Publications by authors named "Yi-Hsiang Hsu"

115 Publications

HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genetic diversity modulates response to lithium in bipolar affective disorders.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 8;11(1):17823. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Psychiatry & Center of Sleep Disorders, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Bipolar affective disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness, for which lithium (Li) is the gold standard for acute and maintenance therapies. The therapeutic response to Li in BD is heterogeneous and reliable biomarkers allowing patients stratification are still needed. A GWAS performed by the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has recently identified genetic markers associated with treatment responses to Li in the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) region. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this association, we have genetically imputed the classical alleles of the HLA region in the European patients of the ConLiGen cohort. We found our best signal for amino-acid variants belonging to the HLA-DRB1*11:01 classical allele, associated with a better response to Li (p < 1 × 10; FDR < 0.09 in the recessive model). Alanine or Leucine at position 74 of the HLA-DRB1 heavy chain was associated with a good response while Arginine or Glutamic acid with a poor response. As these variants have been implicated in common inflammatory/autoimmune processes, our findings strongly suggest that HLA-mediated low inflammatory background may contribute to the efficient response to Li in BD patients, while an inflammatory status overriding Li anti-inflammatory properties would favor a weak response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97140-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426488PMC
September 2021

The 2020 FASEB virtual Catalyst Conference on Integrative Approach for Complex Diseases Prevention and Management and Beyond, December 16, 2020.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21500

Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100317DOI Listing
July 2021

Skin diseases in the Da Qing Diabetes Study: a cross-sectional study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Apr 14;134(10):1191-1198. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Dermatology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Background: The prevalence of skin diseases and diabetes mellitus (DM) are prominent around the world. The current scope of knowledge regarding the prevalence of skin diseases and comorbidities with type 2 DM (T2DM) is limited, leading to limited recognition of the correlations between skin diseases and T2DM.

Methods: We collected 383 subjects from the Da Qing Diabetes Study during the period from July 9th to September 1st, 2016. The subjects were categorized into three groups: Normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and T2DM. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of skin diseases were recorded and investigated.

Results: In this cross-sectional study, 383 individuals with ages ranging from 53 to 89-year-old were recruited. The overall prevalence of skin diseases was 93.5%, and 75.7% of individuals had two or more kinds of skin diseases. Additionally, there were 47 kinds of comorbid skin diseases in patients with T2DM, of which eight kinds of skin diseases had a prevalence >10%. The prevalence of skin diseases in NGT, IGT, and T2DM groups were 93.3%, 91.5%, and 96.6%, respectively; stratified analysis by categories showed a statistically significant difference in "disturbances of pigmentation" and "neurological and psychogenic dermatoses". The duration of T2DM also significantly associated with the prevalence of "disturbances of pigmentation" and "neurological and psychogenic dermatoses". Subsequently, the prevalence of "disturbances of pigmentation" was higher in males than females in NGT (P < 0.01) and T2DM (P < 0.01) groups. In addition, the difference in the prevalence of "disturbances of pigmentation" was also significant in NGT and T2DM groups (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of skin diseases in the Da Qing Diabetes Study. To address the skin diseases in the Da Qing Diabetes Study, increased awareness and intervention measures should be implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143734PMC
April 2021

Genetic variants modify the associations of concentrations of methylmalonic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate with bone mineral density.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 08;114(2):578-587

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine has been found to be associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis, especially hip and vertebral fractures. The plasma concentration of homocysteine is dependent on the activities of several B vitamin-dependent enzymes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS).

Objectives: We investigated whether genetic variants in some of the genes involved in 1 carbon metabolism modify the association of B vitamin-related measures with bone mineral density (BMD) and strength.

Methods: We measured several B vitamins and biomarkers in participants of the Framingham Offspring Study, and performed analyses of methylmalonic acid (MMA) continuously and <210 nmol/L; pyridoxal-5'-phosphate; vitamin B-12 continuously and ≥258 pmol/L; and folate. The outcomes of interest included areal and volumetric BMD, measured by DXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. We evaluated associations between the bone measures and interactions of single nucleotide polymorphism with a B vitamin or biomarker in Framingham participants (n = 4310 for DXA and n = 3127 for QCT). For analysis of DXA, we validated the association results in the B-PROOF cohort (n = 1072). Bonferroni-corrected locus-wide significant thresholds were defined to account for multiple testing.

Results: The interactions between rs2274976 and vitamin B-12 and rs34671784 and MMA <210 nmol/L were associated with lumbar spine BMD, and the interaction between rs6586281 and vitamin B-12 ≥258 pmol/L was associated with femoral neck BMD. For QCT-derived traits, 62 interactions between genetic variants and B vitamins and biomarkers were identified.

Conclusions: Some genetic variants in the 1-carbon methylation pathway modify the association of B vitamin and biomarker concentrations with bone density and strength.  These interactions require further replication and functional validation for a mechanistic understanding of the role of the 1-carbon metabolism pathway on BMD and risks of fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326042PMC
August 2021

A regulatory variant at 3q21.1 confers an increased pleiotropic risk for hyperglycemia and altered bone mineral density.

