Publications by authors named "Yi Yuan"

511 Publications

Bright Near-Infrared π-Conjugated Oligomer Nanoparticles for Deep-Brain Three-Photon Microscopy Excited at the 1700 nm Window .

ACS Nano 2022 Aug 15. Epub 2022 Aug 15.

Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) & Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR 999077, P. R. China.

The development of three-photon fluorophores with 1700 nm excitation is pressingly desirable for imaging of tissue resided deep inside the brain. Herein, we report a designed and synthesized fluorescent molecule () for mouse brain imaging with three-photon microscopy at a record imaging depth. The molecule has a relatively high fluorescence brightness and has a near-infrared (NIR) maximum emission at 820 nm after integrating as water-dispersible nanoparticles ( NPs). Under 1720 nm excitation, NPs show a large three-photon action cross-section of 1.06 × 10 cm s/photon, which is more than twice that of the commonly used sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) dye. Benefiting from the high tissue penetration depths for both the long excitation in the second NIR window of 1720 nm and the emission wavelength in the first NIR window of 820 nm, a high brightness, and a large action cross-section of three-photon, NPs have good deep-brain imaging performance. Brain vasculatures of a mouse located at a depth of 1696 μm can be clearly resolved . With no observable cytotoxicity even in a high concentration, the present NPs suggest that fluorescent π-conjugated oligomers are of great potential in high-resolution 3PM imaging of deep-tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c03813DOI Listing
August 2022

Reinforcement Learning based Diagnosis and Prediction for COVID-19 by Optimizing A Mixed Cost Function from CT Images.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2022 Aug 11;PP. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease has caused 4 million deaths and more than 200 million infections worldwide (as of August 4, 2021). Rapid and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 infection is critical to controlling the spread of the epidemic. In order to quickly and efficiently detect COVID-19 and reduce the threat of COVID-19 to human survival, we have firstly pro- posed a detection framework based on reinforcement learn- ing for COVID-19 diagnosis, which constructs a mixed loss function that can integrate the advantages of multiple loss functions. This paper uses the accuracy of the validation set as the reward value, and obtains the initial model for the next epoch by searching the model corresponding to the maximum reward value in each epoch. We also have pro- posed a prediction framework that integrates multiple de- tection frameworks using parameter sharing to predict the progression of patients' disease without additional training. This paper also constructed a higher-quality version of the CT image dataset containing 247 cases screened by profes- sional physicians, and obtained more excellent results on this dataset. Meanwhile, we used the other two COVID-19 datasets as external verifications, and still achieved a high accuracy rate without additional training. Finally, the exper- imental results show that our classification accuracy can reach 98.31%, and the precision, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (Area Under Curve) are 98.82%, 97.99%, 98.67%, and0.989, respectively. The accuracy of external verification can reach 93.34% and 91.05%. What's more, the accuracy of our prediction framework is 91.54%. A large number of experiments demonstrate that our proposed method is effective and robust for COVID-19 detection and prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2022.3197666DOI Listing
August 2022

Vaginal microecological characteristics of women in different physiological and pathological period.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 22;12:959793. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The vaginal microbiota, the host endocrine system, the vaginal anatomy, and the local mucosal immunity comprise the vaginal microbiota, which interacts with each other to maintain the balance of the vaginal microbiota, which maintains female reproductive health. Puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause are four phases women go through during their reproductive and post-reproductive years. Vaginal microbiota composition and abundance are heavily influenced by estrogen and progesterone, which start at puberty and continue during the reproductive years in a dynamic balance with some fluctuations. Estrogen promotes proliferation of vaginal epithelial cells and increases glycogen storage, while progesterone lyses vaginal epithelial cells, facilitating the release of glycogen to maintain normal pH. This review summarizes the latest national and international evidence on the composition and distribution of vaginal microecology in women during different physiological and pathological periods and proposes a hormone-driven microbial diversity hypothesis to explain the temporal patterns of vaginal microbial diversity during the female reproductive cycle and menopause. A relatively balanced vaginal microecological system has a positive effect on the maintenance of female health. An imbalance in the ratio of flora can lead to susceptibility to infections or reproductive complications. The study of human microecology and its role in the development and progression of human disease is essential for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of related obstetric and gynecologic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.959793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354832PMC
August 2022

Study of the mechanism by which MSCs combined with LITUS treatment improve cognitive dysfunction caused by traumatic brain injury.

Neurosci Lett 2022 Aug 4;787:136825. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Graduate School of Chengde Medical University, Shuangqiao District, Chengde, Hebei Province, China; First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Culture Road, Seaport District, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, China. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) substantially affects the quality of life of patients, and an effective therapy is unavailable. Previous studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and low-intensity transcranial ultrasound (LITUS) are effective treatments for neurological damage, inflammation, edema and cognitive impairment caused by TBI. However, it is unclear whether the combination of the two treatments exerts an additive effect. In this study, a rat TBI model was established using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) method. Neurological function was assessed by determining the rat modified neurological score (mNSS), and cognitive function was assessed using the Y-maze. Pathological changes in the injured tissue were observed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and western blot was performed to detect the expression levels of Nestin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression levels of GAP-43, PSD-95, BDNF, TNF-α, and AQP-4 mRNA to investigate whether MSCs combined with LITUS exert an additive therapeutic effect of alleviating the cognitive dysfunction caused by TBI and the possible mechanisms involved. Rats exhibited cognitive dysfunction 28 days after TBI, and MSCs combined with LITUS treatment ameliorated the cognitive deficits caused by TBI via increasing Nestin, NSE, GAP-43, PSD-95, and BDNF expression and attenuating the inflammatory response and edema caused by TBI via reducing TNF-α and AQP-4 expression. According to these results, MSCs combined with LITUS is more effective than MSCs alone for the treatment of TBI, and the mechanism may be the promotion of neuronal proliferation and differentiation, and the attenuation of the inflammatory response and edema, which ameliorates the spatial learning memory impairment caused by TBI. MSCs combined with LITUS treatment represents a new approach for the clinical treatment of patients with TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2022.136825DOI Listing
August 2022

