Publications by authors named "Yi Xu"

1,550 Publications

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Living, dead, and absent trees - How do moth outbreaks shape small-scale patterns of soil organic matter stocks and dynamics at the Subarctic mountain birch treeline?

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Mountain birch forests (B. pubescens Ehrh. ssp. czerepanovii) at the subarctic treeline not only benefit from global warming, but are also increasingly affected by caterpillar outbreaks from foliage-feeding geometrid moths. Both of these factors have unknown consequences on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and biogeochemical cycles. We measured SOC stocks down to the bedrock under living trees and under two stages of dead trees (12 and 55 years since moth outbreak) and treeless tundra in northern Finland. We also measured in-situ soil respiration, potential SOC decomposability, biological (enzyme activities, microbial biomass), and chemical (N, mineral N, pH) soil properties. SOC stocks were significantly higher under living trees (4.1±2.1 kg m²) than in the treeless tundra (2.4±0.6 kg m²), and remained at an elevated level even 12 (3.7±1.7 kg m²) and 55 years (4.9±3.0 kg m²) after tree death. Effects of tree status on SOC stocks decreased with increasing distance from the tree and with increasing depth, i.e. a significant effect of tree status was found in the organic layer, but not in mineral soil. Soil under living trees was characterized by higher mineral N contents, microbial biomass, microbial activity, and soil respiration compared with the treeless tundra; soils under dead trees were intermediate between these two. The results suggest accelerated organic matter turnover under living trees but a positive net effect on SOC stocks. Slowed organic matter turnover and continuous supply of deadwood may explain why SOC stocks remained elevated under dead trees, despite the heavy decrease in aboveground C stocks. We conclude that the increased occurrence of moth damage with climate change would have minor effects on SOC stocks, but ultimately decrease ecosystem C stocks (49% within 55 years in this area), if the mountain birch forests will not be able to recover from the outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15951DOI Listing
October 2021

Coexpression Network Analysis of lncRNA Associated with Overexpression of DNMT1 in Esophageal Epithelial Cells.

Biomed Res Int 2021 8;2021:7162270. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

The Medical School of Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, China.

Screening and preliminary identification of high DNMT1 expression-related lncRNA, which is involved in various interrelated signaling pathways, has led to the development of a theoretical basis for various types of disease mechanisms. Differential expression profiles of lncRNA and mRNA were identified in a microarray. Ten lncRNAs with high levels of variation were identified by qRT-PCR. KEGG and GO analyses were used to identify differentially expressed mRNAs. Six signaling pathways were selected based on the KEGG results of the lncRNA-mRNA expression network analysis. From the microarrays in the experimental and control groups, we found a total of 6987 differentially expressed lncRNAs, and 7421 differentially expressed mRNAs were obtained ( < 0.05; fold change > 2.0x). GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis showed high expression of DNMT1 in esophageal epithelial cells. Nine pathways were involved in mRNA upregulation, including natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and many other prominent biochemical pathways. Forty-six pathways were associated with downregulated mRNAs and ribosomes involving multiple biological pathways. Coexpression network analysis showed that 8 mRNAs and 16 lncRNAs were linked to the p53 signaling pathway. In Helicobacter pylori infections, interactions occurred between 22 lncRNAs and 11 mRNAs in the ErbB signaling pathway and between 19 lncRNAs and 8 mRNAs in epithelial cell signal transduction. Interactions were present between 19 lncRNAs and 5 mRNAs in the sphingolipid signaling pathway, along with interactions between 21 lncRNAs and 12 mRNAs in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Cytotoxicity interactions occurred between 22 lncRNAs and 9 mRNAs in natural killer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7162270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8519683PMC
October 2021

Invisible Mie scatterer.

Opt Lett 2021 Oct;46(20):5248-5251

Dielectric Mie scatterers possessing simultaneously magnetic and electric resonances can be used to tailor scattering utilizing the interference among electromagnetic multipole moments. Cloaking for this type of Mie scatterer is important for various applications. However, the existing cloaking mechanisms mainly focus on the elimination of net electric dipole moments, which have not been generalized to a Mie scatterer with both magnetic and electric responses yet. Herein, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an invisible Mie scatterer utilizing a hybrid skin cloak. The hybrid mechanism relies on the realization of a magnetic analog of a plasmonic cloak and the electric anapole condition to eliminate the net magnetic and electric dipole moments simultaneously. Microwave experiments are provided to validate the proposal. Our results not only introduce a new concept of skin cloaking for electromagnetic scatterers, but also provide new insight for the invisibility and illusion of Mie scatterers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.443021DOI Listing
October 2021

Intestinal microbiota has important effect on severity of hand foot and mouth disease in children.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Oct 13;21(1):1062. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Graduate Collaborative Training Base of the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hunan, 421001, China.

Background: The incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has increased in recent years, making it a very common childhood illness worldwide. The relationship between different enterovirus genotypes and disease severity is not clearly understood. Given that enteroviruses are transmitted through the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that variation in intestinal microorganisms of the host might play a role in the prognosis of HFMD.

Methods: We carried out a meta-transcriptomic-wide association study of fecal samples obtained from a cohort of children (254 patients, 227 tested positive for enterovirus, including 16 patients co-infectied with 2 kinds of enterovirus) with mild and severe HFMD and healthy controls.

Results: We found there was no significant difference in the amount of each virus type between the mild and severe cases. Genes of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A (CV-A) from the severe and mild cases did not show significant clustering. Clostridium sp. L2-50 and Bacteroides stercoris ATCC 43183 were enriched in the guts of children with severe HFMD and KEGG enrichment was found between mild and severe cases.

