Publications by authors named "Yi Wei"

936 Publications

Enhancing Teacher-Student Interaction and Students' Engagement in a Flipped Translation Classroom.

Authors:
Yi Wei

Front Psychol 2021 5;12:764370. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Foreign Languages Department, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Learning faculties are looking for innovative approaches to effective teaching in the translation process which can not only enhance students' engagement but increase the interactions between teacher and learners as well. With the amplified accessibility of network-centered instructive knowledge, teaching translation from the viewpoint of computer-aided instructions and online platforms have flourished. Flipped classroom (FC) is one of these new inclinations used in higher education nowadays which can attract stakeholders' attention. This review aims at exploring its effects on students' engagement and teacher-student interaction in translation classes. Some implications and suggestions have been presented for language teaching stakeholders in translation research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.764370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523675PMC
October 2021

Biomass hydrothermal conversion under CO atmosphere: A way to improve the regulation of hydrothermal products.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 12;807(Pt 2):150900. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, batched hydrothermal experiments on corn stalk were conducted at 240-330 °C under CO or inert (N) atmosphere. The distribution and characteristics of gaseous, solid, and liquid products were analyzed in detail to comprehensively investigate the effects of CO on the hydrothermal conversion of biomass, especially on the cellulose and lignin in biomass. The results demonstrate that compared with N, CO slightly increased the liquid and gas yields and significantly improved the control effect of temperature on bio-oil components. Under CO atmosphere, bio-oil achieved effective enrichment of ketones and phenols at 240 °C and 300 °C, respectively, and their highest relative contents reached 44.8% and 62.0%, respectively. In addition, the hydrochar obtained under CO atmosphere showed higher crystallinity, which is conducive to its subsequent utilization. This study explored the feasibility of introducing CO into the biomass hydrothermal process to realize the high-value utilization of biomass waste and the reuse of CO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150900DOI Listing
October 2021

CT-derived quantitative liver volumetric parameters for prediction of severe esophageal varices and the risk of first variceal hemorrhage.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Sep 30;144:109984. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37, Guoxue Alley, Chengdu 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess whether CT (computed tomography)-derived quantitative parameters of liver lobe volume can predict severe esophageal varices (EV) and the risk of first varicealhemorrhage (FVH) in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Methods: A total of 217 endoscopically confirmed EV patients were included in this retrospective study and were divided into a low-risk EV group (mild-to-moderate EV, n = 83) and a high-risk EV group (severe EV, n = 134), a FVH group (n = 17) and a non-FVH group (n = 27), patients' clinical findings were recorded. The left, right, caudate lobe, total liver volume and the corresponding functional volume were measured respectively, and the ratio of caudate volume/total volume (CV/TV), caudate functional volume/total functional volume (CFV/TFV) were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis were used to determine the independent factors and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance.

Results: CV, CFV, CV/TV, CFV/TFV were significantly different in the EV severity study and FVH study (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that CV/TV and ascites were independent predictive factors for severe EV, a predictive model combing those two factors revealed a satisfactory diagnostic performance (area under the curve (AUC), 0.853, 95 %CI 0.797-0.905). Furthermore, CV/TV and the presence of red color sign under endoscopy were found to be independent predictive factors for FVH, and the former showed a better discriminative performance than the latter (AUC, 0.851 vs 0.779).

Conclusions: CT-derived quantitative parameters of CV, CFV, CV/TV, CFV/TFV may be used as an alternative to endoscopy in predicting severe varices and the risk of bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109984DOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of ferroptosis-associated genes exhibiting altered expression in response to cardiopulmonary bypass during corrective surgery for pediatric tetralogy of fallot.

Sci Prog 2021 Oct;104(4):368504211050275

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, 47885Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is a life-threatening congenital cardiovascular disorder. Currently, the most effective therapeutic intervention for pediatric ToF remains corrective surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death, driven by an accumulation of lipid peroxides to levels sufficient to trigger cell death. Ferroptosis was recently linked to cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, few studies have examined CPB-associated ferroptosis.

Method: In the current study, pediatric ToF patient pre- and post-CPB atrial biopsy gene expression profiles were downloaded from a public database, and 117 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and weighted gene correlation network analysis. These were screened for ferroptosis-associated genes using the FerrDb database, thereby identifying ten genes. Finally, the construction of gene-microRNA (miRNA) and gene-transcription factor (TF) networks, in conjunction with gene ontology and biological pathway enrichment analysis, were used to inform hypotheses regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying CPB-associated ferroptosis.

Results: Ten genes involved in CPB-associated ferroptosis(ATF3,TNFAIP3,CDKN1A, ZFP36, JUN,SLC2A3, IL6, CXCL2, PTGS2, and DDIT3). Ferroptosis-associated genes were largely involved in myocardial inflammatory responses and may be regulated by a number of identified miRNAs and TFs, thereby suggesting modulatable pathways potentially involved in CPB-associated ferroptosis.

Conclusions: Results suggest that CPB precipitates ferroptosis within cardiac tissue during corrective Surgery for Pediatric Tetralogy of Fallot. These findings may ultimately help improve outcomes of corrective surgery for pediatric ToF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211050275DOI Listing
October 2021

Real-world outcomes in treatment of highly calcified coronary lesions with intravascular shockwave lithotripsy.