Cell Metab 2021 Mar 28;33(3):615-628.e13. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Metabolism Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Cell Circuits and Epigenomics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02131, USA; University of Hohenheim, Institute of Nutritional Science, Stuttgart 70599, Germany. Electronic address:

Skeletal and glycemic traits have shared etiology, but the underlying genetic factors remain largely unknown. To identify genetic loci that may have pleiotropic effects, we studied Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for bone mineral density and glycemic traits and identified a bivariate risk locus at 3q21. Using sequence and epigenetic modeling, we prioritized an adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5) intronic causal variant, rs56371916. This SNP changes the binding affinity of SREBP1 and leads to differential ADCY5 gene expression, altering the chromatin landscape from poised to repressed. These alterations result in bone- and type 2 diabetes-relevant cell-autonomous changes in lipid metabolism in osteoblasts and adipocytes. We validated our findings by directly manipulating the regulator SREBP1, the target gene ADCY5, and the variant rs56371916, which together imply a novel link between fatty acid oxidation and osteoblast differentiation. Our work, by systematic functional dissection of pleiotropic GWAS loci, represents a framework to uncover biological mechanisms affecting pleiotropic traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928941PMC
March 2021

Metabolomics Insights into Osteoporosis Through Association With Bone Mineral Density.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 04 2;36(4):729-738. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), increases the risk for fractures. Conventional risk factors alone do not completely explain measured BMD or osteoporotic fracture risk. Metabolomics may provide additional information. We aim to identify BMD-associated metabolomic markers that are predictive of fracture risk. We assessed 209 plasma metabolites by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 1552 Framingham Offspring Study participants, and measured femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD 2 to 10 years later using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We assessed osteoporotic fractures up to 27-year follow-up after metabolomic profiling. We identified 27 metabolites associated with FN-BMD or LS-BMD by LASSO regression with internal validation. Incorporating selected metabolites significantly improved the prediction and the classification of osteoporotic fracture risk beyond conventional risk factors (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.74 for the model with identified metabolites and risk factors versus AUC = 0.70 with risk factors alone, p = .001; net reclassification index = 0.07, p = .03). We replicated significant improvement in fracture prediction by incorporating selected metabolites in 634 participants from the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study (HKOS). The glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism pathway (including four identified metabolites: creatine, dimethylglycine, glycine, and serine) was significantly enriched (false discovery rate [FDR] p value = .028). Furthermore, three causally related metabolites (glycine, phosphatidylcholine [PC], and triacylglycerol [TAG]) were negatively associated with FN-BMD, whereas PC and TAG were negatively associated with LS-BMD through Mendelian randomization analysis. In summary, metabolites associated with BMD are helpful in osteoporotic fracture risk prediction. Potential causal mechanisms explaining the three metabolites on BMD are worthy of further experimental validation. Our findings may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4240DOI Listing
April 2021

A Meta-Analysis of the Transferability of Bone Mineral Density Genetic Loci Associations From European to African Ancestry Populations.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 03 18;36(3):469-479. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, USA.

Genetic studies of bone mineral density (BMD) largely have been conducted in European populations. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of six independent African ancestry cohorts to determine whether previously reported BMD loci identified in European populations were transferable to African ancestry populations. We included nearly 5000 individuals with both genetic data and assessments of BMD. Genotype imputation was conducted using the 1000G reference panel. We assessed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD in each cohort separately, then combined results in fixed effects (or random effects if study heterogeneity was high, I index >60) inverse variance weighted meta-analyses. In secondary analyses, we conducted locus-based analyses of rare variants using SKAT-O. Mean age ranged from 12 to 68 years. One cohort included only men and another cohort included only women; the proportion of women in the other four cohorts ranged from 52% to 63%. Of 56 BMD loci tested, one locus, 6q25 (C6orf97, p = 8.87 × 10 ), was associated with lumbar spine BMD and two loci, 7q21 (SLC25A13, p = 2.84 × 10 ) and 7q31 (WNT16, p = 2.96 × 10 ), were associated with femoral neck BMD. Effects were in the same direction as previously reported in European ancestry studies and met a Bonferroni-adjusted p value threshold, the criteria for transferability to African ancestry populations. We also found associations that met locus-specific Bonferroni-adjusted p value thresholds in 11q13 (LRP5, p < 2.23 × 10 ), 11q14 (DCDC5, p < 5.35 × 10 ), and 17p13 (SMG6, p < 6.78 × 10 ) that were not tagged by European ancestry index SNPs. Rare single-nucleotide variants in AKAP11 (p = 2.32 × 10 ), MBL2 (p = 4.09 × 10 ), MEPE (p = 3.15 × 10 ), SLC25A13 (p = 3.03 × 10 ), STARD3NL (p = 3.35 × 10 ), and TNFRSF11A (p = 3.18 × 10 ) were also associated with BMD. The majority of known BMD loci were not transferable. Larger genetic studies of BMD in African ancestry populations will be needed to overcome limitations in statistical power and to identify both other loci that are transferable across populations and novel population-specific variants. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353846PMC
March 2021

Genetic basis of falling risk susceptibility in the UK Biobank Study.

