Publications by authors named "Yi Yang"

3,861 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of Hydrophobicity on Antimicrobial Activity, Selectivity, and Functional Mechanism of Guanidinium-Functionalized Polymers.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 14:e2100482. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute of Bioengineering and Bioimaging, 31 Biopolis Way, Singapore, 138669, Singapore.

In this study, a series of guanidinium-functionalized polycarbonate random co-polymers is prepared from organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization to investigate the effect of the hydrophobic side chain (ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, benzyl, and hexyl) on their antimicrobial activity and selectivity. Although the polymers exhibit similar minimum inhibitory concentrations, the more hydrophobic polymers exhibit a faster rate of bacteria elimination. At higher percentage content (20 mol%), polymers with more hydrophobic side chains suffer from poor selectivity due to their high hemolytic activity. The highly hydrophobic co-polymer, containing the hydrophobic hexyl-functionalized cyclic carbonate, kills bacteria via a membrane-disruptive mechanism. Micelle formation leads to a lower extent of membrane disruption. This study unravels the effects of hydrophobic side chains on the activities of the polymers and their killing mechanism, providing insights into the design of new antimicrobial polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100482DOI Listing
May 2021

5-Lipoxygenase as an emerging target against age-related brain disorders.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 May 10:101359. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, China; Hangzhou Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, China; Engineering Laboratory of Development and Application of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Collaborative Innovation Center of Traditional Chinese Medicines of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, China. Electronic address:

Neuroinflammation is a common feature of age-related brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and cerebral ischemia. 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), a proinflammatory enzyme, modulates inflammation by generating leukotrienes. Abnormal activation of 5-LOX and excessive production of leukotrienes have been detected in the development of age-related brain pathology. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of 5-LOX activation and several groups of functionally related inhibitors. In addition, the modulatory roles of 5-LOX in the pathogenesis and progression of the age-related brain disorders have been comprehensively highlighted and discussed. Inhibition of 5-LOX activation may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for AD, PD and cerebral ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101359DOI Listing
May 2021

T/Interleukin-17A Contributes to the Effect of Maresin Conjugates in Tissue Regeneration 1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:674542. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

The mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) remain poorly understood, and there are no specific therapeutics for SIC. We investigated the effects of maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration 1 (MCTR1) on SIC and explored its potential mechanisms. The experiments were conducted using an endotoxemia model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were given MCTR1 intravenously 6 h after LPS stimulation. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function 12 h after LPS administration. Treatment with MCTR1 significantly enhanced cardiac function and reduced LPS-induced increase of mRNA expression levels of inflammation cytokines. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that MCTR1 inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis the IL-17 signaling pathway. We confirmed that MCTR1 reduced the expressions of neutrophil chemoattractants and neutrophil infiltration in the LPS-stimulated hearts. MCTR1 also resulted in a considerable reduction in IL-17A production mainly derived from T cells. Moreover, our results provided the first evidence that neutralizing IL-17A or depletion of T cells markedly decreased neutrophil recruitment and enhanced cardiac function in LPS-induced cardiac injury. These results suggest that MCTR1 alleviates neutrophil infiltration thereby improves cardiac function in LPS-induced cardiac injury the IL-17 signaling pathway. Thus, MCTR1 represented a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with SIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.674542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107383PMC
April 2021

An RFC4/Notch1 signaling feedback loop promotes NSCLC metastasis and stemness.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2693. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Notch signaling represents a key mechanism mediating cancer metastasis and stemness. To understand how Notch signaling is overactivated to couple tumor metastasis and self-renewal in NSCLC cells, we performed the current study and showed that RFC4, a DNA replication factor amplified in more than 40% of NSCLC tissues, directly binds to the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD1) to competitively abrogate CDK8/FBXW7-mediated degradation of NICD1. Moreover, RFC4 is a functional transcriptional target gene of Notch1 signaling, forming a positive feedback loop between high RFC4 and NICD1 levels and sustained overactivation of Notch signaling, which not only leads to NSCLC tumorigenicity and metastasis but also confers NSCLC cell resistance to treatment with the clinically tested drug DAPT against NICD1 synthesis. Furthermore, together with our study, analysis of two public datasets involving more than 1500 NSCLC patients showed that RFC4 gene amplification, and high RFC4 and NICD1 levels were tightly correlated with NSCLC metastasis, progression and poor patient prognosis. Therefore, our study characterizes the pivotal roles of the positive feedback loop between RFC4 and NICD1 in coupling NSCLC metastasis and stemness properties and suggests its therapeutic and diagnostic/prognostic potential for NSCLC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22971-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Human activities can drive sulfate-reducing bacteria community in Chinese intertidal sediments by affecting metal distribution.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 3;786:147490. Epub 2021 May 3.

Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of the Ministry of Education, School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China; State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062, China; Shanghai Key Lab for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco-Restoration, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China; Yangtze Delta Estuarine Wetland Ecosystem Observation and Research Station, Ministry of Education & Shanghai, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062, China. Electronic address:

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which are ubiquitous in intertidal sediments, play an important role in global sulfur and carbon cycles, and in the bioremediation of toxic metalloids/metals. Pollution from human activities is now a major challenge to the sustainable development of the intertidal zone, but little is known about how and to what extent various anthropic and/or natural factors affect the SRB community. In the current study, based on the dsrB gene, we investigated the SRB community in intertidal sediment along China's coastline. The results showed that dsrB gene abundances varied among different sampling sites, with the highest average abundance of SRB at XHR (near the Bohai Sea). The SRB community structures showed obvious spatial distribution patterns with latitude along the coastal areas of China, with Desulfobulbus generally being the dominant genus. Correlation analysis and redundancy discriminant analysis revealed that total organic carbon (TOC) and pH were significantly correlated with the richness of the SRB community, and salinity, pH, sulfate and climatic parameters could be the important natural factors influencing the composition of the SRB community. Moreover, metals, especially bioavailable metals, could regulate the diversity and composition of the SRB communities. Importantly, according to structural equation model (SEM) analysis, anthropic factors (e.g., population, economy and industrial activities) could drive SRB community diversity directly or by significantly affecting the concentrations of metals. This study provides the first comprehensive investigation of the direct and indirect anthropic factors on the SRB community in intertidal sediments on a continental scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147490DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence of coccidia in domestic pigs in China between 1980 and 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 10;14(1):248. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Life Science, Changchun Sci-Tech University, Shuangyang, 130600, Jilin, People's Republic of China.

Background: Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of coccidia (including Eimeria spp. and Cystoisospora suis) in pigs in China.

Methods: Five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP) were searched and 50 studies (46,926 domestic pigs, 22 provinces) ultimately identified pertaining to the prevalence of coccidia infection from 1980 to 2019. We incorporated the effect size using the random-effects model in the "meta" package in R software and conducted univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses using a mixed-effects model.

Results: The pooled prevalence rate of coccidia in pigs was 21.9%, including the C. suis infection rate of 9.1%. The highest prevalence of coccidia (39.6%) was found in northwest China, and this region also presented the lowest prevalence of C. suis (4.7%). In the subgroup analysis based on sampling year, the highest prevalence of coccidia was detected in 2001 or earlier (32.6%), whereas the lowest rate was found in 2012 or later (14.3%). An opposite trend was observed for C. suis (5.5% in 2000 or earlier vs 14.4% in 2000 or later). The prevalence of coccidia in extensive farming systems (29.5%) was higher than that in intensive farming systems (17.3%). In contrast, the point estimate of C. suis prevalence was lower in the extensive farming systems (5.1%) than in the intensive farming systems (10.0%), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Among the four age categories, the highest total coccidia prevalence (26.2%) was found in finishing pigs, followed by suckling piglets (19.9%), whereas the highest prevalence of C. suis (14.9%) was observed in suckling piglets.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that coccidia infection in Chinese pigs is common, although the prevalence of C. suis in pigs does not receive sufficient attention. We recommend the rational use of anticoccidial drugs to avoid drug resistance and the development of preventive and control measures for C. suis to reduce the incidence of swine coccidiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04611-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108339PMC
May 2021

Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Low-Rank Coal-Derived Fly Ash from China: Characterization and Implications toward Human Lung Toxicity.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States.

Characterization of nanoparticles (NPs) in coal fly ashes (CFAs) is critical for better understanding the potential health-related risks resulting from coal combustion. Based on single-particle (SP)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) coupled with transmission electron microscopy techniques, this study is the first to determine the concentrations and sizes of metal-containing NPs in low-rank coal-derived fly ashes. Despite only comprising a minor component of the studied CFAs by mass, NPs were the dominant fraction by particle number. Fe- and Ti-containing NPs were identified as the dominant NPs with their particle number concentration ranging from 2.5 × 10 to 2.5 × 10 particles/mg. In addition, the differences of Fe-/Ti-containing NPs in various CFAs were regulated by the coalification degree of feed coals and combustion conditions of all of the low-rank CFAs tested. In the cases where these NPs in CFAs become airborne and are inhaled, they can be taken up in pulmonary interstitial fluids. This study shows that in Gamble's solution (a lung fluid simulant), 51-87% of Fe and 63-89% of Ti (ratio of the mass of Fe-/Ti-containing NPs to the total mass of Fe/Ti) exist in the NP form and remain suspended in pulmonary fluid simulants. These NPs are bioavailable and may induce lung tissue damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00434DOI Listing
May 2021

Cardiovascular Pharmacological Support Among Preterm Infants in Chinese Referral Center Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