A Cross-Sectional Survey on the Clinical Management of Emergence Delirium in Adults: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice in Mainland China.

Brain Sci 2022 Jul 26;12(8). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49, North Garden Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China.

Background: Emergence delirium (ED) occurs immediately after emergence from general anesthesia, which may have adverse consequences. This cross-sectional survey assessed Chinese physicians' and nurses' knowledge of, attitudes towards, and practice regarding ED in adults.

Methods: Electronic questionnaires were sent to 93 major academic hospitals across mainland China and both attending anesthesiologists and anesthesia nurses were recommended to complete them.

Results: A total of 243 anesthesiologists and 213 anesthesia nurses participated in the survey. Most of the participants considered it a very important issue; however, less than one-third of them routinely assessed ED. In terms of screening tools, anesthesiologists preferred the Confusion Assessment Method, while anesthesia nurses reported using multiple screening tools. Divergence also appeared with regard to the necessity of monitoring the depth of anesthesia. Anesthesiologists considered it only necessary in high-risk patients, while the nurses considered that it should be carried out routinely. No unified treatment strategy nor medication was reported for ED treatment during the recovery period.

Conclusions: This study illustrated that there are high awareness levels among both Chinese anesthesiologists and anesthesia nurses regarding the importance of ED. However, a specific practice in terms of routine delirium assessment, anesthesia depth monitoring, and a standardized treatment algorithm needs to be implemented to improve ED management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12080989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332432PMC
July 2022

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Tight Glucose Control and Poor Pre-Injury Stair Climbing Capacity May Predict Postoperative Delirium: A Secondary Analysis.

Brain Sci 2022 Jul 20;12(7). Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, 31 Xinjiekou East Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100035, China.

(1) Background: Previous evidence demonstrates that tight glycemic control and good physical function could reduce the risk of delirium. This study aimed to investigate whether the occurrence of postoperative delirium (POD) in older hip fracture surgery patients is associated with preoperative glycemic control factors or pre-injury physical performance. (2) Methods: Three-hundred and nine individuals aged over 65 years and scheduled for hip fracture surgery were included at a single center. Glycemic control factors and pre-injury physical performance were assessed preoperatively. The presence of delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method on postoperative hospitalization days. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models and a risk prediction model of POD were established. (3) Results: Among the 309 patients, 52 (16.83%) experienced POD during the hospital stay. The numbers of pre-injury physical performance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients were significantly different in the POD and non-POD groups. The multivariable model showed that development of delirium was significantly explained by preoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) (OR 0.804, = 0.004), stair climbing (OR 0.709, = 0.003), T2DM (odds ratio (OR) 3.654, = 0.001), and age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) (OR 1.270, = 0.038). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the risk prediction model including those covariates was 0.770. (4) Conclusions: More older T2DM patients develop POD after hip fracture surgery than patients without T2DM. A simple assessment of preoperative FBG and pre-injury stair climbing capacity may identify those at high risk for the development of POD. Higher preoperative FBG and good pre-injury stair climbing capacity are protective factors for POD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12070951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317912PMC
July 2022

Identifying Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment With Convolutional Neural Network Adapted to the Spectral Entropy Heat Map of the Electroencephalogram.

Front Hum Neurosci 2022 6;16:924222. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory of Measurement Technology and Instrumentation of Hebei Province, Institute of Electric Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and early diagnosis and intervention may delay its deterioration. However, the electroencephalogram (EEG) differences between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls (HC) subjects are not as significant compared to those with AD. This study addresses this situation by proposing a computer-aided diagnostic method that also aims to improve model performance and assess the sensitive areas of the subject's brain. The EEG data of 46 subjects (20HC/26aMCI) were enhanced with windowed moving segmentation and transformed from 1D temporal data to 2D spectral entropy images to measure the efficient information in the time-frequency domain from the point of view of information entropy; A novel convolution module is devised, which considerably reduces the number of model learning parameters and saves computing resources on the premise of ensuring diagnostic performance; One more thing, the cognitive diagnostic contribution of the corresponding channels in each brain region was measured by the weight coefficient of the input and convolution unit. Our results showed that when the segmental window overlap rate was increased from 0 to 75%, the corresponding generalization accuracy increased from 91.673 ± 0.9578% to 94.642 ± 0.4035%; Approximately 35% reduction in model learnable parameters by optimizing the network structure while maintaining accuracy; The top four channels were FP1, F7, T5, and F4, corresponding to the frontal and temporal lobes, in descending order of the mean value of the weight coefficients. This paper proposes a novel method based on spectral entropy image and convolutional neural network (CNN), which provides a new perspective for the identifying of aMCI based on EEG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2022.924222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298556PMC
July 2022

Immune Infiltration of Ulcerative Colitis and Detection of the m6A Subtype.

