Publications by authors named "Yi Xiang"

224 Publications

Two severe adverse events triggered by an anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor in an advanced lung cancer patient: a case report and review of the literature.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(16):1358

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitors have produced robust tumor responses in several solid tumors including lung cancer by enhancing the antitumor activity of the immune system. In general, the adverse events triggered by anti-PD-1/PD-L1 mAbs appear to be less severe when compared with traditional chemotherapy. However, a subgroup of patients will experience various autoimmune adverse events, such as skin, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, hepatic, renal, and endocrine events, among others. In previous studies, only one irAE was reported in a patient who received immunotherapy. However, in this report, we presented an advanced non-small cell lung cancer patient who was positive for PD-L1 in 20% of tumor cells and negative for actionable molecular markers such as KRAS, EGFR, ALK, MET, and ROS1 alterations. He received a PD-1 inhibitor combined with chemotherapy according to the guidelines of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) non-small cell lung cancer [2020] and experienced severe hepatitis and pneumonitis successively, which were recovered after the treatment of systemic glucocorticoids. This situation increased the difficulty of diagnosis and treatment of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). This case illustrates the potential toxicity caused by immunotherapy, and more attention should be paid to its prevention, treatment, and association with antitumor efficacy. Multidisciplinary discussions should be undertaken to improve patient prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-4167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422098PMC
August 2021

Artificial intelligence manages congenital cataract with individualized prediction and telehealth computing.

NPJ Digit Med 2020 Aug 28;3(1):112. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

A challenge of chronic diseases that remains to be solved is how to liberate patients and medical resources from the burdens of long-term monitoring and periodic visits. Precise management based on artificial intelligence (AI) holds great promise; however, a clinical application that fully integrates prediction and telehealth computing has not been achieved, and further efforts are required to validate its real-world benefits. Taking congenital cataract as a representative, we used Bayesian and deep-learning algorithms to create CC-Guardian, an AI agent that incorporates individualized prediction and scheduling, and intelligent telehealth follow-up computing. Our agent exhibits high sensitivity and specificity in both internal and multi-resource validation. We integrate our agent with a web-based smartphone app and prototype a prediction-telehealth cloud platform to support our intelligent follow-up system. We then conduct a retrospective self-controlled test validating that our system not only accurately detects and addresses complications at earlier stages, but also reduces the socioeconomic burdens compared to conventional methods. This study represents a pioneering step in applying AI to achieve real medical benefits and demonstrates a novel strategy for the effective management of chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41746-020-00319-xDOI Listing
August 2020

Exploring the Mechanism of the miRNA-145/Paxillin Axis in Cell Metabolism During VEGF-A-Induced Corneal Angiogenesis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 08;62(10):25

Aier Eye Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Purpose: Paxillin (PXN) is a key component of focal adhesions and plays an important role in angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of PXN in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

Methods: HUVECs were transfected with PXN overexpression and PXN interference vectors. Biochemical detection was used to detect adenosine triphosphate and lactic acid production. The morphology of mitochondria was observed under an electron microscope, and flow cytometry was conducted to measure mitochondrial membrane potential. Transwell experiments were used to detect the migration and tube formation ability of each group of cells. The expression of hexokinase (HK)1, HK2, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated AKT, and phosphorylated mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was evaluated by western blot.

Results: PXN silencing reduced the levels of lactic acid and adenosine triphosphate, downregulated HK1, HK2, and GLUT1, suppressed PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling activation, and inhibited VEGF-A-induced mitochondria injury in VEGF-A-induced HUVECs. We also determined that miR-145-5p decreased the VEGF-A-induced expression of PXN and inhibited the invasion and angiogenesis of HUVECs. Also, miR-145-5p inhibition blocked the protective effect of PXN interference on VEGF-A-induced HUVEC injury. Furthermore, PXN interference significantly decreased lactic acid and adenosine triphosphate levels, inhibited PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation, and decreased the levels of HK1, HK2, and GLUT1 in VEGF-A-treated mouse corneal.

Conclusions: The results indicate that PXN silencing inhibited the VEGF-A-induced invasion and angiogenesis of HUVECs via regulation of cell metabolism and mitochondrial damage, suggesting that PXN may be a potential target for antiangiogenic therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.10.25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383931PMC
August 2021

Arthroscopic C-Shaped Release Around the Greater Trochanter for Gluteal Muscle Contracture.

Orthop Surg 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Orthopaedics, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (301 Hospital), Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the outcomes of C-shaped release around the greater trochanter in gluteal muscle contracture under arthroscopy.

Methods: From December 2016 to January 2018, 185 patients with gluteal muscle contracture who treated under arthroscopy were reviewed, including 69 males and 116 females. All patients had a history of repeated intramuscular injection into the buttocks. The follow signs were positive in all the patients before surgery: squatting and crouching disability, difficulty in crossing the leg, Ober's sign positive, clicking sound during rotation of the hip. The C-shaped release around the greater trochanter under arthroscopy was performed in 96 cases (C-shaped release group) with an average age of 24.6 ± 4.9 years old, and conventional gluteal muscle contracture release under arthroscopy was performed in 89 cases (conventional release group) with an average age of 25.1 ± 5.0 years. The released tissues in the C-shaped release group: iliotibial band (ITB) about 5 cm distal to the proximal end of the greater trochanter, the contracture tissue near the posterior and superior of the greater trochanter, which depended on both intraoperative physical examination and arthroscopic observation. The released tissues in conventional release group: the contracture tissues in gluteal muscles according to observation under arthroscopy. The gluteal muscle contracture disability scale (GDS) and Visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated before surgery and at the last follow-up.

