive GWG had higher risk for macrosomia, large for gestational age and caesarean section, whereas those with inadequate GWG had higher risk for low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm delivery. The comparison between our proposed recommendations and IOM 2009 guidelines showed that our recommendations were comparable with the IOM 2009 guidelines and could well predict the risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Conclusions: Inappropriate GWG was associated with higher risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimal GWG recommendations proposed in the present study could be applied to Chinese pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021001622DOI Listing
April 2021

Potential of Naturally Derived Alkaloids as Multi-Targeted Therapeutic Agents for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Molecules 2021 Jan 30;26(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research Group (BMEX), School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia.

Alkaloids are a class of secondary metabolites that can be derived from plants, fungi and marine sponges. They are widely known as a continuous source of medicine for the management of chronic disease including cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, galanthamine and huperzine A are alkaloid derivatives currently being used for the symptomatic management of neurodegenerative disease. The etiology of neurodegenerative diseases is polygenic and multifactorial including but not limited to inflammation, oxidative stress and protein aggregation. Therefore, natural-product-based alkaloids with polypharmacology modulation properties are potentially useful for further drug development or, to a lesser extent, as nutraceuticals to manage neurodegeneration. This review aims to discuss and summarise recent developments in relation to naturally derived alkaloids for neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866829PMC
January 2021

Effects of plant oils with different fatty acid composition on cardiovascular risk factors in moderately hypercholesteremic Chinese adults: a randomized, double-blinded, parallel-designed trial.

Food Funct 2020 Aug 5;11(8):7164-7174. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510012, P. R. China.

Objectives: Plant oil for cooking typically provides 40% to 50% of dietary fat, 65% of linoleic acid, 44% of α-linolenic acid and 41% of oleic acid in the Chinese diet. However, the comparative effects of fatty acids derived from plant oil on cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese are still inconclusive. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate whether cardiovascular risk factors are altered depending on various types of plant oils such as peanut oil rich in oleic acid, corn oil rich in linoleic acid, and blend oil fortified by α-linolenic acid.

Design: A randomized, double-blinded, parallel-designed trial.

Setting: The First and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Participants: A total of 251 volunteers with fasting blood total cholesterol between 5.13 and 8.00 mmol L were enrolled.

Intervention: Volunteers received peanut oil, corn oil or blend oil to use for cooking for one year.

Main Outcome Measures: The erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured before, during and after the intervention. The level of α-linolenic acid in erythrocyte membranes was significantly increased in the blend oil group after the intervention (P < 0.001). The level of other fatty acids did not show any statistically significant differences between the three groups. No significant differences were observed in the concentrations of fasting plasma lipids, hsCRP, glucose, and insulin among the three groups using different types of plant oils.

Conclusions: The results suggest that although ingesting cooking oil with different fatty acid composition for one year could change erythrocyte membrane fatty acid compositions, it did not significantly modify cardiovascular risk factors in moderately hypercholesteremic people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo00875cDOI Listing
August 2020

Positive relationship between consumption of specific fish type and n-3 PUFA in milk of Hong Kong lactating mothers.

Br J Nutr 2019 06 12;121(12):1431-1440. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, Laboratory for Infant & Child Nutrition, Food Safety and Technology Research Centre,The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,Hong Kong, China.

Residents of Hong Kong have undergone a dietary transition from a traditional Chinese diet that is high in seafood to a more Western diet. This may have affected the nutritional composition of breast milk of Hong Kong mothers. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the dietary pattern and the fatty acid profile of the breast milk of lactating women in Hong Kong. Seventy-three volunteering healthy Hong Kong lactating mothers participated in the study. Their dietary intakes were assessed by using a 3-d dietary record and FFQ. The mean n-3 fatty acid levels were approximately 0·4 % (EPA) and 0·9 % (DHA) of total fatty acids in the breast milk of lactating mothers who had exclusively breastfed their infants aged 2-6 months. Maternal dietary intakes of n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with their levels in the breast milk. The levels of maternal intakes of freshwater and saltwater fish, especially the consumption of salmon, croaker and mandarin, were significantly correlated with the content of DHA in breast milk. The present study is among the very few in the literature to determine the fatty acid profile of breast milk in Hong Kong populations and verify certain dietary factors that influence this profile. High levels of n-3 PUFA, especially DHA, were observed in the breast milk of Hong Kong lactating women. The findings may serve as a dietary reference for lactating mothers to optimise the fatty acid profile of their breast milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519000801DOI Listing
June 2019

New Chinese dietary guidelines: healthy eating patterns and food-based dietary recommendations.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018;27(4):908-913

Chinese Nutrition Society, Beijing, China.

Background And Objectives: The Chinese Dietary Guidelines (CDGs) were first released to the public in 1989 by the Chinese Nutrition Society (CNS). In 2016, the Ministry of Health commissioned the CNS to revise and publish new CDGs.

Methods And Study Design: The CNS convened an expert committee of leaders in the fields of nutrition, epidemiology, public health, preventive medicine, and food science. The CDGs were revised according to the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development procedures. The expert committee recommended key inclusions for the CDGs on the basis of the current status of public health and priority health challenges affecting the Chinese population, as well as the quality of scientific evidence.