J Immunol Res 2022 25;2022:7280977. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200065, China.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by persistent colon inflammation. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation is one of the most prevalent RNA modifications with key roles in both normal and illness, but m6A methylation in ulcerative colitis is unknown. This research investigated m6A methylation in UC. We examined the expression of known m6A RNA methylation regulators in UC using the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO database). First, we used m6A regulators to examine m6A change in UC samples. These two patient groups were created by clustering three m6A gene expression datasets. These genes were then utilized to build an m6A gene network using WGCNA and PPI. These networks were built using differentially expressed genes. The 12 m6A regulators were found to be dispersed throughout the chromosome. The study's data were then connected, revealing positive or negative relationships between genes or signaling pathways. Then, PCA of the 12 m6A-regulated genes indicated that the two patient groups could be discriminated in both PC1 and PC2 dimensions. The ssGSEA algorithm found that immune invading cells could be easily distinguished across diverse patient groups. Both groups had varied levels of popular cytokines. The differential gene analysis of the two samples yielded 517 genes like FTO and RFX7. It found 9 hub genes among 121 genes in the blue module, compared their expression in two groups of samples, and found that the differences in expression of these 9 genes were highly significant. The identification of 9 possible m6A methylation-dependent gene regulatory networks suggests that m6A methylation is involved in UC pathogenesis. Nine candidate genes have been identified as possible markers for assessing UC severity and developing innovative UC targeted therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7280977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9252851PMC
July 2022

NCOA4: An Immunomodulation-Related Prognostic Biomarker in Colon Adenocarcinoma and Pan-Cancer.

J Oncol 2022 16;2022:5242437. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200065, China.

Treatment of cancer in humans requires a thorough understanding of the multiple pathways by which it develops. Recent studies suggest that nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) may be a predictive biomarker for renal cancer. In the present work, TCGA, GEPIA, and several bioinformatics approaches were used to analyze the NCOA4 expression patterns, prognostic relevance, and association between NCOA4 and clinicopathological features and immune cell infiltration. We investigated NCOA4 expression in malignancies. Low NCOA4 expression was associated with poor overall survival in individuals with malignancies such as cholangiocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and clear cell renal carcinoma. We also analyzed NCOA4 DNA methylation in normal and primary tumor tissues and investigated possible functional pathways underlying NCOA4-mediated oncogenesis. In conclusion, downregulation of NCOA4 is associated with poor prognosis, and NCOA4 may be a predictive biomarker for COAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5242437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225891PMC
June 2022

Evaluation of a Conformationally Constrained Indole Carboxamide as a Potential Efflux Pump Inhibitor in  .

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 May 26;11(6). Epub 2022 May 26.

TAXIS Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 9 Deer Park Drive, Suite J-15, Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA.

Efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria such as provide intrinsic antimicrobial resistance by facilitating the extrusion of a wide range of antimicrobials. Approaches for combating efflux-mediated multidrug resistance involve, in part, developing indirect antimicrobial agents capable of inhibiting efflux, thus rescuing the activity of antimicrobials previously rendered inactive by efflux. Herein, TXA09155 is presented as a novel efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) formed by conformationally constraining our previously reported EPI TXA01182. TXA09155 demonstrates strong potentiation in combination with multiple antibiotics with efflux liabilities against wild-type and multidrug-resistant (MDR)  . At 6.25 µg/mL, TXA09155, showed ≥8-fold potentiation of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, cefpirome, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. Several biophysical and genetic studies rule out membrane disruption and support efflux inhibition as the mechanism of action (MOA) of TXA09155. TXA09155 was determined to lower the frequency of resistance (FoR) to levofloxacin and enhance the killing kinetics of moxifloxacin. Most importantly, TXA09155 outperformed the levofloxacin-potentiation activity of EPIs TXA01182 and MC-04,124 against a CDC/FDA panel of MDR clinical isolates of TXA09155 possesses favorable physiochemical and ADME properties that warrant its optimization and further development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9220351PMC
May 2022

Defect-Enriched ZnO/ZnS Heterostructures Derived from Hydrozincite Intermediates for Hydrogen Evolution under Visible Light.

ChemSusChem 2022 Jun 23:e202200860. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 51006, P. R. China.

Introducing defect engineering into ZnO/ZnS heterojunction photocatalysts is an effective method to simultaneously improve their visible light performance and photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, a defect-enriched ZnO/ZnS heterostructure photocatalyst was synthesized through a hydrozincite [Zn (OH) (CO ) ] intermediate-deriving reaction. The mechanism analysis showed that there were interstitial Zn and Zn vacancies in the hydrozincite-derived ZnO, while S vacancies and interstitial S and Zn vacancies were formed in ZnS components after calcination. These specific defect states endowed visible light response ability to both ZnO and ZnS components in the ZnO/ZnS photocatalysts. Under visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of ZnO/ZnS reached 11.68 mmol h  g , and under simulated sunlight irradiation, the best photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate could reach 27.94 mmol h  g , which was much higher than most previous reports. The analysis of energy band structure and photodeposition showed that the photocatalytic reduction sites were mainly on ZnS, and the photocatalytic reaction mainly followed the typical Z-type mechanism. This work presents a simple and low-cost method for the preparation of defects-enriched ZnO/ZnS-based photocatalytic materials with high photocatalytic activity and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202200860DOI Listing
June 2022

Tumor Microenvironment: Lactic Acid Promotes Tumor Development.

