Publications by authors named "Yi Yang"

4,560 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early Diagnosis of Acute Ischemic Stroke by Brain Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging Combined with Head and Neck Computed Tomography Angiography on Deep Learning Algorithm.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 9;2022:5373585. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Medical Imaging Centre, The First People's Hospital of Xianyang, Xianyang 712000, Shannxi, China.

The purpose of the research was to discuss the application values of deep learning algorithm-based computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging combined with head and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the diagnosis of ultra-early acute ischemic stroke. Firstly, 88 patients with acute ischemic stroke were selected as the research objects and performed with cerebral CTP and CTA examinations. In order to improve the effect of image diagnosis, a new deconvolution network model AD-CNNnet based on deep learning was proposed and used in patient CTP image evaluation. The results showed that the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and feature similarity (FSIM) of the AD-CNNnet method were significantly higher than those of traditional methods, while the normalized mean square error (NMSE) was significantly lower than that of traditional algorithms ( < 0.05). 80 cases were positive by CTP-CTA, including 16 cases of hyperacute ischemic stroke and 64 cases of acute ischemic stroke. The diagnostic sensitivity was 93.66%, and the specificity was 96.18%. The cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and the mean transit time (MTT) in the infarcted area were significantly greater than those in the corresponding healthy side area, and the time to peak (TTP) was significantly less than that in the corresponding healthy side area ( < 0.05). The cerebral perfusion parameters CBF, TTP, and MTT in the penumbra were significantly different from those in the infarct central area and the corresponding contralateral area, and TTP was the most sensitive ( < 0.05). To sum up, deep learning algorithm-based CTP combined with CTA could find the location of cerebral infarction lesions as early as possible to provide a reliable diagnostic result for the diagnosis of ultra-early acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5373585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9110193PMC
May 2022

Capsaicin Prevents Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury through Activation of Nrf2 in Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 16;2022:1763922. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China.

Capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel agonist, possesses antioxidative properties through activating nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). As oxidative stress is a major contributor to the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI), we investigated the protective effect of capsaicin against CA-AKI via Nrf2. C57BL/6J mice were treated with dehydration and iodixanol to establish the model of CA-AKI. For pretreatment, capsaicin (0.3 mg/kg) was given via intraperitoneal injection one hour before iodixanol injection. Nrf2-specific siRNA was given through the tail vein to knock down Nrf2. The CA-AKI mouse model had remarkable mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction and apoptosis of tubular cells, overproduction of superoxide in renal tubules, increased renal malondialdehyde, tubular epithelial cell injury, and renal dysfunction. Importantly, pretreatment with capsaicin significantly ameliorated tubular cell injury and renal dysfunction with decreased superoxide, renal malondialdehyde, and apoptotic tubular cells and improved mitochondrial morphology and function in the CA-AKI mouse model. The expression of Nrf2 was increased in the kidney from the CA-AKI mouse model and was further enhanced by capsaicin. Administration of siRNA through the tail vein successfully decreased Nrf2 expression in the kidney, and knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA abolished the beneficial effects of capsaicin on CA-AKI. The present study demonstrated a protective effect of capsaicin pretreatment against CA-AKI via Nrf2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1763922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9126664PMC
May 2022

Equilibrium Self-Assembly, Structure, and Dynamics of Clusters of Star-Like Micelles.

ACS Macro Lett 2015 Oct 22;4(10):1128-1133. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120, United States.

Hierarchical structure and dynamics of clusters of self-assembled star-like micelles formed by oligocarbonate-fluorene end-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) triblock copolymers were characterized by small-angle neutron scattering and static and dynamic light scattering at concentrations below the gel point. These micelles persist in equilibrium with concentration-dependent sized hierarchical clusters. When probed at length scales within the clusters by dynamic light scattering, the clusters exhibit Zimm dynamics, reminiscent of dilute mesoscale chains. The ability to form chain-like clusters is attributed to the π-π stacking of the fluorene groups that drives the formation of micelles. This enables a design variable to control the rheology of injectable gels. Further, predictions of the solvent (DO) viscosity show deviations consistent with polymers in organic solvents, stressing a need for refinement of molecular theories of polymer dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.5b00507DOI Listing
October 2015

Expanding the Cationic Polycarbonate Platform: Attachment of Sulfonium Moieties by Postpolymerization Ring Opening of Epoxides.

ACS Macro Lett 2016 Nov 27;5(11):1247-1252. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120, United States.

Postpolymerization modification is a critical strategy for the development of functional polycarbonate scaffolds for medicinal applications. To expand the scope of available postpolymerization functionalization methods, polycarbonates containing pendant thioether groups were synthesized by organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization. The thioether group allowed for the postpolymerization ring-opening of functional epoxides, affording a wide variety of sulfonium-functionalized A-B diblock and A-B-A triblock polycarbonate copolymers. The pendant thioether groups were found to be compatible with previously developed postsynthesis functionalization methods allowing for selective and orthogonal modifications of the polycarbonates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.6b00705DOI Listing
November 2016

Transcutaneous auricular vague nerve stimulation improved brain connection activity on patients of disorders of consciousness: a pilot study.

J Tradit Chin Med 2022 Jun;42(3):463-471

Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve nerve stimulation (taVNS) on disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients with Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) and cerebral cortex activity by electroencephalogram (EEG) detection.