Results: The CDGs (2016) provide six key dietary recommendations for the general Chinese population aged 2 years and above. In addition to a newly revised Chinese Food Guide Pagoda, both the Chinese Food Guide Plate and Chinese Food Guide Abacus are newly created pictorial models in the CDGs (2016); the Chinese Food Guide Abacus is specifically designed for children. Seven additional dietary guidelines targeting specific populations are included; these guidelines emphasize the different physiological and nutritional requirements of particular populations, including dietary guidelines for vegetarians for the first time.

Conclusions: The CDGs (2016) is an official document published by the National Health Commission of China. Its content highlights the current status of public health and offers advice to address health concerns faced by the Chinese population. The CDGs (2016) have been widely disseminated and accepted in the Chinese population; the National Nutrition Week is a major national event in which the CDG are used as its core to increase public awareness towards a healthy diet and lifestyle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.072018.03DOI Listing
September 2019

Effects of chocolate-based products intake on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels and on satiety in young people: a cross-over experimental study.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2018 Nov 19;69(7):882-891. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

f Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health , Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou , People's Republic of China.

This cross-over experimental study aimed to examine the effects of filled chocolate consumption on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels in 20 volunteers. After a one-week run-in period, study participants consumed two chocolate-based products, the tested biscuit or water for 21 days as a morning snack. After a two-week wash-out period, participants consumed another tested food for another 21 days. Each participant consumed all four test foods within an 18-week period. The participants' blood insulin increased slowly after two chocolate-based products intakes on the first day and satiety levels after eating chocolate-based products and the tested biscuit were the same. Chocolate consumption for three weeks had no adverse effects on blood glucose, insulin or ghrelin levels. In conclusion, compared to eating the tested biscuit, 21-day consumption of the tested chocolate-based products had no adverse effects on the blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels. This trial is registered with chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-IOR-16009525.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2018.1426737DOI Listing
November 2018

Excessive fruit consumption during the second trimester is associated with increased likelihood of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective study.

Sci Rep 2017 03 8;7:43620. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit consumption during the second trimester and the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A prospective study with 772 female participants was conducted in China from April 2013 to August 2014. Dietary intake was assessed in face-to-face and telephone interviews using a 3-day food record. GDM was ascertained using a standard 75 g 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for various confounders. Of the 772 participants, 169 were diagnosed with GDM during the period under study. Greater total fruit consumption during the second trimester was associated with a higher likelihood of GDM (highest vs. lowest quartile: adjusted OR4.82, 95% CI 2.38 to 9.76). Fruits with a moderate or high glycaemic index (GI) were positively associated with the occurrence of GDM. Fruit subgroups were also categorised by polyphenol content, and tropical-fruit and citrus-fruit consumption was found to be positively related to the occurrence of GDM. These findings suggest that the excessive consumption of fruit, especially fruit with moderate or high GI values, tropical-fruit and citrus-fruit, increases the likelihood of GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep43620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341573PMC
March 2017

Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Men and Women.

Nutrients 2016 Oct 1;8(10). Epub 2016 Oct 1.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Limited studies have examined the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels and the risk of atherosclerosis. This study examined whether higher Na and Na/K levels and low K levels were independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. This community-based cross-sectional study included 3290 subjects (1067 men and 2223 women) 40 to 75 years of age in Guangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2013. Urinary excretion of Na and K were measured from the first morning void, and creatinine-adjusted values were used. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid common artery and the carotid bifurcation was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Dietary K and Na intake and other covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. A significant positive association was seen between urinary Na excretion and carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age, sex, and other lifestyle covariates. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of urinary Na were 1.32 (1.04-1.66) for carotid plaques, 1.48 (1.18-1.87) for increased common carotid artery IMT, and 1.55 (1.23-1.96) for increased carotid bifurcation IMT (all -trend < 0.01). A similar positive association was observed between urinary Na/K levels and carotid plaque and increased IMT, and between dietary Na intake and increased bifurcation IMT. Regarding potassium data, we only found a significantly lower presence of carotid plaque (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.91) for quartile 2 (vs. 1) of urinary K. Our findings suggest that higher levels of urinary excretion Na and Na/K are significantly associated with greater presence of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8100612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084000PMC
October 2016

The effects of different levels of calcium supplementation on the bone mineral status of postpartum lactating Chinese women: a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

Br J Nutr 2016 Jan 2;115(1):24-31. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

2Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition, and Health,School of Public Health,Sun Yat-sen University,Guangzhou,Guangdong,510080,People's Republic of China.

Increasing dietary Ca intake may prevent the excessive mobilisation of bone mineral in nursing mothers. We aimed to investigate whether higher Ca intake could positively modulate the bone mineral changes in Chinese postpartum lactating women. The study was a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, parallel group trial conducted over 12 months. A total of 150 postpartum women were randomly selected to receive either 40 g of milk powder containing 300 mg of Ca and 5 μg of vitamin D (Low-Ca group) or same milk powder additionally fortified with 300 mg of Ca (Mid-Ca group) or 600 mg of Ca (High-Ca group). Bone mineral density (BMD) for the whole body, the lumbar spine, the total left hip and its sub-regions was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 102 subjects completed the whole trial. The duration of total lactating time was 7·9 (SD 2·8) months on average. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded the following mean percentage changes in BMD for the whole body, the lumbar spine and the total left hip, respectively: -0·93 (SD 1·97), 2·11 (SD 4·90) and -1·60 (SD 2·65)% for the Low-Ca group; -0·56 (SD 1·89), 2·21 (SD 3·77) and -1·43 (SD 2·30)% for the Mid-Ca group; and -0·44 (SD 1·67), 2·32 (SD 4·66) and -0·95 (SD 4·08)% for the High-Ca group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P: 0·5-0·9). The results of the complete case analysis were similar. In sum, we found no significant differences in the bone mineral changes from baseline to 12 months in postpartum lactating women consuming milk powder fortified with different levels of Ca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515003967DOI Listing
January 2016

Association between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes and metabolic syndrome in Chinese men and women.