Conclusions: Intestinal microorganisms appear to interact with enterovirus to determine the progression of HFMD. Genes of Bacteroides and Clostridium may be used as predictive markers for a more efficient prognosis and intervention. The enrichment of intestinal bacteria genes with functions may facilitate the development of severe symptoms for HFMD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06748-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513321PMC
October 2021

Evaluation of Structural Changes and Molecular Mechanism Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure in .

Front Nutr 2021 23;8:739863. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Engineering Research Center of Bio-process, Ministry of Education, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.

The contamination of infant milk and powder with poses a risk to human health and frequently caused recalls of affected products. This study aims to explore the inactivation mechanism of induced by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which, unlike conventional heat treatment, is a nonthermal technique for pasteurization and sterilization of dairy food without deleterious effects. The mortality of under minimum reaction conditions (50 MPa) was 1.42%, which was increased to 33.12% under significant reaction conditions (400 MPa). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent staining results showed that 400 MPa led to a loss of physical integrity of cell membranes as manifested by more intracellular leakage of nucleic acid, intracellular protein and K. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis presents a downregulation of three functional genes (, and ), which were involved in cell membrane formation, indicating a lower level of glycerol utilization, outer membrane protein assembly, and environmental tolerance. In addition, the exposure of to HHP modified oxidative stress, as reflected by the high activity of catalase and super oxide dismutase. The HHP treatment lowered down the gene expression of flagellar proteins (, and ) and inhibited biofilm formation. These results determined the association of genotype to phenotype in induced by HHP, which was used for the control of food-borne pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.739863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495323PMC
September 2021

A Novel Banana Mutant "" ( spp. ABB, Pisang Awak Subgroup) for Improved Agronomic Traits and Enhanced Cold Tolerance and Disease Resistance.

Front Plant Sci 2021 23;12:730718. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Hainan Banana Healthy Seedling Propagation Engineering Research Center, Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, China.

Banana is a major fruit crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Among cultivars, "FenJiao, FJ" ( spp. ABB, Pisang Awak subgroup) is a popular variety of bananas, due to its better sugar-acid blend and relatively small fruit shape. However, because the traditional FJ variety grows relatively high in height, it is vulnerable to lodging and unsuitable for harvesting. In this study, we sought desirable banana mutants by carrying out ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis with the FJ cultivar. After the FJ shoot tips had been treated with 0.8% (v/v) EMS for 4 h, we obtained a stably inherited mutant, here called "" (), and also observed a semi-dwarfing phenotype. Compared with the wild type (FJ), this mutant featured consistently improved agronomic traits during 5-year field experiments conducted in three distinct locations in China. Notably, the plants showed significantly enhanced cold tolerance and Sigatoka disease resistance, mainly due to a substantially increased soluble content of sugar and greater starch accumulation along with reduced cellulose deposition. Therefore, this study not only demonstrated how a powerful genetic strategy can be used in fruit crop breeding but also provided insight into the identification of novel genes for agronomic trait improvement in bananas and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.730718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8496975PMC
September 2021

Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and quality control of medicinal genus Aralia: A review.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 7:114671. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 610072, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Aralia, which belongs to Araliaceae family, is mainly distributed in Asia, such as China, Japan and South Korea. It has a long medicinal history and is widely used in the treatment of various diseases, such as hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, bruises, lumps and carbuncles.

Aim Of The Study: The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and quality control of main medicinal plants of Aralia, discusses the application of ethnic medicine, modern scientific research and the relationship between them, and put forward some suggestions to promote the further development and utilization of Aralia.

Materials And Methods: The relevant information on Aralia was collected through electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, CNKI and Wanfang), Chinese herbal classics, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Plant names were verified by "The Plant List" (http://www.theplantlist.org). The literature cited in this review can be traced back to 1878 to 2021.

Results: More than 290 chemical constituents have been isolated from the genus Aralia, including triterpenoid saponins, terpenoids, organic acids, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, phenylpropanoids and other constituents. Pharmacological studies have shown that the extracts and compounds of Aralia have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, analgesic, anti-tumor, liver protection, protection of cardiovascular and nervous system, regulating substance metabolism, antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidation.

Conclusions: The genus Aralia is not only an excellent traditional herbal medicine, but also a source of bioactive molecules with good application prospects. However, the structure-activity relationship, in vivo activity and action mechanism of its bioactive components need to be further studied. In addition, more toxicological and quality control studies are essential to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Aralia as medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114671DOI Listing
October 2021

Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: a case presenting with gingival enlargement as the only clinical manifestation and a report of two new mutations in the ANTXR2 gene.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Oct 9;21(1):508. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Periodontology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No.14, Section 3, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background: Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene for anthrax toxin receptor-2 (ANTXR2). The clinical features of HFS include skin thickening with nodules, papules and plaques, gingival enlargement, joint stiffness and contractures, and systemic manifestations. Notably, in all patients with HFS reported in the literature, gingival enlargement has never occurred alone.

Case Presentation: A case of a child with gingival enlargement as the only clinical manifestation, who was later diagnosed with HFS, is described. In this case, the absence of skin and joint lesions and other characteristic clinical presentations gave rise to a diagnostic problem. This uncommon condition was clinically indistinguishable from other diseases or conditions that presented with diffuse gingival enlargement. A definitive diagnosis of HFS was reached through genetic analysis. Trio whole exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations of ANTXR2 in this patient and two new mutations were reported.