Methods: Randomized controlled methods were used to evaluate the clinical effect of taVNS on patients with DOC. Twelve patients with initial CRS-R of 6-10 were randomly divided into the treatment group of taVNS and control group of transcutaneous non-auricular vague nerve stimulation (tnVNS). According to clinical diagnosis, the treatment group was divided into vegetative state (VS) group and minimally conscious state (MCS) group.

Results: The energy of delta and beta bands is positively correlated with the brain activity of patients. taVNS has different regulatory effects on patients with different conscious States. In taVNS group, the energy of delta band in local brain regions changed significantly. Significant changes in brain connection activity were limited to local brain regions. While in patients with MCS in the taVNS group, delta and beta band energy significantly changed in multiple brain regions and cross-brain connection activity also changed significantly.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that taVNS may be a related extra method for arousing patients' awakening by improving brain connection activity. And the effect is remarkable in MCS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19852/j.cnki.jtcm.2022.03.012DOI Listing
June 2022

MTDH antisense oligonucleotides reshape the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment to sensitize Hepatocellular Carcinoma to immune checkpoint blockade therapy.

Cancer Lett 2022 May 21:215750. Epub 2022 May 21.

Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, PR China; Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200032, PR China. Electronic address:

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy is an important treatment option for individuals with cancer, but it has certain limitations. Identifying a better target that can overcome tumor immune escape and stimulate T cell activity is critical. This research aimed to delve into the molecular mechanism underlying the immunoregulatory function of metadherin (MTDH), which is a novel and potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). A small interfering RNA library was screened using the luciferase reporter assay and PD-L1 promoter. The Cancer Genome Atlas database and HCC tissues were used to investigate the relationship between MTDH and PD-L1. The association between MTDH and β-catenin/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (LEF-1) was discovered by co-immunoprecipitation. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to investigate the interaction of MTDH with the PD-L1 promoter when LEF-1 expression was silenced. Locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) were used to inhibit MTDH. We utilized in vitro co-cultures and in vivo syngeneic tumor development experiments to confirm the effectiveness of MTDH ASO combined with PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). MTDH was demonstrated to be a PD-L1 modulator. MTDH increased PD-L1 expression and upregulated PD-L1 transcriptional activity through β-catenin/LEF-1 signaling. More importantly, MTDH ASO improved the anti-PD-1 response and increased cytotoxic T-cell infiltration in PD-1 mAb-treated malignancies. MTDH effectively predicts the therapeutic efficacy of ICB therapy. Our results imply that combining MTDH ASO with PD-1 mAb could be a promising therapeutic strategy for HCC. In addition, MTDH is a potential novel biomarker for predicting the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2022.215750DOI Listing
May 2022

Development of a mechanism-based biomarker for Dioscorea bulbifera L. exposure and hepatotoxicity in rats.

Phytomedicine 2022 May 16;102:154172. Epub 2022 May 16.

Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016, China; State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutics of Guizhou Province, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China. Electronic address:

Background: Dioscorea bulbifera L. (DBL) is a common herbal medicine where furanoterpenoid diosbulbin B (DSB) is a major component responsible for its hepatotoxicity. The metabolic oxidation of the furan moiety of DSB, resulting in covalent binding to hepatic protein, is considered to initiate its liver injury.

Purpose: We aimed to develop a mechanism-based plasma protein adduction-based biomarker to determine DBL exposure and to predict the onset of hepatotoxicity induced by DBL.

Methods: Rats were intragastrically treated with DBL extract, and the plasma samples were collected. Plasma ALT and AST were measured with commercial kits. Plasma protein modification was determined by immunoblot assay. Assessment of DSB-induced protein adduction was achieved by LC-MS/MS analysis of complete proteolytic digestion of adducted protein to pyrroline derivative A4 using pronase enzyme. The structure of the resulting pyrroline derivatives was confirmed by NMR.

Results: Plasma protein of rats treated with DBL extract was covalently modified by the metabolite of DSB. Pyrroline derivative A4 was detected in proteolytic digestion of plasma obtained from rats administered DBL extract. The protein adduction elevated with the increase in the dosage of DBL extract. A detectable level of plasma was observed 10 days after withdrawal of DBL extract post 30-day continuous administration. In addition, the elevation trend of plasma ALT was found to be proportional to the accumulation trend of pyrroline derivative A4.

Conclusion: DSB-derived plasma protein adduction correlated well with the exposure of DBL in rats. The protein adduction may be used as a good biomarker for diagnosis of DBL-induced liver injury and a useful indicator for DBL medication plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154172DOI Listing
May 2022

Cost-effectiveness of Low-Dose Computed Tomography With a Plasma-Based Biomarker for Lung Cancer Screening in China.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2213634. Epub 2022 May 2.

Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Public Health, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Importance: China, which has one-third of the worldwide smoking population, has a substantial cancer burden, with lung cancer being the leading cause of cancer-related death. The effectiveness of lung cancer screening for mortality reduction has been confirmed, but the cost-effectiveness of diverse screening modalities remains unclear.

Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) with a biomarker (micro-RNA signature classifier [MSC]) with that of LDCT alone by screening interval and cumulative smoking exposure.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this economic evaluation, a comparative cost-effectiveness analysis used Markov state transition models that simulated the 1947 to 1971 China birth cohort. Simulated individuals in 8 cohorts of 10 000 entered the study between ages 50 and 74 years and were followed up until death or age 79 years, corresponding to a study period from January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2050. The model was run with a cycle length of 1 year. All the transition probabilities were validated, and health utility values were extracted from published literature. Cost parameters were derived from the databases of local medical insurance bureaus.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary outcomes included life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) with future costs and outcomes discounted by 5%. Screening strategies with a mean ICER less than Chinese yuan (CNY) 212 676 per QALY gained were deemed to be cost-effective. The cost-effectiveness of 7 alternative screening strategies with a screening starting age of 50 years, minimum cumulative smoking exposure of 20 vs 30 pack-years, and screening interval of annual vs 1 time was estimated, including the 2021 China guideline-recommended strategy (LDCT, annual, 30 pack-years) and the 2018 China guideline-recommended strategy (LDCT, annual, 20 pack-years).

Results: In a simulated population of 80 000 individuals, the conjunctive LDCT and MSC screening strategy was estimated to obtain an ICER of CNY -793 995.17 to 254 417.46 (minimum cumulative smoking exposure, 20-30 pack-years) per QALY gained compared with LDCT screening alone. China's 2021 guideline-recommended strategy was not cost-effective compared with the 2018 guideline-recommended strategy, with higher costs and fewer QALYs gained; the QALY loss ranged from 0.02 to 0.15 per person and the increase in cost ranged from CNY 945.89 to CNY 5131.29 per person. LDCT and MSC screening beginning at age 70 to 74 years in individuals with a 20 pack-year smoking history was the most cost-effective strategy, with an ICER of CNY -793 995.17 per QALY gained. Lowering the minimum cumulative smoking exposure for screening from 30 to 20 pack-years and maintaining annual screening were associated with greater cost savings regardless of the screening tool.

Conclusions And Relevance: This economic evaluation found that China's 2018 recommendation for lung cancer screening was more cost-effective than the 2021 recommendation. Moreover, the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening was improved when MSC was included with LDCT. These findings may be useful for the modification of guidelines for lung cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.13634DOI Listing
May 2022

Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogels Formed Using Antibiotics as a Dynamic Crosslinker for Treatment of Infected Wounds.

Adv Healthc Mater 2022 May 24:e2200902. Epub 2022 May 24.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, P. R. China.

Antibacterial hydrogels, particularly antibiotic-loaded hydrogels, are promising wound dressing materials for treatment of bacteria-infected wound. However, it is challenging to achieve sustained release of antibiotics from hydrogels through physical encapsulation of the antibiotics. Herein, we reported an interpenetrating polymer network P(AA-co-HEMA) hydrogel with double crosslinking formed by free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylic acid (AA), while using the antibiotic gentamicin (Gen) as the dynamic physical crosslinker. Gentamicin was incorporated into the hydrogel networks via electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl groups of poly(acrylic acid) and the amino groups of gentamicin, which led to pH-responsive drug release and a significant increase in mechanical strength (i.e., elastic modulus, viscous modulus and compressive modulus). More importantly, the hydrogels with optimal compositions demonstrated long-lasting antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) over 28 days. The in vivo studies that were conducted in a S. aureus-infected full-thickness skin wound model demonstrated that the double crosslinking hydrogels loaded with gentamicin eliminated bacteria in the wounds more effectively and significantly accelerated wound healing as compared to 3M dressing and the control without any treatment. Taken together, this antibiotic-loaded interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel is potentially a promising wound dressing material for the treatment of bacteria-infected wound. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202200902DOI Listing
May 2022

Image Semantic Segmentation Method Based on Deep Fusion Network and Conditional Random Field.

Authors:
Shuo Wang Yi Yang

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 14;2022:8961456. Epub 2022 May 14.

School of Information Engineering, Henan University of Animal Husbandry and Economy, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000, China.

Aiming at the problems of missing points and wrong points in image semantic segmentation under complex background and small target, an image semantic segmentation method based on the fully convolution neural network and conditional random field is proposed. First, the deconvolution fusion structure is added to the fully convolution neural network to build a deep fusion network. The multiscale features are automatically obtained through the deep fusion network, and the shallow detail information and deep semantic information are fused to improve the processing accuracy of image rough segmentation. Then, the bivariate potential function of the conditional random field is optimized based on the convolution neural network, and it is used for image fine segmentation to obtain the final image segmentation result. Finally, the proposed method is experimentally analyzed based on the Cityscapes dataset. The results show that the proposed method can achieve accurate image segmentation, and the area under the segmentation curve of the overall size target is 93.6%, which is better than other methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8961456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9124081PMC
May 2022

Machine Learning-Assisted Ensemble Analysis for the Prediction of Acute Pancreatitis with Acute Kidney Injury.

Int J Gen Med 2022 17;15:5061-5072. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Third Clinical Medical College of the Three Gorges University, Gezhouba Central Hospital of Sinopharm, Yichang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) and carries a very poor prognosis. The present study aimed to construct a model capable of accurately identifying those patients at high risk of harboring occult acute kidney injury (AKI) characteristics.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively recruited a total of 424 consecutive patients at the Gezhouba central hospital of Sinopharm and Xianning central hospital between January 1, 2016, and October 30, 2021. ML-assisted models were developed from candidate clinical features using two-step estimation methods. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), decision curve analysis (DCA), and clinical impact curve (CIC) were performed to evaluate the robustness and clinical practicability of each model.

Results: Finally, a total of 30 candidate variables were included, and the AKI prediction model was established by an ML-based algorithm. The areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of the random forest classifier (RFC) model, support vector machine (SVM), eXtreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), artificial neural network (ANN), and decision tree (DT) ranged from 0.725 (95% CI 0.223-1.227) to 0.902 (95% CI 0.400-1.403). Among them, RFC obtained the optimal prediction efficiency via adding inflammatory factors, which are serum creatinine (Scr), C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil-to-albumin ratio (NAR), and CysC, respectively.