Indian Heart J 2021 Sep-Oct;73(5):653-655. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Real-world data regarding the efficacy and safety of coronary intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) are lacking. We conducted a study of 50 consecutive patients (64 lesions) who underwent IVL. 3 patients suffered in-hospital mortality unrelated to the IVL; there was no other occurrence of MACE up to 30 days. Angiographic success was nearly universal (98% of patients with residual stenosis <50%, 96% of patients with TIMI 3 flow) and complication was rare, including among patients undergoing IVL for in-stent restenosis or left main coronary artery lesions. In a high-risk real-world cohort, IVL was a safe and effective treatment for highly-calcified coronary lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2021.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514397PMC
September 2021

Structural and mechanistic insights into the complexes formed by cytoplasmic incompatibility factors.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Oct;118(41)

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China;

bacteria, inherited through the female germ line, infect a large fraction of arthropod species. Many strains manipulate host reproduction, most commonly through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI, a conditional male sterility, results when -infected male insects mate with uninfected females; viability is restored if the female is similarly infected (called "rescue"). CI is used to help control mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue and Zika, but its mechanisms remain unknown. The coexpressed CI factors CifA and CifB form stable complexes in vitro, but the timing and function of this interaction in the insect are unresolved. CifA expression in the female germ line is sufficient for rescue. We report high-resolution structures of a CI-factor complex, CinA-CinB, which utilizes a unique binding mode between the CinA rescue factor and the CinB nuclease; the structures were validated by biochemical and yeast growth analyses. Importantly, transgenic expression in of a nonbinding CinA mutant, designed based on the CinA-CinB structure, suggests CinA expressed in females must bind CinB imported by sperm in order to rescue embryonic viability. Binding between cognate factors is conserved in an enzymatically distinct CI system, CidA-CidB, suggesting universal features in CI induction and rescue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2107699118DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of hypoxia on proliferation and glucocorticoid resistance of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Hematology 2021 Dec;26(1):775-784

Laboratory of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Hypoxia is emerging as a key factor in the biology of leukaemia. Here, we want to clarify the impact of hypoxia on the proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cells and the response to chemotherapy.

Methods: T-ALL cells were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. MTT assay and trypan blue staining technique was used to detect cell viability and proliferation. In vitro sensitivity to glucocorticoid was assessed by IC50. CDI was used to analyze the combined effects of glucocorticoid and hypoxia. Flow cytometry was performed to detect apoptosis and cell cycle. Western blotting was performed to detect the protein expression associated with hypoxia.

Results: Hypoxia of 1% O resulted different impact on cell viability and proliferation to different T-ALL cell lines, reduced, unaffected or induced, according to their different metabolic phenotype. All the cell lines showed an induction of key enzymes in glycolysis pathway following hypoxia exposure, although different effector proteins were induced in different cell lines. In GC-sensitive cells, acute hypoxia made no effect on the IC50 of dexamethasone, but chronic hypoxia may improve cell survival and induce GC resistance. However, acute hypoxia induced a higher GC resistance in GC-resistant T-ALL cells and showed an antagonistic effect while combined with high-dose dexamethasone.

Conclusion: T-ALL cells adapt well to hypoxic environment. Hypoxia may influence leukaemic cell proliferation. More importantly, hypoxia contributes to GC resistance in T-ALL blasts, especially in refractory/relapsed T-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16078454.2021.1980689DOI Listing
December 2021

In silico species identification and serotyping for Cronobacter isolates by use of whole-genome sequencing data.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Nov 20;358:109405. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

TEDA Institute of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, TEDA, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; The Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; Center for Microbial Functional Genomics and Detection Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Cronobacter spp. are foodborne pathogens that can cause severe infections in neonates through contaminated powdered infant formula. Accurate and rapid pathogen identification and serotyping are crucial to limit the detrimental effects of bacterial infections, and to prevent outbreaks and sporadic infections. Conventional serotyping is tedious, laborious, and time-consuming; however, with whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming faster and cheaper, WGS has vast potential in routine typing and surveillance. Hence, in this study, we developed a publicly available tool, CroTrait (CronobacterTraits), for in silico species identification and O serotyping of Cronobacter isolates based on WGS data. CroTrait showed excellent performance in species identification and O serotyping when 810 genomes with known species identities and 276 genomes with known O serotype were tested. Moreover, CroTrait allows rapid prediction of new potential O serotypes. We identified 11 novel potential O serotypes of Cronobacter using CroTrait. Therefore, CroTrait is a convenient and promising tool for species identification and O serotyping of Cronobacter isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109405DOI Listing
November 2021

Micro-patterned photoalignment of CsPbBr nanowires with liquid crystal molecule composite film for polarized emission.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):14980-14986. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institute of Optoelectronics & Nanomaterials, MIIT Key Laboratory of Advanced Display Materials and Devices, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.