J Immunol Res 2022 12;2022:3119375. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200065, China.

Lactic acid is a "metabolic waste" product of glycolysis that is produced in the body. However, the role of lactic acid in the development of human malignancies has gained increasing interest lately as a multifunctional small molecule chemical. There is evidence that tumor cells may create a large amount of lactic acid through glycolysis even when they have abundant oxygen. Tumor tissues have a higher quantity of lactic acid than normal tissues. Lactic acid is required for tumor development. Lactate is an immunomodulatory chemical that affects both innate and adaptive immune cells' effector functions. In immune cells, the lactate signaling pathway may potentially serve as a link between metabolism and immunity. Lactate homeostasis is significantly disrupted in the TME. Lactate accumulation results in acidosis, angiogenesis, immunosuppression, and tumor cell proliferation and survival, all of which are deleterious to health. Thus, augmenting anticancer immune responses by lactate metabolism inhibition may modify lactate levels in the tumor microenvironment. This review will evaluate the role of lactic acid in tumor formation, metastasis, prognosis, treatment, and histone modification. Our findings will be of considerable interest to readers, particularly those engaged in the therapeutic treatment of cancer patients. Treatments targeting the inhibition of lactate synthesis and blocking the source of lactate have emerged as a potential new therapeutic option for oncology patients. Additionally, lactic acid levels in the plasma may serve as biomarkers for disease stage and may be beneficial for evaluating therapy effectiveness in individuals with tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3119375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207018PMC
June 2022

MEMS ultrasonic transducers for safe, low-power and portable eye-blinking monitoring.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2022 13;8:63. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Eye blinking is closely related to human physiology and psychology. It is an effective method of communication among people and can be used in human-machine interactions. Existing blink monitoring methods include video-oculography, electro-oculograms and infrared oculography. However, these methods suffer from uncomfortable use, safety risks, limited reliability in strong light or dark environments, and infringed informational security. In this paper, we propose an ultrasound-based portable approach for eye-blinking activity monitoring. Low-power pulse-echo ultrasound featuring biosafety is transmitted and received by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) ultrasonic transducers seamlessly integrated on glasses. The size, weight and power consumption of the transducers are 2.5 mm by 2.5 mm, 23.3 mg and 71 μW, respectively, which provides better portability than conventional methods using wearable devices. Eye-blinking activities were characterized by open and closed eye states and validated by experiments on different volunteers. Finally, real-time eye-blinking monitoring was successfully demonstrated with a response time less than 1 ms. The proposed solution paves the way for ultrasound-based wearable eye-blinking monitoring and offers miniaturization, light weight, low power consumption, high informational security and biosafety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-022-00396-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9192761PMC
June 2022

Comparison of calcium-based technologies to remineralise enamel subsurface lesions using microradiography and microhardness.

Sci Rep 2022 06 14;12(1):9888. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Centre for Oral Health Research, Melbourne Dental School, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Assessment of enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation is essential for the evaluation of novel remineralisation technologies. The gold standard to assess subsurface mineral gain of enamel lesions is transverse microradiography (TMR). However, some studies have utilised surface microhardness (SMH) to evaluate efficacy of remineralisation agents. The aim of this study was to assess remineralisation of enamel subsurface lesions using TMR and SMH after in vitro treatment with calcium-containing technologies, and to test correlation between the TMR and SMH measurements. The parameters obtained from the TMR and SMH analyses of enamel subsurface remineralisation were not significantly correlated. Furthermore, the enamel subsurface remineralisation as measured by TMR was significantly correlated with the water-soluble calcium concentration of the remineralisation products. Scanning electron microscopy revealed surface precipitates formed by specific remineralisation treatments obfuscated accurate assessment of remineralisation by SMH. It was concluded that TMR is a more appropriate method for analysis of enamel subsurface remineralisation, and that SMH values of remineralised enamel should be interpreted with caution. Using TMR the level of remineralisation (%R) by the different technologies was CPP-ACP/F (31.3 ± 1.4%); CPP-ACP (24.2 ± 1.4%); CaSO/KHPO/F (21.3 ± 1.4%); f-TCP/F (20.9 ± 1.0%); Nano-HA/F (16.3 ± 0.3%); Nano-HA (15.3 ± 0.6%) and F alone control (15.4 ± 1.3%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13905-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197824PMC
June 2022

Closed-loop transcranial ultrasound stimulation with a fuzzy controller for modulation of motor response and neural activity of mice.

J Neural Eng 2022 Jun 30;19(3). Epub 2022 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, People's Republic of China.