Eur J Nutr 2016 Apr 3;55(3):981-9. Epub 2015 May 3.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Evidence of an association between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and metabolic syndrome (MS) is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the association between n-3 PUFAs in erythrocytes and the presence of MS in Chinese adults.

Methods: The levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes were measured using gas chromatography in 3072 participants (900 men and 2172 women) aged 30-75 years from Guangzhou, China. Cardiometabolic factors were determined, and MS was defined using the updated Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Other covariates were collected via interviewer-administered questionnaires.

Results: After adjusting for age and other confounders, higher levels of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs, including EPA, DPA, and DHA, were associated with a lower presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. The odds ratios (95 % confidence interval) for MS obtained by comparing extreme quartiles were 0.55 (0.35-0.88) (EPA), 0.54 (0.34-0.87) (DPA), 0.45 (0.27-0.73) (DHA), and 0.52 (0.32-0.84) (total n-3 PUFAs) in men (p trend <0.05 for all results); and 0.74 (0.56-0.99) (EPA), 0.73 (0.55-0.98) (DPA), 0.75 (0.56-1.02) (DHA), and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) (total n-3 PUFAs) in women, respectively. No significant association of ALA with MS was observed (p trend > 0.05).

Conclusion: Higher levels of total n-3 PUFAs, EPA, DPA, and DHA, but not of ALA, in erythrocyte membranes are associated with a lower presence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0912-3DOI Listing
April 2016

Association of magnesium in serum and urine with carotid intima-media thickness and serum lipids in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a community-based cross-sectional study.

Eur J Nutr 2016 Feb 7;55(1):219-26. Epub 2015 Mar 7.

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Previous studies suggested that magnesium (Mg) might protect against atherosclerosis, but data were scarce in an Asian population. We examined the association of Mg levels in serum and urine with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and serum lipids in Chinese adults.

Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study recruited 2,837 participants aged 40-75 years in Guangzhou, China. General information, lifestyle factors, serum and urinary concentrations of Mg and cardiometabolic factors were determined. The cIMTs of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the carotid bifurcation (BIF) were measured ultrasonographically.

Results: The mean (SD) concentration of serum Mg was 0.85 (0.07) mmol/L and median (IQR) for urinary Mg excretion was 2.29 (1.56-3.51) mmol/L. After adjustment for potential covariates, both serum and the urinary concentrations of Mg were inversely associated with CCA-IMT, but not with BIF-IMT. The regression coefficients (standard errors) were -100 (29) µm (total), -86 (34) µm (women) and -117 (52) µm (men) CCA-IMT per 1 mmol/L of serum Mg, and -41 (8) µm (total), -41 (10) µm (women) and -44 (15) µm (men) CCA-IMT per 1 unit of urinary Mg/creatinine (log mmol/mmol) (all p < 0.05), respectively. Higher serum Mg levels were associated with higher total cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc and triglyceride, but lower non-HDLc/HDLc in total population (all p < 0.05). Similar relationships of urinary Mg with lipoproteins were also found in total population (all p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Higher levels of serum and urinary Mg are associated with lower CCA-IMTs, and the role of Mg in lipid metabolism needs further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0839-8DOI Listing
February 2016

Calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in Chinese adolescents aged 12-14 years: a 12-month, dose-response, randomised intervention trial.

Br J Nutr 2014 Nov 18;112(9):1510-20. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University,Guangzhou510080,People's Republic of China.

A 12-month, dose-response, randomised, intervention trial was conducted to determine adequate Ca intake levels for Chinese adolescents by investigating the effect of Ca supplementation on bone mineral accretion. A total of 220 Han adolescents (111 girls and 109 boys) aged 12-14 years were recruited. All subjects were randomly divided into three groups. The bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (L1-L4), left hip and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Girls in the high-Ca group (actual Ca intake: 1243 (sd 193) mg/d) exhibited greater increases in the femoral neck BMC compared with those in the low-Ca group (9·7 v. 6·4 %, P =0·04) over the 1-year intervention period. The increases in femoral neck BMC were greater in boys in the high-Ca and medium-Ca groups (actual Ca intake: 985 (sd 168) mg/d) than in those in the low-Ca group (15·7 v. 11·7 %, P =0·03; 15·8 v. 11·7 %, P =0·03). Ca supplementation had significant effects on the whole-body BMC and BMD in subjects with physical activity levels>34·86 metabolic equivalents and on the spine BMD and BMC and BMD of most sites in subjects with Tanner stage < 3. Increasing Ca intake levels with Ca supplementation enhanced femoral neck mineral acquisition in Chinese adolescents. Furthermore, high physical activity levels and low Tanner stage appeared to significantly contribute to the effect of Ca supplementation on bone mass. Whether this is a lasting beneficial effect leading to the optimisation of peak bone mass needs to be determined in other long-term prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514002384DOI Listing
November 2014

Association of simple anthropometric indices and body fat with early atherosclerosis and lipid profiles in Chinese adults.