Results: The average release time after making arthroscopic operation space for each lower limb were 12.2 ± 3.2 min in the C-shaped release group, and 21.4 ± 6.1 min in the conventional release group (P = 0.000). All the patients were followed for at least of 2 years after operation. There was one case of wound hematoma in the C-shaped release group and five cases in the conventional release group(P = 0.079), abductor weakness (IV level)occurred in two patients in the C-shaped release group and five cases in the conventional release group (P = 0.208). GDS was 49.3 ± 17.3 (22 to 70) in theC-shaped release group and 48.1 ± 15.6 (23 to 69) in the conventional release group before surgery (P = 0.622), 91.7 ± 5.2 (83 to 100) in the C-shaped release group and 90.2 ± 6.1 (83 to 98) in the conventional release group (P = 0.073) with difference nearly significant at last follow-up.

Conclusion: Arthroscopic C-shaped release around the greater trochanter had less operation time, acceptable complication occurrence, and it has an optimistic outcome for gluteal muscle contracture under arthroscope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.13103DOI Listing
August 2021

Bioprinting of dual ECM scaffolds encapsulating limbal stem/progenitor cells in active and quiescent statuses.

Biofabrication 2021 08 13;13(4). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, United States of America.

Limbal stem cell deficiency and corneal disorders are among the top global threats for human vision. Emerging therapies that integrate stem cell transplantation with engineered hydrogel scaffolds for biological and mechanical support are becoming a rising trend in the field. However, methods for high-throughput fabrication of hydrogel scaffolds, as well as knowledge of the interaction between limbal stem/progenitor cells (LSCs) and the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) are still much needed. Here, we employed digital light processing (DLP)-based bioprinting to fabricate hydrogel scaffolds encapsulating primary LSCs and studied the ECM-dependent LSC phenotypes. The DLP-based bioprinting with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) or hyaluronic acid glycidyl methacrylate (HAGM) generated microscale hydrogel scaffolds that could support the viability of the encapsulated primary rabbit LSCs (rbLSCs) in culture. Immunocytochemistry and transcriptional analysis showed that the encapsulated rbLSCs remained active in GelMA-based scaffolds while exhibited quiescence in the HAGM-based scaffolds. The primary human LSCs encapsulated within bioprinted scaffolds showed consistent ECM-dependent active/quiescent statuses. Based on these results, we have developed a novel bioprinted dual ECM 'Yin-Yang' model encapsulating LSCs to support both active and quiescent statues. Our findings provide valuable insights towards stem cell therapies and regenerative medicine for corneal reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/ac1992DOI Listing
August 2021

Application of Comprehensive Artificial intelligence Retinal Expert (CARE) system: a national real-world evidence study.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 08;3(8):e486-e495

Guangdong Medical Devices Quality Surveillance and Test Institute, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Medical artificial intelligence (AI) has entered the clinical implementation phase, although real-world performance of deep-learning systems (DLSs) for screening fundus disease remains unsatisfactory. Our study aimed to train a clinically applicable DLS for fundus diseases using data derived from the real world, and externally test the model using fundus photographs collected prospectively from the settings in which the model would most likely be adopted.

Methods: In this national real-world evidence study, we trained a DLS, the Comprehensive AI Retinal Expert (CARE) system, to identify the 14 most common retinal abnormalities using 207 228 colour fundus photographs derived from 16 clinical settings with different disease distributions. CARE was internally validated using 21 867 photographs and externally tested using 18 136 photographs prospectively collected from 35 real-world settings across China where CARE might be adopted, including eight tertiary hospitals, six community hospitals, and 21 physical examination centres. The performance of CARE was further compared with that of 16 ophthalmologists and tested using datasets with non-Chinese ethnicities and previously unused camera types. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04213430, and is currently closed.

Findings: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the internal validation set was 0·955 (SD 0·046). AUC values in the external test set were 0·965 (0·035) in tertiary hospitals, 0·983 (0·031) in community hospitals, and 0·953 (0·042) in physical examination centres. The performance of CARE was similar to that of ophthalmologists. Large variations in sensitivity were observed among the ophthalmologists in different regions and with varying experience. The system retained strong identification performance when tested using the non-Chinese dataset (AUC 0·960, 95% CI 0·957-0·964 in referable diabetic retinopathy).

Interpretation: Our DLS (CARE) showed satisfactory performance for screening multiple retinal abnormalities in real-world settings using prospectively collected fundus photographs, and so could allow the system to be implemented and adopted for clinical care.