. We propose a closed-loop transcranial ultrasound stimulation (TUS) with a fuzzy controller to realize real-time and precise control of the motor response and neural activity of mice.. The mean absolute value (MAV) of the electromyogram (EMG) and peak value (PV) of the local field potential (LFP) were measured under different ultrasound intensities. A model comprising the characteristics of the MAV of the EMG, PV of the LFP, and ultrasound intensity was built using a neural network, and a fuzzy controller, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, and immune feedback controller were proposed to adjust the ultrasound intensity using the feedback of the EMG MAV and the LFP PV.. In simulation, the quantitative calculation indicated that the maximum relative errors between the simulated EMG MAV and the expected values were 17% (fuzzy controller), 110% (PID control), 66% (immune feedback control); furthermore, the corresponding values of the LFP PV were 12% (fuzzy controller), 53% (PID control), 55% (immune feedback control). The average relative errors of fuzzy controller, PID control, immune feedback control were 4.97%, 13.15%, 11.52%, in the EMG closed-loop experiment and 7.76%, 11.84%, 13.56%, in the LFP closed-loop experiment.. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the closed-loop TUS with a fuzzy controller can realize the tracking control of the motor response and neural activity of mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ac7893DOI Listing
June 2022

IL-27 overexpression alleviates inflammatory response in allergic asthma by inhibiting Th9 differentiation and regulating Th1/Th2 balance.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2022 Jun 13:1-7. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, PR China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of IL-27 on Th9 differentiation and Th1/Th2 balance.

Methods: C57BL/6 (B6) mice were treated with ovalbumin to establish an allergic asthma (AA) model and subjected to IL-27 overexpression (OV) and empty vector (EV). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe lung tissue inflammation. Flow cytometry was carried out to evaluate the percentage of Th9, Th1, and Th2 cells. The expression of IL-27, IL-27R, IL-9, T-bet, IFN-γ, and IgE was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was conducted to observe the expression of pSTAT-1 and pSTAT-3.

Results: Compared with the Model group, the number of Th1 cells in the Model + OV group increased significantly ( < .05), while those of Th9 and Th2 cells decreased significantly ( < .05). The expression of IL-27, IL-27R, and IFN-γ in blood serum was increased ( < .05), and that of IL-9 and IgE was significantly decreased in the Model + OV group compared to the Model ( < .05). Western blot revealed that Model + OV exhibited lower expression of pSTAT-3 than that in the Model and Model + EV groups ( < .05), while pSTAT-1 expression was significantly increased ( < .05). Inflammatory infiltration in the Model + OV group was significantly reduced, and there was no significant difference between the Model and Model + EV groups.

Conclusions: IL-27 OV inhibits Th9 differentiation and regulates the imbalance of Th1/Th2, thereby alleviating inflammatory response in AA. The findings suggest that IL-27 OV may be a potential strategy for clinical treatment of AA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923973.2022.2077755DOI Listing
June 2022

Discovery of a Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor Disrupting TRBP-Dicer Interaction against Hepatocellular Carcinoma via the Modulation of microRNA Biogenesis.

J Med Chem 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Center for Natural Products Research, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumorigenesis. Therefore, small molecules targeting components of miRNA biogenesis may provide new therapeutic means for HCC treatment. By a high-throughput screening and structural simplification, we identified a small molecule, CIB-3b, which suppresses the growth and metastasis of HCC and by modulating expression profiles of miRNAome and proteome in HCC cells. Mechanistically, CIB-3b physically binds to transactivation response (TAR) RNA-binding protein 2 (TRBP) and disrupts the TRBP-Dicer interaction, thereby altering the activity of Dicer and mature miRNA production. Structure-activity relationship study via the synthesis of 45 CIB-3b derivatives showed that some compounds exhibited a similar inhibitory effect on miRNA biogenesis to CIB-3b. These results support TRBP as a potential therapeutic target in HCC and warrant further development of CIB-3b along with its analogues as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c00189DOI Listing
June 2022

Viola yedoensis Makino formula alleviates DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis by activating JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and promoting M2 macrophages polarization.

Phytomedicine 2022 Aug 2;103:154228. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Shanghai Frontiers Science Center of TCM Chemical Biology, Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Medicine Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD), a common inflammatory skin disorder, severely affects the life quality of patients and renders heavy financial burden on patient's family. The Chinese medicine Viola yedoensis Makino formula (VYAC) has been widely used for treating various skin disorders. Previous studies have reported that VYAC is effective in relieving DNCB-induced AD and inflammation. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of VYAC is still ill-defined and poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of VYAC on DNCB-induced AD and to elucidate the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

Methodology: VYAC were extracted with 70% ethanol and lyophilized for use. AD mice were established by DNCB. The therapeutic effects of VYAC were evaluated by oral administration VYAC (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) daily in vivo. The histopathological and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze skin lesion and macrophages infiltration, RT-qPCR and Elisa were used to analyze the inflammatory factors in skin tissues and serum. To explore the underlying mechanism of VYAC against AD in vitro. RAW264.7 cells and bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were employed for macrophage polarization analysis. Flow cytometer, immunofluorescence and western blot were used to analyze M2 macrophages markers. STAT3 siRNA were transfected into both cells to validate the effects of VYAC-induced macrophages M2 polarization via JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Results: VYAC ameliorated skin lesion of DNCB-induced AD mice by decreased clinical scores and epidermal thickness, decreased the level of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-18) and enhanced IL-10 anti-inflammatory factor level, inhibited macrophages infiltration and promoted M2 macrophages polarization in vivo. VYAC significantly promoted M2 macrophages polarization in vitro. It is observed that VYAC not only inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in RAW264.7 cells and BMDMs, but also accelerated the translocation to the nucleus. What's more, VYAC reduced the polarization of M2 macrophage by activating JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway was observed in both cells.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that VYAC significantly ameliorates skin lesion of DNCB-induced AD mice and reduces the levels of inflammatory factors by activating JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and promoting M2 macrophages polarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154228DOI Listing
August 2022

[Research of Building 3D Model in External Fixator for Proximal Femoral Fracture Based on Locking Plate Shape].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2022 May;46(3):287-291

Acupuncture and Rehabilitation Department, Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000.