Photoalignment technology provides high potential for the manipulation of molecular orientations and has been widely used in liquid crystal displays. In this work, we align a luminescent film composite of CsPbBr nanowires (NWs) and liquid crystal molecules through photoalignment conducted on a PDMS template. We successfully define different orientations of CsPbBr NWs on the same substrate and the fluorescence micrographs clearly exhibit the orthogonal polarization direction of the two regions. On the basis of this research, we develop micro-photoalignment technology, which is promising for fabricating complex and precise nanostructures for photonic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04347aDOI Listing
September 2021

Rh(III)-Catalyzed and synergistic dual directing group-enabled redox-neutral [3+3] annulation of -phenoxyacetamides with α-allenols.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 14;57(73):9284-9287. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology and the State & NMPA Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 511436, P. R. China.

By virtue of α-allenols as innovative three-carbon annulation components, the Rh(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H coupling of -phenoxyacetamides with α-allenols has been realized for the assembly of 4-alkylidene chroman-2-ol frameworks an unusual [3+3] annulation. This transformation features good functional group tolerance, specific regio-/chemoselectivity and potential synthetic utility. Mechanistic studies reveal that synergistic coordination modes between the dual directing groups (-ONHAc and -OH) and the rhodium metal center account for the observed exclusive selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03206bDOI Listing
September 2021

Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

Orthop Surg 2021 Oct 13;13(7):1960-1968. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Spinal Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Fourth Clinical Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy between robot-assisted minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (robot-assisted MIS-TLIF) and traditional open TLIF surgery in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis.

Methods: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 cases with lumbar spondylolisthesis who received surgical treatment from June 2016 to December 2017 in the spinal surgery department of Beijing Jishuitan Hospital were analyzed in this study, including 23 patients who received robot-assisted MIS-TLIF and 25 patients who received traditional open TLIF surgery. The two groups were compared in terms of pedicle screw accuracy evaluated by Gertzbein-Robbins classification on postoperative computed tomography (CT), operation time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, hospitalization, time to independent ambulation, low back pain evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), lumbar function evaluated by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), paraspinal muscles atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and complications.

Results: Postoperative CT showed that the rate of Grade A screws in the robot-assisted MIS-TLIF group was significantly more than that in the open surgery group (χ = 4.698, P = 0.025). Compared with the open surgery group, the robot-assisted MIS-TLIF group had significantly less intraoperative blood loss, less postoperative drainage, shorter hospitalization, shorter time to independent ambulation, and lower VAS at 3 days post-operation (P < 0.05). However, the duration of surgery was longer. The VAS of the robot-assisted MIS-TLIF group decreased from 6.9 ± 1.8 at pre-operation to 2.1 ± 0.8 at post-operation, 1.8 ± 0.7 at 6-month follow-up and 1.6 ± 0.5 at 2-year follow-up. The VAS of the open surgery group decreased from 6.5 ± 1.7 at pre-operation to 3.7 ± 2.1 at post-operation, 2.1 ± 0.6 at 6-month follow-up and 1.9 ± 0.5 at 2-year follow-up. The ODI of the robot-assisted MIS-TLIF group decreased from 57.8% ± 8.9% at pre-operation to 18.6% ± 4.7% at post-operation, 15.7% ± 3.9% at 6-month follow-up and 14.6% ± 3.7% at 2-year follow-up. The ODI of the open surgery group decreased from 56.9% ± 8.8% at pre-operation to 20.8% ± 5.1% at post-operation, 17.3% ± 4.2% at 6-month follow-up and 16.5% ± 3.8% at 2-year follow-up. Paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area in 2-year follow-up in patients of the open surgery group decreased significantly compared to patients of robotic-assisted MIS-TLIF group (P = 0.016).

Conclusion: In the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis, robot-assisted MIS-TLIF may lead to more precise pedicle screw placement, less intraoperative blood loss, less postoperative drainage, less postoperative pain, quicker recovery, and less paraspinal muscle atrophy than traditional open surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.13044DOI Listing
October 2021

Self-Healing Nucleation Seeds Induced Long-Term Dendrite-Free Lithium Metal Anode.

Nano Lett 2021 Sep 7;21(18):7715-7723. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

Seeded lithium (Li) nucleation has been considered as a promising strategy to achieve uniform Li deposition. However, problems of agglomeration and pulverization quickly invalidate the nucleation seeds, resulting in Li dendrite growth during repeated charge/discharge processes. Herein, liquid gallium-indium (GaIn) nanoparticles with structural self-healing properties are utilized to guide uniform metallic Li nucleation and deposition. Ultrafine GaIn nanoparticles (∼25 nm) uniformly decorated on the surface of carbon layers effectively homogenize the lithium-ion flux. After fully Li stripping, lithiophilic GaIn nanoparticles return to the liquid binary eutectic phase, thereby healing the deformed structure and enabling them to continuously guide dendrite-free Li deposition. Li metal anodes with such nucleation seeds exhibit nearly zero nucleation overpotential even after hundreds of cycles and a high average Coulombic efficiency of 99.03% for more than 400 cycles. The design of self-healing nucleation seeds provides important insights for obtaining high-performance lithium metal anodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02521DOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of the anti-fungal drug fenticonazole nitrate as a novel PPARγ-modulating ligand with good therapeutic index: Structure-based screening and biological validation.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Nov 28;173:105860. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Guangzhou Municipal and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Modification and Degradation & Molecular Target and Clinical Pharmacology, the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 511436, China. Electronic address:

In this study, SB-VHTS of the old drug library was conducted to seek for novel PPARγ ligand. In the end, an antifungal drug, FN, was identified in vitro and in vivo as a new and potent PPARγ-modulating ligand to demonstrate significantly anti-diabetic and anti-NAFLD efficacies with minimized side effects induced by PPARγ full agonists TZDs drugs. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that FN showed such desired pharmacological properties mainly through selectively activating the expressions of Adiponectin and GLUT4, effectively promoting the Akt Ser473 phosphorylation, inhibiting the expressions of proinflammatory genes including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and blocking the PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation mediated by CDK5 without leading to adipogenesis and increasing the expressions of key adipogenic genes CD36, AP2, LPL, C/EBPα, FASN and PPARγ. Subsequently, a molecular docking study revealed an interesting binding mode between FN and PPARγ LBD including the hydrogen-bonding network among oxygen atom, sulfur atom and nitrogen atom in FN respectively with the PPARγ residues Cys285, Tyr327 and Ser342, which gave proof of concept for the above anti-diabetic action mechanism. Taken together, our findings not only suggest that FN can serve as the new, safe and highly efficacious anti-diabetic and anti-NAFLD agents for clinical use, they can also provide a molecular basis for the future development of PPARγ modulators with a high therapeutic index and the possibility to explore new uses of old drugs for immediate drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105860DOI Listing
November 2021

Role of noninvasive imaging in the evaluation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: from diagnosis and prognosis to treatment response.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 1:1-13. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Radiology, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common liver cancer. Desmoplastic stroma may be revealed as distinctive histopathologic findings favoring intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Meanwhile, a range of imaging manifestations is often accompanied with rich desmoplastic stroma in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which can indicate large bile duct ICC, and a higher level of cancer-associated fibroblasts with poor prognosis and weak treatment response.

Areas Covered: We provide a comprehensive review of current state-of-the-art and recent advances in the imaging evaluation for diagnosis, staging, prognosis and treatment response of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. In addition, we discuss precursor lesions, cells of origin, molecular mutation, which would cause the different histological classification. Moreover, histological classification and tumor microenvironment, which are related to the proportion of desmoplastic stroma with many imaging manifestations, would be also discussed.

Expert Opinion: The diagnosis, prognosis, treatment response of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma may be revealed as the presence and the proportion of desmoplastic stroma with a range of imaging manifestations. With the utility of radiomics and artificial intelligence, imaging is helpful for ICC evaluation. Multicentre, large-scale, prospective studies with external validation are in need to develop comprehensive prediction models based on clinical data, imaging findings, genetic parameters, molecular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2021.1974294DOI Listing
September 2021

Novel Circulating and Tissue Monocytes as Well as Macrophages in Pancreatitis and Recovery.

Gastroenterology 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Institute for Immunity, Transplantation, and Infection, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with mild to severe course that is associated with local and systemic complications and significant mortality. Uncovering inflammatory pathways that lead to progression and recovery will inform ways to monitor and/or develop effective therapies.

Methods: We performed single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) analysis to identify pancreatic and systemic inflammatory signals during mild AP (referred to as AP), severe AP (SAP), and recovery using 2 independent experimental models and blood from patients with AP and recurrent AP. Flow cytometric validation of monocytes subsets identified using CyTOF analysis was performed independently.

Results: Ly6C inflammatory monocytes were the most altered cells in the pancreas during experimental AP, recovery, and SAP. Deep profiling uncovered heterogeneity among pancreatic and blood monocytes and identified 7 novel subsets during AP and recovery, and 6 monocyte subsets during SAP. Notably, a dynamic shift in pancreatic CD206 macrophage population was observed during AP and recovery. Deeper profiling of the CD206 macrophage identified 7 novel subsets during AP, recovery, and SAP. DE analysis of these novel monocyte and CD206 macrophage subsets revealed significantly altered surface (CD44, CD54, CD115, CD140a, CD196, podoplanin) and functional markers (interferon-γ, interleukin 4, interleukin 22, LAP-transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, T-bet, RoRγt) that were associated with recovery and SAP. Moreover, a targeted functional analysis further revealed distinct expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by pancreatic CD206 macrophage subsets as the disease either progressed or resolved. Similarly, we identified heterogeneity among circulating classical inflammatory monocytes (CD14CD16) and novel subsets in patients with AP and recurrent AP.

Conclusions: We identified several novel monocyte/macrophage subsets with unique phenotype and functional characteristics that are associated with AP, recovery, and SAP. Our findings highlight differential innate immune responses during AP progression and recovery that can be leveraged for future disease monitoring and targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.08.033DOI Listing
August 2021

TGR5 protects against cholestatic liver disease via suppressing the NF-κB pathway and activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1158

Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, China.

Background: Characterized by the presence of inflammation, fibrosis, and bile duct proliferation, cholestatic liver disease (CLD) affects people of all age groups. Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor (TGR5) has been implicated in the suppression of inflammation via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Kupffer cells and their M1 polarization play important roles in inflammation and cholestatic liver injury via production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, the function of TGR5 signaling in CLD is largely unknown.