Conclusions: The findings of this case serve as an important reminder to clinicians. When dental practitioners encounter gingival manifestations of HFS without accompanied skin or joint involvement, there is a need to pay attention to the differential diagnosis and increase awareness of HFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01840-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8501544PMC
October 2021

CTCF: A novel fusion partner of ETO2 in a multiple relapsed acute myeloid leukemia patient.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow University, Suzhou, P. R. China.

ETO2 is a nuclear co-repressor, which plays a critical role in the regulation of the cell cycle, self-renewal capacity, and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. We identified novel fusion transcripts involving ETO2 and CTCF by RNA-seq in a multiple relapsed AML case. The CTCF-ETO2 and ETO2-CTCF chimeric genes were validated by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. In addition, both transcripts apparently promoted cell proliferation via JAK/STAT3 pathway that is sensitive to STAT3 inhibitors. The novel fusions may have prognostic value and pathogenic mechanisms in acute myeloid leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.2A0720-441RRDOI Listing
October 2021

Treatment delay from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to endovascular treatment: a high-volume hospital experience.

Chin Neurosurg J 2021 Oct 5;7(1):43. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Changhai Hospital, Naval Military Medical University, 168 Changhai Rd, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Background: Early treatment for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) could significantly reduce the risk of re-bleeding and improve clinical outcomes. We assessed the different time intervals from the initial hemorrhage, admission, and endovascular treatment and identified the risk factors contributing to delay.

Methods: Between February 2017 and December 2019, 422 consecutive aSAH patients treated in a high-volume hospital were collected and reviewed. Risk factors contributing to admission delay and treatment delay were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: One hundred twenty-two (28.9%) were admitted to the high-volume hospital at the day of symptom onset and 386 (91.5%) were treated with endovascular management at the same day of admission. The multivariate analysis found that younger age (P = 0.022, OR = 0.981, 95% CI 0.964-0.997) and good Fisher score (P = 0.002, OR = 0.420, 95% CI 0.245-0.721) were independent risk factors of admission delay. None was found to be related with treatment delay. Multivariate analysis (OR (95% CI)) showed that higher age 1.027 (1.004-1.050), poorer Fisher score 3.496 (1.993-6.135), larger aneurysmal size 1.112 (1.017-1.216), and shorter interval between onset to admission 1.845 (1.018-3.344) were independent risk factors of poorer clinical outcome.

Conclusion: Treatment delay was mainly caused by pre-hospital delay including delayed admission and delayed transfer. Our experience showed that cerebrovascular team could provide early treatment for aSAH patients. Younger age and good Fisher score were significantly related with admission delay. However, admission delay was further significantly correlated with better clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41016-021-00262-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493710PMC
October 2021

The increased miRNA-150-5p expression of the tonsil tissue in patients with IgA nephropathy may be related to the pathogenesis of disease.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 30;100:108124. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Nephrology, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518035, China; Health Science Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518035, China.

Background: The microRNA (miRNA) expression of the tonsil tissues in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) has not been reported in the literature.

Methods: In this study, the expression of nine miRNAs was measured in the tonsil tissues of patients with IgAN, including miRNA-21-5p, miRNA-29a-3p, miRNA-34a-5p, miRNA-146a-5p, miRNA-146b-5p, miRNA-148b-3p, miRNA-150-5p, miRNA-155-5p, and miRNA-181a-5p. Forty patients with proved primary IgA nephropathy were enrolled in our study, 20 IgAN patients with gross hematuria, which induced by tonsillitis (GH-IgAN group) and 20 IgAN patients without gross hematuria in the history (non-GH-IgAN group). Another 20 patients recruited as the control group (CT group) were chronic tonsillitis without kidney disease.

Results: Compared to the CT group, the expression level of miRNA-150-5p in the tonsils was significantly upregulated in the GH-IgAN group, but not in the non-GH-IgAN group (P = 0.031 and P = 0.122, respectively). A correlation analysis was performed between the expression of miRNAs in the tonsils and the clinical data of IgAN patients. The results showed that in the GH-IgAN group, the miRNA-150 expression was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (β = 2.36, 95% CI 1.11-3.61, P = 0.0016), diastolic blood pressure (β = 1.02, 95% CI 0.22-1.82, P = 0.0224), uric acid (β = 7.43, 95% CI 1.81-13.04, P = 0.0184), leukocyte count (β = 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.35, P = 0039), neutrophil count (β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.32, P = 0.0096), cholesterol (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.16, P = 0.0207) and triglyceride level (β = 0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.22, P < 0.000). Besides, it was negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (β = -2.06, 95% CI: -3.90 - -0.21, P = 0.0421) in the GH-IgAN group; however, no significant correlation was found in the non-GH-IgAN group.

Conclusion: The present findings suggest that miRNA-150-5p may be important in the pathogenesis of IgAN, especially in mucosal immunity against the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108124DOI Listing
September 2021

Sexual orientation, neuropsychiatric disorders and the neurotransmitters involved.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Sep 28;131:479-488. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, 1105 BA, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

According to the neuro-hormonal theory, sexual orientation in humans develops in the womb under the influence of sex hormones. In this article, we review the evidence from basic research on the possible role of neurotransmitters on influencing sexual orientation. We show that pharmacological or genetically induced changes in neurotransmitter systems during development might, by hormone-mediated structural and functional brain changes, result in alterations in sexual preference in animal models. We propose that in humans this mechanism may contribute to the relationship between non-heterosexual orientation and increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Data to support this idea are reviewed. We suggest that altered neurotransmitter levels during development will increase the chance for both non-heterosexual differentiation of the brain and neuropsychiatric disorders. This possibility may have clinical implications, because medication given to a pregnant woman may, in this way, alter brain development of the fetus in a permanent way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.09.048DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical characteristics and effectiveness of antiviral agents in hospitalized children with infectious mononucleosis in China: A multicenter retrospective study.