Commun Biol 2020 09 30;3(1):543. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors predispose older people to fall. We performed a genome-wide association analysis to investigate how much of an individual's fall susceptibility can be attributed to genetics in 89,076 cases and 362,103 controls from the UK Biobank Study. The analysis revealed a small, but significant SNP-based heritability (2.7%) and identified three novel fall-associated loci (P ≤ 5 × 10). Polygenic risk scores in two independent settings showed patterns of polygenic inheritance. Risk of falling had positive genetic correlations with fractures, identifying for the first time a pathway independent of bone mineral density. There were also positive genetic correlations with insomnia, neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and different medications. Negative genetic correlations were identified with muscle strength, intelligence and subjective well-being. Brain, and in particular cerebellum tissue, showed the highest gene expression enrichment for fall-associated variants. Overall, despite the highly heterogenic nature underlying fall risk, a proportion of the susceptibility can be attributed to genetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01256-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527955PMC
September 2020

IConMHC: a deep learning convolutional neural network model to predict peptide and MHC-I binding affinity.

Immunogenetics 2020 07 24;72(5):295-304. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Amgen Research, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Tumor-specific neoantigens are mutated self-peptides presented by tumor cell major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and are necessary to elicit host's anti-cancer cytotoxic T cell responses. It could be specifically recognized by neoantigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs). However, current wet-lab assays for identifying peptide MHC binding are too expensive and time-consuming to meet the clinical needs. In this study, we developed an in silico method with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model, iConMHC, to predict peptide MHC binding affinity. Unlike other in silico methods that only learn from properties of amino acid in neoantigen peptides alone and/or MHCs alone, iConMHC learns from physical and chemical interaction properties between pairwise amino acids from the two molecules. These properties, such as contact potentials and distances in folded proteins, directly affect neoantigen-MHC binding affinity. In addition, IConMHC is a pan-allele model that is capable of making predictions for all the MHC alleles. Even for those rare MHC alleles without training data, iConMHC can make predictions with reasonable accuracy. We benchmarked iConMHC with other commonly used MHC-I binding predictors and found our model performs better than most of the pan-allele models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-020-01163-9DOI Listing
July 2020

Association of polygenic score for major depression with response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 16;26(6):2457-2470. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Lithium is a first-line medication for bipolar disorder (BD), but only one in three patients respond optimally to the drug. Since evidence shows a strong clinical and genetic overlap between depression and bipolar disorder, we investigated whether a polygenic susceptibility to major depression is associated with response to lithium treatment in patients with BD. Weighted polygenic scores (PGSs) were computed for major depression (MD) at different GWAS p value thresholds using genetic data obtained from 2586 bipolar patients who received lithium treatment and took part in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies in MD (135,458 cases and 344,901 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) were used for PGS weighting. Response to lithium treatment was defined by continuous scores and categorical outcome (responders versus non-responders) using measurements on the Alda scale. Associations between PGSs of MD and lithium treatment response were assessed using a linear and binary logistic regression modeling for the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. The analysis was performed for the entire cohort, and for European and Asian sub-samples. The PGSs for MD were significantly associated with lithium treatment response in multi-ethnic, European or Asian populations, at various p value thresholds. Bipolar patients with a low polygenic load for MD were more likely to respond well to lithium, compared to those patients with high polygenic load [lowest vs highest PGS quartiles, multi-ethnic sample: OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01) and European sample: OR = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.30-2.36)]. While our analysis in the Asian sample found equivalent effect size in the same direction: OR = 1.71 (95% CI: 0.61-4.90), this was not statistically significant. Using PGS decile comparison, we found a similar trend of association between a high genetic loading for MD and lower response to lithium. Our findings underscore the genetic contribution to lithium response in BD and support the emerging concept of a lithium-responsive biotype in BD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0689-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Phenomics-Based Quantification of CRISPR-Induced Mosaicism in Zebrafish.

Cell Syst 2020 03 18;10(3):275-286.e5. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Genetic mosaicism can manifest as spatially variable phenotypes that vary from site to site within an organism. Here, we use imaging-based phenomics to quantitate phenotypes at many sites within the axial skeleton of CRISPR-edited G0 zebrafish. Through characterization of loss-of-function cell clusters in the developing skeleton, we identify a distinctive size distribution shown to arise from clonal fragmentation and merger events. We quantitate the phenotypic mosaicism produced by somatic mutations of two genes, plod2 and bmp1a, implicated in human osteogenesis imperfecta. Comparison of somatic, CRISPR-generated G0 mutants to homozygous germline mutants reveals phenotypic convergence, suggesting that CRISPR screens of G0 animals can faithfully recapitulate the biology of inbred disease models. We describe statistical frameworks for phenomic analysis of spatial phenotypic variation present in somatic G0 mutants. In sum, this study defines an approach for decoding spatially variable phenotypes generated during CRISPR-based screens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cels.2020.02.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213258PMC
March 2020

Author Correction: An atlas of genetic influences on osteoporosis in humans and mice.