Front Pediatr 2021 22;9:638540. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To describe cardiovascular pharmacological support in infants born at <34 weeks' gestation within the first postnatal week in Chinese neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A secondary analysis of data from a multicenter randomized controlled study (REIN-EPIQ). A questionnaire regarding cardiovascular support practices was also completed by all participating NICUs. Twenty-five tertiary hospitals from 19 provinces in China. All infants born at <34 weeks' gestation and admitted to participating NICUs within the first postnatal week from May 2015 to April 2018 were included. Infants who were discharged against medical advice were excluded. Among the 26,212 preterm infants <34 weeks, 16.1% received cardiovascular pharmacological support. The use rates increased with decreasing gestational age and birth weight, with 32.5% among infants <28 weeks and 35.9% among infants <1,000 g. Cardiovascular pharmacological support was independently associated with higher risks of death (aOR 2.8; 95% CI 2.4-3.3), severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (aOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.8-2.5) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 2.0-2.5). Overall 63.1% courses of cardiovascular pharmacological support were >3 days. Prolonged cardiovascular pharmacological support (>3 days) was independently associated with lower rates of survival without morbidity in very-low-birth-weight infants, compared with infants with shorter durations. Dopamine was the most commonly used cardiovascular agent. The cardiovascular pharmacological support rates varied from 1.9 to 65.8% among the participating NICUs. The rate of cardiovascular pharmacological support within the first postnatal week was high with prolonged durations in Chinese NICUs. Marked variation in cardiovascular support existed among participating NICUs. Cardiovascular pharmacological support during the early postnatal period, especially prolonged, may be associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. The original trial was registered as "Reduction of Infection in Neonatal Intensive Care Units using the Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality" (ID: NCT02600195) on clinicaltrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02600195?term=NCT02600195&draw=2&rank=1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.638540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100183PMC
April 2021

Xi Lei San Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats and TNF--Stimulated Colitis in CACO2 Cells: Involvement of the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Autophagy.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 21;2021:1610251. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, Nanchong Central Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan Province, China.

Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease with an unclear etiology. The active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) exert anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects, and their multitarget characteristics provide them with a unique advantage for treating IBD. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of Xi Lei San in treatment of IBD remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether Xi Lei San exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IBD via a mechanism involving NLRP3 inflammasomes and autophagy.

Methods: We successfully established a rat model of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis as well as a cellular model of TNF--induced colitis. Xi Lei San and indirubin were identified by HPLC analysis. Rats were treated with Xi Lei San or alum crystals, and their body weights and morphology of intestinal tissues were examined. A western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of inflammasome-related proteins and autophagy-related proteins, ELISA was performed to analyze IL-1, IL-18, and IL-33 concentrations, and flow cytometry was used to monitor cell apoptosis and ROS levels.

Results: Xi Lei San and indirubin were identified by HPLC analysis. We found that Xi Lei San could significantly increase the weights of rats and improve the structure of the intestinal tissues in DSS-induced colitis model rats. We also found that Xi Lei San significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activity, reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, and suppressed autophagy in DSS-induced colitis model rats. experiments revealed that Xi Lei San could repress apoptosis as well as ROS and inflammatory cytokine production in TNF--induced CACO2 cells by reducing the activity of NLRP3 inflammasomes and autophagy.

Conclusions: Our findings showed that Xi Lei San significantly ameliorated IBD by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome, autophagy, and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1610251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084655PMC
April 2021

Depletion of MRPL35 inhibits gastric carcinoma cell proliferation by regulating downstream signaling proteins.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(16):1785-1804

Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization of Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

Background: Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a digestive system disease with high morbidity and mortality. However, early clinical detection is difficult, and the therapeutic effect for advanced disease is not satisfactory. Thus, finding new tumor markers and therapeutic targets conducive to the treatment of GC is imperative. MRPL35 is a member of the large subunit family of mitochondrial ribosomal protein. MRPL35 shows the characteristic of oncogene in colorectal cancer and esophageal cancer, which promotes the exploration of the correlation between MRPL35 and GC. We proposed that the expression of MRPL35 might be critical in GC.

Aim: To study the effect of knockdown on GC cell proliferation.

Methods: The expression of in GC was evaluated based on data from the public tumor database UALCAN (www.ualcan.path.uab.edu). The effect of the expression of on the prognosis was evaluated with KMplot (www.kmplot.com). The expression of MRPL35 was assessed on the tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry and the level of mRNA in 25 pairs of clinical GC tissues and matched adjacent tissues was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Celigo cell count assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry were used to assess the role of MRPL35 in GC cell proliferation and apoptosis . Additionally, tumor formation experiment in BALB/c nude mice was utilized to determine the effect of on GC cell proliferation. After knockdown of , related proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification analysis, and the expression of related proteins was detected by Western blot.

Results: The expression of MRPL35 was up-regulated in GC ( = 1.77 × 10). The Kaplan-Meier plots of the overall survival indicated that high expression of MRPL35 was associated with a poor survival in GC. Compared with adjacent tissues, the expression of MRPL35 in GC tissues was increased, which was related to age ( = 0.03), lymph node metastasis ( = 0.007), and pathological tumor-node-metastasis stage ( = 0.024). Knockdown of inhibited GC cell proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis. Animal experiment results showed that knockdown of inhibited tumor formation in BALB/c nude mice. Western blotting analysis showed that after knockdown of , the expression of PICK1 and BCL-XL proteins decreased, and that of AGR2 protein increased.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings demonstrate that knockdown of inhibits GC cell proliferation through related proteins including PICK1, BCL-XL, and AGR2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072187PMC
April 2021