Funding: This study was funded by the National Key R&D Programme of China, the Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guangdong Province, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00086-8DOI Listing
August 2021

S100A8/A9 Molecular Complexes Promote Cancer Migration and Invasion via the p38 MAPK Pathway in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021 22;2021:9913794. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Pharmaceutical College, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one type of malignancy associated with migration and invasion through a currently unclear mechanism. We previously discovered S100A8/A9 levels were roughly elevated in the plasma of NPC patients as the promising biomarkers. However, their expressions and underlying functions in NPC tissues are still unknown. In the present study, we analyzed 49 NPC tissues and 20 chronic pharyngitis (CP) tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in different tissues and analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test statistically. Transwell migration and invasion experiments were further performed to determine S100A8/A9 effects on NPC. Our results showed that S100A8/A9 in NPC tissues were significantly higher than those in CP tissues, closely associated with NPC clinical stages. Intriguingly, exogenous S100A8/A9 protein stimulation could dramatically enhance NPC migration and invasion abilities. In addition, p38 MAPK pathway blockade could diminish the migration and invasion of NPC cells stimulated by S100A8/A9 proteins. The downstream tumor invasion and migration associated proteins (e.g., MMP7) were also elevated in NPC tissues, consistent with S100A8/A9 overexpression. Taken together, our present findings suggest that the secreted soluble inflammatory factors S100A8/A9 might promote cancer migration and invasion via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway along with invasion/migration associated proteins overexpression in the tumor microenvironment of NPC. This may shed light on the mechanism understanding of NPC prognosis and provide more novel clues for NPC diagnosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9913794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245251PMC
June 2021

Corrigendum to "Pluronic modified leptin with increased systemic circulation, brain uptake and efficacy for treatment of obesity" [Journal of Controlled Release 191 (2014) 34-46].

J Control Release 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery and Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119,899 Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.07.001DOI Listing
July 2021

Dihydrotanshinone I inhibits aortic valve interstitial cell calcification via the SMAD1/5/8/NF-κB/ERK pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 10;139:111674. Epub 2021 May 10.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine, and School of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: In calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), the valve interstitial cells (VIC) osteogenic phenotype changes can lead to thickening and calcification of the valve leaflets,eventually lead to restricted valve movement and life-threatening. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of dihydrotanshinone I (DHI) on osteogenic medium (OM) induced osteogenic phenotypic transition of porcine valve interstitial cells (PVICs), which can provide theoretical and scientific basis for clinical intervention in CAVD.

Methods And Results: Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect the expression of osteogenic indicators Runx2, OPN and inflammation indicators IL-1β and p-NF-κB in valve specimens of CAVD patients(N = 3) and normal controls(N = 1). PVICs stimulated by osteoblastic medium (OM) were treated with or without DHI. CCK8, ALP and Alizarin Red S staining were used to detect cell growth and calcification, respectively. The results showed that under the treated with DHI, compared with OM, the formation of calcium nodules was reduced, and the expression of calcification-related markers Runx2 and OPN were down-regulated, which quantified by qRT-PCR and western blot. In addition, on the basis of OM induction, DHI also inhibited the phosphorylation of the NF-κB/ERK1/2 and SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathway.

Conclusion: DHI (10 μM) treatment can reverse the osteogenic phenotypic transition of PVICs induced by osteogenic medium, and the mechanism may be related to NF-κB、ERK 1/2 and Smad1/5/8 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111674DOI Listing
July 2021

Balancing Constraints and Objectives by Considering Problem Types in Constrained Multiobjective Optimization.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jul 8;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Constrained multiobjective optimization problems widely exist in real-world applications. To handle them, the balance between constraints and objectives is crucial, but remains challenging due to non-negligible impacts of problem types. In our context, the problem types refer particularly to those determined by the relationship between the constrained Pareto-optimal front (PF) and the unconstrained PF. Unfortunately, there has been little awareness on how to achieve this balance when faced with different types of problems. In this article, we propose a new constraint handling technique (CHT) by taking into account potential problem types. Specifically, inspired by the prior work, problems are classified into three primary types: 1) I; 2) II; and 3) III, with the constrained PF being made up of the entire, part and none of the unconstrained counterpart, respectively. Clearly, any problem must be one of the three types. For each possible type, there exists a tailored mechanism being used to handle the relationships between constraints and objectives (i.e., constraint priority, objective priority, or the switch between them). It is worth mentioning that exact problem types are not required because we just consider their possibilities in the new CHT. Conceptually, we show that the new CHT can make a tradeoff among different types of problems. This argument is confirmed by experimental studies performed on 38 benchmark problems, whose types are known, and a real-world problem (with unknown types) in search-based software engineering. Results demonstrate that within both decomposition-based and nondecomposition-based frameworks, the new CHT can indeed achieve a good tradeoff among different problem types, being better than several state-of-the-art CHTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3089633DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of Visual Neuroadaptations After Multifocal and Monofocal Intraocular Lens Implantation.

Front Neurosci 2021 14;15:648863. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Visual neuroadaptation is believed to play an important role in determining the final visual outcomes following intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. To investigate visual neuroadaptation in patients with age-related cataracts (ARCs) after phacoemulsification with multifocal and monofocal IOL implantation, we conducted a prospective, controlled clinical trial in Zhongshan Ophthalmology Center. This study included 22 patients with bilateral ARCs: 11 patients underwent phacoemulsification and multifocal IOL (Mu-IOL) implantation, and 11 patients underwent phacoemulsification and monofocal IOL (Mo-IOL) implantation. Visual disturbances (glare and halos), visual function (including visual acuity, retinal straylight, contrast sensitivity, and visual evoked potentials) and visual cortical function (fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, fALFF) in Bowman's areas 17-19 as the region of interest were assessed before and after surgeries. The results showed that the fALFF values of the visual cortex in the Mu-IOL group decreased at 1 week postoperatively and recovered to baseline at 3 months and then improved at 6 months, compared with preoperative levels (at a whole-brain threshold of < 0.05, AlphaSim-corrected, voxels > 228, repeated measures analysis of variance). Significantly increased fALFF values in the visual cortex were detected 1 week after surgery in the Mo-IOL group and decreased to baseline at 3 and 6 months. The fALFF of the lingual gyrus was negatively correlated with visual disturbances ( < 0.05). To conclude, early postoperative visual neuroadaptation was detected in the Mu-IOL group by resting-state fMRI analysis. The different changing trends of postoperative fALFF values in the two groups indicated distinct neuroadaptations patterns after Mu-IOL and Mo-IOL implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.648863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236945PMC
June 2021

Rapid start-up of autotrophic shortcut nitrification system in SBR and microbial community analysis.