PLoS One 2014 4;9(8):e104361. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The discriminatory capability of different adiposity indices for atherosclerosis and lipid abnormalities remains uncertain. This study aimed to identify the best adiposity index for predicting early atherosclerosis and abnormal lipid profiles among anthropometric parameters and body fat measures in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.

Method: A total of 2,063 women and 814 men (57.6±5.2 y) were recruited for this community-based cross-sectional study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were assessed. Body fat mass and its percentage values for the whole body and trunk were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The intima-media thicknesses (IMTs) of the common carotid arteries (CCA), internal carotid arteries (ICA) and bifurcation (BIF) were determined via B-mode ultrasound. The fasting lipid profiles were assessed.

Results: With per SD increase of adiposity indices, the magnitude of the changes of IMT values and lipid profiles was more substantial for WC, WHR and WHtR in both genders. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that WC, WHR and WHtR were more sensitive in predicting the presence of intima-media thickening at the three segments as well as the lipids disturbances in women and men. In general, BIA-derived measures have no added predictive value for IMT-thickening as opposed to those three traditional abdominal measures.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that abdominal anthropometric measures including WC, WHR and WHtR are sensitive for discriminating carotid atherosclerosis and lipids abnormalities. WC is the best index because of its simplicity in routine use.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0104361PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4121270PMC
November 2015

Effects of milk salt supplementation on bone mineral gain in pubertal Chinese adolescents: a 2-year randomized, double-blind, controlled, dose-response trial.

Bone 2014 Aug 15;65:69-76. Epub 2014 May 15.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition, and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background/objective: Adequate calcium intakes may enhance bone mineral accumulation during childhood. Little is known about the optimal calcium intake in Chinese adolescents. We examined the effects of three levels of calcium intake on bone mineral accretion in adolescents.

Methods: This was a 2-year randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 40 g of milk powder containing 300 mg of calcium and 200 IU of vitamin D (Low-Ca group), or same milk powder additionally fortified with 300 mg of calcium (Mid-Ca group) or 600 mg of calcium (High-Ca group) for 2 years. The subjects' bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the total body, lumbar spine and left hip were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after the second year of treatment. Of the 111 girls and 109 boys (aged 12-14 years) enrolled, 91 girls and 91 boys completed the trial.

Results: The girls in the High-Ca group (1,110 mg/d) had 2.3%, 2.7% and 2.6% greater BMD accretion at the total hip, femoral neck and shaft (P<0.05) but not at total body less head and spine than those in the Low-Ca group (655 mg/d). A significant effect of higher calcium intake was also observed for percentage change of size-adjusted BMC at femur neck (P=0.047). Bonferroni tests indicated no significant differences in the percentage changes in BMD, BMC or size-adjusted BMC between the Mid- and Low-Ca groups and between the High- and Mid-Ca groups. Extra calcium had no observable additional effect in the boys (P>0.05).

Conclusion: An intake of 1000 mg/d or more might be helpful in maximizing bone mineral accretion in the hip for girls. But further large studies are required to identify its long-term effects and the optimal calcium intake for boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2014.05.007DOI Listing
August 2014

Erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acid levels and carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese men and women.

Atherosclerosis 2014 Jan 6;232(1):79-85. Epub 2013 Nov 6.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: Prospective studies have supported the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acid consumption on cardiac deaths, but limited data focused on atherosclerosis. We investigated the associations between n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older Chinese.

Methods: 847 subjects (285 men and 562 women), aged 40-65 years, from Guangzhou, China were included in this community-based cross-sectional study between December 2005 and January 2008. The levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes were measured by gas chromatography. Carotid ultrasound examination was conducted to obtain intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery and the carotid bifurcation. Dietary data and other covariates were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires.

Results: After adjustment for age, sex, and other confounders, negative dose-response associations between the contents of individual n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the erythrocyte membrane and the prevalence of carotid artery wall thickening and plaque were observed. A comparison in the highest and lowest tertiles gave odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for thickening in the walls of the common carotid artery of 0.58 (0. 34-0.97; P-trend = 0. 037) for DHA, and 0.39 (0.23-0.67; P-trend < 0.001) for ALA. However, EPA was not significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Similar results were found for thickening at the carotid bifurcation and the occurrence of carotid artery plaque.

Conclusions: Higher levels of DHA and ALA in the erythrocyte membrane were significantly associated with a lower burden of subclinical atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.10.028DOI Listing
January 2014

The validity of the body adiposity index in predicting percentage body fat and cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2014 Sep 19;81(3):356-62. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Recent research has suggested that body adiposity index (BAI) correlates more closely with percentage body fat (PBF) than body mass index (BMI). Here, we aimed to evaluate BAI's predictive power for PBF and for obesity-associated risk factors in the Chinese population.

Subjects: A total of 1707 women and 680 men aged 51-77 years were analysed in this community-based cross-sectional study.

Measurements: Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured, and BMI and BAI were calculated. Percentage body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Blood pressure, fasting lipid profiles, glucose and Carotid ultrasound examination determined intima-media thickness (IMT) at the common carotid arteries (CCA) were also measured.

Results: The Pearson correlation analysis indicated a stronger correlation between BAI and PBF when women and men were pooled together, but this effect disappeared in sex-stratified analysis. Bland-Altman plots suggested that BAI underestimated 5·8% of PBF in women and slightly overestimated 0·28% of PBF in men, but the magnitudes of these biases showed a fat mass-dependent manner. Both the logistic regression and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis indicated that BAI has an inferior predictive power for the presence of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and CCA-intima-media thickening, compared with BMI and WC.