Nat Genet 2019 05;51(5):920

University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

In the version of this article initially published, in Fig. 5a, the data in the right column of 'DAAM2 gRNA1' were incorrectly plotted as circles indicating 'untreated' rather than as squares indicating 'treated'. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0415-xDOI Listing
May 2019

Meta-Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies Reveals Genetic Variants for Hip Bone Geometry.

J Bone Miner Res 2019 07 19;34(7):1284-1296. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Hip geometry is an important predictor of fracture. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS studies in adults to identify genetic variants that are associated with proximal femur geometry phenotypes. We analyzed four phenotypes: (i) femoral neck length; (ii) neck-shaft angle; (iii) femoral neck width, and (iv) femoral neck section modulus, estimated from DXA scans using algorithms of hip structure analysis. In the Discovery stage, 10 cohort studies were included in the fixed-effect meta-analysis, with up to 18,719 men and women ages 16 to 93 years. Association analyses were performed with ∼2.5 million polymorphisms under an additive model adjusted for age, body mass index, and height. Replication analyses of meta-GWAS significant loci (at adjusted genomewide significance [GWS], threshold p ≤ 2.6 × 10 ) were performed in seven additional cohorts in silico. We looked up SNPs associated in our analysis, for association with height, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture. In meta-analysis (combined Discovery and Replication stages), GWS associations were found at 5p15 (IRX1 and ADAMTS16); 5q35 near FGFR4; at 12p11 (in CCDC91); 11q13 (near LRP5 and PPP6R3 (rs7102273)). Several hip geometry signals overlapped with BMD, including LRP5 (chr. 11). Chr. 11 SNP rs7102273 was associated with any-type fracture (p = 7.5 × 10 ). We used bone transcriptome data and discovered several significant eQTLs, including rs7102273 and PPP6R3 expression (p = 0.0007), and rs6556301 (intergenic, chr.5 near FGFR4) and PDLIM7 expression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, we found associations between several genes and hip geometry measures that explained 12% to 22% of heritability at different sites. The results provide a defined set of genes related to biological pathways relevant to BMD and etiology of bone fragility. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6650334PMC
July 2019

Disentangling the genetics of lean mass.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 02;109(2):276-287

Icelandic Heart Association Holtasmari, Kopavogur, Iceland.

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass.

Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci.

Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms).

Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection.

Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500901PMC
February 2019

Bivariate genome-wide association analyses of the broad depression phenotype combined with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia reveal eight novel genetic loci for depression.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 07 9;25(7):1420-1429. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Although a genetic basis of depression has been well established in twin studies, identification of genome-wide significant loci has been difficult. We hypothesized that bivariate analyses of findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWASs) of the broad depression phenotype with those from meta-GWASs of self-reported and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder and schizophrenia would enhance statistical power to identify novel genetic loci for depression. LD score regression analyses were first used to estimate the genetic correlations of broad depression with self-reported MDD, recurrent MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Then, we performed four bivariate GWAS analyses. The genetic correlations (r ± SE) of broad depression with self-reported MDD, recurrent MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were 0.79 ± 0.07, 0.24 ± 0.08, 0.53 ± 0.09 and 0.57 ± 0.05, respectively. From a total of 20 independent genome-wide significant loci, 13 loci replicated of which 8 were novel for depression. These were MUC21 for the broad depression phenotype with self-reported MDD and ZNF804A, MIR3143, PSORS1C2, STK19, SPATA31D1, RTN1 and TCF4 for the broad depression phenotype with schizophrenia. Post-GWAS functional analyses of these loci revealed their potential biological involvement in psychiatric disorders. Our results emphasize the genetic similarities among different psychiatric disorders and indicate that cross-disorder analyses may be the best way forward to accelerate gene finding for depression, or psychiatric disorders in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0336-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303007PMC
July 2020

The association of obesity and coronary artery disease genes with response to SSRIs treatment in major depression.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2019 01 4;126(1):35-45. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Research Division Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Bonn, Germany.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line antidepressants for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, treatment response during an initial therapeutic trial is often poor and is difficult to predict. Heterogeneity of response to SSRIs in depressed patients is partly driven by co-occurring somatic disorders such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. CAD and obesity may also be associated with metabolic side effects of SSRIs. In this study, we assessed the association of CAD and obesity with treatment response to SSRIs in patients with MDD using a polygenic score (PGS) approach. Additionally, we performed cross-trait meta-analyses to pinpoint genetic variants underpinnings the relationship of CAD and obesity with SSRIs treatment response. First, PGSs were calculated at different p value thresholds (P) for obesity and CAD. Next, binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association of the PGSs to SSRIs treatment response in a discovery sample (ISPC, N = 865), and in a replication cohort (STAR*D, N = 1,878). Finally, a cross-trait GWAS meta-analysis was performed by combining summary statistics. We show that the PGSs for CAD and obesity were inversely associated with SSRIs treatment response. At the most significant thresholds, the PGS for CAD and body mass index accounted 1.3%, and 0.8% of the observed variability in treatment response to SSRIs, respectively. In the cross-trait meta-analyses, we identified (1) 14 genetic loci (including NEGR1, CADM2, PMAIP1, PARK2) that are associated with both obesity and SSRIs treatment response; (2) five genetic loci (LINC01412, PHACTR1, CDKN2B, ATXN2, KCNE2) with effects on CAD and SSRIs treatment response. Our findings implicate that the genetic variants of CAD and obesity are linked to SSRIs treatment response in MDD. A better SSRIs treatment response might be achieved through a stratified allocation of treatment for MDD patients with a genetic risk for obesity or CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-018-01966-xDOI Listing
January 2019

An atlas of genetic influences on osteoporosis in humans and mice.