Multichannel Immunosensor Platform for the Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza A(H1N1) Virus.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, P. R. China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present a similar syndrome to an influenza infection, which may complicate diagnosis and clinical management of these two important respiratory infectious diseases, especially during the peak season of influenza. A rapid and convenient point-of-care test (POCT) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus is of great importance for prompt and efficient control of these respiratory epidemics. Herein, a multichannel electrochemical immunoassay (MEIA) platform was developed based on a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) array for the on-site detection of SARS-CoV-2 and A(H1N1). The developed MEIA was constructed with eight channels and allowed rapid detection on a single array. On the SPCE surface, monoclonal antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) hemagglutinin (HA) protein or SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were coated to capture the target antigens, which then interacted with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled detection antibody to form an immuno-sandwich complex. The results showed that the MEIA exhibited a broader linear range than ELISA and comparable sensitivity for A(H1N1) HA and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The detection results on 79 clinical samples for A(H1N1) suggested that the proposed MEIA platform showed comparable results with ELISA in sensitivity (with a positive rate of 100% for positive samples) but higher specificity, with a false-positive rate of 5.4% for negative samples versus that of 40.5% with ELISA. Thus, it offers great potential for the on-the-spot differential diagnosis of infected patients, which would significantly benefit the efficient control and prevent the spread of these infectious diseases in communities or resource-limited regions in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05770DOI Listing
May 2021

The Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in Ovarian Function and Diseases.

Reprod Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430060, China.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the largest subfamily of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. BMP4 is a secreted protein that was originally identified due to its role in bone and cartilage development. Over the past decades, extensive literature has indicated that BMP4 and its receptors are widely expressed in the ovary. Dysregulation of BMP4 expression may play a vital role in follicular development, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and ovarian cancer. In this review, we summarized the expression pattern of BMP4 in the ovary, focused on the role of BMP4 in follicular development and steroidogenesis, and discussed the role of BMP4 in ovarian diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian cancer. Some studies have shown that the expression of BMP4 in the ovary is spatiotemporal and species specific, but the effects of BMP4 seem to be similar in follicular development of different species. In addition, BMP4 is involved in the development of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS and drug resistance in ovarian cancer, but further research is still needed to clarify the specific mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00600-8DOI Listing
May 2021

A cross-sectional survey of family care behaviors for children with upper respiratory tract infections in China: Are there opportunities for improvement?

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 May 6;60:146-153. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Nursing, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe family care behaviors for children with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and explore related factors.

Design And Methods: Parents of children with URTIs were included in this cross-sectional study. Family care behaviors, disease-related knowledge, and parental self-efficacy were evaluated with validated measures.

Results: Among the 419 participants, 73.80% recognized diseases based on their children's abnormal presentation. Self-medication was the main home care measure (36.28% used only self-medication; 27.92% used both self-medication and physical cooling methods), and 36.5% received suggestions from medical professionals. All the participants took their children to the hospital, and 28.20% did so two or three times. The proportions of visits to level II or III hospitals were 49.64% and 83.87% for first and third hospital visits, respectively. Parents who had less disease knowledge and assessed children' diseases as more serious took their children to the hospital more often (p < 0.05); those whose nearest medical institution was a community health center were more likely to visit such centers (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Most of the parents recognized symptoms of URTIs and provided home care but lacked enough knowledge and professional support to take reasonable measures. Hospital visits were their primary choice.

Practical Implications: Family care behaviors for children with URTIs could be improved through health education, and an internet nursing service or family doctor system is suggested. A hierarchical medical system is necessary to reduce hospital visits, as are more community health centers with pediatric services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2021.04.033DOI Listing
May 2021

A Programmed Cell-Mimicking Nanoparticle Driven by Potato Alkaloid for Targeted Cancer Chemoimmunotherapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 8:e2100311. Epub 2021 May 8.

Medical Research Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Membrane camouflaged-nanoparticles (CM-NPs) have been exploited to inherit desired functionalities from source cells. Despite those advantages, membrane cloak may play a "double-edged sword" role in tumor-targeting therapy, as the intact membrane coating may hinder function-exertion of loaded drugs after reaching predetermined site. Therefore, further optimization of CM-NPs is still needed to enhance their delivery efficiency. Herein, natural product, Solamargine (SM), a cholesterol-affiliative amphiphilic potato alkaloid is first applied as core component of "inner core," to design a cell-mimicking "core-shell" nanoparticle (RBC-SLip) with acid-responsive off-coating properties for tumor-targeted therapy. Owing to red blood cell membrane (RBCm)-derived outer coating, it circulates stably in physiological conditions. While it would undergo an off-coating morphological change in response to acid stimuli in tumor microenvironment (TME), afterwards, the resulting off-coating liposome (SLip) shows active tumor-targeting and endosomal escape abilities, thus contributing to superior antitumor efficacy. In addition, SM also possesses natural TME-modulating ability; therefore, RBC-SLip can synergize with the PD1/PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy when encapsulated with PTX to achieve enhanced chemoimmunotherapy. The off-coating strategy developed by natural products SM, provide a brand-new perspective to optimize CM-NPs, and it also embodies application value of "unification of medicines and excipients" of natural products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100311DOI Listing
May 2021

Learning With Noisy Labels via Self-Reweighting From Class Centroids.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