Conclusion: We concluded that BAI was neither a better predictor for PBF nor for cardiovascular risks in Chinese population compared with BMI and WC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.12351DOI Listing
September 2014

Comparison of various anthropometric and body fat indices in identifying cardiometabolic disturbances in Chinese men and women.

PLoS One 2013 12;8(8):e70893. Epub 2013 Aug 12.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Although many adiposity indices may be used to predict obesity-related health risks, uncertainty remains over which of them performs best.

Objective: This study compared the predictive capability of direct and indirect adiposity measures in identifying people at higher risk of metabolic abnormalities.

Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study recruited 2780 women and 1160 men. Body weight and height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Body fat (and percentage of fat) over the whole body and the trunk were determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Blood pressure, fasting lipid profiles, and glucose and urine acid levels were assessed.

Results: In women, the ROC and the multivariate logistic regression analyses both showed that WHtR consistently had the best performance in identifying hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes/IFG, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In men, the ROC analysis showed that WHtR was the best predictor of hypertension, WHtR and WC were equally good predictors of dyslipidemia and MetS, and WHtR was the second-best predictor of hyperuricemia and diabetes/IFG. The multivariate logistic regression also found WHtR to be superior in discriminating between MetS, diabetes/IFG, and dyslipidemia while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension and hyperuricemia in men. The BIA-derived indices were the second-worst predictors for all of the endpoints, and HC was the worst.

Conclusion: WHtR was the best predictor of various metabolic abnormalities. BMI may be used as an alternative measure of obesity for identifying hypertension in both sexes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0070893PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3741370PMC
March 2014

Association of weight-adjusted body fat and fat distribution with bone mineral density in middle-aged chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2013 20;8(5):e63339. Epub 2013 May 20.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China.

Background: Although it is well established that a higher body weight is protective against osteoporosis, the effects of body fat and fat distribution on bone mineral density (BMD) after adjustment for body weight remains uncertain.

Objective: To examine the relationship between body fat and fat distribution and BMD beyond its weight-bearing effect in middle-aged Chinese adults.

Method: The study had a community-based cross-sectional design and involved 1,767 women and 698 men aged 50-75 years. The BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body, and the fat mass (FM) and percentage fat mass (%FM) of the total body and segments of the body were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. General information on the participants was collected using structured questionnaire interviews.

Result: After adjusting for potential confounders, an analysis of covariance showed the weight-adjusted (WA-) total FM (or %FM) to be negatively associated with BMD in all of the studied sites (P<0.05) in both women and men. The unfavorable effects of WA-total FM were generally more substantial in men than in women, and the whole body was the most sensitive site related to FM, followed by the total hip and the lumbar spine, in both genders. The mean BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body was 3.93%, 3.01%, and 3.65% (in women) and 5.02%, 5.57%, 6.03% (in men) lower in the highest quartile (vs. lowest quartile) according to the WA-total FM (all p<0.05). Similar results were noted among the groups for WA-total FM%. In women, abdominal fat had the most unfavorable association with BMD, whereas in men it was limb fat.

Conclusion: FM (or %FM) is inversely associated with BMD beyond its weight-bearing effect. Abdominal fat in women and limb fat in men seems to have the greatest effect on BMD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0063339PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3658980PMC
December 2013

Fruit and vegetable intake and bone mass in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.

Public Health Nutr 2013 Jan 17;16(1):78-86. Epub 2012 Apr 17.

Department of Medical Statistics & Epidemiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Previous studies showed an inconsistent association of fruit and vegetable consumption with bone health. We assessed the associations in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.

Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in China during July 2009 to May 2010.

Setting: Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine and left hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using an FFQ. All these values were separately standardized into Z-scores in each population subgroup.

Subjects: One hundred and ten boys and 112 girls (11-14 years), 371 young women (20-34 years, postpartum within 2 weeks) and 333 postmenopausal women (50-70 years).

Results: After adjustment for potential covariates, analysis of covariance showed a significantly positive association between fruit intake and BMD and BMC in all participants combined (P-trend: < 0.001 to 0.002). BMD Z-score increased by 0.25 (or 2.1 % of the mean), 0.22 (3.5 %), 0.23 (3.0 %) and 0.25 (3.5 %), and BMC Z-score increased by 0.33 (5.7 %), 0.25 (5.8 %), 0.34 (5.9 %) and 0.29 (4.7 %), at the total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck in participants belonging to the top tertile compared with the bottom tertile of fruit intake (all P < 0.05), respectively. There was no significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass at all bone sites studied except for total body BMD (P = 0.030). Relatively more pronounced effects were observed in boys and postmenopausal women.

Conclusion: Our findings add to the existing evidence that fruits and vegetables may have a bone sparing effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012001127DOI Listing
January 2013

Food group intake among adolescents in Guangzhou city compared with the Chinese dietary guidelines.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2012 ;21(3):450-6

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Unlabelled: Food group intake in adolescents has many health implications. However, no study has been conducted to assess food group intake among Chinese adolescents.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate food group intakes among Chinese adolescents living in Guangzhou city and the proportion of adolescents surveyed meeting the Chinese dietary guidelines, and the Chinese food pagoda for a balanced diet 2007.