Nat Genet 2019 02 31;51(2):258-266. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Osteoporosis is a common aging-related disease diagnosed primarily using bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed genetic determinants of BMD as estimated by heel quantitative ultrasound in 426,824 individuals, identifying 518 genome-wide significant loci (301 novel), explaining 20% of its variance. We identified 13 bone fracture loci, all associated with estimated BMD (eBMD), in ~1.2 million individuals. We then identified target genes enriched for genes known to influence bone density and strength (maximum odds ratio (OR) = 58, P = 1 × 10) from cell-specific features, including chromatin conformation and accessible chromatin sites. We next performed rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 126 knockout mice with disruptions in predicted target genes and found an increased abnormal skeletal phenotype frequency compared to 526 unselected lines (P < 0.0001). In-depth analysis of one gene, DAAM2, showed a disproportionate decrease in bone strength relative to mineralization. This genetic atlas provides evidence linking associated SNPs to causal genes, offers new insight into osteoporosis pathophysiology, and highlights opportunities for drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0302-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358485PMC
February 2019

DNA methylation age is not affected in psoriatic skin tissue.

Clin Epigenetics 2018 12 27;10(1):160. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Institute and Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, Anhui, China.

Background: Psoriasis (Ps) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. The keratinocytes of psoriatic skin defy normal apoptosis and exhibit active cell proliferation. Aberrant DNA methylation (DNAm) has been suggested relevant through regulating the expression of Ps susceptibility genes. However, it is unclear whether the biological age inferred from DNA methylome is affected.

Results: To address the above issue, we applied a recently developed methylation clock model to our Chinese Han population dataset, which includes DNAm data of 114 involved psoriatic skin tissues (PP) and 41 uninvolved psoriatic skin tissues (PN) from Ps patients, and 62 normal skin tissues (NN) from health controls. We first confirmed the applicability of the clock in PN and NN. We then showed that PP samples have largely unchanged DNAm age, and that no association was observed between available clinical features and DNAm age acceleration. Examination of genome-wide CpGs yielded age-associated CpGs with concordant age-association coefficients among the three groups, which was also supported by an external dataset. We also interestingly observed two clock CpGs differentially methylated between PP and PN.

Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest no significant alteration in DNAm age in PN and PP. Therefore, the increase in keratinocyte proliferation and alteration in DNAm caused by Ps may not affect the biological age of psoriatic skin tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-018-0584-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307188PMC
December 2018

Associations of the SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms With Hepatic Function, Baseline Lipid Levels, and Lipid-lowering Response to Simvastatin in Patients With Hyperlipidemia.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2018 Dec 18;24(9_suppl):240S-247S. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Our goal was to examine the associations of the 388A>G and 521T>C polymorphisms in the solute carrier organic anion transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene with hepatic function, baseline lipid levels, and the lipid-lowering efficiency of simvastatin. We recruited 542 patients with hyperlipidemia. The 388A>G and 521T>C polymorphisms were genotyped. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were measured before and after an oral 20-mg dose of simvastatin. Individuals with the 388AA genotype had higher ALT and AST levels than those with the 388AG or 388GG genotypes (P = .037 and P = .002, respectively). Individuals with both the 388AA and the 521TT genotypes had the highest levels of ALT and AST (P = .001 and P = .001, respectively). Moreover, we divided all patients into normal and abnormal subgroups based on elevated ALT and AST values (≥ 40 U/L), participants in the abnormal subgroup had a higher frequency of the 388A/521T haplotype and a lower frequency of the 388G/521T haplotype compared to those in the normal subgroup.  In addition, compared to 388G allele and 521C allele carriers, individuals with the 388G allele and 521TT genotype carriers had greater TC and LDL-C reduction in response to simvastatin after 4 weeks of treatment. Our conclusion suggests that the interaction between the SLCO1B1 388A>G and 521T>C polymorphisms could be an important genetic determinant of hepatic function and the therapeutic efficiency of simvastatin in Chinese patients with hyperlipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029618805863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714829PMC
December 2018

A gender-specific association of the polymorphism Ile197Met in the kininogen 1 gene with plasma irbesartan concentrations in Chinese patients with essential hypertension.