Pediatr Investig 2021 Sep 22;5(3):188-194. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children Ministry of Education Research Unit of Critical Infection in Children Chinese Academy of Medical Science Department of Infectious Diseases Beijing Children's Hospital Capital Medical University National Center for Children's Health Beijing China.

Importance: The clinical characteristics of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in Chinese children have not been evaluated in multicenter studies, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatment are controversial.

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of Chinese children with IM and current status of antiviral therapy for affected patients.

Methods: Hospitalized patients with IM were enrolled between 2018 and 2020 in five children's hospitals in China. The clinical characteristics were compared among four age groups: <3 years, 3-<6 years, 6-<10 years, and ≥10 years. The clinical characteristics of IM and effectiveness of antiviral therapy were compared among patients receiving acyclovir (ACV), ganciclovir (GCV), and no antiviral therapy (i.e., non-antiviral group).

Results: In total, 499 patients were analyzed; most patients were 3-<6 years of age. The most common symptoms and signs included fever (100%), lymphadenopathy (98.6%), pharyngitis (86.4%), eyelid edema (76.8%), and snoring (72.9%). There were significant differences in rash, hepatomegaly, and liver dysfunction among the four age groups. Patients aged < 3 years had a lower incidence of liver dysfunction and a higher incidence of rash. Among the 499 patients, 50.1% were treated with GCV, 26.3% were treated with ACV, and 23.6% received no antiviral therapy. Compared with the non-antiviral group, patients in the ACV and GCV groups had longer durations of fever ( 0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidences of complications among the three treatment groups.

Interpretation: The incidence of IM in Chinese children peaked at 3-<6 years of age. Clinical features of IM varied according to age. Patients receiving antiviral therapy exhibited more serious clinical manifestations than did patients without antiviral therapy. The effectiveness of antiviral therapy for IM requires further analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ped4.12294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458718PMC
September 2021

A double-tetrahedral DNA framework based electrochemical biosensor for ultrasensitive detection and release of circulating tumor cells.

Analyst 2021 Oct 25;146(21):6474-6481. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, China.

Detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients' blood is essential for early diagnosis, precise treatment and prognosis of cancer. Yet due to CTCs being extremely rare in the peripheral blood of patients, it is still a challenge to detect CTCs with high sensitivity and high selectivity. Here, we developed a double-tetrahedral DNA framework (DTDF) based electrochemical biosensor system (E-CTC sensor system) for ultrasensitive detection and release of CTCs. In this work, an upright tetrahedral DNA framework (UTDF) was used as a rigid scaffold to modify a screen-printed gold electrode (SPGE), and an inverted tetrahedral DNA framework (ITDF) provided three vertex chains to multivalently bind with aptamers. Meanwhile, a streptavidin tagged horseradish peroxidase homopolymer (SA-polyHRP) was linked to biotin-modified aptamers to significantly amplify the signal. Moreover, the captured CTCs could be effectively released benzonase nuclease with little cell damage. Our E-CTC sensor system achieved a linear range from 1 to 10 MCF-7 cells with an ultralow detection limit of 1 cell. The release efficiency reached 88.1%-97.6% and the viability of the released cells reached up to 98%. We also detected the MCF-7 cells in mimic whole blood samples, suggesting that the E-CTC sensor system shows promise for use in clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an01470fDOI Listing
October 2021

Gradient Architecture-Enabled Capacitive Tactile Sensor with High Sensitivity and Ultrabroad Linearity Range.

Small 2021 Sep 29:e2103312. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Joint Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, 999078, China.

The sensitivity and linearity are critical parameters that can preserve the high pressure-resolution across a wide range and simplify the signal processing process of flexible tactile sensors. Although extensive micro-structured dielectrics have been explored to improve the sensitivity of capacitive sensors, the attenuation of sensitivity with increasing pressure is yet to be fully resolved. Herein, a novel dielectric layer based on the gradient micro-dome architecture (GDA) is presented to simultaneously realize the high sensitivity and ultrabroad linearity range of capacitive sensors. The gradient micro-dome pixels with rationally collocated amount and height can effectively regulate the contact area and hence enable the linear variation in effective dielectric constant of the GDA dielectric layer under varying pressures. With systematical optimization, the sensor exhibits the high sensitivity of 0.065 kPa in an ultrabroad linearity range up to 1700 kPa, which is first reported. Based on the excellent sensitivity and linearity, the high pressure-resolution can be preserved across the full scale of pressure spectrum. Therefore, potential applications such as all-round physiological signal detection in diverse scenarios, control instruction transmission with combinatorial force inputs, and convenient Morse code communication with non-overlapping capacitance signals are successfully demonstrated through a single sensor device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103312DOI Listing
September 2021

Hearing Status of Low-Income, Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Northern China: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 21;14:2617-2624. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Hearing impairment (HI) has become one of the most common causes of disability worldwide. To date, few studies have examined the hearing of women in these frequently rural regions. Thus, we explored the HI prevalence and risk factors among low-income, middle-aged, and elderly women in Tianjin, China.