Methods: A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Guangzhou city between October 2006 and April 2007. A random sample of 2977 adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years, was interviewed. A self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate food group intakes of adolescents.

Results: A high percentage of adolescents consumed too little plant foods including vegetables, fruit, and soybean products. Only 9%, 14% and 6% of adolescents surveyed reached the minimum daily recommended intake levels for vegetables, fruit, and soybean products and nuts. Nearly 70% of the studied adolescents consumed dairy less than the recommended daily intake and more than 20% adolescents reached the recommended amounts for cereals and eggs. More than one-third (35.6%) of adolescents did not meet any food group recommendations. And no adolescents reached all eight food group recommendations. An inadequate consumption of calcium and iron among adolescents was also found.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that most adolescents living in Guangzhou city are not meeting the current recommendations for intakes of the various food groups.
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August 2012

Association of natural intake of dietary plant sterols with carotid intima-media thickness and blood lipids in Chinese adults: a cross-section study.

PLoS One 2012 7;7(3):e32736. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition, and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Many studies showed a moderate cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols (PS), but increased circulating PS might be atherogenic. We evaluated the associations between natural dietary intake of PS and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and serum lipids.

Methodology/principal Findings: This community-based cross-sectional study included 1160 men and 2780 women aged 31-75 years. Dietary intakes were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. The IMTs at the common, bifurcation and internal carotid artery segments, and fasting serum total (TC), LDL (LDLc) and HDL (HDLc) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, multivariate analysis showed a dose-dependent inverse association of total PS intake with serum TC, LDLc, non-HDLc in women (P<0.001) and in men (P<0.05). As compared to the lowest quartile of PS intake (<206 mg/d), the multivariate-adjusted means of TC, LDLc and non-HDLc in the highest quartile of PS intake (447 mg/d) decreased by 5.0%, 6.2% and 6.5% in women (P<0.005), and by 6.4%, 7.1% and 6.7% (P>0.05) in men. Although the IMTs tended to be lower with greater intake of dietary PS, only small differences in the left internal IMT between the highest and lowest groups were observed among men (-7.6%) and women (-5.1%) (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed no significant mean differences among the PS groups in HDLc, TG and IMTs at other studied sites among men and women (all P>0.05).

Conclusions: Greater PS consumption from natural diets is associated with lower serum total, LDL, non-HDL cholesterol and with thinner left internal IMT in women and men.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0032736PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296732PMC
August 2012

Soy germ isoflavones improve menopausal symptoms but have no effect on blood lipids in early postmenopausal Chinese women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Menopause 2012 Jul;19(7):791-8

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Estrogen therapy is, to date, the most effective treatment of menopausal syndrome and also has a favorable effect on lipid profiles. Because of its potential adverse effects, however, a more acceptable alternative therapy needs to be identified. This study examines the effect of soy germ isoflavones on menopausal symptoms and serum lipids.

Methods: Ninety early postmenopausal Chinese women, aged 45 to 60 years, were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (30 each) receiving daily doses of 0 (placebo), 84, and 126 mg of soy germ isoflavones. Hot flush frequency, Kupperman scores, serum 17β-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and serum lipids, including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B100, were assessed at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks after treatment.

Results: Both the frequency of hot flushes and the Kupperman index score decreased in all three treatment groups during the intervention period, but the percentage decreases in both were significantly greater in the two isoflavone groups (44.3 ± 19.1 and 57.8 ± 37.4 [84 mg isoflavones]; 48.5 ± 27.2 and 56.7 ± 26.7 [126 mg isoflavones]) than in the placebo group (27.8 ± 15.5 and 34.6 ± 46.2; p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the changes in estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone among the three treatment groups during the study, and no significant differences were observed in the lipid components.

Conclusions: A daily supplement of 84 or 126 mg soy germ isoflavones may improve menopausal symptoms, although neither dose was found to affect lipid profiles in early postmenopausal Chinese women after 24 weeks of treatment. The favorable effects are unlikely to be associated with female hormones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e31823dbedaDOI Listing
July 2012

Association of interleukin-6 gene -572 C > G polymorphism with dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids on plasma HDL-c level in Chinese male adults.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2010 ;19(4):506-12

Faculty of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Heterogeneity in circulating lipid concentrations in response to different dietary fat intakes may be due, in part, to gene polymorphism of cytokine related to inflammation. The objective was to determine whether dietary n-3 PUFAs intake influenced the effects of IL-6 -572 polymorphism on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins.

Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 195 men and 386 women aged 40-65 y. DNA was isolated from white blood cell to determine the IL-6 -572 C-G polymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction-logation detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method. Dietary fatty acids were assessed by measuring erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, and fasting plasma was collected to determine blood lipids and apoproteins.

Results: The frequency of the G allele was 0.214. There were no significant differences in plasma lipids across genotypes (all p > 0.05). When men and women were grouped into tertiles by the erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFAs composition; in the lowest group, men with G allele had 18% higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did C/C genotype (p < 0.05). Similar effects were observed for apo A. Adjusting for age, BMI and total PUFA did not alter this association. The interaction was not significant in women.

Conclusion: Dietary n-3 PUFA intake influenced the effects of IL-6 -572 genotype on HDL-c concentrations in males.
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February 2011

[Relationship between dietary soy isoflavones and blood lipid levels in 40 - 65 year-olds in Guangzhou].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2009 Aug;30(8):761-5

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Objective: To study the relationship between dietary soy isoflavones and blood lipids among residents of 40 - 65 years old, in Guangzhou.