J Hum Hypertens 2018 11 3;32(11):781-788. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

This study was conducted to explore interactions in the association of the kininogen (KNG1) Ile197Met polymorphism and gender with plasma concentrations of irbesartan in Chinese patients with essential hypertension. A total of 1100 subjects with essential hypertension received a daily oral dose of 150 mg irbesartan for twenty-eight consecutive days. High-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence (HPLC) was used to detect plasma irbesartan concentrations on day 28. The KNG1 Ile197Met gene polymorphism was determined using high-throughput TaqMan technology. The frequency distribution of KNG1 Ile197Met genotype conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. After 28 days of treatment, patients with the GG genotype had significantly lower irbesartan concentrations (P = 0.033) compared to homozygous TT genotype carriers. After stratifying by gender, male G allele carriers had significantly lower irbesartan concentrations (GG, P = 0.015; TG, P = 0.015, respectively) relative to TT genotype after adjusting for age, region, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption. However, there was no significant difference in female subjects. A further test for a multiplicative interaction between the KNG1 Ile197Met polymorphism and gender in association with ln-plasma irbesartan concentrations in a multiple linear regression model was also significant (P for interaction = 0.033). This is the first study to suggest that gender may influence the association of the Ile197Met variant of KNG1 with ln-plasma irbesartan concentration. This finding may indicate that the interaction of gender and the KNG1 Ile197Met gene polymorphism can influence plasma trough irbesartan concentrations, which may contribute to a better development of personalized hypertensive treatment in Chinese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-018-0119-1DOI Listing
November 2018

Trans-Ethnic Polygenic Analysis Supports Genetic Overlaps of Lumbar Disc Degeneration With Height, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density.

Front Genet 2018 3;9:267. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is age-related break-down in the fibrocartilaginous joints between lumbar vertebrae. It is a major cause of low back pain and is conventionally assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Like most other complex traits, LDD is likely polygenic and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. However, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of LDD have uncovered few susceptibility loci due to the limited sample size. Previous epidemiology studies of LDD also reported multiple heritable risk factors, including height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), lipid levels, etc. Genetics can help elucidate causality between traits and suggest loci with pleiotropic effects. One such approach is polygenic score (PGS) which summarizes the effect of multiple variants by the summation of alleles weighted by estimated effects from GWAS. To investigate genetic overlaps of LDD and related heritable risk factors, we calculated the PGS of height, BMI, BMD and lipid levels in a Chinese population-based cohort with spine MRI examination and a Japanese case-control cohort of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) requiring surgery. Because most large-scale GWASs were done in European populations, PGS of corresponding traits were created using weights from European GWASs. We calibrated their prediction performance in independent Chinese samples, then tested associations with MRI-derived LDD scores and LDH affection status. The PGS of height, BMI, BMD and lipid levels were strongly associated with respective phenotypes in Chinese, but phenotype variances explained were lower than in Europeans which would reduce the power to detect genetic overlaps. Despite of this, the PGS of BMI and lumbar spine BMD were significantly associated with LDD scores; and the PGS of height was associated with the increased the liability of LDH. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium score regression suggested that, osteoarthritis, another degenerative disorder that shares common features with LDD, also showed genetic correlations with height, BMI and BMD. The findings suggest a common key contribution of biomechanical stress to the pathogenesis of LDD and will direct the future search for pleiotropic genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088183PMC
August 2018

DNA methylation-based subclassification of psoriasis in the Chinese Han population.

Front Med 2018 Dec 5;12(6):717-725. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Institute of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Psoriasis (Ps) is an inflammatory skin disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies on DNA methylation (DNAm) found genetic markers that are closely associated with Ps, and evidence has shown that DNAm mediates genetic risk in Ps. In this study, Consensus Clustering was used to analyze DNAm data, and 114 Ps patients were divided into three subclassifications. Investigation of the clinical characteristics and copy number variations (CNVs) of DEFB4, IL22, and LCE3C in the three subclassifications revealed no significant differences in gender ratio and in Ps area and severity index (PASI) score. The proportion of late-onset ( ≥ 40 years) Ps patients was significantly higher in type I than in types II and III (P = 0.035). Type III contained the smallest proportion of smokers and the largest proportion of non-smoking Ps patients (P = 0.086). The CNVs of DEFB4 and LCE3C showed no significant differences but the CNV of IL22 significantly differed among the three subclassifications (P = 0.044). This study is the first to profile Ps subclassifications based on DNAm data in the Chinese Han population. These results are useful in the treatment and management of Ps from the molecular and genetic perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-017-0588-6DOI Listing
December 2018

Association of the Polygenic Scores for Personality Traits and Response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2018 6;9:65. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Research Division Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Bonn, Germany.