Methods: Between October and November 2013, female residents aged ≥45 years of rural Tianjin, China were recruited into the study. The participants completed questionnaire surveys, physical examinations, and hearing tests. The hearing at frequencies of 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz was used to analyze the hearing characteristics of specific frequency bands, and HI was defined as the better ear pure tone averages (PTA) >25 dB HL.

Results: Among the 1416 participants, the prevalence of HI was 46.0%. Among those aged 45-54-years, most (65.3%) demonstrated normal hearing; in other age groups, slight HI accounted for the largest proportions of individuals. Compared with women who did not drink, the odds ratio (OR) of HI among women who consumed alcohol was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.844-9.574; P = 0.001). Compared with pre-menopausal women, the OR of HI among postmenopausal women was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.261-2.667; P = 0.001). Further, each 1-year increase in age in women resulted in a 7.1% increase in HI risk (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The burden of HI among women is heavy in rural northern China, especially among those who experienced menopause. Additionally, the results suggest that to further reduce the risk of developing HI, women in rural areas should stop consuming alcohol. The problem of HI among women in rural areas should be taken seriously; moreover, the measures implemented to prevent HI in high-risk women should be strengthened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S323884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464339PMC
September 2021

Histopathological evidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma occurring in ductal plate malformation: A clinicopathologic study of 5 cases.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 Sep 22;55:151828. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Pathology, Yueyang Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Shanghai University of traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Ductal plate malformations (DPM) arise from abnormal remodeling of the embryologic ductal plate of the liver. Malignant transformation of DPMs to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) has been reported in very rare instances but is viewed with some skepticism. We report the clinicopathological findings in five cases of iCCA, occurring in liver with DPM-like features. All tumors were less than 5 cm, often presented as stage T1a tumors. Histologically, a typical tumor showed a vague multinodular architecture with larger, irregular, tortuous glandular structures with microcystic dilation, intraluminal fibroepithelial projection, and bridge/island formation. The tumor cells were relatively small, bland, and without obvious pleomorphism. Interestingly, DPM presented as a histopathological transition sequence of definitively benign to biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (bilIN), then finally to iCCA. A complete pushing border, with entrapped portal tracts at the edge of the main tumor, suggested a replacing growth pattern. There was gradually increased expression of Ki-67 and p53 in these transition phases from benign to bilIN then to iCCA with DPM-like features. The neoplastic epithelium exhibited immunoreactivity in EpCAM, MUC1, NCAM, and CK19. KRAS mutation was found in 2 of the 5 iCCA cases with DPM-like features. Multifocal DPMs or VMCs with bilIN were dispersed in the non-tumor liver parenchyma in 3 of the 5 cases. The neoplasm was interpreted as iCCA arising in DPM, which may have originated from small bile duct or hepatic precursor cells. More studies are needed to verify this scarce entity and its premalignant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2021.151828DOI Listing
September 2021

DNA tetrahedron-mediated immune-sandwich assay for rapid and sensitive detection of PSA through a microfluidic electrochemical detection system.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 25;7:33. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200050 Shanghai, China.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely used biomarker for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Existing methods for PSA detection are burdened with some limitations and require improvement. Herein, we developed a novel microfluidic-electrochemical (μFEC) detection system for PSA detection. First, we constructed an electrochemical biosensor based on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) with modification of gold nanoflowers (Au NFs) and DNA tetrahedron structural probes (TSPs), which showed great detection performance. Second, we fabricated microfluidic chips by DNA TSP-Au NF-modified SPEs and a PDMS layer with designed dense meandering microchannels. Finally, the μFEC detection system was achieved based on microfluidic chips integrated with the liquid automatic conveying unit and electrochemical detection platform. The μFEC system we developed acquired great detection performance for PSA detection in PBS solution. For PSA assays in spiked serum samples of the μFEC system, we obtained a linear dynamic range of 1-100 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL and a total reaction time <25 min. Real serum samples of prostate cancer patients presented a strong correlation between the "gold-standard" chemiluminescence assays and the μFEC system. In terms of operation procedure, cost, and reaction time, our method was superior to the current methods for PSA detection and shows great potential for practical clinical application in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00258-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433179PMC
April 2021

Recent advances of nanomaterial-based optical sensor for the detection of benzimidazole fungicides in food: a review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 27:1-22. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

College of Food and Biological Engineering, Jimei University, Xiamen PR China.

The abuse of pesticides in agricultural land during pre- and post-harvest causes an increase of residue in agricultural products and pollution in the environment, which ultimately affects human health. Hence, it is crucially important to develop an effective detection method to quantify the trace amount of residue in food and water. However, with the rapid development of nanotechnology and considering the exclusive properties of nanomaterials, optical, and their integrated system have gained exclusive interest for accurately sensing of pesticides in food and agricultural samples to ensure food safety thanks to their unique benefit of high sensitivity, low detection limit, good selectivity and so on and making them a trending hotspot. This review focuses on recent progress in the past five years on nanomaterial-based optical, such as colorimetric, fluorescence, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and their integrated system for the monitoring of benzimidazole fungicide (including, carbendazim, thiabendazole, and thiophanate-methyl) residue in food and water samples. This review firstly provides a brief introduction to mentioned techniques, detection mechanism, applied nanomaterials, label-free detection, target-specific detection, etc. then their specific application. Finally, challenges and perspectives in the respective field are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1980765DOI Listing
September 2021

Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides alleviate depressive-like behaviors in post-stroke rats via suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome to inhibit hippocampal inflammation.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Aims: Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides (MOOs), a traditional Chinese medicine, have been used to treat mild and moderate depressive episodes. In this study, we investigated whether MOOs can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors in post-stroke depression (PSD) rats and further explored its mechanism by suppressing microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation to inhibit hippocampal inflammation.

