Publications by authors named "Yi Tong"

156 Publications

Circular Ribonucleic Acid Expression Alteration in the Spinal Cord Tissue after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 Sep 14:1-20. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background And Purpose: Increased researches focus into pathophysiological mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI), particularly toward the relationship between relevant biomarkers and the degree of SCI and prognosis. Circular ribonucleic acids (circRNAs) possess microRNA (miRNA) binding sites that can play the role of miRNA sponges and thus participate in the expression of parental gene modification. This study focused on rat SCI models and explore the relationship between circRNAs and SCI at a genomic level.

Methods: We first established a rat SCI model and extracted the target spinal cord tissue according to 4 time points. Then investigated the alterations in the circRNA expression by high-throughput whole transcriptome sequencing, analyzed data by gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and constructed the circRNA-miRNA network.

Results: A total of 178 circRNAs were dysregulated (89 upregulated/89 downregulated). Differential circRNAs were found to be mainly involved in the composition of specific organelles in the cytoplasm and are mainly involved in the energy transfer process associated with electron transfer (and similar activities). In all the signaling pathways identified in this study, the MAPK, Wnt, and mTOR signaling pathways are intimately associated with the pathophysiological process of rats post-SCI. In this study, 10 circRNAs with obvious dysregulation were selected for prediction, 26 miRNAs with additional interactions were obtained, and a network diagram of circRNAs-miRNAs was constructed. In this manner, one can understand in further detail the pathogenesis of SCI and to provide new strategies for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of SCI-related injuries at the genetic level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518213DOI Listing
September 2021

In situ localization of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate in mouse organs by MALDI-IMS with auxiliary matrix strategy.

Talanta 2021 Dec 19;235:122723. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China. Electronic address:

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC) is one of the novel brominated flame retardants that has been widely used in consumer goods. Humans may be exposed to TBC daily. Studies showed that TBC can induce significant toxicity. However, there is currently no report on its in situ localization in organs. In this study, we aimed to develop a reliable and reproductive method to determine the in situ localization of TBC in mouse organs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). As commercially available matrices were not able to detect TBC in tissue section, we then developed a novel MALDI-IMS method based on 1,5-diaminonaphthalene hydrochloride and silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (NDA/AgOTf) as the matrix for the in situ localization of TBC. AgOTf used as the auxiliary matrix in the negative-ion mode showed an excellent MS signal of TBC. The detection limit of [2AgOTf + Br] was at the μg/mL level. The developed MALDI-IMS method was successfully employed to obtain the TBC spatial distribution in the mouse organs collected from mice exposed to 160 mg/kg/day of TBC for 30 days. High-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) was also used to evaluate the accumulation of TBC in liver, kidney, heart, and brain. The combination of MALDI-IMS and HPLC-MS/MS showed that TBC can accumulate in mice organs and it is mainly distributed in the renal parenchyma. In summary, an innovative method was developed for the analysis of TBC spatial distribution by MALDI-IMS using a novel NDA/AgOTf matrix, extending the application of MALDI-IMS in environmental pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122723DOI Listing
December 2021

GRP78 expression and prognostic significance in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant therapy versus surgery first.

Pancreatology 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA; Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) plays an essential role in protein folding, transportation, and degradation, thus regulates ER homeostasis and promotes cell survival, proliferation and invasion. GRP78 expression in PDAC patients who received neoadjuvant therapy has not been reported.

Methods: This retrospective study of resected PDAC patients included 125 patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) and 140 patients treated with surgery first (SF). The expression of GRP78 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays and the results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and survival.

Results: GRP78 expression was higher in SF patients compared to NAT patients (P < 0.001). In SF cohort, the median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with GRP78-positive tumors were 11.2 months and 25.0 months, respectively, compared to DFS of 52.1 months (P = 0.008) and OS of 69.5 months (P = 0.02) for those with GRP78-negative tumors. GRP78 expression correlated with higher frequency of recurrent/metastasis (P = 0.045). In NAT cohort, GRP78 expression correlated with shorter OS (P = 0.03), but not DFS (P = 0.08). GRP78 expression was an independent prognosticator for both DFS (P = 0.02) and OS (P = 0.049) in SF cohort and was an independent prognosticator for OS (P = 0.03), but not for DFS (P = 0.06) in NAT cohort by multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Our study showed that GRP78 expression in NAT cohort is lower than that in SF cohort. GRP78 expression correlated with shorter survival in both SF and NAT patients. Our findings suggest that targeting GRP78 may help to improve the prognosis in PDAC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.08.006DOI Listing
August 2021

Memristors Based on an Iridium(III) Complex Containing Viologen for Advanced Synaptic Bionics.