Although deep neural networks have been proved effective in many applications, they are data hungry, and training deep models often requires laboriously labeled data. However, when labeled data contain erroneous labels, they often lead to model performance degradation. A common solution is to assign each sample with a dynamic weight during optimization, and the weight is adjusted in accordance with the loss. However, those weights are usually unreliable since they are measured by the losses of corrupted labels. Thus, this scheme might impede the discriminative ability of neural networks trained on noisy data. To address this issue, we propose a novel reweighting method, dubbed self-reweighting from class centroids (SRCC), by assigning sample weights based on the similarities between the samples and our online learned class centroids. Since we exploit statistical class centers in the image feature space to reweight data samples in learning, our method is robust to noise caused by corrupted labels. In addition, even after reweighting the noisy data, the decision boundaries might still suffer distortions. Thus, we leverage mixed inputs that are generated by linearly interpolating two random images and their labels to further regularize the boundaries. We employ the learned class centroids to evaluate the confidence of our generated mixed data via measuring feature similarities. During the network optimization, the class centroids are updated as more discriminative feature representations of original images are learned. In doing so, SRCC will generate more robust weighting coefficients for noisy and mixed data and facilitates our feature representation learning in return. Extensive experiments on both the synthetic and real image recognition tasks demonstrate that our method SRCC outperforms the state of the art on learning with noisy data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3073248DOI Listing
May 2021

Bone turnover markers are associated with the PTH levels in different subtypes of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1 patients.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of National Health Commission, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), Beijing, 100730, China.

Objective: Bone responsiveness to parathyroid hormone (PTH) in different subtypes of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1 (PHP1) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate this phenomenon using bone turnover markers (BTMs) in a large cohort of PHP1 patients.

Design: Retrospective study PATIENTS: Sixty-three PHP1 patients diagnosed by molecular analysis were used as subjects, and 48 sex- and age-matched patients with nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism (NS-HP) were used for comparison.

Measurements: BTMs, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX), and related parameters in PHP1 were compared among different subtypes and with NS-HP.

Results: Among all the PHP1 patients (15 PHP1A, 14 familial 1B and 34 sporadic 1B), 23.8% had elevated baseline BTM levels. No significant difference was found in the β-CTX levels among different subtypes. The β-CTX level was positively correlated with the PTH level for all PHP1, PHP1B and PHP1A patients (B=0.001, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively; all p<0.05). The BTM levels of PHP1 patients were significantly higher than those of NS-HP patients (β-CTX: 0.56 ng/ml vs. 0.20 ng/ml, p=0.001; ALP: 105 U/L vs. 72 U/L, p=0.001). The serum β-CTX levels in different PHP1 subtypes were all significantly higher than those in NS-HP patients in adults. Among the 22 followed-up patients, changes in BTMs were associated with changes in PTH (β-CTX: r=0.507, p=0.023; ALP: r= 0.475, p=0.034).

Conclusions: Bone tissues respond to PTH in different PHP1 subtypes, and it is reasonable to monitor and normalize PTH and BTMs in addition to the serum and urinary calcium levels in the follow-up of PHP1 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14496DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of multi blade shear (MBS) for determining texture of raw and cooked broiler breast fillets with the woody breast myopathy.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 12;100(6):101123. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Poultry Sciences Department, University of Georgia, 110 Cedar St, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel multi-blade Shear (MBS) method for measuring texture properties of both raw and cooked broiler fillets (pectoralis major) with the woody breast (WB) myopathy. A total of 180 broiler breast fillets (60 normal [NOR], 60 moderate WB [MOD], and 60 severe WB [SEV]) in two meat states (fresh never-frozen, n = 144; frozen/thawed, n = 36) were chosen based on their WB scores. In each trial, half of the fillets were used for measuring raw meat texture and the other half for cooked meat texture measurement. Blunt Meullenet-Owens Razor Sear (BMORS) was used for comparison. In fresh raw broiler fillets, both the MBS and BMORS methods detected differences between NOR, MOD, and SEV fillets (P < 0.001). In cooked broiler fillets, the methods were equivalent in their ability to separate SEV from NOR fillets. The MBS measurements showed greater Spearman correlation coefficients with the WB scores (r ≥ 0.70 in raw and ≥ 0.33 in cooked) compared to the BMORS measurements (r = 0.63 in raw and ≤ 0.27 in cooked) for both fresh and cooked breast fillets. In addition, the MBS measurements were either as precise as or more precise than BMORS measurements regardless of meat condition (fresh vs. cooked) and the shear parameter. These results suggest that the MBS method is more reliable in measuring tactile characteristics of broiler breast fillets with the WB myopathy compared with the BMORS method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101123DOI Listing
March 2021

Discovery of Natural Products Targeting NQO1 via an Approach Combining Network-Based Inference and Identification of Privileged Substructures.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China.

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) has been shown to be a potential therapeutic target for various human diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent advances in computational methods, especially network-based methods, have made it possible to identify novel compounds for a target with high efficiency and low cost. In this study, we designed a workflow combining network-based methods and identification of privileged substructures to discover new compounds targeting NQO1 from a natural product library. According to the prediction results, we purchased 56 compounds for experimental validation. Without the assistance of privileged substructures, 31 compounds (31/56 = 55.4%) showed IC < 100 μM, and 11 compounds (11/56 = 19.6%) showed IC < 10 μM. With the assistance of privileged substructures, the two success rates were increased to 61.8 and 26.5%, respectively. Seven natural products further showed inhibitory activity on NQO1 at the cellular level, which may serve as lead compounds for further development. Moreover, network analysis revealed that osthole may exert anticancer effects against multiple cancer types by inhibiting not only carbonic anhydrases IX and XII but also NQO1. Our workflow and computational methods can be easily applied in other targets and become useful tools in drug discovery and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.1c00260DOI Listing
May 2021

Phenylethanoid Glycosides Induce Apoptosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Mitochondria-Dependent and MAPK Pathways and Enhance Antitumor Effect through Combination with Cisplatin.