Methods: Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate the effect of MOOs on depressive-like behaviors in PSD rats. The effects of MOOs on the expression of IL-18, IL-1β, and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were measured in both PSD rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulated primary rat microglia by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) was injected into the hippocampus to regulate NLRP3 inflammasome expression. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying the effects of MOOs was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence.

Results: MOOs can alleviate depressive-like behaviors in PSD rats. PSD rats showed increased expression of IL-18, IL-1β, and NLRP3 inflammasome in the ischemic hippocampus, while MOOs reversed the elevation. NLRP3 downregulation ameliorated depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal inflammation response in PSD rats, while NLRP3 upregulation inhibited the effect of MOOs on depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal inflammation response in PSD rats. Moreover, we found that NLRP3 was mainly expressed on microglia. In vitro, MOOs effectively inhibited the expression of IL-18, IL-1β, and NLRP3 inflammasome in LPS + ATP treated primary rat microglia. We also showed that modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by MOOs was associated with the IκB/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway.

Conclusion: Overall, our study reveals the antidepressive effect of MOOs on PSD rats through modulation of microglial NLRP3 inflammasome. We also provide a novel insight into hippocampal inflammation response in PSD pathology and put forward NLRP3 inflammasome as a potential therapeutic target for PSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13732DOI Listing
September 2021

Perceptions and experiences of risk management by managers of residential aged care facilities: a qualitative study from Hunan Province, China.

Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being 2021 Dec;16(1):1978724

School of Nursing, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, China.

Background: With adverse events and injuries recurring in residential aged care facilities (RACFs), older adults' safety in residential age care settings has attracted extensive attention from governments, researchers, and healthcare providers. Risk management is of utmost importance in reducing risks and improving the quality of care for older adults in long-term care. Although previous studies have made great efforts to explore risk management methods and technologies in RACFs, little is known about how managers identify and respond to risks in practice.

Purpose: This qualitative study aimed to elucidate the perceptions and experiences of managers involved in risk management in RACFs in China.

Participants And Methods: This study used a phenomenological research design. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 managers across 11 RACFs in Changsha City, Hunan Province, China. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven steps and NVivo 12 plus software.

Results: "Facilitation of an error-free culture" emerged as a central theme of managers' perceptions of risk management. Four sub-themes were revealed, namely "creating an age-friendly physical environment," "paying close attention to frail older adults," "improving the competence of nursing staff," and "building effective management programs."

Conclusion: Facilitation of an error-free culture was of prime importance in risk management. Managers' experiences can help RACFs to better manage risks, as well as provide new perspectives and approaches for RACFs to improve the quality and outcomes of care. This study developed initiatives for improving resident safety in RACFs and may foster interest in the developing these initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2021.1978724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475122PMC
December 2021

Inhibition of viral suppressor of RNAi proteins by designer peptides protects from enteroviral infection in vivo.

Immunity 2021 Oct 22;54(10):2231-2244.e6. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:

RNA interference (RNAi) is the major antiviral mechanism in plants and invertebrates, but the absence of detectable viral (v)siRNAs in mammalian cells upon viral infection has questioned the functional relevance of this pathway in mammalian immunity. We designed a series of peptides specifically targeting enterovirus A71 (EV-A71)-encoded protein 3A, a viral suppressor of RNAi (VSR). These peptides abrogated the VSR function of EV-A71 in infected cells and resulted in the accumulation of vsiRNAs and reduced viral replication. These vsiRNAs were functional, as evidenced by RISC-loading and silencing of target RNAs. The effects of VSR-targeting peptides (VTPs) on infection with EV-A71 as well as another enterovirus, Coxsackievirus-A16, were ablated upon deletion of Dicer1 or AGO2, core components of the RNAi pathway. In vivo, VTP treatment protected mice against lethal EV-A71 challenge, with detectable vsiRNAs. Our findings provide evidence for the functional relevance of RNAi in mammalian immunity and present a therapeutic strategy for infectious disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.08.027DOI Listing
October 2021

How Authoritarian Leadership Affects Employee's Helping Behavior? The Mediating Role of Rumination and Moderating Role of Psychological Ownership.

Front Psychol 2021 6;12:667348. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui, China.

Interpersonal helping behaviors, i.e., voluntarily assisting colleagues for their workplace related problems, have received immense amount of scholarly attention due to their significant impacts on organizational effectiveness. Among several other factors, authoritarian leadership style could influence helping behavior within organizations. Furthermore, this relationship could be mediated by workplace stressor such as rumination, known as a critical psychological health component leading to depressive symptoms, hopelessness and pessimism. In the meantime, less research attention has devoted to probe the crucial role of psychological ownership, which can buffer the adverse effects of authoritarian leadership upon rumination. Building on conservation of resources theory, this study investigates the adverse impacts of authoritarian leadership on employees' helping behaviors through mediating role of rumination, and also examines the moderating effect of psychological ownership between the relationship of authoritarian leadership and rumination. The data were collected from 264 employees in education and banking sectors and the results show: (i) authoritarian leadership has adverse impacts on helping behavior, (ii) rumination mediates the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' helping behaviors, and (iii) psychological ownership moderates the positive relationship between authoritarian leadership and rumination. This study concludes that authoritarian leadership has adverse impacts upon helping behavior, which needs to be controlled/minimized. The findings are of great significance for managers, employees, and organizations in terms of policy implications. The limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.667348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450323PMC
September 2021