Studies reported a strong genetic correlation between the Big Five personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, personality traits are thought to be associated with response to antidepressants treatment that might partly be mediated by genetic factors. In this study, we examined whether polygenic scores (PGSs) derived from the Big Five personality traits predict treatment response and remission in patients with MDD who were prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In addition, we performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on these traits to identify genetic variants underpinning the cross-trait polygenic association. The PGS analysis was performed using data from two cohorts: the Pharmacogenomics Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN-AMPS,  = 529) and the International SSRI Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ISPC,  = 865). The cross-trait GWAS meta-analyses were conducted by combining GWAS summary statistics on SSRIs treatment outcome and on the personality traits. The results showed that the PGS for openness and neuroticism were associated with SSRIs treatment outcomes at  < 0.05 across P thresholds in both cohorts. A significant association was also found between the PGS for conscientiousness and SSRIs treatment response in the PGRN-AMPS sample. In the cross-trait GWAS meta-analyses, we identified eight loci associated with (a) SSRIs response and conscientiousness near gene and (b) SSRI remission and neuroticism eight loci near , and genes. An assessment of a polygenic load for personality traits may assist in conjunction with clinical data to predict whether MDD patients might respond favorably to SSRIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5845551PMC
March 2018

Effects of a vinegar-based multi-micronutrient supplement in rats: a multi-pronged assessment of dietary impact.

J Funct Foods 2018 Mar 3;42:371-378. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

We determined the effects of continuous access to drinking of water with a vinegar-based multi-micronutrient (VMm) supplement containing rice and fruit vinegars, vitamins, organic acids and sugars during gestation, lactation, and early adulthood in rats. Pregnant rats were provided with reverse-osmosis water or VMm water from the start of pregnancy through the time of weaning. Weaned pups consumed the same drinking water for 3-12 additional weeks. We examined fecal metabolite and microbial profiles, and other physiological parameters. Body weights were less in rats that drank VMm water. Thirty fecal metabolites involved in amino acid and dipeptide metabolism were significantly altered in VMm-supplemented rats. Analysis of microbial 16S rRNA showed enrichment of bacteria in the family S24-7 in VMm-supplemented rats, and one in Ruminococcaceae in controls. Our data show that a VMm-containing beverage can alter growth, and gut metabolism and microbial community. Future work to correlate these parameters is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2018.01.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748338PMC
March 2018

Associations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype with blood pressure levels in Chinese population with essential hypertension.

Clin Exp Hypertens 2018 13;40(3):207-212. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

e Institute of Biomedicine , Anhui Medical University , Hefei , China.

Objective: To confirm the association between baseline blood pressure (BP) levels and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in patients with essential hypertension.

Methods: A total of 347 patients were enrolled from the Dongzhi community in Anhui Province, China. The C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was detected using high-throughput TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Baseline BP was measured using a standardized mercury-gravity monometer.

Results: In the whole sample, the frequency of the MTHFR C677T genotypes CC, CT, and TT were 38.6%, 48.1%, and 13.3%, respectively. In a recessive model (CC+CT versus TT genotypes), baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly higher in patients with the TT genotype compared to those with the CT or CC genotypes (P= 0.013). We also divided all patients into three groups based on the tertiles of the baseline BP distribution. Compared to subjects in the lowest tertile of DBP, the adjusted odds of having the TT genotype among subjects in the highest tertile was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 6.2). However, no significant associations were observed between baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism.

Conclusions: The MTHFR gene polymorphism could be an important genetic determinant of baseline DBP levels in Chinese essential hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2017.1281937DOI Listing
August 2018

Genome-wide association study in 79,366 European-ancestry individuals informs the genetic architecture of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

Nat Commun 2018 01 17;9(1):260. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone precursor that is associated with a range of human traits and diseases. Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci (GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1). In this study, we expand the previous SUNLIGHT Consortium GWAS discovery sample size from 16,125 to 79,366 (all European descent). This larger GWAS yields two additional loci harboring genome-wide significant variants (P = 4.7×10 at rs8018720 in SEC23A, and P = 1.9×10 at rs10745742 in AMDHD1). The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. Further investigation identifies signal enrichment in immune and hematopoietic tissues, and clustering with autoimmune diseases in cell-type-specific analysis. Larger studies are required to identify additional common SNPs, and to explore the role of rare or structural variants and gene-gene interactions in the heritability of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02662-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772647PMC
January 2018

Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of cognitive abilities.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 11 8;23(11):2133-2144. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Cognitive functions are important correlates of health outcomes across the life-course. Individual differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are susceptible to both genetic and environmental factors and may provide insights into individual differences in cognitive functions. Epigenome-wide meta-analyses for blood-based DNA methylation levels at ~420,000 CpG sites were performed for seven measures of cognitive functioning using data from 11 cohorts. CpGs that passed a Bonferroni correction, adjusting for the number of CpGs and cognitive tests, were assessed for: longitudinal change; being under genetic control (methylation QTLs); and associations with brain health (structural MRI), brain methylation and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Across the seven measures of cognitive functioning (meta-analysis n range: 2557-6809), there were epigenome-wide significant (P < 1.7 × 10) associations for global cognitive function (cg21450381, P = 1.6 × 10), and phonemic verbal fluency (cg12507869, P = 2.5 × 10). The CpGs are located in an intergenic region on chromosome 12 and the INPP5A gene on chromosome 10, respectively. Both probes have moderate correlations (~0.4) with brain methylation in Brodmann area 20 (ventral temporal cortex). Neither probe showed evidence of longitudinal change in late-life or associations with white matter brain MRI measures in one cohort with these data. A methylation QTL analysis suggested that rs113565688 was a cis methylation QTL for cg12507869 (P = 5 × 10 and 4 × 10 in two lookup cohorts). We demonstrate a link between blood-based DNA methylation and measures of phonemic verbal fluency and global cognitive ability. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanisms linking genomic regulatory changes with cognitive function to health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-017-0008-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035894PMC
November 2018

Effect modification by region in the associations of and polymorphisms with statin-induced CK elevation.