Inorg Chem 2021 Sep 11;60(17):13021-13028. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biosensors, Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Memristors with nonvolatile memory properties are expected to open the era of neuromorphic computing. However, it remains a huge challenge to develop memristors with high uniformity, high stability, and low power consumption for advanced synaptic bionics. Herein, an electroactive iridium(III) complex was designed and synthesized by incorporating a viologen moiety into its NN ligand. Complex showed multiple redox states and high sensitivity to an electrical stimulus. Importantly, two-terminal memristors with Ag//W structure were successfully fabricated by the solution-processable method, which exhibited multilevel storage characteristics with a low switching threshold voltage of 0.5 V and high ON1/ON2/ON3/OFF current ratio of 10/10/10/1 at a low reading bias of 0.05 V. Moreover, the memristors can mimic synaptic plasticity, indicating that they can act as artificial synapses to construct brain-inspired neural networks. The memristive mechanisms can be ascribed to the interconversion among different charge-transfer and redox states under various electrical stimulus. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first experimental demonstration of memristors based on iridium(III) complexes, opening a new era for the development of synaptic bionic devices based on organometallic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01439DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of a yeast-derived product on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and immune function of broilers.

Poult Sci 2021 Sep 24;100(9):101343. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China. Electronic address:

Yeast culture plus enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast cell wall (YC-EHY) contains crude protein, mannan-oligosaccharide, β-glucan and yeast culture. This study was carried out to explore the effects of dietary YC-EHY at different levels on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and immune function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 one-day-age male broiler chicks were allocated into 4 groups and were fed with a basal diet supplemented with 0 mg/kg (the control group), 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg YC-EHY for 42 d. Dietary YC-EHY improved average daily gain and feed efficiency during the starter, grower, and overall periods as well as average body weight of broiler chickens on 42 d (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Broiler chickens fed with YC-EHY quadratically increased jejunal sucrase activity on 21 d (quadratic, P < 0.05), and linearly and quadratically enhanced maltase activity on 21 and 42 d (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Supplementing YC-EHY linearly and quadratically enhanced jejunal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity on 21 and 42 d and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity on 42 d whereas decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration on 42 d (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Consistently, the jejunal genes expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and SOD1 on 21 and 42 d, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and GPX1 on 42 d were enhanced by YC-EHY supplementation (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). The concentrations of jejunal immunoglobulin G (IgG) on 21 and 42 d and secreted immunoglobulin A (SIgA) on 42 d were linearly and quadratically elevated by supplementing YC-EHY (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Dietary YC-EHY quadratically increased jejunal IgG and IgM genes expression on 21 d (quadratic, P < 0.05), and linearly and quadratically enhanced the genes expression of IgG and IgM on 42 d (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Overall, this study indicated that supplementing YC-EHY could exert beneficial effects on growth performance, intestinal antioxidant capacity and immune function in broiler chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8334739PMC
September 2021

Comparative efficacy of osteochondral autologous transplantation and microfracture in the knee: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Jul 25. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Arthroscopy and Sports Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Wangjing Hospital, Beijing, 100102, China.

Introduction: More than 19% of patients undergoing knee arthroscopies suffers from articular cartilage defects. The chondral or osteochondral lesion has negative impacts on the knee joints function and the life quality of patients. However, the treatment remains challenging as hyaline cartilage is not renewable. The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze the data of randomized controlled trials for comparing the postoperative outcomes between osteochondral autologous transplantation (OAT) and microfracture (MF) procedure. We hypothesized that the outcomes were better in OAT than MF procedure.

Materials And Methods: A systematic literature search of the EMBASE, Pubmed, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted based on PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The outcome measures include: the rate of excellent or good results, the rate of return to sports, the failure rate, osteoarthritis rate, International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score, Lysholm Knee Score, and Tegner scale. The statistical analysis was completed using Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.3) software.

Results: The systematic search identified 7 studies with a total of 346 patients. The pooled result showed significant differences between the two groups in the rate of return to sports and failure. The following outcome scores showed significant improvement (pre- vs postoperatively): Lysholm score (p = 0.02), Tegner scale (p < 0.00001), and ICRS score (p < 0.00001). The differences were not significant in the excellent or good results and the rate of osteoarthritis.