Conclusion: We successfully developed ML-based prediction models for AKI, particularly the RFC, which can improve the prediction of AKI in patients with AP. The practicality of prediction and early detection may be greatly beneficial to risk stratification and management decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S361330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9123915PMC
May 2022

Tackling brain drain at Chinese CDCs: understanding job preferences of public health doctoral students using a discrete choice experiment survey.

Hum Resour Health 2022 May 23;20(1):46. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, 130 Dongan Rd, Xuhui, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Given the demands for public health and infectious disease management skills during COVID-19, a shortage of the public health workforce, particularly with skills and competencies in epidemiology and biostatistics, has emerged at the Centers for Disease Controls (CDCs) in China. This study aims to investigate the employment preferences of doctoral students majoring in epidemiology and biostatistics, to inform policy-makers and future employers to address recruitment and retention requirements at CDCs across China.

Methods: A convenience sampling approach for recruitment, and an online discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey instrument to elicit future employee profiles, and self-report of their employment and aspirational preferences during October 20 and November 12, 2020. Attributes included monthly income, employment location, housing benefits, children's education opportunities, working environment, career promotion speed and bianzhi (formally established post).

Results: A total of 106 doctoral epidemiology and biostatistics students from 28 universities completed the online survey. Monthly income, employment location and bianzhi was of highest concern in the seven attributes measured, though all attributes were statistically significant and presented in the expected direction, demonstrating preference heterogeneity. Work environment was of least concern. For the subgroup analysis, employment located in a first-tier city was more likely to lead to a higher utility value for PhD students who were women, married, from an urban area and had a high annual family income. Unsurprisingly, when compared to single students, married students were willing to forgo more for good educational opportunities for their children. The simulation results suggest that, given our base case, increasing only monthly income from 10,000 ($ 1449.1) to 25,000 CNY ($ 3622.7) the probability of choosing the job in the third-tier city would increase from 18.1 to 53.8% (i.e., the location choice is changed).

Conclusion: Monthly income and employment location were the preferred attributes across the cohort, with other attributes then clearly ranked and delineated. A wider use of DCEs could inform both recruitment and retention of a public health workforce, especially for CDCs in third-tier cities where resource constraints preclude all the strategies discussed here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12960-022-00743-yDOI Listing
May 2022

Genome of the parasitoid wasp Cotesia chilonis sheds light on amino acid resource exploitation.

BMC Biol 2022 May 24;20(1):118. Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: A fundamental feature of parasitism is the nutritional exploitation of host organisms by their parasites. Parasitoid wasps lay eggs on arthropod hosts, exploiting them for nutrition to support larval development by using diverse effectors aimed at regulating host metabolism. However, the genetic components and molecular mechanisms at the basis of such exploitation, especially the utilization of host amino acid resources, remain largely unknown. To address this question, here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly of the parasitoid wasp Cotesia chilonis and reconstruct its amino acid biosynthetic pathway.

Results: Analyses of the amino acid synthetic pathway indicate that C. chilonis lost the ability to synthesize ten amino acids, which was confirmed by feeding experiments with amino acid-depleted media. Of the ten pathways, nine are known to have been lost in the common ancestor of animals. We find that the ability to synthesize arginine was also lost in C. chilonis because of the absence of two key genes in the arginine synthesis pathway. Further analyses of the genomes of 72 arthropods species show that the loss of arginine synthesis is common in arthropods. Metabolomic analyses by UPLC-MS/MS reveal that the temporal concentrations of arginine, serine, tyrosine, and alanine are significantly higher in host (Chilo suppressalis) hemolymph at 3 days after parasitism, whereas the temporal levels of 5-hydroxylysine, glutamic acid, methionine, and lysine are significantly lower. We sequence the transcriptomes of a parasitized host and non-parasitized control. Differential gene expression analyses using these transcriptomes indicate that parasitoid wasps inhibit amino acid utilization and activate protein degradation in the host, likely resulting in the increase of amino acid content in host hemolymph.

Conclusions: We sequenced the genome of a parasitoid wasp, C. chilonis, and revealed the features of trait loss in amino acid biosynthesis. Our work provides new insights into amino acid exploitation by parasitoid wasps, and this knowledge can specifically be used to design parasitoid artificial diets that potentially benefit mass rearing of parasitoids for pest control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-022-01313-3DOI Listing
May 2022

Multiagent off-screen behavior prediction in football.

Sci Rep 2022 May 23;12(1):8638. Epub 2022 May 23.

DeepMind, London, UK.