The software of 3D-Modeling(UG NX 10.0) was used to design a new external fixator model for proximal femoral fracture, and fresh femoral cadaver specimens were used to simulate experimental operation. The results showed that the external fixator designed with the proximal femoral locking plate shape can improve the accuracy of Kirschner wire penetration into the femoral neck, reduce fluoroscopic and soft tissue incision injuries, and make a good stability and is easy to operate, which has a certain value for patients with proximal femoral fracture, such as intolerant surgery and poor physical condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2022.03.011DOI Listing
May 2022

Metal-organic cage incorporating thin-film nanocomposite membranes with antifouling properties.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jun 14;58(48):6865-6868. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117585, Singapore.

We report the antifouling properties of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes containing two water-stable metal-organic cages (MOCs). The MOC-containing TFN membranes possess excellent antifouling properties against positively-charged foulants and protein (BSA, up to 99.7% water permeability retention) and achieve up to 100% water permeability recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc01032aDOI Listing
June 2022

Evaluation of 2,6-difluoro-3-(oxazol-2-ylmethoxy)benzamide chemotypes as Gram-negative FtsZ inhibitors.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2022 07 26;75(7):385-395. Epub 2022 May 26.

TAXIS Pharmaceuticals, Inc., R&D Department, 9 Deer Park Drive, Suite J-15, Monmouth Junction, NJ, 08852, USA.

FtsZ inhibitors represent a new drug class as no drugs using this mode of action (MOA) have been approved by regulators. 3-alkoxy substituted 2,6-difluorobenzamide scaffold is one of the most studied FtsZ inhibitors among which the most promising anti-MRSA candidate TXA709 is in clinical trial. In this paper, we present the screening and evaluation of a benzamide class that is functionalized at the alkoxy fragment targeting Gram-negative bacteria. The variations in 3-alkoxy substitutions, specifically the hydroxylated alkyl residues to the secondary and stereogenic pseudo-benzylic carbon of their methyleneoxy linker, are particularly active against K. pneumoniae ATCC 10031 in marked contrast to the derivatives related to PC190723, all of which were inactive against Gram-negative bacteria. The two lead molecules TXA6101 and TXY6129 inhibit the polymerization of E. coli FtsZ in a concentration-dependent manner and induce changes in the morphology of E. coli and K. pneumoniae consistent with inhibition of cell division. These classes of compounds, however, were found to be substrates for efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-022-00531-9DOI Listing
July 2022

Predictors of refractory risk in systemic lupus erythematosus-related thrombocytopenia: a dual-centre retrospective study.

Lupus Sci Med 2022 05;9(1)

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China

Objectives: Based on clinical and laboratory indicators, this study aimed to establish a multiparametric nomogram to assess the risk of refractory cases of SLE-related thrombocytopenia (SLE-related TP) before systematic treatment.

Methods: From June 2012 to July 2021, a dual-centre retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data of patients with SLE-related TP was conducted. The cohort data were divided into a developing set, internal validation set and external validation set. Refractory thrombocytopenia (RTP) was defined as failed to prednisone at 1 mg/kg per day with a platelet count cannot achieve or maintain higher than 50×10/L. In the developing set, a nomogram were established to predict RTP risk based on clinical characteristics and laboratory indicators by multivariable logistic regression, and its performance was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, calibration curves, decision curve analysis (DCA) and clinical impact curve (CIC).

Results: A total of 1778 patients with SLE were included, and 413 eligible patients were involved in the final analysis with 121 RTPs. The RTP risk assessment (RRA) model was composed of five significant risk variables: pregnancy, severity of TP, complement 3, anticardiolipin antibody-immunoglobulin G and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. In three datasets, the AUCs were 0.887 (95% CI 0.830 to 0.945), 0.880 (95% CI 0.785 to 0.975) and 0.871 (95% CI 0.793 to 0.949), respectively. The calibration curve, DCA and CIC all showed good performance of the RRA model.

Conclusion: The RRA model demonstrated good capability for assessing the refractory risk in SLE-related TP, which may be helpful for early identification and intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/lupus-2022-000677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9125766PMC
May 2022

Structural characterization, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharides from Plumula Nelumbinis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 17;212:111-122. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, Ministry of Education Engineering Research Center of Starch & Protein Processing, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address:

A polysaccharide from Plumula Nelumbinis (PNP), was isolated and purified. PNP had a molecular weight of 450 kDa and consisted five monosaccharides, including rhamnose, galacturonic acid, xylose, galactose, and arabinose. The methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed that the main glycosidic linkage types of PNP were →5)-α-L-Araf-(1→, →3)-β-D-Galp-(1→, β-D-Xylp-(→1, →3,4)-β-D-Rhap-(1→, →4)-β-D-GalpA-(1→. In the range of 25-1200 μg/mL, PNP had no cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. PNP could protect RAW264.7 cell from oxidative damage by reducing the production of ROS and MDA and the secretion of LDH, enhancing the activity of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, and increasing the content of GSH. Anti-inflammatory activity experiments showed that PNP inhibited the expression of NO, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6. PNP could inhibit the activation of MAPK/NF-κB cell pathways. PNP could be used as a potential natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substance in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.097DOI Listing
July 2022

Zirconium Metal-Organic Cages: Synthesis and Applications.

