Publications by authors named "Yi Tao"

660 Publications

Inclusive fitness and Hamilton's rule in a stochastic environment.

Theor Popul Biol 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Centre for Computational and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The evolution of cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemmas with additive random cost and benefit for cooperation cannot be accounted for by Hamilton's rule based on mean effects transferred from recipients to donors weighted by coefficients of relatedness, which defines inclusive fitness in a constant environment. Extensions that involve higher moments of stochastic effects are possible, however, and these are connected to a concept of random inclusive fitness that is frequency-dependent. This is shown in the setting of pairwise interactions in a haploid population with the same coefficient of relatedness between interacting players. In an infinite population, fixation of cooperation is stochastically stable if a mean geometric inclusive fitness of defection when rare is negative, while fixation of defection is stochastically unstable if a mean geometric inclusive fitness of cooperation when rare is positive, and these conditions are generally not equivalent. In a finite population, the probability for cooperation to ultimately fix when represented once exceeds the probability under neutrality or the corresponding probability for defection if the mean inclusive fitness of cooperation when its frequency is 1/3 or 1/2 exceeds 1. All these results rely on the simplifying assumption of a linear fitness function. It is argued that meaningful applications of random inclusive fitness in complex settings (multi-player game, diploidy, population structure) would generally require conditions of weak selection and additive gene action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2021.09.007DOI Listing
October 2021

Optimization of an Evaluation Method for Anti-Babesia microti Drug Efficacy.

Acta Trop 2021 Oct 7:106179. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research, Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, WHO Centre for Tropical Diseases, National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology, School of Global Health, Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases, Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that is typically caused by Babesia microti infection. Clinical treatment of B. microti infection is challenging; hence, it is crucial to find new effective drugs. The current laboratory screening methods for anti-B. microti drugs are not optimized. We conducted drug-suppressive and drug-therapeutic tests to investigate whether use of an immunosuppressant and the target gene-based qPCR are helpful to reduce the number of animals affected and to improve parasite detection in an immunocompetent mouse model. These results were verified by subpassage test. In the drug-suppressive test, no B. microti were observed after immunosuppressant administration or in subpassage mice in the 100 mg/kg robenidine hydrochloride (ROBH) group. The opposite results were observed in the control, 50 mg/kg ROBH, atovaquone (ATO) + azithromycin (AZM), and proguanil hydrochloride (PGH) groups. Significant differences were observed in the EIR and target gene relative values (both P < 0.001) between the control group and any ROBH groups. In the drug-therapeutic test, recrudescence occurred in the 50 mg/kg ROBH, ATO+AZM, and control groups. This was not observed in the 100 mg/kg ROBH group after immunosuppressant administration. Similar findings were observed in the subpassage test. This suggests that a 4-day anti-B. microti drug-suppressive test can be used in preliminary drug screening. Potentially effective drugs can be verified by immunosuppressant test in subsequent drug-therapeutic tests. Thus, a laboratory evaluation method of anti-B. microti drug efficacy was optimized, which is highly accurate and requires a short drug screening time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106179DOI Listing
October 2021

De novo design of self-assembly hydrogels based on Fmoc-diphenylalanine providing drug release.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P. R. China.

Short peptides with self-assembled nanostructures are widely applied in the areas of drug delivery systems and biomaterials. In this article, we create a new peptide-based hydrogelator (Fmoc-FFRRVR) based on -fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) through an approach to improve its hydrophilicity. Compared to Fmoc-FF, Fmoc-FFRRVR prefers to form a hydrogel under mild conditions, and the gelation time is only 2 s. Fmoc-FFRRVR self-assembles into organized arrays of β-sheets in nanofibers π-stacking of Fmoc-FF, which are supported by circular dichroism and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Rheology results confirm that the hydrogel of Fmoc-FFRRVR is elastic, reversible and injectable. The newly discovered hydrogel not only retains some excellent performances of Fmoc-FF, but also can be used as a drug carrier for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01628hDOI Listing
October 2021

The anti-tumor effect of OP-B on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo, and its mechanism: An investigation using network pharmacology-based analysis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 3;283:114706. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China; Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Maidong (Liliaceae) is used as a yin-nourishing medication for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and assistant cancer chemotherapy in the clinic. Ophiopogonin B (OP-B), a major saponin extracted from Maidong, is reported to have potential antitumor activities against various human cancers. However, the effects of OP-B on human ovarian cancer (OC) and the potential mechanisms of action are yet elusive.

Aim Of The Study: In this study, we aimed to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of OP-B in the treatment of OC using network pharmacology. In vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to further verify the therapeutic effects of OP-B on OC.

Materials And Methods: To investigate the functions of OP-B against OC holistically, the related targets of OP-B and OC were each predicted based on four public databases. Subsequently, the identified PPI network was constructed to detect the hub potential targets. In addition, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were applied by Metascape database. Furthermore, we simultaneously investigated the anticancer effects of OP-B on SKOV3 and A2780 human ovarian cancer cells using a cell viability assay, transwell assay, and an image-based cytometric assay. The quantitative real-time PCR and western-blot assay were used to validate the RNA and protein levels of target genes in OP-B treated OC cells. At last, SKOV3-bearing BALB/c nude mice were applied to observe the effectiveness and toxicity of OP-B.