Oncotarget 2017 Dec 18;8(64):107565-107576. Epub 2017 Nov 18.

Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

We investigated the associations of and polymorphisms with statin-induced creatine kinase (CK) elevation among Chinese patients with hyperlipidemia. A total of587 enrolled individuals were treated with 20 mg/d oral simvastatin for 8 consecutive weeks. Genotyping of and were conducted using PCR-RFLP. Multiple regression analyses showed that, in the Dongzhi region only, patients carrying the genotype had a significantly greater increase in CK levels compared to those carrying the genotypes after four weeks ( = 0.004) and eight weeks ( < 0.001) consecutive simvastatin treatment. Patients were further divided into three groups based on the tertiles of the CK distribution. Compared to subjects in the lowest tertile of CK elevation, the adjusted relative odds of having the AG+GG genotypes among subjects in the highest tertile was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3 to 0.7) and 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2 to 0.6) after the fourth and eighth weeks, respectively. The interaction terms between the Beijing or Dongzhi region and the genotypes were marginally significant for CK elevation at the fourth week ( = 0.057) and significant for CK elevation at the eighth week ( = 0.002). The adverse effect of the polymorphism on increasing CK levels may be dependent on the environmental milieu. It suggests that lifestyle interventions might offset the side effects of simvastatin therapy among those with genetic susceptibility. Further research is needed to identify specific individual-level factors for clinical practice that modify the effect of genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.22506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746089PMC
December 2017

Bivariate Genome-Wide Association Study of Depressive Symptoms With Type 2 Diabetes and Quantitative Glycemic Traits.

Psychosom Med 2018 04;80(3):242-251

From the Departments of Psychology and Logopedics (Haljas, Räikkönen) and Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine (Lahti), and Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies (Lahti), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Epidemiology (Amare, Alizadeh, Snieder), University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; Harvard Medical School (Hsu), Boston, Massachusetts; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM) (Groop), Helsinki, Finland; Lund University Diabetes Centre (Groop), Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care (Eriksson), University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital; Folkhälsan Research Center (Eriksson), Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medicine (Mosley), University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health (Newman), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine (Murabito), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston; Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts (Murabito); Departments of Epidemiology and Psychiatry (Tiemeier), Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Translational Gerontology Branch (Tanaka), National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland; Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology (van Duijn), Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam; Centre for Medical Systems Biology (van Duijn), Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics (Ding), Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; University of Exeter Medical School (Llewellyn), Exeter, UK; Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center (Bennett), Chicago, Illinois; Florida State University, College of Medicine (Terracciano), Tallahassee, Florida; Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences (Launer), National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (Grabe), Helios Hospital Stralsund; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (Grabe) and Institute for Community Medicine (Teumer), University Medicine Greifswald; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Grabe), Site Rostock/Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany; Institute of Epidemiology II, Mental Health Research Unit, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Ladwig), German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy (Ladwig), Universitäts-Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany & German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), München-Neuherberg, Germany; Department of Preventive Medicine (Cornelis), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; and Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health (Kardia, Ware, Smith), and Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research (Ware, Smith), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: Shared genetic background may explain phenotypic associations between depression and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to study, on a genome-wide level, if genetic correlation and pleiotropic loci exist between depressive symptoms and T2D or glycemic traits.

Methods: We estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and analyzed genetic correlation between depressive symptoms and T2D and glycemic traits with the linkage disequilibrium score regression by combining summary statistics of previously conducted meta-analyses for depressive symptoms by CHARGE consortium (N = 51,258), T2D by DIAGRAM consortium (N = 34,840 patients and 114,981 controls), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function and insulin resistance by MAGIC consortium (N = 58,074). Finally, we investigated pleiotropic loci using a bivariate genome-wide association study approach with summary statistics from genome-wide association study meta-analyses and reported loci with genome-wide significant bivariate association p value (p < 5 × 10). Biological annotation and function of significant pleiotropic SNPs were assessed in several databases.

Results: The SNP-based heritability ranged from 0.04 to 0.10 in each individual trait. In the linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses, depressive symptoms showed no significant genetic correlation with T2D or glycemic traits (p > 0.37). However, we identified pleiotropic genetic variations for depressive symptoms and T2D (in the IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, CDKN2B-AS, and PLEKHA1 genes), and fasting glucose (in the MADD, CDKN2B-AS, PEX16, and MTNR1B genes).

Conclusions: We found no significant overall genetic correlations between depressive symptoms, T2D, or glycemic traits suggesting major differences in underlying biology of these traits. However, several potential pleiotropic loci were identified between depressive symptoms, T2D, and fasting glucose, suggesting that previously established phenotypic associations may be partly explained by genetic variation in these specific loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6051528PMC
April 2018
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