Integr Cancer Ther 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15347354211013085

Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

is a type of Chinese herbal medicine and exerts various biological functions. Previous studies have been demonstrated that phenylethanoid glycosides (CTPG) exhibit antitumor effects on a variety of tumor cells. However, the antitumor effects of CTPG on HepG2 and BEL-7404 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are still elusive. Our study showed that CTPG significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and BEL-7404 cells through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which was associated with the activation of MAPK pathways characterized by the up-regulated phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 and mitochondria-dependent pathway characterized by the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. The release of cytochrome and the cleavage of caspase-3, -7, -9, and PARP were subsequently increased by CTPG treatment. Moreover, CTPG significantly suppressed the migration of HepG2 through reducing the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Interestingly, CTPG not only enhanced the proliferation of splenocytes but also reduced the apoptosis of splenocytes induced by cisplatin. In H22 tumor mouse model, CTPG combined with cisplatin further inhibited the growth of H22 cells and reduced the side effects of cisplatin. Taken together, CTPG inhibited the growth of HCC through direct antitumor effect and indirect immunoenhancement effect, and improved the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15347354211013085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113936PMC
May 2021

A Multitargeted Electrochemiluminescent Biosensor Coupling DNAzyme with Cascading Amplification for Analyzing Myocardial miRNAs.

Anal Chem 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma Xiang Road, Ma'anshan, Anhui 243032, P. R. China.

Several circulating miRNAs are associated with the pathogenic process of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Thus, analyzing myocardial miRNAs in the circulatory system is important for the diagnosis and treatment of AMI, especially for early-stage diagnosis. Based on the characteristics of myocardial miRNAs, an ultrasensitive and multitargeted electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing platform was developed with a versatile probe that can couple DNAzyme with hybridization chain reaction amplification. The target miRNA and auxiliary chains form a circular unit that shears the versatile probe hairpin, and the products subsequently trigger cascading amplification; a long strand of dsDNA is then generated with many C-rich sequences that can undergo in situ reductions to generate ECL luminophore silver clusters. Using this strategy, three myocardial miRNAs are successfully detected with a detection limit as low as 29.6 aM (/ = 3). Notably, our method can detect myocardial miRNA groups composed of multiple related circulating miRNAs with high selectivity over interfering miRNAs in blood. This is extremely important for solving the problem of diverse and low abundance of infarct-associated miRNAs. Our strategy pioneers a new idea of miRNA detection, and given its versatility and sensitivity, it is promising for the diagnosis of multigene-regulated cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01051DOI Listing
May 2021

Differential Diagnosis of Corpus Callosum Lesions: Beyond the Typical Butterfly Pattern.

Radiographics 2021 May-Jun;41(3):E79-E80

From the Department of Radiology, Aventura Hospital and Medical Center, 20900 Biscayne Blvd, Miami, FL 33180-1407 (Y.Y., A.C.); and Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention, Stanford Health Care, Stanford, Calif (N.F., A.C).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2021200146DOI Listing
May 2021

Expression levels and activation status of Yap splicing isoforms determine self-renewal and differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells.

Stem Cells 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Laboratory of Stem Cell & Developmental Biology, Department of Histology and Embryology, Army Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Yap is the key effector of Hippo signaling; however, its role in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains controversial. Here, we identify two Yap splicing isoforms (Yap472 and Yap488), which show equal expression levels but heterogeneous distribution in ESCs. Knockout (KO) of both isoforms reduces ESC self-renewal, accelerates pluripotency exit but arrests terminal differentiation, while overexpression of each isoform leads to the reverse phenotype. The effect of both Yap isoforms on self-renewal is Teads-dependent and mediated by c-Myc. Nonetheless, different isoforms are found to affect overlapping yet distinct genes, and confer different developmental potential to Yap-KO cells, with Yap472 exerting a more pronounced biological effect and being more essential for neuroectoderm differentiation. Constitutive activation of Yaps, particularly Yap472, dramatically upregulates p53 and Cdx2, inducing trophectoderm trans-differentiation even under self-renewal conditions. These findings reveal the combined roles of different Yap splicing isoforms and mechanisms in regulating self-renewal efficiency and differentiation potential of ESCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.3389DOI Listing
May 2021

NiCoS microflowers as peroxidase mimic: A multi-functional platform for colorimetric detection of glucose and evaluation of antioxidant behavior.