Methods: We conducted liver tissue experiments, animal experiments, serum marker testing, liver histology analysis, Kupffer cell experiments, RNA extraction and Real-time PCR, western blotting, evaluation of ROS production by flow cytometry and statistical differences were analyzed by student -test using GraphPad Prism.

Results: We found that serum bile acid (BA) and TGR5 levels were elevated in patients with cholestasis cirrhosis. Knockout of TGR5 in animals significantly increased bile duct ligation (BDL)-caused liver injury through increasing oxidative stress, promoting M1-predominant polarization of Kupffer cells, and elevating the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, TGR5 activation inhibited ROS production, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and M1-predominant polarization of Kupffer cells. Moreover, results showed that TGR5 exerted its effects via suppressing NF-κB signaling and activating nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2)/HO-1 signaling. Finally, the effect of TGR5 on cholestatic liver damage was also confirmed in vivo.

Conclusions: TGR5 activation protected against BDL-induced CLD by both suppressing inflammation via inhibiting the NF-κB pathway and reducing ROS production via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. These findings show the importance of TGR5 in CLD and provide new insight into therapeutic strategies for CLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350648PMC
July 2021

Arabidopsis AtPRP17 functions in embryo development by regulating embryonic patterning.

Planta 2021 Aug 23;254(3):58. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, China.

Main Conclusion: Arabidopsis AtPRP17, a homolog of yeast splicing factor gene PRP17, is expressed in siliques and embryos and functions in embryo development via regulating embryonic patterning. Yeast splicing factor PRP17/CDC40 is essential for cell growth through involvement in cell cycle regulation. Arabidopsis genome encodes a homolog of PRP17, AtPRP17; however, its function in Arabidopsis development is unknown. This study showed that AtPRP17 was highly expressed in siliques and embryos, and the protein was localized in the nucleus. The loss-of-function mutation of AtPRP17 led to shrunken seeds in Arabidopsis mature siliques. Further analysis revealed that the defective mature seeds of the mutant resulted from abnormal embryos with shriveled cotyledons, unequal cotyledons, swollen and shortened hypocotyls, or shortened radicles. During embryogenesis, mutant embryos showed delayed development and defective patterning of the apical and base domains, such as inhibited cotyledons and disorganized quiescent center cells and columella. Our results suggested that AtPRP17 functions in Arabidopsis embryo development via regulating embryonic patterning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-021-03702-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Advances in the Synthesis of 2D MXenes.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 22;33(39):e2103148. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, also known as MXenes, are versatile materials due to their adjustable structure and rich surface chemistry. The physical and chemical diversity has recognized MXenes as a potential 2D material with a wide spectrum of application domains. Since the discovery of MXenes in 2011, a wide variety of synthetic routes has been proposed with advancement toward large-scale preparing methods for MXene nanosheets and derivative products. Herein, the critical synthesis aspects and the operating conditions that influence the physical and chemical characteristics of MXenes are discussed in detail. The emerging etching methods including HF etching methods, in situ HF-forming etching methods, electrochemical etching methods, alkali etching methods, and molten salt etching methods, as well as delamination strategies are discussed. Considering the future developments and practical applications, the large-scale synthesis routes and the antioxidation strategies of MXenes are also summarized. In summary, a generalized overview of MXenes synthesis protocols with an outlook for the current challenges and promising technologies for large-scale preparation and stable storage is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103148DOI Listing
October 2021

Molecular characteristics and spatial distribution of adult human corneal cell subtypes.

Sci Rep 2021 08 11;11(1):16323. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY, 10591, USA.

Bulk RNA sequencing of a tissue captures the gene expression profile from all cell types combined. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies discrete cell-signatures based on transcriptomic identities. Six adult human corneas were processed for single-cell RNAseq and 16 cell clusters were bioinformatically identified. Based on their transcriptomic signatures and RNAscope results using representative cluster marker genes on human cornea cross-sections, these clusters were confirmed to be stromal keratocytes, endothelium, several subtypes of corneal epithelium, conjunctival epithelium, and supportive cells in the limbal stem cell niche. The complexity of the epithelial cell layer was captured by eight distinct corneal clusters and three conjunctival clusters. These were further characterized by enriched biological pathways and molecular characteristics which revealed novel groupings related to development, function, and location within the epithelial layer. Moreover, epithelial subtypes were found to reflect their initial generation in the limbal region, differentiation, and migration through to mature epithelial cells. The single-cell map of the human cornea deepens the knowledge of the cellular subsets of the cornea on a whole genome transcriptional level. This information can be applied to better understand normal corneal biology, serve as a reference to understand corneal disease pathology, and provide potential insights into therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94933-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357950PMC
August 2021

Quantitative Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Field Detections Based on Structurally Homogeneous Silver-Coated Silicon Nanocone Arrays.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 12;6(29):18928-18938. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Key Lab of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Lab of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, HFIPS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, P. R. China.