The Mechanism and Clinical Significance of Circular RNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:714665. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors worldwide. In view of the lack of early obvious clinical symptoms and related early diagnostic biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity, most HCC patients are already at the advanced stages at the time of diagnosis, and most of them are accompanied by distant metastasis. Furthermore, the unsatisfactory effect of the follow-up palliative care contributes to the poor overall survival of HCC patients. Therefore, it is urgent to identify effective early diagnosis and prognostic biomarkers and to explore novel therapeutic approaches to improve the prognosis of HCC patients. Circular RNA (CircRNA), a class of plentiful, stable, and highly conserved ncRNA subgroup with the covalent closed loop, is dysregulated in HCC. Increasingly, emerging evidence have confirmed that dysregulated circRNAs can regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level, mediating various malignant biological behaviors of HCC cells, including proliferation, invasion, metastasis, immune escape, stemness, and drug resistance, etc.; meanwhile, they are regarded as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of HCC. This article reviews the research progress of circRNAs in HCC, expounding the potential molecular mechanisms of dysregulated circRNAs in the carcinogenesis and development of HCC, and discusses those application prospects in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.714665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445159PMC
September 2021

Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of pediatric patients with COVID-19 in China: A multicenter retrospective study.

Pediatr Investig 2021 Aug 12:e12282. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin Hong Kong China.

Importance: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a considerable challenge for pediatricians.

Objective: This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19 in China.

Methods: This multicenter retrospective study included pediatric patients from 46 hospitals in China, covering 12 provinces and two municipalities. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were analyzed.

Results: In total, 211 pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. The median age was 7.0 years (range: 22 days to 18 years). Approximately 16.3% of the patients exhibited asymptomatic infections, 23.0% had upper respiratory tract infections, and 60.7% had pneumonia, including two with severe pneumonia and one with critical illness. Approximately 78.7% of the pediatric patients occurred in familial clusters. The most three common symptoms or signs at onset in children with COVID-19 were fever (54.5%), cough (49.3%), and pharyngeal congestion (20.8%). Only 17.6% of the patients presented with decreased lymphocyte count, whereas 13.6% had increased lymphocyte count. Among the patients with pneumonia who exhibited abnormal chest computed tomography findings, 18.2% (23/127) of the patients had no other symptoms. Generally, the chest radiographs showed abnormalities that affected both lungs (49.6%); ground-glass opacity (47.2%) was the most common manifestation. The cure and improvement rates were 86.7% (183/211) and 13.3% (28/211), respectively. Only one patient with an underlying condition received invasive mechanical ventilation; none of the patients died.

Interpretation: Similar to adults, children of all age groups are susceptible to COVID-19. Fortunately, most pediatric patients have mild symptoms or remain asymptomatic, despite the high incidence of pneumonia. Decreased proportions of white blood cells and lymphocytes are less frequent in children than in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ped4.12282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441896PMC
August 2021

A novel therapeutic strategy using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis: a case report and literature review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1267

Department of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, The Eighth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) secondary to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) often results in severe respiratory failure which requires emergent management. In patients who are resistant to traditional mechanical respiratory support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to maintain gas exchange, thereby providing time for the administration of immunosuppressive therapy to control the inflammation. Herein, we report the application of ECMO to support an adult patient with AAV complicated by severe respiratory failure due to DAH. Similar cases in the literature were identified and discussed. The patient in our case study was successfully treated with ECMO in the acute phase and relieved by immunosuppressive therapy after withdrawal of ECMO. A search in the PubMed database revealed 32 similar cases with DAH, of which 11 cases were microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), 2 cases were eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), and 19 cases were granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). These patients were all treated with ECMO. Therefore, to date, we identified 33 patients who were effectively treated with ECMO, including 13 (39.4%) males and 20 (60.6%) females, with a ratio of 1:1.54. The average age was 32.4±17.5 and 36.0±16.1 years for males and females, respectively (t=0.610, P=0.547). Most patients received ECMO on the first day of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and it appeared that early initiation of ECMO was associated with a shorter duration of ECMO. In general, complications of ECMO in these patients were mild and were not often seen in the clinical setting. This study suggested that early recognition of respiratory failure and referral for ECMO are vital to achieve a satisfactory outcome in AAV patients with DAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421983PMC
August 2021

[Application of free-style perforator pedicled propeller flap to repair the wound after extensive resection of skin malignant tumor on the thigh].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Sep;35(9):1177-1181

Department of Orthopaedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou Jiangsu, 215004, P.R.China.

Objective: To explore the effectiveness of free-style perforator pedicled propeller flap to repair the wound after extensive resection of skin malignant tumor on the thigh.

Methods: Between December 2016 and June 2019, 12 patients with skin malignant tumor on the thigh were treated. There were 9 males and 3 females, aged from 8 to 65 years (median, 38.5 years). The etiologies included basal cell carcinoma in 3 cases, squamous cell carcinoma in 7 cases, fibrosarcoma in 1 case, and malignant melanoma in 1 case. The disease duration ranged from 5 months to 10 years (median, 7.5 years). Color Doppler ultrasound was used to detect and mark at least one perforator vessel before operation. After extensive resection, the size of wound ranged from 5.0 cm×3.5 cm to 8.5 cm×6.5 cm. In the range of 1-3 cm from the edge of the lesion, the perforator vessels were explored again from the deep surface of the deep fascia to confirm and mark. The perforator vessel with diameter greater than 0.5 mm and closest to the edge of the lesion was taken as the rotation point of the flap. According to the wound size and shape, the free-style perforator pedicled propeller flap in size of 8.0 cm×3.5 cm to 12.5 cm×6.0 cm was designed. The wound was repaired with the big blade of the flap. The donor site was closed directly with the aid of the small blade.