Conclusion: The patients in OAT group may return to play quicker, even return to pre-injury level of activity compared to the MF group. OAT is better than MF procedure in accordance with Lysholm score, Tegner score, ICRS score, and the rate of failure. However, few studies have reported long-term outcomes and there has no uniform criteria for safe return to sports. Further research is needed.

Level Of Evidence: Level II, meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-04075-9DOI Listing
July 2021

1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) Urea Exerts Neuro-Protective Effects Against Ischemic Injury via Suppressing JNK/p38 MAPK-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 30;30(9):105957. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Background: 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1- propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) is a novel soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor which can protect against cerebral ischemic injury in middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model. However, the effects and potential mechanisms of TPPU on mitochondrial dysfunction are poorly understood.

Materials And Methods: In oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced cortical neurons, the effect of TPPU on cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL assay. Mitochondria were observed by transmission electron microscopy and Mitotracker green staining assay, mitochondrial membrane potential was determined by JC-1 staining assay, activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (MRCC) I-IV and ATPase were measured by MRCC Activity Assay Kits and spectrophotometer. Western blot was used to investigate the effects of TPPU on apoptosis-related proteins.

Results: TPPU treatment demonstrated significant protective effect on the OGD/R-induced cortical neurons by reducing cell death and number of apoptotic cells, stabilizing mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology, increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and activities of MRCC I-IV and ATPase. Furthermore, TPPU treatment might effectively reverse the upregulation of caspase-3, Bax, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), alleviate the inhibition of Bcl-2 in OGD/R-induced cortical neurons.

Conclusions: TPPU exerts a marked neuroprotective effect against mitochondrial dysfunction after cerebral ischemia potentially via suppressing JNK/p38 MAPK-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis signal pathway, it may be a promising neuroprotective agent for cerebral ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105957DOI Listing
September 2021

Production of nisin and lactic acid from the starch of sweet potato by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with two stage pH adjustment.

3 Biotech 2021 Jul 10;11(7):320. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, 130000 China.

Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide which is widely used as preservative, while lactic acid is a natural organic acid applied in the food industry. The aim of this work was to study the process for nisin and lactic acid production from starch of sweet potato with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by subsp. with two stage pH adjustment. The factors impacting the nisin and lactic acid production including starch concentration, glucosidase concentration, CaCO and Tween-80 were studied. The nisin titre reached a high of 2516.41 IU/mL, while the lactic acid reached a high of 37.06 g/L when the optimal conditions were 40 g/L starch, 100 U glucosidase/g starch, 2.5% CaCO and 1 mL/L Tween-80. The lactic acid and nisin were separated by a two stage pH adjustment at last. The SSF of starch from sweet potato coupled with a two stage pH adjustment is a promising method to produce nisin and lactic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02778-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192676PMC
July 2021

Lymphocytic Esophagitis Is Not Similar to Eosinophilic Esophagitis Except for Seasonal Variation.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2021 May;51(3):347-351

Department of Pathology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

Objective: Unlike eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), there is no consensus on the minimum number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that is diagnostic of lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE). The aim of this study was to determine whether significant correlations exist between the numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in esophageal biopsies and clinical and endoscopic manifestations usually associated with EoE.

Methods: H&E slides from esophageal biopsies from 330 patients were reviewed. The number of IEL and intraepithelial eosinophils (IEE) per mm was counted in the area with the highest concentration in each biopsy. The numbers were then correlated with clinical and endoscopic findings.

Results: As expected, a higher number of IEE was significantly associated with food impaction (=0.001), dysphagia (=0.021), esophageal stricture (=0.017), rings (<0.0001), and furrows (<0.0001). By contrast, there was no significant association between increased IEL and any of the aforementioned clinical and endoscopic features in the original 330 patients or in a subset of 233 patients with no IEE. Interestingly, the number of both IEE and IEL varied significantly by the season when the biopsy was obtained, being lowest in the fall and highest in the spring (=0002 for IEE and <0.0001 for IEL).

Conclusion: In esophageal biopsies, increased IEL has no significant correlation with food impaction or dysphagia or with esophageal stricture, rings, or furrows. There is significant variation in the number of IEL depending on the season when the biopsy is obtained, which has not been previously reported.
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May 2021

Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Arising From the Synergy Between ND1 3635G>A Mutation and Mitochondrial YARS2 Mutations.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 06;62(7):22

Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics, Ministry of Education of PRC, The Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Purpose: To investigate the mechanism underlying the synergic interaction between Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)-associated ND1 and mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YARS2) mutations.