In multiagent worlds, several decision-making individuals interact while adhering to the dynamics constraints imposed by the environment. These interactions, combined with the potential stochasticity of the agents' dynamic behaviors, make such systems complex and interesting to study from a decision-making perspective. Significant research has been conducted on learning models for forward-direction estimation of agent behaviors, for example, pedestrian predictions used for collision-avoidance in self-driving cars. In many settings, only sporadic observations of agents may be available in a given trajectory sequence. In football, subsets of players may come in and out of view of broadcast video footage, while unobserved players continue to interact off-screen. In this paper, we study the problem of multiagent time-series imputation in the context of human football play, where available past and future observations of subsets of agents are used to estimate missing observations for other agents. Our approach, called the Graph Imputer, uses past and future information in combination with graph networks and variational autoencoders to enable learning of a distribution of imputed trajectories. We demonstrate our approach on multiagent settings involving players that are partially-observable, using the Graph Imputer to predict the behaviors of off-screen players. To quantitatively evaluate the approach, we conduct experiments on football matches with ground truth trajectory data, using a camera module to simulate the off-screen player state estimation setting. We subsequently use our approach for downstream football analytics under partial observability using the well-established framework of pitch control, which traditionally relies on fully observed data. We illustrate that our method outperforms several state-of-the-art approaches, including those hand-crafted for football, across all considered metrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12547-0DOI Listing
May 2022

Joint Representation Learning and Keypoint Detection for Cross-view Geo-localization.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2022 May 23;PP. Epub 2022 May 23.

In this paper, we study the cross-view geo-localization problem to match images from different viewpoints. The key motivation underpinning this task is to learn a discriminative viewpoint-invariant visual representation. Inspired by the human visual system for mining local patterns, we propose a new framework called RK-Net to jointly learn the discriminative Representation and detect salient Keypoints with a single Network. Specifically, we introduce a Unit Subtraction Attention Module (USAM) that can automatically discover representative keypoints from feature maps and draw attention to the salient regions. USAM contains very few learning parameters but yields significant performance improvement and can be easily plugged into different networks. We demonstrate through extensive experiments that (1) by incorporating USAM, RK-Net facilitates end-to-end joint learning without the prerequisite of extra annotations. Representation learning and keypoint detection are two highly-related tasks. Representation learning aids keypoint detection. Keypoint detection, in turn, enriches the model capability against large appearance changes caused by viewpoint variants. (2) USAM is easy to implement and can be integrated with existing methods, further improving the state-of-the-art performance. We achieve competitive geo-localization accuracy on three challenging datasets, i.e., University-1652, CVUSA and CVACT. Our code is available at https://github.com/AggMan96/RK-Net.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2022.3175601DOI Listing
May 2022

High Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation Is Not Associated With Lower Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials.

Front Nutr 2022 4;9:762316. Epub 2022 May 4.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine Southeast University, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing, China.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common condition in critically ill patients. A high dose of vitamin D3 can rapidly restore vitamin D levels. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the results from up-to-date randomized control trials (RCT) and validate the effect of vitamin D3 in critically ill patients.

Study Methods: Several databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central database, were searched up to December 4th, 2020. All RCTs that investigated the use of a high dose of vitamin D3 in critically ill patients and reported mortality data were included in the meta-analysis. The primary outcome was the mortality truncated to day 28 and day 90.

Results: A total of 10 RCTs enrolling 2058 patients were finally included. The use of a high dose of vitamin D3 in critically ill patients could not decrease the mortality truncated to day 28 (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78-1.11, = 0.43) or day 90 (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.05, = 0.21). A high dose of vitamin D3 could significantly reduce the ventilator days (MD -9.38, 95%CI -13.44 to -5.31, < 0.001), but there were no statistic difference in length of ICU stay (MD -2.76, 95% CI -6.27 to 0.74, = 0.12) and hospital stay (MD -2.42, 95% CI -6.21 to 1.36, = 0.21). No significant difference was observed in adverse events between the vitamin D3 group and the placebo group.

Conclusion: The use of high dose vitamin D3 was not associated with decreased mortality in critically ill patients, but could significantly reduce the ventilator days.

Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier: CRD42020179195.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.762316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9116294PMC
May 2022

Water properties and marinade uptake in broiler pectoralis major with the woody breast condition.

Food Chem 2022 May 17;391:133230. Epub 2022 May 17.

USDA, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA. Electronic address:

To provide insight into the mechanisms by which the woody breast (WB) condition reduces marinade uptake, water properties of normal (NOR) and WB meat were investigated using TD-NMR. Broiler Pectoralis major was marinated with either water, 0.625% sodium tripolyphosphate, 5% NaCl, or 5% NaCl + 0.625% sodium tripolyphosphate (SP). Targeted final concentrations were 4% NaCl and 0.5% SP. WB reduced meat marinade uptake but did not affect relationships between marinade ingredients and water mobility. WB inhibited increases in extra-myofibrillar water mobility induced by marinade ingredients. Marination increased intra-myofibrillar water (Amp) regardless of marinade ingredients or muscle condition; however, WB resulted in reduced Amp. Additionally, NaCl- or phosphate-induced extra-myofibrillar water (Amp) gain in WB was greater than that in NOR. Our data suggest changes in both Amp and Amp are related to the difference in marinade uptake between NOR and WB meat marinated with NaCl-phosphate marinade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133230DOI Listing
May 2022

Vast emission of Fe- and Ti-containing nanoparticles from representative coal-fired power plants in China and environmental implications.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 18;838(Pt 2):156070. Epub 2022 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of the Ministry of Education, School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China. Electronic address:

Coal combustion is considered an important source of atmospheric nanoparticles (NPs). However, the underlying information on the emission of NPs from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) is still lacking. Along these lines, in this study, coal fly ashes (CFAs) were collected from different multi-stage particulate emission control devices (PECDs) in three representative CFPPs in China. The particle size and particle number concentration (PNC) of typical metal-containing NPs (Fe- and Ti-containing NPs) were analyzed by using the single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass (SP-ICP-MS) technology. By increasing the stage of PECDs, the mean particle sizes of NPs gradually declined and the PNCs of Fe- and Ti-containing NPs increased significantly. Specifically, the PNC of final-stage CFA was 3 - 8 times that of the first-stage CFA. A comparison of the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (FFs), and electrostatic-fabric-integrated precipitators (EFIPs) showed that the state-of-the-art EFIPs exhibited a relatively good NP-removal efficiency with the highest PNCs. In addition, NP hourly emissions in all coal combustion by-products (CCPs) were further calculated in a typical CFPP. The total emissions of Fe- and Ti-containing NPs in all CCPs were 1.87 × 10 and 1.57 × 10 particles/h, respectively. NPs were mainly enriched in CFA trapped by PECDs (80% of total emissions). Although the mass of the CFA that escaped through the stack was extremely low, it contained the highest PNCs of Fe- and Ti-containing NPs of all CCPs, accounting for 3.41% and 1.67% of the corresponding total NP emissions. These NPs may also coexist with various toxic metals, such as Zn and Pb, and be released directly into the atmosphere, where they pose a potential risk to human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156070DOI Listing
May 2022

Clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and survival trends in esophageal neuroendocrine carcinomas: A population-based study.

Cancer Med 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precancerous Lesion of Digestive Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Disease, Beijing Digestive Disease Center, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma (ENEC) is an extremely rare type of malignancy. Clinical data of ENEC are limited to case reports and case series. More information is needed on its clinical feature, management, and prognosis.

Methods: This study collected information of ENEC patients diagnosed pathologically from 2010 to 2018. Data including demographic information, clinical features, and survival trends were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Statistical analyses were performed with STATA/SE 15.1, SPSS 25.0, and GraphPad Prism 8.

Results: A total of 283 ENEC patients were included in this study. The small-cell and large-cell subtypes of ENEC possess similar clinical features. The lower third of the esophagus (58%) was the most common location of ENEC. At the time of diagnosis, most ENEC patients were AJCC 7th stage IV (48.1%). Metastasis occurred in more than half of the ENEC patients (53.4%), and the most common metastatic site was the liver (37.1%). Compared with poorly differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), another aggressive malignancy of the esophagus sometimes confused with ENEC because of similar histological features, our study showed differences in tumor location and metastatic rate, but similar poor survival rates. Multivariate survival analysis showed that ENEC located at the middle third of esophagus (p = 0.013), "Brain metastasis" (p = 0.019), and "Liver metastasis" (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of worse outcomes. "Surgery" (p = 0.003), and "Chemotherapy" (p < 0.001) were associated with better survival.

Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients with newly diagnosed ENEC presented with metastatic disease. Predictors of poor survival included tumor location, brain metastasis, and liver metastasis. ENEC and poorly differentiated ESCC share certain histological features, but differ in tumor location and metastatic rate. Yet, no standard treatment strategy has been established, but surgery and chemotherapy were related to better outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4829DOI Listing
May 2022

Single crystal growth and physical properties of layered compound SrCdBi.

J Phys Condens Matter 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, Nanyang, 473061, CHINA.

We have grown the high quality single crystals of SrCdBisuccessfully and investigated the physical properties systematically through measurements of magnetoresistance, Hall effect, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The compound is a nonmagnetic 112-type pnictide with a Bi square net layer, which is potential for hosting Dirac fermions. We found that it exhibited metallic behavior with an anomaly appearing at around 210 K. Magnetoresistance study reveal that the electronic structure of SrCdBiis quasi-two-dimensional. At low temperatures, we observed magnetic field induced metal-to-insulator-like transition and resistivity plateau, nonsaturating quasilinear magnetoresistance, and high carrier mobility in magnetotransport measurements, which indicate the possible existence of nearly massless Dirac fermions in SrCdBi. The anomaly at around 210 K can be observed in resistivity, Hall effect, and magnetic susceptibility, but can't be detected in heat capacity. This implies the anomaly might be caused by domain formation or disorder. We found that the nonsaturating linear magnetoresistance in SrCdBiis likely caused by both of the quantum linear dispersion and the classical disorder. Our findings suggest that SrCdBiis a natural experimental platform for realizing the topological properties of nonmagnetic 112-type pnictides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac718dDOI Listing
May 2022

Large renal leiomyoma: A multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis.

J Radiol Case Rep 2021 Aug 1;15(8):18-26. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Nova Southeastern University College of Medicine, Florida, USA.

We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with a large palpable abdominal mass. Initial sonographic and computed tomographic studies prompted a differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal or renal sarcoma, leiomyoma, and lipid-poor angiomyolipoma. A final diagnosis of renal leiomyoma was reached based on a consensus among radiology, surgery and pathology. In addition to reviewing the features of this entity, this case demonstrates the process of developing a working diagnosis, narrowing the differential as zadditional testing is performed and establishing a final diagnosis with interdepartmental coordination. Despite the rarity of this condition, the ability to recognize and apply imaging features to differentiate between abdominal masses of unknown origin is important for clinicians and researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3941/jrcr.v15i8.4125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9063814PMC
August 2021

Conditional overexpression of neuritin in supporting cells (SCs) mitigates hair cell (HC) damage and induces HC regeneration in the adult mouse cochlea after drug-induced ototoxicity.

Hear Res 2022 May 11;420:108515. Epub 2022 May 11.