Acc Chem Res 2022 Jun 17;55(11):1546-1560. Epub 2022 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 155 Yangqiao Road, West Fuzhou 350002, P.R. China.

ConspectusFor the last two decades, materials scientists have contributed to a growing library of porous crystalline materials. These synthetic materials are typically extended networks, including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), or discrete materials like metal-organic cages (MOCs) and porous organic cages (POCs). Advanced porous materials have shown promise for various applications due to their modular nature and structural tunability. MOCs have recently garnered attention because of their molecularity that bestows them with many unique possibilities (e.g., solution-processability, structural diversity, and postsynthetic processability).MOCs are discrete molecular assemblies of organic ligands coordinated with either metal cations or metal oxide clusters of different nuclearities, resulting in architectures with inherent porosity. Notably, the molecular nature of MOCs endows them with easy solution-processability unattainable with traditional framework materials. To date, a number of stable MOCs have been reported, such as those based on Rh (Rh-O bond energy: 405 ± 42 kJ/mol), Fe (Fe-O bond energy: 407.0 ± 1.0 kJ/mol), Cr (Cr-O bond energy: 461 ± 8.7 kJ/mol), Ti (Ti-O bond energy: 666.5 ± 5.6 kJ/mol), and Zr (Zr-O bond energy: 766.1 ± 10.6 kJ/mol). Paddle-wheel MOCs have also shown great stability in aqueous environments due to their rigid backbones. The zirconium MOC (Zr-MOCs) family emerges as a class of very robust cages for which their high bond energy endows them with high hydrothermal stability.In 2013, we reported the first four zirconocene tetrahedrons assembled from trinuclear zirconium oxide clusters with ditopic or tritopic organic ligands. Since then, significant progress in the rational design of Zr-MOC has led to an assortment of structures dedicated to meaningful applications.In this Account, we highlight the recent progress in synthesizing Zr-MOCs and Zr-MOC-based higher dimensional frameworks and their applications dedicated in our laboratories and beyond. The general Zr-MOC synthetic strategy involves assembling Zr trinuclear clusters with organic ligands (rigid or flexible) containing various functional groups. This chemistry has afforded cages with structural versatility and active sites, e.g., amino groups, for postsynthetic modifications (PSMs). Since the extrinsic porosity of cage-based frameworks is relatively weak, the resulting frameworks are susceptible to structural rearrangement after solvent removal. To circumvent this limitation, increasing the hydrogen bond ratio and strength between interlinked cages and conducting in situ catalytic polymerizations have been reported to afford permanently porous structures amenable to host-guest reactions.To expand their potential applications, multifunctional Zr-MOCs are highly desired. Such multivariate MOCs can be attained by either employing the isoreticular expansion strategy to create MOCs with high surface areas or using mixed-ligand approaches to afford heterogeneous MOCs. In addition, amorphous MOCs, flexible organic ligands, new functionalities, and MOC-based extended networks are exciting new approaches to developing materials with structural versatility and enhanced characteristics. Thereby, we believe the stability and versatility of the Zr-MOC family hold great potential in expanding and addressing challenging applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.1c00654DOI Listing
June 2022

Organelle-targeted imaging based on fluorogen-activating RNA aptamers in living cells.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 May 8;1209:339816. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Natural Products Research Center, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

Organelles play specific and indispensable roles in cellular processes, and their dysfunction causes a series of diseases. Monitoring their variations is crucial to understanding their roles in physiopathology. Unlike most organelle imaging tools based on chemical probes or proteins, we developed a novel molecular tool for cell organelle imaging based on nucleic acids. Real-time imaging of mitochondria and nucleus in living cells was realized easily through using RNA-based tools, which are composed of Organelle-targeted RNA Sequence and Fluorogen-activating RNA aptamer. This genetically encoded Organelle-targeted RNA imaging system provides a powerful platform for measuring the properties of organelles and intracellular structures in living cells, due to its nontoxicity, low fluorescence background, ease of construction, and modular properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339816DOI Listing
May 2022

Spatial distribution and source identification for heavy metals in surface sediments of East Dongting Lake, China.

Sci Rep 2022 05 13;12(1):7940. Epub 2022 May 13.

School of Marine Sciences, China University of Geosciences in Beijing, 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100083, China.

Dongting Lake is one of the most important inland freshwater lakes in China. To investigate the spatial distribution and seasonal variation characteristics of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in the lake, 53 surface sediment samples were collected in the East Dongting Lake (ED Lake) in the wet and dry seasons. Results show Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb contents were 1.7 (1.9), 1.8 (2.0), 2.9 (3.0), 1.9 (1.9), 11.7 (13.1), and 2.0 (2.2)-fold of their geochemical soil background values of Hunan province (China) in the wet (dry) season. Spatial and seasonal heterogeneity could be found in the distribution of Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in the surface sediments. The enrichment factor (EF) suggested that Cd has reached severe enrichment in the sediment. The result of the geo-accumulation index ([Formula: see text]) indicated that Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb were at levels corresponding to low contamination, and moderately to highly polluted with Cd. Multivariate statistical analysis including pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis was used for the identification of potential sources of the heavy metals in the sediments. The results showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb from the sediments of the East Dongting Lake in the wet and dry seasons were possibly anthropogenic sources, such as emissions from mining and smelting while Al, Fe, and Cr are attributed for natural sources. Cd enrichment in the sediments is influenced by both natural factors, and human activities in local areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12148-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106674PMC
May 2022

Achieving Ultrahigh-Rate Planar and Dendrite-Free Zinc Electroplating for Aqueous Zinc Battery Anodes.