Methods: Molecular dynamics simulation and differential scanning fluorimetry were used to evaluate the structure and stability of proteins. The impact of ND1 3635G>A and YARS2 p.G191V mutations on the oxidative phosphorylation machinery was evaluated using blue native gel electrophoresis and enzymatic activities assays. Assessment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cell lines was performed by flow cytometry with MitoSOX Red reagent. Analysis of effect of mutations on autophagy was undertaken via flow cytometry for autophagic flux.

Results: Members of one Chinese family bearing both the YARS2 p.191Gly>Val and m.3635G>A mutations exhibited much higher penetrance of optic neuropathy than those pedigrees carrying only the m.3635G>A mutation. The m.3635G>A (p.Ser110Asn) mutation altered the ND1 structure and function, whereas the p.191Gly>Val mutation affected the stability of YARS2. Lymphoblastoid cell lines harboring both m.3635G>A and p.191Gly>Val mutations revealed more reductions in the levels of mitochondrion-encoding ND1 and CO2 than cells bearing only the m.3635G>A mutation. Strikingly, both m.3635G>A and p.191Gly>Val mutations exhibited decreases in the nucleus-encoding subunits of complex I and IV. These deficiencies manifested greater defects in the stability and activities of complex I and complex IV and overproduction of ROS and promoted greater autophagy in cell lines harboring both m.3635G>A and p.191Gly>Val mutations compared with cells bearing only the m.3635G>A mutation.

Conclusions: Our findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of LHON arising from the synergy between ND1 3635G>A mutation and mitochondrial YARS2 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.7.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237128PMC
June 2021

(Annonaceae), a new species from China.

PhytoKeys 2021 27;178:71-80. Epub 2021 May 27.

Singapore Botanic Gardens, National Parks Board, 1 Cluny Road, 259569, Singapore Singapore Botanic Gardens Singapore Singapore.

is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan and Jiangxi in China. A detailed description, distribution data, along with a color plate and a line drawing are provided. In China, specimens representing this species were formerly misidentified as or (= ). typically has a single flower per inflorescence, whereas both and have multiple flowers per inflorescence. In addition, is readily distinguished from in having thicker and shorter petals, and connivent and somewhat trigonal or terete inner petal blades. is most similar to because both have multi-flowered inflorescences and similar petal length, but differs in having cream petals , connivent inner petal blades, and a short, raised rim above the inner petal claw. should be excluded from the flora of China because none of the Chinese specimens of collected so far fall within the variation of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.178.64485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175324PMC
May 2021

Preparation and characterization of octenyl succinic anhydride modified waxy maize starch hydrolyzate/chitosan complexes with enhanced interfacial properties.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Sep 20;267:118228. Epub 2021 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Biological Colloids, Ministry of Education, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 LiHu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Safety and Quality Control, Jiangnan University, 1800 LiHu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Electronic address:

The preparation and characterization of colloidal complexes based on octenyl succinic anhydride starch hydrolyzate (OSAS) and chitosan (CS) were conducted. Results showed that OSA-S/CS ratio (r) and pH significantly affected complex turbidities and yields. The highest turbidity and yield were obtained at r = 6:1 when pH was fixed, and at pH 6.5 when r was fixed. All complexes remained liquid-like except that formed at pH 6.5, which exhibited a gel structure due to the strongest complexation. OSA-S/CS complexes had intertwined core-shell microstructure and exhibited electrostatic interactions between COO and NH groups of OSA-S and CS, respectively. The complexes prepared at r = 6:1 and pH 6.0 exhibited the most suitable wettability (θ = 91.97°) and interfacial adsorption dynamics. The compact lamellar network and intact cores of these complexes were also shown. This work provides profound and comprehensive information about the formation and physicochemical properties of OSA-S/CS complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118228DOI Listing
September 2021

Improved privacy preserving method for periodical SRS publishing.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250457. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Computer Science, Communication University of China, Beijing, China.

Spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) are used to collect adverse drug events (ADEs) for their evaluation and analysis. Periodical SRS data publication gives rise to a problem where sensitive, private data can be discovered through various attacks. The existing SRS data publishing methods are vulnerable to Medicine Discontinuation Attack(MD-attack) and Substantial symptoms-attack(SS-attack). To remedy this problem, an improved periodical SRS data publishing-PPMS(k, θ, ɑ)-bounding is proposed. This new method can recognize MD-attack by ensuring that each equivalence group contains at least k new medicine discontinuation records. The SS-attack can be thwarted using a heuristic algorithm. Theoretical analysis indicates that PPMS(k, θ, ɑ)-bounding can thwart the above-mentioned attacks. The experimental results also demonstrate that PPMS(k, θ, ɑ)-bounding can provide much better protection for privacy than the existing method and the new method dose not increase the information loss. PPMS(k, θ, ɑ)-bounding can improve the privacy, guaranteeing the information usability of the released tables.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250457PLOS
April 2021

A Novel Method for Stabilizing Zein Gel Particles to Salt Ion-Induced Aggregation.