Talanta 2021 Aug 23;230:122337. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemical Analysis, College of Chemistry, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

The regular design of atomic composition of materials endows a diverse range of enzyme mimics types and increases a broader application prospect. In this study, we designed a nickel-cobalt mixed metal sulfide and demonstrated that the as-prepared NiCoS microflowers possessed intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Nickel-cobalt sulfide (NiCoS) possessed high electron transfer capacity, which lead to good peroxidase-like activity. Compared with the reported enzyme-like materials, NiCoS exhibited a smaller Km and a stronger affinity with substrate. A colorimetric assay was developed for the direct detection of hydrogen peroxide and indirect detection of glucose over a wide linear range (HO was 20-200 μM, and glucose was 20-1000 μM) with a low detection limit (HO was 5.19 μM, and glucose was 8.24 μM). Furthermore, a NiCoS based platform was established to study the antioxidant behavior of three antioxidants. The antioxidant capacities of the antioxidants were found to rank in the order: tannic acid (TA) > ascorbic acid (AA)> gallic acid (GA). Moreover, the three antioxidants showed different inhibition mechanisms. This study indicated a new and important application field for NiCoS and provides a basis for the rational design of enzyme-like mimics in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122337DOI Listing
August 2021

A redox probe screens MTHFD1 as a determinant of gemcitabine chemoresistance in cholangiocarcinoma.

Cell Death Discov 2021 May 1;7(1):89. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a type of solid tumor derived from the bile duct epithelium that features universal gemcitabine resistance. Here, we utilized a gene-encoded ROS biosensor probe (HyPer3 probe) to sort subpopulations with different redox statuses from CCA cells. The isolated HyPer-low subpopulation CCA cells, which exhibited relatively lower cellular ROS levels, exhibited higher chemoresistance to gemcitabine than HyPer-high subpopulation CCA cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, increased expression of MTHFD1 was found in HyPer-low cells. Knocking down MTHFD1 in HyPer-low cells enhanced cellular ROS and restored sensitivity to gemcitabine. Furthermore, the MTHFD1 inhibitor antifolate compound methotrexate (MTX) increased cellular ROS, and combining gemcitabine with MTX effectively suppressed cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. In summary, the MTHFD1 level mediated the heterogeneous cellular redox status in CCA, which resulted in chemoresistance to gemcitabine. Our data suggest a novel strategy for CCA chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00476-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088434PMC
May 2021

DerainCycleGAN: Rain Attentive CycleGAN for Single Image Deraining and Rainmaking.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 7;30:4788-4801. Epub 2021 May 7.

Single Image Deraining (SID) is a relatively new and still challenging topic in emerging vision applications, and most of the recently emerged deraining methods use the supervised manner depending on the ground-truth (i.e., using paired data). However, in practice it is rather common to encounter unpaired images in real deraining task. In such cases, how to remove the rain streaks in an unsupervised way will be a challenging task due to lack of constraints between images and hence suffering from low-quality restoration results. In this paper, we therefore explore the unsupervised SID issue using unpaired data, and propose a new unsupervised framework termed DerainCycleGAN for single image rain removal and generation, which can fully utilize the constrained transfer learning ability and circulatory structures of CycleGAN. In addition, we design an unsupervised rain attentive detector (UARD) for enhancing the rain information detection by paying attention to both rainy and rain-free images. Besides, we also contribute a new synthetic way of generating the rain streak information, which is different from the previous ones. Specifically, since the generated rain streaks have diverse shapes and directions, existing derianing methods trained on the generated rainy image by this way can perform much better for processing real rainy images. Extensive experimental results on synthetic and real datasets show that our DerainCycleGAN is superior to current unsupervised and semi-supervised methods, and is also highly competitive to the fully-supervised ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3074804DOI Listing
May 2021

Does Early Postoperative T1 Slope Change Affect Clinical Results of Patients With Single-level ACDF?

Clin Spine Surg 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Study Design: This was a retrospective study.

Objective: The main question of this study is whether the change of postoperative T1 slope will affect the clinical and imaging recovery of patients with single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

Summary Of Background Data: The T1 slope after ACDF is different from that preoperatively, however, the clinical significance of this change has not been reported.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 87 patients with single-level ACDF. Visual Analogue Scale was used to compare neck and upper limb pain before and after surgery. Neurological improvement was assessed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scores and Neck Disability Index. Preoperative and postoperative T1 slope, occipital-C2 angle, C2-C7 overall curvature and functional spinal unit curvature were measured and analyzed by lateral cervical spine x-ray.

Results: All patients were followed up for 23.98±12.17 months. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association, Visual Analogue Scale, and Neck Disability Index scores as well as the overall curvature and change of C2-C7 and functional spinal unit were significantly improved in the last postoperative follow-up. At 12 months after surgery and the last follow-up, patients with increased T1 slope had more severe neck pain symptoms than those with decreased T1 slope (P<0.05). The overall curvature and change of C2-C7 in patients with increased T1 slope were better than those with decreased T1 slope (P<0.05).

Conclusion: For patients with increased postoperative T1 slope after single-level ACDF, the degree of postoperative neck pain was more severe, suggesting that some clinical intervention is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000001145DOI Listing
April 2021

Research on the Cooperative Detection of Stochastic Resonance and Chaos for Weak SNR Signals in Measurement While Drilling.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

School of Electronic Engineering, Xi'an Shiyou University, Xi'an 710065, China.

