Publications by authors named "Yi-Nan Liao"

3 Publications

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Efficacy and safety of interferon α-2b spray for herpangina in children: a randomized, controlled trial.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The treatment of acute herpangina is inconsistent. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interferon α-2b spray versus Ribavirin for the disease.

Methods: A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in eight hospitals in China between 2016 and 2018. 668 patients (1-7 years old) were randomized into experimental group (treated with Interferon α-2b spray) or control group (received Ribavirin Aerosol). Body temperature returned to normal within 72 hours and remained for 24 hours was the primary outcome; release of oral herpes and adverse events were the secondary outcomes.

Results: (1) The average age of onset was 2.5 years old. (2) After 72 hours' treatment, body temperature of 98.5% patients in experimental group and 94.3% in control group returned to normal and lasted for 24 hours (P = 0.004). The differences were greater at 48 hours' treatment (95.2% vs. 85.9%, P < 0.001) and at 24 hours (77.5% vs. 66.5%, P = 0.001). (3) The rate of improved oral herpes in experimental group were higher than that in control group (46.7% vs.37.1%, P = 0.011). No adverse reaction occurred.

Conclusions: Local application of recombinant interferon α-2b spray showed better efficacy for acute herpangina in children. It was safe for use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.049DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation of ergosterol composition and esterification rate in fungi isolated from mangrove soil, long-term storage of broken spores, and two soils.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jun 24;104(12):5461-5475. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, 519082, People's Republic of China.

Ergosterol is an important fungal-specific biomarker, but its use for fungal biomass estimation is still varied. It is important to distinguish between free and esterified ergosterols, which are mainly located on the plasma membrane and the cytosolic lipid particles, respectively. The present study analyzes free and esterified ergosterol contents in: (1) the fifty-nine strains of culturable fungi isolated from mangrove soil, (2) the broken spores of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum stored in capsule for more than 12 years, and (3) the mangrove soil and nearby campus wood soil samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the contents of free and esterified ergosterols varied greatly in fifty-nine strains of fungi after 5 days of growth, indicating the diversity of ergosterol composition in fungi. The average contents of free and total ergosterols from the fifty-nine strains of fungi are 4.4 ± 1.5 mg/g and 6.1 ± 1.9 mg/g dry mycelia, respectively, with an average ergosterol esterification rate of 27.4%. The present study suggests that the fungi might be divided into two classes, one is fungi with high esterification rates (e.g., more than 27%) such as Nectria spp. and Fusarium spp., and the other is fungi with low esterification rates (e.g., less than 27%) such as Penicillium spp. and Trichoderma spp. Moreover, the ergosterol esterification rate in the spores of G. lucidum is 91.4% with a very small amount of free ergosterol (0.015 mg/g), compared with 41.9% with a higher level of free ergosterol (0.499 mg/g) reported in our previous study in 2007, indicating that free ergosterol degrades more rapidly than esterified ergosterol. In addition, the ergosterol esterification rates in mangrove soil and nearby campus wood soil samples range from 0 to 39.0%, compared with 80% in an old soil organic matter reported in a previous study, indicating the potential relationship between aging degree of fungi or soil and esterification rate. The present study proposes that both free and esterified ergosterols should be analyzed for fungal biomass estimation. When the ergosterol esterification rates in soils are higher, free ergosterol might be a better marker for fungal biomass. It is speculated that the ergosterol esterification rate in soils might contain some important information, such as the age of old-growth forests over time scales of centuries to millennia, besides the senescence degree of fungal mycelia in soils. KEY POINTS: • Fungi might be divided into two classes depending on ergosterol esterification rates. • Ergosterol esterification rate of broken spores stored for long time raised evidently. • Both free and esterified ergosterols should be analyzed for fungal biomass estimate. • Free ergosterol is a better marker for fungal biomass with a high esterification rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10601-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Shrinkage methods enhanced the accuracy of parameter estimation using Cox models with small number of events.

J Clin Epidemiol 2013 Jul 6;66(7):743-51. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Institute of Public Health, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Section 2, Li-Nong Street, Taipei 11221, Taiwan.

Objective: When the number of events is small during Cox regression analysis, it is unclear what alternative analytical strategies can be used and when this type of alternative approach is needed. This study explores several analytical strategies in this situation.

Study Design And Setting: Simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed on data with numbers of events per predictive variable (EPVs) below 10 using a Cox model with a partial likelihood (PL), Firth's penalized likelihood, or the Bayesian approach.

Results: For scenarios involving binary predictors with an EPV of six or less, the simulations showed that the Firth and Bayesian approaches were more accurate than was PL. The performances of various approaches were similar when the EPV was greater than six in the binary predictor. Furthermore, the performances involving continuous predictors were similar, regardless of the EPV. The bias and precision of the parameter estimates using Bayesian analysis depended on the selection of priors.

Conclusions: When the EPV is six or less, the results for categorical predictors tend to be too conservative. Firth's estimator may be a good alternative in this situation. Appropriate choices of priors when using Bayesian analysis should increase the accuracy of the parameter estimates, although this requires expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.02.002DOI Listing
July 2013