Adv Mater 2022 Jul 4;34(28):e2202552. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH, UK.

Despite being one of the most promising candidates for grid-level energy storage, practical aqueous zinc batteries are limited by dendrite formation, which leads to significantly compromised safety and cycling performance. In this study, by using single-crystal Zn-metal anodes, reversible electrodeposition of planar Zn with a high capacity of 8 mAh cm can be achieved at an unprecedentedly high current density of 200 mA cm . This dendrite-free electrode is well maintained even after prolonged cycling (>1200 cycles at 50 mA cm ). Such excellent electrochemical performance is due to single-crystal Zn suppressing the major sources of defect generation during electroplating and heavily favoring planar deposition morphologies. As so few defect sites form, including those that would normally be found along grain boundaries or to accommodate lattice mismatch, there is little opportunity for dendritic structures to nucleate, even under extreme plating rates. This scarcity of defects is in part due to perfect atomic-stitching between merging Zn islands, ensuring no defective shallow-angle grain boundaries are formed and thus removing a significant source of non-planar Zn nucleation. It is demonstrated that an ideal high-rate Zn anode should offer perfect lattice matching as this facilitates planar epitaxial Zn growth and minimizes the formation of any defective regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202202552DOI Listing
July 2022

Sequential Grafting of Fresh and Cryopreserved Fat After Mechanical Processing is a Safe and Effective Facial Rejuvenation Strategy.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 1838 Guangzhou North Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: The survival rate of fat transplants is variable and consequently multiple operations are often required to achieve satisfactory results. Fat cryopreservation technology is a good solution to this problem. At present, cryopreservation of fats needs to be added with cryopreservation agents, which brings unsafety and operational complexity to clinical applications. An efficient and safe strategy for fat cryopreservation must be developed.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent facial fat grafting and agreed to have their fat tissue cryopreserved from January 2018 to May 2021. Fat samples were physically processed to obtain SVF-gel, which was cryopreserved at - 20 °C for up to 3 months and injected after thawing. Images acquired by pre- and post-operative 3D scanning of the temporal region were compared to evaluate the retention rate of transplanted cryopreserved SVF-gel.

Results: No patients experienced serious complications after receiving cryopreserved fat transplantation. The retention rate of cryopreserved SVF-gel was 46.3 ± 7.7% at 3 months and 43.1 ± 7.2% at 6 months after transplantation. The swelling duration was significantly shorter after cryopreserved SVF-gel transplantation (5.5 ± 0.8 days) than after fresh fat transplantation (7.5 ± 0.7 days) (p < .031).

Conclusion: Injection of cryopreserved SVF-gel achieves good retention rate for facial rejuvenation and has few side effects. Cryopreservation of SVF-gel is a safe and effective strategy for serial fat grafting for facial rejuvenation.

Level Of Evidence Iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-022-02865-zDOI Listing
May 2022

Wide Bandgap Polymer Donor with Acrylate Side Chains for Non-Fullerene Acceptor-Based Organic Solar Cells.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2022 May 7:e2200325. Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Organic semiconductors inherently have a low dielectric constant and hence high exciton binding energy, which is largely responsible for the rather low power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells as well as the requirements to achieve delicate bulk-heterojunction nanophase separation in the active layer. In this study, methyl acrylate as a weakly electron-withdrawing side chain for the electron rich thiophene to prepare a new building block, methyl thiophene-3-acrylate (TA), with increased polarity is used. A wide bandgap polymer PBDT-TA synthesized using TA and a benzodithiophene (BDT) monomer shows increased dielectric constant and reduced exciton binding energy compared to the analogous polymer PBDT-TC, which is made of BDT and methyl thiophene-3-carboxylate (TC). An organic solar cell device based on PBDT-TA:ITIC also achieves a higher power conversion efficiency of 10.47% than that of the PBDT-TC:ITIC based solar cell (9.68%). This work demonstrates the effectiveness of using acrylate side chains to increase the dielectric constant, reduce the exciton binding energy, and enhance the solar cell efficiency of polymer semiconductors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202200325DOI Listing
May 2022

Investigation on the influence of AC electric filed and KCl on the structure and gel properties of Konjac glucomannan.

Food Chem 2022 Aug 21;386:132755. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China. Electronic address:

The influence of alternating current (AC) electric field and KCl on the structure and gel properties of Konjac Glucomannan (KGM) were studied in this work by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), acid-base titration, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry/thermo gravimetric analyzer (DSC/TGA) and a rheometer. HPGPC showed KGM was degraded by AC electric field and Acid-base titration showed that under the action of AC electric field and KCl KGM removed part of acetyl groups, which were consistent with the analysis of NMR. XRD and temperature sweep measurements respectively showed that the electrotreatment time and KCl concentration had important effects on the gel formation and its three-dimensional network. Simultaneous DSC/TGA and temperature sweep measurements both demonstrated the gel had good thermal stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132755DOI Listing
August 2022
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