Molecules 2021 Mar 8;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Nutrition and Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.

The destabilization of zein gel particles by salt ions seriously limits their practical application. In this study, zein gel particles exhibiting excellent stability to salt ions were developed by grafting gum arabic with tannic acid. Gum arabic (GA) was first coated onto the surface of zein gel particles, followed by addition of tannic acid to further reinforce non-covalent cross-linking between GA and the zein gel particle surface. The stability of the gel particle dispersions was characterized by Turbiscan analysis, gel particle diameter changes and visual inspection of phase separation. The tannic acid-treated zein-GA gel particles were highly protected from precipitation or aggregation in the presence of NaCl (0-3 mol/L) at different pH values (4.0, 7.0 or 8.5). The gel particles prepared in this study will therefore have broader applicability in different pH and salt ions ion environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7975981PMC
March 2021

[Engineering progress in microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Feb;37(2):384-394

COFCO Biochemical Co., Ltd., Bengbu 233010, Anhui, China.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers obtained by esterification of hydroxy fatty acid monomers. Due to similar mechanical characteristics of traditional petroleum-based plastics, 100% biodegradability and biocompatibility, PHAs are considered to be one of the most potential green materials. However, the application and promotion of PHAs as a green and environmentally friendly material are difficult because of the high production costs. This article focuses on the current methods to reduce production cost of PHAs effectively, such as cell morphology regulation, metabolic pathway construction, economic carbon source utilization and open fermentation technology development. Despite most research results are still limited in laboratory, the research methods and directions provide theoretical guidance for the industrial production of economic PHAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200283DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence and impact factors of recurrent positive SARS-CoV-2 detection in 599 hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Repeat-positive tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were common. We aimed to investigate the rate and risk factors of recurrent positive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized individuals with COVID-19.

Methods: Oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 3513) were collected to detect SARS-CoV-2 during the hospitalization. We analysed the recurrent positive rate after consecutive negative results and its relationship to demographic characteristics.

Results: Among 599 enrolled individuals with COVID-19, the median time for viral RNA shedding was 24 days (interquartile range 19-33 days). The positive rates of RT-PCR were 35.9% (215/599), 17.0% (65/383) and 12.4% (23/185) after one, two and three consecutive negative RT-PCR test results, respectively. Medians of Ct values of initial positive test, rebound positive test after two consecutive negative results, and rebound positive after three consecutive negative results were 28.8, 32.8 and 36.1, respectively. Compared with male patients, females had a significantly higher rate of recurrent positive RT-PCR after three consecutive negative results (18.2%, 18/99, versus 5.8%, 5/86; p 0.013). Older individuals (≥55 years) had a significantly higher rate of recurrent positive RT-PCR after one negative result (42.3%, 165/390, versus 23.9%, 50/209; p < 0.001). Nasopharyngeal swab tests produced a higher positive rate than oropharyngeal swab tests (37.3%, 152/408, versus 35.8%, 1111/3105).

Conclusion: Our study revealed the prevalence and dynamic characteristics of recurrent positive RT-PCR to SARS-CoV-2. We showed that around 17.0% (65/383) of patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after two consecutive negative results. Patients with a rebound positive RT-PCR test had a low viral load. Older age and being female were risk factors for recurrent positive results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2021.01.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870438PMC
February 2021