Methods: Dietary soy isoflavones and other nutrients intakes were assessed with quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in plasma were measured with colorimetry.

Results: Ranges of dietary soy isoflavones intake among 134 males and 261 females were from 0 mg/day to 61.96 mg/day and 0 mg/day to 82.52 mg/day, with means of 11.95 mg/day, 14.90 mg/day, respectively. After adjusted for total energy intake and fat percent energy, differences of TC, LDL-C in total population and TC in women were statistically significant between groups (P value was 0.002, 0.008, 0.004, respectively) and dose-effect relationships (P value was < 0.001, 0.012, 0.001, respectively) were observed between dietary soy isoflavones intake and the upper mentioned three indices. Compared with the low-intake group, these three indices lowered 7.06%, 10.13% and 7.48%, respectively in high-intake group. Critical significance of LDL-C was observed both in women and men between groups. Further controlled for age, BMI and WHR, no obvious change of the results was observed.

Conclusion: Moderate intakes of soy isoflavone as part of a regular diet seemed to be associated with favorable blood lipid levels.
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August 2009

Effect of milk and calcium supplementation on bone density and bone turnover in pregnant Chinese women: a randomized controlled trail.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2011 Feb 1;283(2):205-11. Epub 2010 Jan 1.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Calcium demand is increased during pregnancy. However, few randomized controlled trials examined the effects of calcium supplementation on bone mass during pregnancy. This study determined effects of calcium and milk supplementation on maternal bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in pregnant Chinese women with habitual low calcium intake.

Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 36 Chinese pregnant women (24-31 years, 18 gestational weeks) were randomly assigned to the following three arms (12 each): I, usual diet; II, "I" + 45 g milk powder (containing 350 mg calcium); or III, "II" + 600 mg calcium/day from gestational age of 20 weeks to 6 weeks post-partum (PP). BMD was measured post-treatment using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes, 24-h urinary calcium, bone resorption (urinary hydroxyproline) and formation (serum osteocalcin) biomarkers were examined at the gestational age of 20 and 34 weeks, and 6 weeks PP.

Results: A dose-dependent relationship was observed between calcium intake and BMDs. The BMD values were significantly higher in subjects with calcium and milk supplementation than those in the controls at the whole body and spine (p < 0.05) but not at the hip sites. We found significant decreases in changes of urinary hydroxyproline, and significant increases in serum osteocalcin during the intervention period in the calcium/milk intervention groups than those in the control group (all p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Calcium/milk supplementation during pregnancy is associated with greater BMD at the spine and whole body and suppresses bone resorption in Chinese women with habitual low calcium intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-009-1345-0DOI Listing
February 2011

Validation of an FFQ to estimate the intake of fatty acids using erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and multiple 3d dietary records.

Public Health Nutr 2010 Oct 17;13(10):1546-52. Epub 2009 Dec 17.

Faculty of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: The estimation of dietary intake in population-based studies is often assessed by the FFQ. The objective of our study is to evaluate the validity of an FFQ used to assess dietary fatty acid intake among middle-aged Chinese adults in Southern China.

Design: The method of triads was applied to obtain the validity coefficients (VC) of the FFQ for specific fatty acids. A subsample was randomly selected from an earlier cross-sectional study. The FFQ and 3d dietary records were used for dietary assessment, and the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was determined as the biomarker.

Results: The Spearman correlation coefficients between the FFQ and 3d dietary records were moderate to good (r = 0.28-0.66). The VC of the FFQ estimated by the method of triads were 0.72, 0.61, 0.65, 0.75 and 0.67 for MUFA, total n-6 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA, respectively. The VC could not be calculated for SFA, PUFA and total n-3 fatty acids because of negative correlations among the three measurements. But, the correlations between the FFQ and the dietary records were moderate for these fatty acids.

Conclusions: Our FFQ applied in Southern Chinese adults was valid to estimate their dietary fatty acid intake and was thus suitable for use in a large cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980009992849DOI Listing
October 2010

Beneficial effects of designed dietary fatty acid compositions on lipids in triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Metabolism 2009 Apr;58(4):510-8

Nutrition and Health Sciences Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Elevated levels of postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (ppTRLs) are atherogenic. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have exaggerated postprandial lipemia associated with elevation or prolonged residence of ppTRL remnants. We examined whether dietary fatty acid compositions (DFACs) decrease atherogenic lipid profiles in ppTRL subfractions in T2DM Chinese patients. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted among 28 T2DM patients. Patients consumed 1 of 3 standardized DFAC-specific fat meals: equidominant (1:1:1), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-dominant (PUFA-D, 1:1.7:2.3), or monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-dominant (MUFA-D, 1:1.7:1.2) meals. Numbers in parenthesis, respectively, represent the ratio of saturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA to saturated fatty acids. The MUFA-D meal was the control. Triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels were measured in Svedberg flotation rate (S(f)) greater than 400, S(f) 60 to 400, S(f) 20 to 60, and S(f) 12 to 20 ppTRL subfractions at fasting (0 hour) and 2, 4, and 6 hours after the consumption of the fat meals. Effects of DFACs on mean concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol averaged over 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours in ppTRL subfractions were assessed using linear mixed models. Stability and robustness were validated with 1000 bootstrap replicates. Contrasted to the control, equidominant meal reduced 6-hour average triacylglycerol levels in S(f) greater than 400 (P = .002, bootstrap P < .05) and S(f) 20 to 60 (P = .02, bootstrap P < .05) subfractions, and decreased average S(f) 20 to 60 cholesterol (P = .04, bootstrap P < .05); PUFA-D decreased S(f) greater than 400 average triacylglycerol levels (P = .09, bootstrap P < .05). Bootstrap samples suggested that PUFA-D decreased average S(f) 20 to 60 cholesterol levels (bootstrap P < .05). Therefore, modifying DFACs attenuates the atherogenic lipid profile of ppTRLs in T2DM patients; but increasing PUFA ratio may be more feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2008.11.010DOI Listing
April 2009