Environ Technol 2021 Jul 13:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Shortcut nitrification is crucial for application of autotrophic nitrogen removal which is beneficial for treating carbon-limited wastewater. In this experiment, rapid start-up of autotrophic shortcut nitrification system was studied in a small sequencing batch reactor (SBR) built in laboratory with intermittent aeration operation mode. The influent was artificially simulated inorganic domestic wastewater (the ammonium nitrogen concentration was 35.19-57.54 mg/L), the pH value was 7.6-7.8, the hydraulic loading was 1L, the operating temperature was 24.3-28.3 °C, and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2-4 mg/L and 0.5-0.9 mg/L at the stage of complete nitrification sludge domestication and shortcut nitrification sludge domestication. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyse the composition and changes of microbial populations in sludge. The experimental results showed that on the 24th day of the experiment, shortcut nitrification was started successfully, the accumulation rate of nitrite was 81.63% and the removal efficiency of ammonium nitrogen was 99.25%; the richness of the main denitrifying bacteria phylum Proteobacteria increased from 30.21% to 42.85%; the richness of (ammonia oxidizing bacteria, AOB) increased from 0.37% to 22.43%, and at the species level, AOB was the salt-tolerant bacteria ; the richness of (nitrite oxidizing bacteria, NOB) decreased from 2.59% to 0.47%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1950213DOI Listing
July 2021

Screening, clinical features and prognostic analysis of liver cirrhosis-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 19;56(8):948-954. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Objective: To explore the impact of the screening interval and methods on cirrhosis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection and to analyse the clinical features and prognosis of HCC.

Materials And Methods: We recruited 3000 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, who had been treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2016 to January 2020. The time of admission was divided into 3- (group A, 539 cases), 6- (group B, 1012 cases), and 12-month screening groups (group C, 1449 cases). We compared the detection rate of small HCCs in each group and analysed the clinical characteristics and prognosis of the patients with HCC.

Results: We detected a total of 124 HCC cases, including 41 cases of small HCC: 21, 14, and 6 cases in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The detection rate was 3.9% (21/539) in group A, which was significantly higher than that in groups B and C ( = 31.186,  < .001). Single small, right liver lobe, and alpha-fetoprotein-negative HCCs accounted for 90.2%, 73.2%, and 68.3%, respectively. We detected vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis in one and three cases, respectively. The average survival time of patients in the small HCC group was significantly higher than that in the non-small-HCC group (35.68 ± 12.95 vs. 22.87 ± 11.42 months) ( = 5.623,  < .001).

Conclusions: Screening patients with a history of liver cirrhosis at intervals of 3 months can increase the detection rate of small HCCs. Early detection can provide more patients with an opportunity for radical treatment and prolong their survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1938208DOI Listing
August 2021

Elastic Net Models Based on DNA Copy Number Variations Predicts Clinical Features, Expression Signatures, and Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Genet 2021 31;12:668040. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, China.

In the precision medicine of lung adenocarcinoma, the identification and prediction of tumor phenotypes for specific biomolecular events are still not studied in depth. Various earlier researches sheds light on the close correlation between genetic expression signatures and DNA copy number variations (CNVs), for which analysis of CNVs provides valuable information about molecular and phenotypic changes in tumorigenesis. In this study, we propose a comprehensive analysis combining genome-wide association analysis and an Elastic Net Regression predictive model, focus on predicting the levels of many gene expression signatures in lung adenocarcinoma, based upon DNA copy number features alone. Additionally, we predicted many other key phenotypes, including clinical features (pathological stage), gene mutations, and protein expressions. These Elastic Net prediction methods can also be applied to other gene sets, thereby facilitating their use as biomarkers in monitoring therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.668040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202527PMC
May 2021

Fabrication of Graphene Nanomesh FET Terahertz Detector.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 31;12(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Intelligent Technology and Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331, China.

High sensitivity detection of terahertz waves can be achieved with a graphene nanomesh as grating to improve the coupling efficiency of the incident terahertz waves and using a graphene nanostructure energy gap to enhance the excitation of plasmon. Herein, the fabrication process of the FET THz detector based on the rectangular GNM (r-GNM) is designed, and the THz detector is developed, including the CVD growth and the wet-process transfer of high quality monolayer graphene films, preparation of r-GNM by electron-beam lithography and oxygen plasma etching, and the fabrication of the gate electrodes on the SiN dielectric layer. The problem that the conductive metal is easy to peel off during the fabrication process of the GNM THz device is mainly discussed. The photoelectric performance of the detector was tested at room temperature. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the detector is 2.5 A/W (@ 3 THz) at room temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12060641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228063PMC
May 2021