Genetics and Clinical Features of Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy in the Fetal Population.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 20;7:617561. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy (NCCM) has been classified as primary genetic cardiomyopathy and has gained increasing clinical awareness; however, little is known about NCCM in the fetal population. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and genetic spectrum of a fetal population with NCCM. We retrospectively reviewed all fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of NCCM at a single center between October 2010 and December 2019. These cases were investigated for gestational age at diagnosis, gender, left or biventricular involvement, associated cardiac phenotypes, outcomes, and genetic testing data. We identified 37 fetuses with NCCM out of 49,898 fetuses, indicating that the incidence of NCCM in the fetal population was 0.07%. Of the 37 fetuses, 26 were male, ten were female and one was of unknown gender. NCCM involvement biventricle is the most common ( = 16, 43%), followed by confined to the left ventricle ( = 14, 38%). Nineteen (51%) had additional congenital heart defects, with right-sided lesions being the most common ( = 14, 74%), followed by ventricular septal defects ( = 10, 53%). Hydrops fetalis was present in 12 cases (32%), of which four were atypical (pericardial effusion only). Sequencing analysis was performed at autopsy ( = 19) or postnatally ( = 1) on 20 fetuses. Of the 20 fetuses undergoing copy number variation sequencing and whole-exome sequencing, nine (47%) had positive genetic results, including one with a pathogenic copy number variant and eight with pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants. Non-sarcomere gene mutations accounted for the vast majority ( = 7). In contrast, sarcomere gene mutations occurred in only one case (TPM1), and no mutations were identified in the three most common sarcomere genes (MYH7, TTN, and MYBPC3) of pediatric and adult patients. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were significantly more frequent in fetuses with congenital heart defects than those without congenital heart defects. Our data demonstrate that fetal NCCM is a unique entity. Compared with pediatric and adult NCCM, fetal NCCM is more prone to biventricle involvement, more likely to be complicated with congenital heart defects, and has a distinct genetic spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.617561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854697PMC
January 2021

Fabrication and investigation of quaternary Ag-In-Zn-S quantum dots-based memristors with ultralow power and multiple resistive switching behaviors.

Nanotechnology 2021 May;32(19):195205

College of Electronic and Optical Engineering & College of Microelectronics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, People's Republic of China.

Quaternary Ag-In-Zn-S (AIZS) quantum dots (QDs) play critical roles in various applications since they have advantages of combining superior optical and electrical features, such as tunable fluorescence emission and high carrier mobilities. However, the application of semiconductor AIZS QDs in brain-inspired devices (e.g. memristor) has been rarely reported. In this work, the tunable volatile threshold switching (TS) and non-volatile memory switching (MS) behaviors have been obtained in a memristor composed of AIZS QDs by regulating the magnitude of compliance current. Additionally, the innovative Ag/AIZS structure devices without traditional oxide layer exhibit low operation voltage (∼0.25 V) and programming current (100 nA) under the TS mode. Moreover, the devices achieve reproducible bipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviors with large ON/OFF ratio of ∼10, ultralow power consumption of ∼10 W, and good device-to-device uniformity under the MS mode. Furthermore, the charge transport mechanisms of the high- and low-resistance states under the positive and negative bias have been analyzed with space-charge-limited-current and filament conduction models, respectively. This work not only validates the potential of AIZS QDs acting as dielectric layer in RS devices but also provides a new guideline for designing ultralow power and multiple RS characteristics devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe32eDOI Listing
May 2021

Rational Design of the N-Terminal Coding Sequence for Regulating Enzyme Expression in .

ACS Synth Biol 2021 02 19;10(2):265-276. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Synonymous mutation of the N-terminal coding sequence (NCS) has been used to regulate gene expression. We here developed a statistical model to predict the effect of the NCSs on protein expression in WB600. First, a synonymous mutation was performed within the first 10 residues of a superfolder green fluorescent protein to generate a library of 172 NCS synonymous mutants with different expression levels. A prediction model was then developed, which adopted G/C frequency at the third position of each codon and minimum free energy of mRNA as the independent variables, using multiple regression analysis between the 11 sequence parameters of the NCS and their fluorescence intensities. By designing the NCS of the 10 signal peptides according to the model, the extracellular yield of pullulanase fused to each signal peptide was up-regulated by up to 515% or down-regulated by at most 79%. This work provided a candidate tool for fine-tuning gene expression or enzyme production in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.0c00309DOI Listing
February 2021

Grand Challenges for Industrializing Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).

Trends Biotechnol 2021 Sep 8;39(9):953-963. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Beijing 100084, China; MOE Key Lab on Industrial Biocatalyst, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a diverse family of sustainable bioplastics synthesized by various bacteria, but their high production cost and unstable material properties make them challenging to use in commercial applications. Current industrial biotechnology (CIB) employs conventional microbial chassis, leading to high production costs. However, next-generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB) approaches, based on fast-growing and contamination-resistant extremophilic Halomonas spp., allow stable continuous processing and thus economical production of PHAs with stable properties. Halomonas spp. designed and constructed using synthetic biology not only produce low-cost intracellular PHAs but also secrete extracellular soluble products for improved process economics. Next-generation industrial biotechnology is expected to reduce the bioproduction cost and process complexity, leading to successful commercial production of PHAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2020.11.010DOI Listing
September 2021

Correction to: Novel and potent inhibitors targeting DHODH are broad-spectrum antivirals against RNA viruses including newly-emerged coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Protein Cell 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

In the original publication the author's name 'Dimitri Lavillete' is published incorrectly. The correct author name should be spelt as 'Dimitri Lavillette' is provided in this correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13238-020-00801-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650572PMC
November 2020

Proinflammatory cytokines are associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding in COVID-19 patients.