Practical application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is greatly limited by the inaccurate quantitative analyses due to the measuring parameter's fluctuations induced by different operators, different Raman spectrometers, and different test sites and moments, especially during the field tests. Herein, we develop a strategy of quantitative SERS for field detection via designing structurally homogeneous and ordered Ag-coated Si nanocone arrays. Such an array is fabricated as SERS chips by depositing Ag on the template etching-induced Si nanocone array. Taking 4-aminothiophenol as the typical analyte, the influences of fluctuations in measuring parameters (such as defocusing depth and laser powers) on Raman signals are systematically studied, which significantly change SERS measurements. It has been shown that the silicon underneath the Ag coating in the chip can respond to the measuring parameters' fluctuations synchronously with and similar to the analyte adsorbed on the chip surface, and the normalization with Si Raman signals can well eliminate the big fluctuations (up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude) in measurements, achieving highly reproducible measurements (mostly, <5% in signal fluctuations) and accurate quantitative SERS analyses. Finally, the simulated field tests demonstrate that the developed strategy enables quantitatively analyzing the highly scattered SERS measurements well with 1 order of magnitude in signal fluctuation, exhibiting good practicability. This study provides a new practical chip and reliable quantitative SERS for the field detection of real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c02179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320141PMC
July 2021

Alternative Splicing of Is Important for Growth and Pathogenesis in .

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:715773. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

College of Plant Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Human PTEN, a dual-phosphatase tumor suppressor, is frequently dysregulated by alternative splicing. Fungi harbor homologs, but alternative splicing of fungal has not been reported as far as we know. Here, we described an alternative splicing case in the homolog of (). Two splice variants of were detected and identified, which are resulted from an intron retention and exclusion (). Both proteins were different in lipid and protein phosphatase activity and in expression patterns. The deletion mutant (Δ) showed the defects in conidiation, appressorium formation, and pathogenesis. Δ could be completely restored by , but rescued partially by in the defect of conidium and appressorium formation, and by in the defect of invasive development. Assays to assess sensitivity to oxidative stress reveal the involvement of in scavenging exogenous and host-derived HO. Taken together, undergoes alternative splicing, and both variants cooperatively contribute to conidium and appressorium development, and invasive hyphae growth in plant cells, revealing a novel disease development pathway in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.715773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322540PMC
July 2021

4,4'-Dimethoxychalcone regulates redox homeostasis by targeting riboflavin metabolism in Parkinson's disease therapy.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 10 28;174:40-56. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Neuroscience and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Key Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Channelopathies of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of Education of China, Guangzhou, 510260, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress damage plays a pivotal role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Previously, we developed a blood brain barrier-penetrating peptide-based "Trojan Horse" strategy to deliver 4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (DMC) for PD therapy and revealed neuroprotective properties of DMC in a PD model; however, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Here, we report that DMC attenuated motor impairment, degeneration of DA neurons and α-synuclein aggregation in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and exogenous human α-synuclein-induced PD mouse models. Mechanistically, DMC increased the expression of two critical intermediates in riboflavin metabolism: riboflavin kinase (RFK) and its metabolic product, flavin mononucleotide (FMN). We provide the first direct evidence that FMN ameliorated oxidative stress damage and dopaminergic neuron degeneration both in vitro and in vivo and that riboflavin metabolism was required for DMC-mediated neuroprotection. DMC-induced restoration of redox homeostasis was mediated via the activation of protein kinase Cθ (PKCθ) signaling. Together, our findings reveal that DMC may serve as a novel antioxidant in PD intervention and also define a novel mechanism that underlies its therapeutic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.07.038DOI Listing
October 2021

MFGM components promote gut Bifidobacterium growth in infant and in vitro.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

National Engineering Center of Dairy for Maternal and Child Health, Beijing Sanyuan Foods Co. Ltd., No. 8, Yingchang Street, Yinghai Town, Daxing District, Beijing, 100163, China.

Purpose: Infant gut microbiota which plays an important role in long-term health is mainly shaped by early life nutrition. However, the effect of nutrients on infants gut microbiota is less researched. Here, we present a study aiming to investigate in vitro a modified formula that is supplemented with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) that were missing in common formulas when compared with human milk and to assess the impact of feeding scheme on microbiota and metabolism.

Methods: A total of 44 infants including 16 from breast milk feeding, 13 from common formula feeding and 15 from modified formula feeding were analyzed, and A cross-sectional sampling of fecal and urine was done at 1 month-of-age. Stool microbiota composition was characterized using high-throughput DNA sequencing, and urinary metabolome was profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In vitro growth experiment of Bifidobacterium with key components from MFGM was performed and analyzed by both DNA and RNA.

Results: Stool samples from the infants who were breastfed had a higher relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and a lower relative abundance of Escherichia than the formula-fed infants. The stool microbiome shifts were associated with urine metabolites changes. Three substances including lactadherin, sialic acid and phospholipid, key components of MFGM were significantly positively correlated to Bifidobacterium of stool samples from infants, and stimulated the growth rate of Bifidobacterium significantly by provided energy in vitro growth experiment with RNA analysis.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the key components from MFGM could improve infants' health by modulating the gut microbiome, and possibly supporting the growth of Bifidobacterium.

Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02658500 (registered on January 20, 2016).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02638-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Butyrophilin-like 2 regulates site-specific adaptations of intestinal γδ intraepithelial lymphocytes.

Commun Biol 2021 07 26;4(1):913. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA.