In the process of drilling, severe downhole vibration causes attitude measurement sensors to be erroneous; the errors will accumulate gradually during the inclination calculation. As a result, the ultimate well path could deviate away from the planned trajectory. In order to solve this problem, this paper utilized the stochastic resonance (SR) and chaos phase transition (CPT) produced by the second-order Duffing system to identify the frequency and estimate the parameters of the signal during measurement while drilling. Firstly, the idea of a variable-scale is introduced in order to reconstruct the frequency of the attitude measurement signal, and an SR frequency detection model based on a scale transformation Duffing system is established in order to meet the frequency limit condition of the SR. Then, an attitude measurement signal with a known frequency value is input into the Duffing chaos system, and the scale transformation is used again to make the frequency value meet the parameter requirement of chaos detection. Finally, two Duffing oscillators with different initial phases of their driving signal are combined in order to estimate the amplitude and phase parameters of the measurement signal by using their CPT characteristics. The results of the laboratory test and the field-drilling data demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has good immunity to the interference noise in the attitude measurement sensor, improving the solution accuracy of the inclination in a severe noise environment and thus ensuring the dynamic stability of the well trajectory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21093011DOI Listing
April 2021

Integrative Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Mammary Glands of Holstein Cows Artificially Infected with .

Pathogens 2021 Apr 22;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

- induced mastitis is one of the most intractable problems for the dairy industry, which causes loss of milk yield and early slaughter of cows worldwide. Few studies have used a comprehensive approach based on the integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles to explore molecular mechanism in bovine mastitis caused by . In this study, (A1, B1 and C1) and sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (A2, B2 and C2) were introduced to different udder quarters of three individual cows, and transcriptome sequencing and microarrays were utilized to detected miRNA and gene expression in mammary glands from the challenged and control groups. A total of 77 differentially expressed microRNAs (DE miRNAs) and 1625 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that multiple DEGs were enriched in significant terms and pathways associated with immunity and inflammation. Integrative analysis between DE miRNAs and DEGs proved that miR-664b, miR-23b-3p, miR-331-5p, miR-19b and miR-2431-3p were potential factors regulating the expression levels of (), (), (), (), (), (), (), () and () in bovine mastitis caused by . These findings could enhance the understanding of the underlying immune response in bovine mammary glands against infection and provide a useful foundation for future application of the miRNA-mRNA-based genetic regulatory network in the breeding cows resistant to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050506DOI Listing
April 2021

A Theoretical and Simulation Analysis of the Sensitivity of SiNWs-FET Sensors.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Science and Technology on Microsystem Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China.

Theoretical study and software simulation on the sensitivity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) field effect transistor (FET) sensors in terms of surface-to-volume ratio, depletion ratio, surface state and lattice quality are carried out. Generally, SiNWs-FET sensors with triangular cross-sections are more sensitive than sensors with circular or square cross-sections. Two main reasons are discussed in this article. Firstly, SiNWs-FET sensors with triangular cross-sections have the largest surface-to-volume ratio and depletion ratio which significantly enhance the sensors' sensitivity. Secondly, the manufacturing processes of the electron beam lithography (EBL) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods seriously affect the surface state and lattice quality, which eventually influence SiNWs-FET sensors' sensitivity. In contrast, wet etching and thermal oxidation (WETO) create fewer surface defects and higher quality lattices. Furthermore, the software simulation confirms that SiNWs-FET sensors with triangular cross-sections have better sensitivity than the other two types of SiNWs-FET sensors under the same conditions, consistent with the theoretical analysis. The article fully proved that SiNWs-FET sensors fabricated by the WETO method produced the best sensitivity and it will be widely used in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios11040121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071106PMC
April 2021

On Landscape Patterns in Typical Mountainous Counties Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 10;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Beijing Engineering Research Center of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

The landscape patterns of plantations (PT) are the results of human disturbances on local vegetation, and in turn, differ greatly from natural forests (NF), since the patterns strongly influence the natural circulation of material and energy. There is a need to understand the differences of landscape patterns between PT and NF, to establish a near natural afforestation strategy. This study chose three typical silvicultural counties in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River as the research areas and compared the landscape patterns of NF and PT, with other land use types (grassland, GL; cropland, CL; shrubland, SL; orchard, OR; built-up land, BUL; bare land, BL; and water bodies, WB). The results revealed that the areas of PT accounted for 7.67%, 12.05%, and 18.97% of three counties, bigger than GL, OC, BUL, BL, and WB, as one of main land use types. The landscape patterns of PT (mean patch size between 2.06 to 6.05 ha) were more fragmented than NF (mean patch size between 5.83 to 53.91 ha). NF areas increased along the relative altitude gradient, from 0 to 2500 m, while PT areas peaked from 100-1000 m. The higher the altitude, the more typical the zonal distribution of PT, the more aggregated the NF. NF had significant negative correlations with BL, BUL, CL, PT, GL, and OC, which suggest that human activities had seriously interfered with NF. Although PT as an ecological protection strategy was increasing, the landscape patterns of PT were obviously different from NF. This may affect the material energy flow in the ecological environment. The results in the present study have great implications in the other regions in China and the relevant parts of the world where natural forests were heavily disturbed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069483PMC
April 2021