[Study of effects of dietary fatty acids on the serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2008 Oct;42(10):753-7

Faculty of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Objective: To study the effects of dietary fatty acids on the serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Methods: All 297 residents with hypercholesterolemia were enrolled in Guangzhou. The dietary composition and the changes in serum lipid levels during the 6-month follow-up were analyzed.

Results: (1) 297 subjects were enrolled and 281 subjects (88 male, 193 female) completed the 6-month follow-up. The serum TC concentration of the subjects was (6.09+/-0.68) mmol/L at baseline. (2) According to the percentage of energy from total fat, all of the subjects were divided into three groups, including total fat % en<25% (group I, 90 subjects), 25%-30% (group II, 97 subjects), >30% (group III, 94 subjects). The reduction of TC and LDL-C in group I and group II was greater than that in group III. (3) According to the percentage of energy from SFA, all of the subjects were divided into three groups, including SFA % en<7% (group I, 81 subjects), 7%-10% (group II, 129 subjects), >10% (group III, 71 subjects). The reduction of TC and LDL-C in group I and group II was greater than that in group III. (4) All of the subjects were divided into three groups, according to the percentage of energy from MUFA, including MUFA % en<10% (group I, 93 subjects), 10%-13% (group II, 106 subjects), >13% (group III, 82 subjects). The reduction of TC and LDL-C in group II was greater than that in group I and group III. (5) All of the subjects were divided into three groups according to the percentage of energy from PUFA, including PUFA % en<7% (88 subjects), 7%-9% (94 subjects), >9% (99 subjects). No significant difference was found among the reduction of serum lipids in the three groups.

Conclusion: Dietary total fat % en
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October 2008

[Relation between dietary patterns and insulin resistance in 40-59 years old Guangzhou adults].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2008 Oct;42(10):748-52

Faculty of Nutrition, School of Public Health, SUN Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Objective: To evaluate the overall diet quality of adults in Guangzhou and investigate whether adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents could help to reduce the risk of obesity and insulin resistance.

Methods: All 540 adults aged 40-59 years completed 3 consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Diet quality were evaluated by using Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) scoring and evaluating system. Anthropometric parameters, fast glucose and fast insulin were measured. Insulin resistance was defined as the highest quartile of the homeostasis model assessment scores.

Results: The DBI-Lower Bound Score (DBI-LBS), DBI-Higher Bound Score (DBI-HBS) and DBI-Diet Quality Distance (DBI-DQD) were 16.1-17.5, 7.6-8.2, 23.6-25.7 relatively. The intake of cereals, beans and dietary products were insufficient in the population, while the intake of animal food, salt and edible oils were excessive. Subjects in model A had a lower body mass index (BMI, P=0.022) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, P=0.001) than those in model E. Compared with model A, subjects in model E had greater odds ratio for insulin resistance (odds ratio: 3.00; 95% CI: 1.21, 7.67).

Conclusion: The dietary structure of the residents in Guangzhou was relatively balanced and reasonable, but the problems such as inadequate food intake and excessive food intake still co-exist. Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents could help to reduce the risk of insulin resistance.
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October 2008

Effect of long-term intervention of soy isoflavones on bone mineral density in women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Bone 2009 May 3;44(5):948-53. Epub 2009 Jan 3.

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: A number of RCTs have examined the role of soy isoflavones on bone mineral density (BMD) and yielded inconsistent results. This meta-analyses aims to assess the overall effect of soy isoflavones on BMD.

Methods: We searched for all articles published in English from January 1990 to March, 2008. We included RCTs of soy isoflavone supplementation in women of at least one year duration. The main outcomes were BMD changes from baseline at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck.

Results: We identified 10 eligible RCTs containing 896 women. A mean dose of 87 mg soy isoflavones for at least one year did not significantly affect BMD changes. The mean (95%CI) differences in BMD changes (in mg/cm(2)/year) were 4.1 (-1.6, 9.8) (0.4%) at the lumbar spine, -1.5 (-7.2, 4.3) (-0.3%) at the femoral neck under random-effects model, and 2.5 (-0.5, 5.4) (0.2%) at the total hip by fix-effects model, respectively. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses by isoflavone sources (soy protein vs. isoflavone extract), ethnic differences (Asian vs. Western). Larger dose (>or=80 mg/d), but not lower dose (<80 mg/d), of isoflavone intervention tended to have a weak beneficial effect on spine BMD (p=0.08 vs. p=0.94).

Conclusions: Soy isoflavone supplementation is unlikely to have significant favorable on BMD at the lumbar spine and hip in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2008.12.020DOI Listing
May 2009