Tissue-resident γδ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. Epithelia-specific butyrophilin-like (Btnl) molecules induce perinatal development of distinct Vγ TCR IELs, however, the mechanisms that control γδ IEL maintenance within discrete intestinal segments are unclear. Here, we show that Btnl2 suppressed homeostatic proliferation of γδ IELs preferentially in the ileum. High throughput transcriptomic characterization of site-specific Btnl2-KO γδ IELs reveals that Btnl2 regulated the antimicrobial response module of ileal γδ IELs. Btnl2 deficiency shapes the TCR specificities and TCRγ/δ repertoire diversity of ileal γδ IELs. During DSS-induced colitis, Btnl2-KO mice exhibit increased inflammation and delayed mucosal repair in the colon. Collectively, these data suggest that Btnl2 fine-tunes γδ IEL frequencies and TCR specificities in response to site-specific homeostatic and inflammatory cues. Hence, Btnl-mediated targeting of γδ IEL development and maintenance may help dissect their immunological functions in intestinal diseases with segment-specific manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02438-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313535PMC
July 2021

Simulating Exceptional Non-Hermitian Metals with Single-Photon Interferometry.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(2):026404

Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084, China.

We experimentally simulate in a photonic setting non-Hermitian (NH) metals characterized by the topological properties of their nodal band structures. Implementing nonunitary time evolution in reciprocal space followed by interferometric measurements, we probe the complex eigenenergies of the corresponding NH Bloch Hamiltonians, and study in detail the topology of their exceptional lines (ELs), the NH counterpart of nodal lines in Hermitian systems. We focus on two distinct types of NH metals: two-dimensional systems with symmetry-protected ELs, and three-dimensional systems possessing symmetry-independent topological ELs in the form of knots. While both types feature open Fermi surfaces, we experimentally observe their distinctions by analyzing the impact of symmetry-breaking perturbations on the topology of ELs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.026404DOI Listing
July 2021

[Analysis of related factors of poor prognosis in children with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Jun;33(6):731-735

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine, Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430016, Hubei, China.

Objective: To explore the related factors affecting the prognosis of children with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC).

Methods: Twenty children with PNAC admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from January 2014 to December 2020 were selected as research objects by retrospective study. According to prognosis,children were divided into good (15 cases) and poor prognosis group (5 cases). Clinical data such as general condition, intravenous nutrition duration, related biochemical examination indexes and main treatment methods of children in the two groups were collected. Spearman correlation analysis was used to quantify the correlation between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and poor prognosis. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the risk factors affecting the prognosis of children with PNAC, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was drawn to evaluate the predictive value of ALT on the prognosis of children.

Results: There were no significant differences in gender, body weight, gestational age, age, feeding mode, duration of intravenous nutrition, direct bilirubin (DBil), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), total protein (TP), serum albumin (Alb), globulin (GLB), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), platelet count (PLT), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocyte count (LYM), urine culture, AST/PLT ratio (APRI) and main treatment methods between the two groups. Total bilirubin (TBil), ALT, neutrophil count (NEU) and monocyte count (MONO) in the good prognosis group were significantly lower than those in the poor prognosis group [TBil (μmol/L): 120.00±48.63 vs. 175.26±29.14, ALT (U/L): 73.25±44.29 vs. 145.30±74.33, NEU (×10/L): 2.55±1.29 vs. 5.08±4.10, MONO (×10/L): 1.23±0.87 vs. 2.13±0.60, all P < 0.05]. Logistic regression analysis showed that ALT was the risk factor affecting the prognosis of children with PNAC, when ALT increased by 1 U/L, the probability of poor prognosis increased by 3.6% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.00-1.07, P = 0.04]. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the incidence of poor prognosis was positively correlated with ALT (r = 0.49, P = 0.03). ROC analysis showed that ALT had certain predictive value for the prognosis of children with PNAC [area under ROC cure (AUC) = 0.83, 95%CI was 0.00-1.00, P = 0.03]; when the cut-off value was 121.50 U/L, its sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 93%, suggesting that ALT could be used as the main indicator for clinical prediction of poor prognosis for PNAC.

Conclusions: ALT is an independent risk factor of poor prognosis in children with PNAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20210322-00416DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of opposing needling on motor cortex excitability in healthy participants and in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia: study protocol for a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jul 22;22(1):481. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

South China Research Center for Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Medical College of Acu-Moxi and Rehabilitation, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510000, China.

Background: Opposing needling has an obvious curative effect in the treatment of post-stroke hemiplegia; however, the mechanism of the opposing needling in the treatment of post-stroke hemiplegia is still not clear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of opposing needling on the excitability of primary motor cortex (M1) of healthy participants and patients with post-stroke hemiplegia, which may provide insight into the mechanisms of opposing needling in treating post-stroke hemiplegia.

Methods: This will be a single-blind, randomised, sham-controlled trial in which 80 healthy participants and 40 patients with post-stroke hemiplegia will be recruited. Healthy participants will be randomised 1:1:1:1 to the 2-Hz, 50-Hz, 100-Hz, and sham electroacupuncture groups. Patients with post-stroke hemiplegia will be randomised 1:1 to the opposing needling or conventional treatment groups. The M1 will be located in all groups by using neuroimaging-based navigation. The stimulator coil of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) will be moved over the left and right M1 in order to identify the TMS hotspot, followed by a recording of resting motor thresholds (RMTs) and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the thenar muscles induced by TMS before and after the intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percent change in the RMTs of the thenar muscles at baseline and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures will be the amplitude (μV) and latency (ms) of the MEPs of the thenar muscles at baseline and after the intervention.