Clin Immunol 2020 12 14;221:108611. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. Electronic address:

Since December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and analyzed the risk factors for prolonged viral RNA shedding. We retrospectively collected data from 112 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a single center in Wuhan, China. Factors associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding (≥28 days) were investigated. Forty-nine (43.8%) patients had prolonged viral RNA shedding. Patients with prolonged viral shedding were older and had a higher rate of hypertension. Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-2R (IL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were significantly elevated in patients with prolonged viral shedding. Multivariate analysis revealed that hypertension, older age, lymphopenia and elevated serum IL-2R were independent risk factors for prolonged viral shedding. This comprehensive investigation revealed the distinct characteristics between patients with or without prolonged viral RNA shedding. Hypertension, older age, lymphopenia and high levels of proinflammatory cytokines may be correlated with prolonged viral shedding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554496PMC
December 2020

Colorectal Cancer Detection Based on Deep Learning.

J Pathol Inform 2020 21;11:28. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Introduction: The initial point in the diagnostic workup of solid tumors remains manual, with the assessment of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue sections by microscopy. This is a labor-intensive step that requires attention to detail. In addition, diagnoses are influenced by an individual pathologist's knowledge and experience and may not always be reproducible between pathologists.

Methods: We introduce a deep learning-based method in colorectal cancer detection and segmentation from digitized H&E-stained histology slides.

Results: In this study, we demonstrate that this neural network approach produces median accuracy of 99.9% for normal slides and 94.8% for cancer slides compared to pathologist-based diagnosis on H&E-stained slides digitized from clinical samples.

Conclusion: Given that our approach has very high accuracy on normal slides, use of neural network algorithms may provide a screening approach to save pathologist time in identifying tumor regions. We suggest that this new method may be a powerful assistant for colorectal cancer diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpi.jpi_68_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518343PMC
August 2020

Clinical Studies on the Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia With Traditional Chinese Medicine-A Literature Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2020 10;11:560448. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Objective: This study aims to analyze the current situation and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia, clarify its clinical advantages and provide a reference for clinical treatment.

Methods: Clinical randomized controlled trials, clinical control trials and case series research involving the use of Chinese medicine for novel coronavirus pneumonia treatment were selected from PubMed, Chinese Journal Service Platform of CNKI, VIP, and WanFang Data Knowledge Service Platform from the establishment of the library to 11:00 am on April 15, 2020. The published information, research design, intervention measures and research observation index were statistically analyzed.

Results: Twenty studies were included. The research methods were mainly clinical controlled trials. The observation indicators were mostly fever improvement time, cough improvement time, shortness of breath improvement time, chest CT and CRP examination. Maxing Ganshi (, and ) decoction was the core prescription. The most frequently used drugs were (Gancao) (Mahuang) (Kuxingren) (Cangzhu), and (Huangqin). The most frequently used drug combination was (Mahuang)- (Kuxingren). The most frequently used Chinese patent medicine was Lianhua Qingwen capsule/granule.

Conclusions: Traditional Chinese medicine has widely used for novel coronavirus pneumonia in China. It is worthy of global attention. Also, high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials on the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia need to carry out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.560448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511712PMC
September 2020

Cervical arthroplasty versus anterior cervical discectomy in the treatment of symptomatic cervical spondylosis: A protocol.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Sep;99(37):e22145

Department of Orthopedics, Zigong No.4 People's Hospital.

Background: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) are both the effective techniques in treatment of cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this present retrospective cohort research was to assess the efficacy and safety of ACDF and CDA in treating the symptomatic cervical spondylosis over the 6-year follow-up.

Methods: From our registry database, we identified retrospectively patients who received CDA or ACDF in our academic institutions from 2012 to 2015. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board in Zigong No.4 People's Hospital (Z10058072). All the subjects who participated in this trial were informed consent in writing. The inclusion criteria were the degenerative disc diseases between C3-7 resulting in myelopathy or radiculopathy, which was unresponsive to the conservative treatment. The clinical results were determined via Short Form-36, and neck disability index, numerical scoring scales for complications, arm pain and neck pain. The radiographic assessment contained the cervical lordosis, and the motion range of the functional spinal unit and total cervical spine. The routine follow-up was performed to collect the data of radiographic and clinical assessment at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 months before and after the surgery.