Network Pharmacology Reveals Polyphyllin II as One Hit of Nano Chinese Medicine Monomers against Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021 29;2021:9959634. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Pharmaceutical College, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor in southern China, and nano Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) represents great potential to cancer therapy. To predict the potential targets and mechanism of polyphyllin II against NPC and explore its possibility for the future nano-pharmaceutics of Chinese medicine monomers, network pharmacology was included in the present study. Totally, ninety-four common potential targets for NPC and polyphyllin II were discovered. Gene Ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis showed that biological processes and functions mainly concentrated on apoptotic process, protein phosphorylation, cytosol, protein binding, and ATP binding. In addition, the anti-NPC effects of polyphyllin II mainly involved in the pathways related to cancer, especially in the PI3K-Akt signaling indicated by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. The "drug-target-disease" network diagram indicated that the key genes were SRC, MAPK1, MAPK14, and AKT1. Taken together, this study revealed the potential drug targets and underlying mechanisms of polyphyllin II against NPC through modern network pharmacology, which provided a certain theoretical basis for the future nano TCM research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9959634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102105PMC
April 2021

Effect of convergent beam array on reducing scintillation in underwater wireless optical communications with pointing errors.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):9846-9860

In this paper, we propose the convergent beam array to reduce scintillation induced by oceanic turbulence in underwater wireless optical communications (UWOCs) between misaligned transceivers. In the proposed convergent beam array, the propagation directions of beams are slanted inwards and different from each other. First, we present the convergent beam array system and analyze spatial relationships between the transmitter and the individual beam in beam array systems. Then, in order to simulate beams propagation in UWOCs, we review the power spectrum of refractive index fluctuations in oceanic turbulence and analyze the spatial relationship between the misaligned transceivers in view of pointing errors. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of the proposed convergent beam array on scintillation reduction by multistep wave optics simulation. Simulation results show that convergent beam array is able to decrease scintillation indices effectively in UWOCs with pointing errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.421630DOI Listing
March 2021

Assessment of systematic inflammatory and nutritional indexes in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy and atezolizumab.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The present study aims to investigate the prognostic role of systematic inflammatory and nutritional indexes in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) treated with first-line chemotherapy and atezolizumab.

Materials And Methods: Prospective cohort population involving 53 patients were identified from NCT03041311 trial. The following peripheral blood-derived inflammatory and nutritional indexes, including neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), systemic inflammation response index (SIRI), prognostic nutrition index (PNI), advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI), and lung immune prognostic index (LIPI) were evaluated.

Results: The optimal cut-off values of the ALI, LMR, NLR, PLR, PNI, SII and SIRI were 323.23, 2.73, 2.57, 119.23, 48, 533.28 and 2.32, respectively. With a median follow-up of 17.1 months, the 1-year OS and PFS were 56% and 8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that PLR was the only independent prognostic factors for OS among ES-SCLC patients treated with chemotherapy and atezolizumab (HR 4.63, 95%CI: 1.00-21.46, p = 0.05). K-M analysis showed that the OS and PFS for patients with high PLR (> 119.23) were significantly poorer than these with low PLR (≤ 119.23) (p = 0.0004 for OS and p = 0.014 for PFS). In external validation set, prognosis of patients with high PLR was also significantly poorer than these with low PLR in terms of OS (p = 0.038) and PFS (p = 0.028).

Conclusion: Pre-treatment PLR could serve as a valuable independent prognostic factor for ES-SCLC who receive chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Further, prospective studies are still needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02926-3DOI Listing
April 2021

[Application of "process management and evaluation" in resident standardization training plan in acupuncture-moxibustion department of hospital for postgraduates of non-acupuncture- moxibustion speciality].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Feb;41(2):213-6

Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210012, Jiangsu Province, China.

The teaching effect of "process management and evaluation" was assessed in resident standardization training plan in acupuncture-moxibustion department of hospital for postgraduates of non-acupuncture-moxibustion speciality. A total of 120 postgraduates of non-acupuncture-moxibustion speciality participating in resident standardization training were randomized into an observation group (60 cases) and a control group (60 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the conventional training mode was used. In the observation group, the "process management and evaluation" was adopted, in which, the syllabus was refined, various teaching modes were cooperated and the summary was conducted once a week. The training results were evaluated at the end of 1-month shift test and questionnaire was issued in all of the postgraduates of the two groups. In the observation group, the score for theory and the score of each of the items for technical ability, named differentiation and treatment, technical manipulation and physician-patient communication, as well as the total score were all higher than the control group successively (<0.05, <0.01). The results of the student questionnaire showed that in the items as "being liable to the memory of relevant knowledge" "connection of theory with practical ability" "stimulating students' interest and subjective initiative" "self-learning ability" "clinical question handling ability" and "communication ability with patients" as well as the total score in the observation group were all higher than the control group successively (<0.01, <0.05). The teaching effect of "process management and evaluation" is obviously better than the conventional teaching mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20191214-0004DOI Listing
February 2021