Discussion: The aim of this trial is to explore the effect of opposing needling on the excitability of M1 of healthy participants and patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR1900028138 . Registered on 13 December 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05443-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296658PMC
July 2021

Strong Polarized Photoluminescence CsPbBr Nanowire Composite Films for UV Spectral Conversion Polarization Photodetector Enhancement.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 21;13(30):36147-36156. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Display Materials and Devices, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics & Nanomaterials, School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.

In this work, we proposed a fluorescence conversion layer with polarization characteristics to enhance UV polarization detection for the first time. To achieve this goal, the colloidal lead halide CsPbBr nanowires (NWs) with appropriate lengths were synthesized by the method of ultrasonication synthesis assisted by the addition of hydrobromic acid (HBr) ligands. By adding HBr, the properties of synthesized NWs are improved, and due to the controllable perovskite-stretched NWs, polymer composite films were fabricated, which can generate photoluminescence (PL) with strong polarization. The optimized stretched composite film can achieve a polarization degree of 0.42 and dichroism ratio (/) of 2.49 at 520 nm. Based on this film, an imaging system with polarization-selective properties and efficient UV spectral conversion was developed. The spectrum conversion of 266 to 520 nm luminescence wavelength was realized and sensitive to the polarization of incoming 266 nm UV light. The experimental results also showed that the response after spectral conversion is greatly improved, and different responsivities can correspond to different polarization states. This imaging system overcomes the insufficiency of the conventional charge coupled device (CCD), which makes it difficult to receive the optical signal for high-quality UV imaging. The use of light conversion films with polarization characteristics for polarized UV imaging is of great significance for improving the detection of solar-blind UV bands and the recognition of military targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07681DOI Listing
August 2021

Changes in the Cytokine Profiles of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B during Antiviral Therapy.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Jun;34(6):443-453

Department of Hepatology Division 2, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100015, China;Department of Hepatology Division 2, Peking University Ditan Teaching Hospital, Beijing 100015, China.

Objective: To investigate the changes in the cytokine profiles of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients undergoing antiviral treatment.

Methods: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients were treated with Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and entecavir (ETV). Clinical biochemistry and cytokines were detected at baseline and every 3 months.

Results: In all, 200 patients completed 48 weeks of treatment, 100 in the PEG-IFN group and 100 in the ETV group. During 3-6 months of treatment, compared with baseline, the PEG-IFN group showed a significant decrease in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) ( < 0.001) and a significant increase in interferon-alpha 2(IFN-α2) ( < 0.001). In the ETV group, IL-10 and TGF-β1 decreased significantly ( < 0.001). After 3 months, the levels of IFN-α2, IL-17A, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in the PEG-IFN group were significantly higher than those in the ETV group ( < 0.01). The levels of IL-6 and TGF-β3 were significantly lower than those in the ETV group ( < 0.01). After 6 months, the levels of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the PEG-IFN group were significantly higher than those in the ETV group ( < 0.01), while the levels of IL-6 and TGF-β3 were significantly lower than those in the ETV group ( < 0.01). Compared with ETV, PEG-IFN had higher HBeAg and HBsAg disappearance rates.

Conclusion: During antiviral therapy, a change in the cytokine profile occurred; in the aspect of immune control and functional cure, PEG-IFN was significantly better than ETV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.061DOI Listing
June 2021

Mechanistic Insights into the Dual Directing Group-Mediated C-H Functionalization/Annulation a Hydroxyl Group-Assisted M-M-M Pathway.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 1;6(27):17642-17650. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Guangzhou Municipal and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Modification and Degradation & Molecular Target and Clinical Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, China.

The experimental investigations on the catalyst [Cp*Rh(OAc) and Cp*Ir (OAc))]-controlled [3 + 2] and [4 + 2] annulations of oximes with propargyl alcohols have been finished in our previous work and a supposed dual directing group-mediated reaction pathway has been deduced for the chemodivergent product synthesis. However, the detailed interaction modes of the dual directing groups binding with the corresponding metal center to achieve the above observed chemoselectivity remain unclear and even contradict. For instance, the calculational traditional dual direct coupling transition states suggested that both Cp*Rh(OAc)- and Cp*Ir(OAc)-catalyzed reactions would generate five-membered indenamines as the dominant products [3 + 2] annulation. To address this concern, herein, systematic DFT calculations combined with proof-of-concept experiments have been carried out. Accordingly, a novel and more favorable M-M-M reaction mechanism, which involves an unprecedented HOAc together with a hydroxyl group-assisted reaction pathway in which the hydroxyl group acts as double effectors for the formation of M-O coordination and [MeO···H···O(CCH)O···H···O] bonding interactions, was deduced. Taken together, the present results would provide a rational basis for future development of the dual directing group-mediated C-H activation reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c02183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280669PMC
July 2021
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