Results: This study had limited inclusion and exclusion criteria and a well-controlled intervention. It was assumed that both techniques could obtain the similar postoperative effects.

Trial Registration: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5878).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489585PMC
September 2020

Aquaporin-5 Expression Is Reduced in Lymphocytic Colitis.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2020 Jul;50(4):447-449

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Objective: Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a member of a family of water channel proteins involved in the bidirectional transfer of water across cell membranes. Lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC) are clinically similar diseases characterized by chronic watery diarrhea in patients with usually unremarkable colonic mucosa on colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to determine whether AQP5 expression in colonic epithelium is altered in LC and CC.

Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded colorectal biopsies from three control patients (CTL), 8 patients with chronic non-bloody diarrhea with biopsies negative for active inflammation or significant distortion (CTL-D), 8 patients with LC, and 5 with CC were stained for AQP5 using immunohistochemistry. The staining intensity was scored as 3 (strong), 2 (intermediate), 1 (weak), or 0 (no staining). Statistical analysis was performed using Prism 7 Statistical Soft-ware.

Results: AQP5 was strongly expressed (score 3) in the epithelial cells in all three CTL cases and all 8 CTL-D cases. In the 5 cases of CC, 3(60%) had score 3 and 2(40%) had score 2, but none had a score of 1 or 0. Of the 8 LC cases, 2(25%) had score 3, 3 had score 2(37.5%), and 3 had score 1(37.5%) (=0.0031). In the three cases of LC with markedly reduced AQP5 (score 1), enteric steroid treatment did not lead to significant improvement in diarrhea.

Conclusions: Colorectal AQP5 expression is reduced in most cases of LC. Markedly reduced AQP5 expression in LC may identify a subset of patients with suboptimal response to enteric steroid treatment. Additional larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.This abstract was presented in part at Digestive Diseases Week in San Diego, CA, May 2019.
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July 2020

Electrical Conduction Characteristic of a 2D MXene Device with Cu/CrC/TiN Structure Based on Density Functional Theory.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Aug 20;13(17). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

College of Electronic and Optical Engineering & College of Microelectronics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China.

The electronic structure and the corresponding electrical conductive behavior of the Cu/CrC/TiN stack were assessed according to a newly developed first-principle model based on density functional theory. Using an additional CrC layer provides the metal-like characteristic of the Cu/CrC/TiN stack with much larger electrical conduction coefficients (i.e., mobility, diffusivity, and electrical conductivity) than the conventional Ag/TiC/Pt stack due to the lower activation energy. This device is therefore capable of offering faster switching speeds, lower programming voltage, and better stability and durability than the memristor device with conventional TiC MXene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13173671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503317PMC
August 2020

In-Memory Logic Operations and Neuromorphic Computing in Non-Volatile Random Access Memory.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Aug 10;13(16). Epub 2020 Aug 10.

College of Electronic and Optical Engineering & College of Microelectronics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China.

Recent progress in the development of artificial intelligence technologies, aided by deep learning algorithms, has led to an unprecedented revolution in neuromorphic circuits, bringing us ever closer to brain-like computers. However, the vast majority of advanced algorithms still have to run on conventional computers. Thus, their capacities are limited by what is known as the von-Neumann bottleneck, where the central processing unit for data computation and the main memory for data storage are separated. Emerging forms of non-volatile random access memory, such as ferroelectric random access memory, phase-change random access memory, magnetic random access memory, and resistive random access memory, are widely considered to offer the best prospect of circumventing the von-Neumann bottleneck. This is due to their ability to merge storage and computational operations, such as Boolean logic. This paper reviews the most common kinds of non-volatile random access memory and their physical principles, together with their relative pros and cons when compared with conventional CMOS-based circuits (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor). Their potential application to Boolean logic computation is then considered in terms of their working mechanism, circuit design and performance metrics. The paper concludes by envisaging the prospects offered by non-volatile devices for future brain-inspired and neuromorphic computation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13163532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475900PMC
August 2020

Novel and potent inhibitors targeting DHODH are broad-spectrum antivirals against RNA viruses including newly-emerged coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Protein Cell 2020 10 4;11(10):723-739. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13238-020-00768-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402641PMC
October 2020
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