MET transcriptional regulator/serine peptidase inhibitor kunitz type 1 panel operating through HGF/c-MET axis as a prognostic signature in pan-cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Dysregulations in transcription factors (TFs) and their genetic products play important roles in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. However, prognostic value of the transcriptional regulatory networks in different cancers has not been investigated in depth. The purpose of our study was to identify and validate a potential predictive signature that combines TFs and their regulatory products in eight solid tumors. We used bioinformatics analysis to identify MET Transcriptional Regulator (MACC1) and Serine Peptidase Inhibitor Kunitz Type 1 (SPINT1) as candidate TFs with the respective downstream regulatory proteins for patient prognosis in pan-cancer. Subsequent molecular analysis of clinical gastric cancer tissue samples further verified the negative correlation between MACC1 and SPINT1. Further, we showed that mechanistically, MACC1/SPINT1 mediated the pro-HGF proteolysis and c-Met phosphorylation in HGF/c-MET signaling pathway. Kaplan-Meier plots and receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that the two-gene signature combining MACC1 with SPINT1 was effective in predicting survival in all eight cancer cohorts tested. In conclusion, our study clarified the regulatory relationship between MACC1 and SPINT1 in the context of the HGF/c-MET signaling pathway and determined MACC1/SPINT1 panel as a valuable signature for the prediction of prognosis in patients for multiple solid cancer types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982633PMC
March 2021

Nutrition profile of very low birth weight infants with extrauterine growth restriction in NICU.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 04 9;42:252-257. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai, China; Department of Pediatric Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background & Aims: Extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) is associated with long-term complications such as neurodevelopmental dysplasia, increased mortality, and chronic metabolic disease. The incidence of EUGR in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) is generally high. This study's objectives were to (1) evaluate the nutritional support of VLBWIs with EUGR in our hospital NICU in the past 2 y and (2) provide guidance for improving clinical practice.

Methods: Preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g) admitted to our hospital from February 2017 to July 2019 were enrolled in the study. Nutrient intakes were recorded daily, and growth parameters were regularly measured. Based on whether the infants reached the 10th percentile of the 2013 Fenton growth curve at discharge, the infants were divided into a EUGR group (n = 134) and a non-EUGR group (n = 34) and their nutrition support were compared with current ESPGHAN guidelines.

Results: A total of 138 VLBWIs were enrolled in the study. Growth restriction was 18.1% at birth and 75.4% at discharge for weight. Enteral nutrition (EN) was initiated late compared with the guidelines. The cumulative EN interruption time was long, especially in the EUGR group. Insufficient energy and amino acid intakes were prevalent, and cumulative energy and amino acid deficits failed to be compensated at discharge. Lower Z-score at birth (OR = 0.055, 95% CI = 0.018-0.172, p < 0.001) and long cumulative interruption time (OR = 1.058, 95% CI = 1.001-1.119, p = 0.046) were risk factors for EUGR incidence.

Conclusion: In general, the nutritional support for VLBWIs was inadequate, conservative enteral feeding was the main reason.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.027DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic Value of Portal Vein Velocity for Portal Hypertension in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-related Cirrhosis.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Radiology, First Center Hospital Clinic Institute, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300192. China.

Background: Portal vein velocity (PVV) has shown reasonable correlation with the presence of portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. This study aims to evaluate the value of PVV for diagnosing clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) and predicting the risk of variceal hemorrhage (VH) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis.

Material And Methods: A cohort of 166 consecutive adult patients with HBV-related cirrhosis was recruited in this retrospective study from two high-volume liver centers in China between April 2015 and April 2017. The performance of PVV and other non-invasive parameters for diagnosing CSPH and predicting risk of VH were studied.

Results: PVV demonstrated the best performance for diagnosing CSPH (defined as an HVPG ≥10 mmHg) in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis among the included noninvasive predictors with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), specificity, and sensitivity of 0.745, 50%, and 93.5%, respectively. Other noninvasive markers, including APRI, AAR, LS, FIB-4, and diameter of portal vein, did not show sufficient performance with the AUCs of 0.565, 0.560, 0.544, 0.529, and 0.474, respectively. With regard to predicting the risk of VH (defined as an HVPG ≥12 mmHg), PPV also exhibited a moderate performance with an AUC of 0.762, which was superior to that of the aforementioned markers. By using two cutoff values of PVV to rule-out (11.65 cm/s) and rule-in (20.20 cm/s) CSPH, 30 (33.7%) patients showed definite results categories, with 23 (76.7%) patients were well classified and 7 (23.3%) were misclassified. Fifty-nine (66.3%) patients were with indeterminate results. By using PVV values of 13.10 cm/s and 21.40 cm/s to rule-out and rule-in HVPG ≥ 12mmHg, 34 (38.2%) patients has definite results, among whom 26 (76.5%) were well classified and 8 (23.5%) were misclassified. And 55 (61.8%) patients required further evaluation.

Conclusion: PPV is not good enough to serve as a non-invasive parameter for identifying CSPH and predicting risk of VH in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210225090948DOI Listing
February 2021

Phacoemulsification with Goniosynechialysis versus Phacoemulsification Alone in Angle-Closure Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Ophthalmol 2021 15;2021:8831479. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430014, Hubei Province, China.

Purpose: This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of phacoemulsification with goniosynechialysis (Phaco-GSL) with those of phacoemulsification alone (Phaco-alone) in patients with angle-closure glaucoma and cataract.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected through a search of electronic databases. Trial eligibility and risk of bias were assessed using Cochrane review methods. Primary measures included the intraocular pressure (IOP), number of antiglaucoma medications, peripheral anterior adhesion (PAS) extent, and their pre- and postoperative changes. For continuous parameters, we calculated weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software.