School of public health, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 311121, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Hearing loss due to the loss of auditory hair cells is normally irreversible because mammalian hair cells do not regenerate. Using neurotrophic factors to induce the regeneration of hair cells (HCs) from adjacent nonsensory supporting cells (SCs) may be a promising strategy to treat hearing loss. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of neuritin in SCs could mitigate drug-induced HC damage and directly induce HC regeneration from SCs by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway. Using neuritin conditional knock-in mice, we found that upregulation of neuritin in SCs results in preserved HCs and partial recovery of hearing, inducing the regeneration of HCs from the transdifferentiation of SCs in ears damaged by kanamycin. Furthermore, neuritin overexpression in SCs downregulates the expression levels of Notch receptor Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) protein, two core components of the Notch signaling pathway. These observations confirmed in vitro that in cultured neonatal mouse cochleae, neuritin overexpression in SCs significantly inhibited gentamicin-induced HC damage and induced regeneration of HCs from the transdifferentiation of SCs, and that these effects were eliminated by adding the Notch ligand Jagged-1. These findings may provide a new avenue to stimulate HC regeneration after HC loss and highlight the therapeutic potential of neuritin for sensorineural hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2022.108515DOI Listing
May 2022

Potential intestinal infection and faecal-oral transmission of human coronaviruses.

Rev Med Virol 2022 May 18:e2363. Epub 2022 May 18.

Division of HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Virus Vaccines, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, China.

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in 1960s for patients experiencing common cold. Since then, increasing number of HCoVs have been discovered, including those causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the circulating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans on infection. HCoVs are believed to spread mainly through respiratory droplets and close contact. However, studies have shown that a large proportion of patients with HCoV infection develop gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and many patients with confirmed HCoV infection have shown detectable viral RNA in their faecal samples. Furthermore, multiple in vitro and in vivo animal studies have provided direct evidence of intestinal HCoV infection. These data highlight the nature of HCoV GI infection and its potential faecal-oral transmission. Here, we summarise the current findings on GI manifestations of HCoVs. We also discuss how HCoV GI infection might occur and the current evidence to establish the occurrence of faecal-oral transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2363DOI Listing
May 2022

Quantification of a volatile deuterated compound by the differential scanning calorimetry combined with quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance and its verification by the mass balance method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Talanta 2022 May 12;246:123538. Epub 2022 May 12.

College of Chemistry, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technology has been proven to be able to detect the purity of chemical reference substances, but there are few studies on its applicability to volatile organic compounds. In this study, the purity of a volatile deuterated compound (benzene-d) was successfully assessed by the DSC combined with quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR), in which the qNMR determined the content of benzene (as an isotopic impurity). The result was verified by the mass balance method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which the GC-MS determined the content of benzene. The results showed that the purity value of benzene-d was 994.1 mg g ± 4.1 mg g, at the 95% confidence interval, which is equivalent to the value of 994.8 mg g ± 1.2 mg g from the mass balance method combined with GC-MS. It was proved that the DSC combined with qNMR can be used to quantify the purity of volatile deuterated compounds. For volatile compounds without isotopic impurities, they can be directly quantified by DSC. It should be noted that volatile compounds must be fully solidified under low temperature conditions to ensure the reliability of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2022.123538DOI Listing
May 2022

Super-selective intra-arterial dissolution therapy for lingual artery occlusion resulting due to the use of hyaluronic acid for chin augmentation: The first reported case.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Fourth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

As a consequence of the current trend of performing minimally invasive surgery, the use of injectable fillers has progressively increased in aesthetic surgery. Vascular complications resulting due to filling of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the chin have been previously reported. However, clinical evidence regarding the results of treatment of lingual artery occlusion with super-selective intra-arterial dissolution is lacking. Herein, we reported a case of lingual artery occlusion resulting due to HA filling for which tongue arteriography and catheter-directed dissolution were implemented via femoral artery intubation for the first time in the literature. The aim of this paper is to discuss the rare complications arising due to chin augmentation and their treatment to provide a deeper understanding of the use and side effects of HA in this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.15093DOI Listing
May 2022

[Harm and management measures of hyperoxemia to intensive care patients].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2022 Mar;34(3):333-336

Guizhou Nursing Vocational College, Guiyang 550000, Guizhou, China. Corresponding author: Jiang Zhixia, Email:

Hyperoxia is very common in critical patients, which causes varying degrees of pathophysiological damage. Hyperoxia is one of the main reasons for increasing mortality, prolonged hospital stay and poor prognosis of critical patients. Therefore, it is critical to carry out the standardized oxygen therapy. In this paper, we discussed the harmful effects of hyperoxemia to critically ill patients by reviewing the effect of hyperoxemia on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, hyperoxia-induced lung injury, and the association of hyperoxemia with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and acute renal kidney injury (AKI). Meanwhile, we provided some management suggestions about standardized clinical oxygen therapy, oxygen therapy related research and clinical management of oxygen therapy, aimed at providing reference and research direction for standardizing clinical oxygenation process, reducing the occurrence of hyperoxemia, and making reasonable method for hyperoxemia prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20211113-01708DOI Listing
March 2022

Low-Dose Esketamine as an Adjuvant to Propofol Sedation for Same-Visit Bidirectional Endoscopy: Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Gen Med 2022 6;15:4733-4740. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Same-visit bidirectional endoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy) is widely performed under sedation. At present, the optimal sedation regimen remains unclear. This study aims to test the hypothesis that a low-dose esketamine added to propofol sedation reduces hemodynamic and respiratory adverse events in these procedures.

Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 660 adult patients scheduled for same-visit bidirectional endoscopy under sedation from 3 teaching hospitals in China will be recruited. Patients will be randomly allocated, in a 1:1 ratio, to an esketamine group or a normal saline group (n = 330 in each group), stratified by study center. All patients will receive intravenous propofol 0.5 mg/kg and sufentanil 0.1 μg/mL for induction of sedation, followed by intravenous esketamine 0.15 mg/kg or the same volume of normal saline. Propofol will be titrated to the target sedation levels during the procedures. The primary endpoint is a composite of desaturation (peripheral oxygen saturation < 90%) and hypotension (systolic blood pressure <80 mmHg or decrease >30% of baseline). Secondary endpoints include desaturation, hypotension, total dose of propofol, pain scores and fatigue scores on the 0-10 numerical rating scale, dizziness or headache, hallucination or nightmare, nausea or vomiting, endoscopist satisfaction, and patient satisfaction. All analyses will be intention-to-treat.

Discussion: We expect that a low-dose esketamine adjunct to propofol-based sedation will improve cardiorespiratory stability in patients undergoing same-visit bidirectional endoscopy, providing reference for clinical sedation practice during these procedures.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Identifier: ChiCTR-ChiCTR2200055938).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S365068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091685PMC
May 2022

A comparative environmental life cycle assessment of rice straw-based bioenergy projects in China.

Environ Res 2022 May 12;212(Pt D):113404. Epub 2022 May 12.

College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Bioenergy is a promising solution for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation. However, the emissions resulting from the different production stages must be quantified and evaluated. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to compare and quantify the environmental burdens of three rice straw (RS) utilization scenarios for producing biogas, briquette fuel, and syngas. To our knowledge, this is the first study that applies the LCA approach to assess these three bioenergy scenarios in a single study where the main goal was to determine the most sustainable option. A total of 10 mid-point impact categories were investigated. The results indicated that the three scenarios achieved net positive energy and net negative GHG balances. The briquette fuel scenarios had the highest net energy balance (11,115 MJ/tonne dry RS), while the syngas scenario had the highest net GHG (-2,315 kg CO-eq./tonne dry RS). Moreover, the syngas scenario was the most beneficial to the environment, achieving negative results in 9 out of the 10 impact categories; the largest was marine ecotoxicity (-853,897 kg 1,4-DB-eq./tonne dry RS). The biogas scenario achieved emission savings in 3 out of the 10 categories. Although the briquette fuel scenario had no negative values in the 10 categories, its overall contribution to environmental burdens was relatively low. Overall, the order of the three scenarios in terms of the most sustainable option is syngas > briquette fuel > biogas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113404DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of Coconut Protein and Xanthan Gum, Soybean Polysaccharide and Gelatin Interactions in Oil-Water Interface.

Authors:
Yi Yang Dong Xiang

Molecules 2022 Apr 30;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Hainan University, No.58 Renmin Avenue, Haikou 570228, China.

We report on our study of the interactions between coconut protein extracted from coconut meat and three hydrocolloids (gelatin, xanthan gum, and soybean polysaccharide) and their interfacial adsorption and emulsification properties. We used Zeta potential, fluorescence spectroscopy scanning and ITC to investigate the interactions between a fixed concentration (1%) of coconut protein and varying concentrations of hydrocolloid. Through the interfacial tension and interfacial viscoelasticity, the interfacial properties of the hydrocolloid and coconut protein composite solution were explored. The physical stability of the corresponding emulsion is predicted through microstructure and stability analysis. Xanthan gum forms a flocculent complex with coconut protein under acidic conditions. Soy polysaccharides specifically bind to coconut protein. Under acidic conditions, this complex is stabilized through the steric hindrance of soy polysaccharides. Due to gelatin-coconut protein interactions, the isoelectric point of this complex changes. The interfacial tension results show that as time increases, the interfacial tensions of the three composite solutions decrease. The increase in the concentration of xanthan gum makes the interfacial tension decrease first and then increase. The addition of soybean polysaccharides reduces the interfacial tension of coconut protein. The addition of xanthan gum forms a stronger elastic interface film. Emulsion characterization showed that the gelatin-added system showed better stability. However, the addition of xanthan gum caused stratification quickly, and the addition of soybean polysaccharides also led to instability because the addition of polysaccharides led to a decrease in thermodynamic compatibility. This research lays the foundation for future research into coconut milk production technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9105436PMC
April 2022

The impact of the quality of environmental information disclosure on financial performance: the moderating effect of internal and external stakeholders.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

School of Economics and Management, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, 710054, China.

Increasing attention to serious environmental problems has caused the public to put forth more pressure on firms to fulfill their responsibilities to society at large. The establishment of a strict and mandatory environmental information disclosure (EID) mechanism has become particularly urgent. This study takes A-share listed firms in China's pharmaceutical manufacturing industry from 2011 to 2019 as a case. Considering the impact of the quality of EID on financial performance (FP), the moderating effects of internal and external factors, such as environmental regulation (ER), media pressure (MP), and executive compensation (EC), are analyzed. The results showed that the quality of EID had a negative effect on FP. It is difficult for EC to have a moderating effect on the relationship between the two. ER and MP, which are intended to exert strong external means of governance, cannot have a positive impact. Differences in regional marketization and ownership affect the moderators. This study highlights the difficulty of improving the environmental behavior of firms even while under the direct pressure from internal and external stakeholders and provides a reference for regulatory authorities to improve the EID mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20553-yDOI Listing
May 2022
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