Results: The distal part of the skin flap was necrosis after operation, and healed after symptomatic treatment such as dressing change; the other flaps survived successfully and the wounds healed by first intention. All incisions at the donor site healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 5-24 months (mean, 10.2 months). During the follow-up, there was no recurrence of tumor. The flap had good elasticity and texture with no obvious swelling or scar hyperplasia, and the appearance was satisfactory; the hip and knee joint activities were normal.

Conclusion: Based on the extensive skin blood supply and abundant perforator vessels of the thigh, the free-style perforator pedicled propeller flap is an ideal flap for repairing small or medium wound after extensive resection of skin malignant tumor on the thigh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202104052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444129PMC
September 2021

Overexpression of a Banana Aquaporin Gene Enhances Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Banana and Analysis of Its Interacting Transcription Factors.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:699230. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, China.

Aquaporins can improve the ability of plants to resist abiotic stresses, but the mechanism is still not completely clear. In this research, overexpression of in banana improved tolerance to multiple stresses. The transgenic plants resulted in lower ion leakage and malondialdehyde content, while the proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar, and abscisic acid (ABA) contents were higher. In addition, under high salt and recovery conditions, the content of Na and K is higher, also under recovery conditions, the ratio of K/Na is higher. Finally, under stress conditions, the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and response genes in the transgenic lines are higher than those of the wild type. In previous studies, we proved that the MaMADS3 could bind to the promoter region of , thereby regulating the expression of and affecting the drought tolerance of banana plants. However, the mechanism of gene response to stress under different adversity conditions might be regulated differently. In this study, we proved that some transcription factor genes, including MaERF14, MaDREB1G, MaMYB1R1, MaERF1/39, MabZIP53, and MaMYB22, showed similar expression patterns with under salt or cold stresses, and their encoded proteins could bind to the promoter region of . Here we proposed a novel -mediated mechanism that enhanced salt and cold tolerance in bananas. The results of this study have enriched the stress-resistant regulatory network of aquaporins genes and are of great significance for the development of molecular breeding strategies for stress-resistant fruit crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.699230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424054PMC
August 2021

Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Allosterically Activates Protein Kinase C-α and Improves the Cognition of Estrogen Deficiency Mice.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 10 10;12(19):3672-3682. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmacology (The State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China), College of Pharmacy of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150086, China.

Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes play essential roles in biological processes, and activation of PKC is proposed to alleviate the symptoms of a variety of diseases. It would be of great significance to find effective pharmacological modulators of PKC isozymes that can be translated for clinical use. Here, using activity assay, we demonstrated that green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) dose-dependently activated PKCα with a half effective concentration (EC50) of 0.49 μM. We also performed surface plasmon resonance analysis and found that EGCG binds PKCα with an equilibrium dissociation constant () value of 4.11 × 10 mol/L. Further computational flexible docking analysis revealed that EGCG interacted with the catalytic C3-C4 domain of PKCα (PDB: 4RA4) through establishing polar hydrogen bonds with V420, T401, E387, and K368 of PKCα, and the benzene ring group of EGCG hydrophobically interacted with the hydrophobic pocket formed by L345, M470, I479, and V353 of PKCα. Interestingly, the PKCα-selective blocker Ro-32-0432 could compete with EGCG for the same substrate-binding pocket of PKCα. Moreover, we found that EGCG dose-dependently improved the spatial memory, object recognition ability, and hippocampal long-term potentiation of ovariectomized mice, which was offset by Ro-32-0432. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel PKCα agonist and open the way to a new perspective on PKCα pharmacology and the treatment of PKCα-related diseases, including cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00401DOI Listing
October 2021

Inflammation- and Gut-Homing Macrophages, Engineered to Overexpress Active Vitamin D, Promoted the Regenerative Function of Intestinal Stem Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 1;22(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Medicine, Division of Regenerative Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut. Available drugs aim to suppress gut inflammation. These drugs have significantly delayed disease progression and improved patients' quality of life. However, the disease continues to progress, underscoring the need to develop novel therapies. Aside from chronic gut inflammation, IBD patients also experience a leaky gut problem due to damage to the intestinal epithelial layer. In this regard, epithelial regeneration and repair are mediated by intestinal stem cells. However, no therapies are available to directly enhance the intestinal stem cells' regenerative and repair function. Recently, it was shown that active vitamin D, i.e., 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D or 1,25(OH)D, was necessary to maintain Lgr5 intestinal stem cells, actively cycling under physiological conditions. In this study, we used two strategies to investigate the role of 1,25(OH)D in intestinal stem cells' regenerative function. First, to avoid the side effects of systemic high 1,25(OH)D conditions, we used our recently developed novel strategy to deliver locally high 1,25(OH)D concentrations specifically to inflamed intestines. Second, because of the Lgr5 intestinal stem cells' active cycling status, we used a pulse-and-chase strategy via 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling to trace the Lgr5 stem cells through the whole epithelial regeneration process. Our data showed that locally high 1,25(OH)D concentrations enhanced intestinal stem cell migration. Additionally, the migrated cells differentiated into mature epithelial cells. Our data, therefore, suggest that local delivery of high 1,25(OH)D concentrations is a promising strategy to augment intestinal epithelial repair in IBD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430522PMC
September 2021
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