Results: Eight RCTs were included, where 224 and 236 eyes were in the Phaco-GSL and Phaco-alone groups, respectively. Both postoperative IOP and number of medications were not significantly different between the study groups at the six- and twelve-month follow-up. However, the 12-month postoperative PAS extent was significantly smaller in the Phaco-GSL group than in the Phaco-alone group. Similarly, changes from the preoperative to 12-month postoperative PAS extent were significantly greater in the Phaco-GSL group than in the Phaco-alone group, but IOP and the number of medication changes were not different.

Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that Phaco-GSL provides advantages over Phaco-alone treatment regarding PAS reduction. In terms of IOP and medication reduction, both groups were comparable. Thus, Phaco-GSL can be considered for the treatment of patients with angle-closure glaucoma and cataract due to its ease, safety, and potential benefit for the anterior chamber angle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8831479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899770PMC
February 2021

Inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique versus internal limiting membrane peeling for large macular holes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Ophthalmic Res 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Background: Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling is an effective surgical procedure for the treatment of macular holes (MHs). However, there is a possibility of poor postoperative anatomical closure with conventional ILM peeling for MHs larger than 400 μm. Therefore, a novel inverted ILM flap technique was developed for such cases.

Objectives: This meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate and compare the anatomical and visual outcomes of the inverted ILM flap technique and ILM peeling in large MHs.

Methods: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The trial eligibility and risk of bias were assessed according to Cochrane review methods. The primary outcome measures included MH closure rate and postoperative visual acuity (VA). Subgroup analysis of postoperative VA based on follow-up time was also conducted. Pooled odds ratios (ORs), weighted mean difference (WMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software.

Results: Five RCTs with a total of 155 eyes in the inverted ILM flap group and 161 eyes in the ILM peeling group were included in this meta-analysis. Statistical meta-analysis revealed that the overall MH closure rate in the inverted ILM flap group was significantly higher than that in the ILM peeling group (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.25 to 7.66; P = 0.01). The postoperative VA was significantly better in the inverted ILM flap group than ILM peeling group (WMD, -0.14; 95% CI, -0.21 to -0.07; P = 0.0002). The subgroup meta-analysis indicated that the postoperative VA was significantly better in the inverted ILM flap group than ILM peeling group (WMD, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.26 to -0.08; P = 0.0004) at the 3-month follow-up. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups at the 6-month follow-up (WMD, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.02; P = 0.10).

Conclusions: Vitrectomy with inverted ILM flap technique showed a higher anatomical closure rate as well as visual gain-although only in the short-term as no difference in visual recovery was found at the 6-month follow-up-than did ILM peeling in large MHs. The inverted ILM flap technique should be considered as a preferred and routine procedure for the treatment of patients with MHs larger than 400 µm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515283DOI Listing
February 2021

Induction of Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells for Retinal Regeneration by Using Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Diabetic Rats.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Feb 13;41(1):145-152. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430014, China.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness all over the world. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been considered as a promising strategy for retinal regeneration in the treatment of DR. However, the poor viability and low levels of BMSCs engraftment limit the therapeutic potential of BMSCs. The present study aimed to examine the direct induction of BMSCs differentiation into the cell types related to retinal regeneration by using soluble cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). We observed remarkably increased expression of cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and retinoid isomerohydrolase (RPE65) in BMSCs treated with CNTF in vitro, indicating the directional differentiation of BMSCs into the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, which are crucial for retinal healing. In vivo, the diabetic rat model was established by use of streptozotocin (STZ), and animals treated with BMSCs+CNTF exhibited better viability and higher delivery efficiency of the transplanted cells than those treated with BMSCs injection alone. Similar to the in-vitro result, treatment with BMSCs and CNTF combined led to the differentiation of BMSCs into beneficial cells (RPE cells), and accelerated retinal healing characterized by the activation of rod photoreceptor cells and phagocytosis function of RPE cells. In conclusion, CNTF contributes to the differentiation of BMSCs into RPE cells, which may help overcome the current stem cell therapy limitations in the field of retinal regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2329-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of environmental factors on pulmonary tuberculosis in multi-levels industrial upgrading area of China.

Environ Res 2021 04 3;195:110768. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Public Health School, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

In the present paper, an association between the growth rate of PTB and the environmental impacting elements in the pearl river delta region and the closed industry related cities in China is studied. We summarized the characteristics of different industry characteristics in this region by three echelons of urban agglomerations conducted by K-means clustering model on the time series of their monthly AQI data. To determine the impact of environmental factors on the increase of PTB, the SMLR in GLM has been applied. We then measured the seasonal effect and suggest the spring to be the leading season which keep the highest possibility of the incidence of PTB. Besides giving the analysis by fixed meteorological factors, we presented a sensitive analysis with a variation of precipitation. The Genetic algorithms (GAs) is used to determine the "tolerant" interval and as the results, the width of "tolerant" almost keep a declining trend as the precipitation increasing except when the precipitation comes the interval [68,74]. In addition, with the precipitation increasing higher than 64 mm, the "tolerant" for the AQI values from the first and the second echelon both trend to decline, and a lenient environmental policy currently may easily cause a rapid development of PTB growth rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110768DOI Listing
April 2021

Total IgE as a Marker for Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2021 Mar;13(2):206-218

Dermatological Allergology, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and its receptor, FcɛRI, importantly contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Recent findings point to a possible role of total IgE as a marker of CSU disease activity, endotypes, and responses to treatment. The evidence in support of total IgE included in the diagnostic workup of patients with CSU has not yet been reviewed.

Methods: Publications were searched via PubMed. The search terms used were "chronic urticaria" and "total IgE." Studies were screened by titles and abstracts, and 141 were used in the review.

Results: CSU patients frequently had elevated total IgE serum levels (up to 50%), but normal or very low total IgE levels also occurred. High total IgE may represent high disease activity, longer disease duration, high chance of responding to omalizumab treatment, quick relapse after stopping omalizumab, and lower chance of responding to cyclosporine. Low IgE, in contrast, may suggest Type IIb autoimmune CSU, poor response to treatment with omalizumab and a better chance to benefits from cyclosporine treatment. Furthermore, IgE in different CSU cohorts may have different physicochemical properties that could explain differences in treatment responses to IgE-directed therapies.

Conclusion: The results of our review suggest that total IgE is a valuable marker for CSU, and we recommend its assessment in the routine diagnostic workup of CSU patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2021.13.2.206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840871PMC
March 2021

In vitro investigation of protective mechanisms of triptolide against coronary heart disease by regulating miR-24-3p-BCL2L11 axis and PPARs-PGC1α pathway.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(12):7982-7994. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Geriatrics Center, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital Changsha 410000, Hunan Province, China.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a fatal disease associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Although triptolide (TTL) has been reported to protect against CHD, the mechanism has not yet been determined. This study intended to explore its molecular regulation mechanism in CHD. It is shown in this study that TTL contributed to the proliferation and migration of cell models of CHD (endothelial cells) and the inhibition of apoptosis, and had an improvement effect on apoptosis factors and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). From its mechanisms, TTL evidently downregulates miR-24-3p which is elevated in CHD, and evidently upregulates BCL2-like 11 (BCL2L11) which is suppressed in CHD, as well as affects the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway of nuclear receptor transcription factors. In addition, miR-24-3p-BCL2L11-PPARs-PGC1α axis regulates protective effects of TTL against CHD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791505PMC
December 2020

Reconstruction of the Acetabular Bone Defect by the Individualized Three-Dimensional Printed Porous Augment in a Swine Model.

Biomed Res Int 2020 30;2020:4542302. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Methods: As an acetabular bone defect model created in Bama miniswine, an augment individually fabricated by 3D print technique with Ti6Al4V powders was implanted to repair the defect. Nine swine were divided into three groups, including the immediate biomechanics group, 12-week biomechanics group, and 12-week histological group. The inner structural parameters of the 3D printed porous augment were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), including porosity, pore size, and trabecular diameter. The matching degree between the postoperative augment and the designed augment was assessed by CT scanning and 3D reconstruction. In addition, biomechanical properties, such as stiffness, compressive strength, and the elastic modulus of the 3D printed porous augment, were measured by means of a mechanical testing machine. Moreover, bone ingrowth and implant osseointegration were histomorphometrically assessed.

Results: In terms of the inner structural parameters of the 3D printed porous augment, the porosity was 55.48 ± 0.61%, pore size 319.23 ± 25.05 m, and trabecular diameter 240.10 ± 23.50 m. Biomechanically, the stiffness was 21464.60 ± 1091.69 N/mm, compressive strength 231.10 ± 11.77 MPa, and elastic modulus 5.35 ± 0.23 GPa, respectively. Furthermore, the matching extent between the postoperative augment and the designed one was up to 91.40 ± 2.83%. Besides, the maximal shear strength of the 3D printed augment was 929.46 ± 295.99 N immediately after implantation, whereas the strength was 1521.93 ± 98.38 N 12 weeks after surgery ( = 0.0302). The bone mineral apposition rate (m per day) 12 weeks post operation was 3.77 ± 0.93 m/d. The percentage bone volume of new bone was 22.30 ± 4.51% 12 weeks after surgery.

Conclusion: The 3D printed porous Ti6Al4V augment designed in this study was well biocompatible with bone tissue, possessed proper biomechanical features, and was anatomically well matched with the defect bone. Therefore, the 3D printed porous Ti6Al4V augment possesses great potential as an alternative for individualized treatment of severe acetabular bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4542302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723487PMC
June 2021

Machine Learning-Assisted High-Throughput Molecular Dynamics Simulation of High-Mechanical Performance Carbon Nanotube Structure.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Dec 9;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are novel materials with extraordinary mechanical properties. To gain insight on the design of high-mechanical-performance CNT-reinforced composites, the optimal structure of CNTs with high nominal tensile strength was determined in this study, where the nominal values correspond to the cross-sectional area of the entire specimen, including the hollow core. By using machine learning-assisted high-throughput molecular dynamics (HTMD) simulation, the relationship among the following structural parameters/properties was investigated: diameter, number of walls, chirality, and crosslink density. A database, comprising the various tensile test simulation results, was analyzed using a self-organizing map (SOM). It was observed that the influence of crosslink density on the nominal tensile strength tends to gradually decrease from the outside to the inside; generally, the crosslink density between the outermost wall and its adjacent wall is highly significant. In particular, based on our calculation conditions, five-walled, armchair-type CNTs with an outer diameter of 43.39 Å and crosslink densities (between the inner wall and outer wall) of 1.38 ± 1.16%, 1.13 ± 0.69%, 1.54 ± 0.57%, and 1.36 ± 0.35% were believed to be the optimal structure, with the nominal tensile strength and nominal Young's modulus reaching approximately 58-64 GPa and 677-698 GPa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10122459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764054PMC
December 2020
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