Results: Through network pharmacological analysis, OP-B was found to play a critical role in OC via multiple targets and pathways, especially the STAT3 signaling pathways. In addition, in vitro experiments found OP-B suppressed SKOV3 and A2780 cells proliferation in a time and concentration dependent manner, and markedly impaired cancer cell migration. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that OP-B significantly increased early and late apoptosis, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in SKOV3 cells and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Moreover, OP-B administration down-regulated the expression of p-STAT3 protein, whereas the RNA expression and total protein levels of STAT3 were not altered. Finally, in vivo experiments confirmed the therapeutic effects of OP-B on OC in nude mice with low toxicity in heart, liver, lung, and kidney.

Conclusion: OP-B could efficiently suppress OC cellular proliferation, migration and induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest mainly via the regulation of STAT3 signaling pathway. This study provides a promising potential application for an alternative to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114706DOI Listing
October 2021

Modulating thermal conductance across the metal/graphene/SiO interface with ion irradiation.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Oct 13;23(39):22760-22767. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China.

Optimizing the efficiency of heat dissipation across an interface is a great challenge with the continuously increasing integration of microelectronic devices. In this work, an effective method in tuning the heat conduction across the Al/graphene/SiO interface is reported. It was found that the interfacial thermal conductance of Al/irradiated graphene/SiO can be increased by a factor of 3, as compared with that of Al/pristine graphene/SiO. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that ion irradiation may promote the formation of CO bonds on the irradiated graphene surface, which is beneficial to the enhancement of interfacial thermal conductance. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that in addition to the formed bonds between O atoms and Al atoms, the adsorption strength between Al and irradiated graphene is intensified, which plays a dominant role in enhancing the interfacial thermal conductance of Al/graphene/SiO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp03563kDOI Listing
October 2021

ST-segment resolution as a marker for severe myocardial fibrosis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Sep 21;21(1):455. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong, Chongqing, China.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between ST-segment resolution (STR) and myocardial scar thickness after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Forty-two STEMI patients with single-branch coronary artery stenosis or occlusion were enrolled. ST-segment elevations were measured at emergency admission and at 24 h after PCI. Late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR-LGE) was performed 7 days after PCI to evaluate myocardial scars. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the utility of STR to predict the development of transmural (> 75%) or non-transmural (< 75%) myocardial scars, according to previous study.

Results: The sensitivity and specificity of STR for predicting transmural scars were 96% and 88%, respectively, at an STR cut-off value of 40.15%. The area under the curve was 0.925. Multivariate logistic proportional hazards regression analysis disclosed that patients with STR < 40.15% had a 170.90-fold higher probability of developing transmural scars compared with patients with STR ≥ 40.15%. Pearson correlation and linear regression analyses showed STR percentage was significantly associated with myocardial scar thickness and size.

Conclusion: STR < 40.15% at 24 h after PCI may provide meaningful diagnostic information regarding the extent of myocardial scarification in STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02269-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454141PMC
September 2021

Multilayer network structure enhances the coexistence of competitive species.

Phys Rev E 2021 Aug;104(2-1):024402

School of Ecology and Environment, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

The concept of a multiplex network can be used to characterize the dispersal paths and states of different species in a patch habitat system. The multiplex network is one of three types of multilayer networks. In this study, the effect of a multiplex network on the long-term stable coexistence of species is investigated using the concept of metapopulation. Based on the mean field approximation, the stability analysis of a two-species system shows that, compared to the single layer network, the multiplex network is more conducive to the stable coexistence of species when one species has a stronger colonization ability. That is, in such a patch habitat system, if the dispersal paths of the stronger species are different than those of the weaker species, then the larger the heterogeneity of the dispersal network of the stronger species is, the more likely the long-term stable coexistence of species. This result provides a different perspective for understanding the biodiversity in heterogeneous habitats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.104.024402DOI Listing
August 2021

Tailored Biosensors for Drug Screening, Efficacy Assessment, and Toxicity Evaluation.

ACS Sens 2021 09 13;6(9):3146-3162. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China.

Biosensors have been flourishing in the field of drug discovery with pronounced developments in the past few years. They facilitate the screening and discovery of innovative drugs. However, there is still a lack of critical reviews that compare the merits and shortcomings of these biosensors from a pharmaceutical point of view. This contribution presents a critical and up-to-date overview on the recent progress of tailored biosensors, including surface plasmon resonance, fluorescent, photoelectrochemical, and electrochemical systems with emphasis on their mechanisms and applications in drug screening, efficacy assessment, and toxicity evaluation. Multiple functional nanomaterials have also been incorporated into the biosensors. Representative examples of each type of biosensors are discussed in terms of design strategy, response mechanism, and potential applications. In the end, we also compare the results and summarize the major insights gained from the works, demonstrating the challenges and prospects of biosensors-assisted drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c01600DOI Listing
September 2021

Hepatokine Pregnancy Zone Protein Governs the Diet-Induced Thermogenesis Through Activating Brown Adipose Tissue.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Sep 13:e2101991. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Intermittent fasting (IF), as a dietary intervention for weight loss, takes effects primarily through increasing energy expenditure. However, whether inter-organ systems play a key role in IF remains unclear. Here, a novel hepatokine, pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is identified, which has significant induction during the refeeding stage of IF. Further, loss of function studies and protein therapeutic experiment in mice revealed that PZP promotes diet-induced thermogenesis through activating brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mechanistically, circulating PZP can bind to cell surface glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) to promote uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression via a p38 MAPK-ATF2 signaling pathway in BAT. These studies illuminate a systemic regulation in which the IF promotes BAT thermogenesis through the endocrinal system and provide a novel potential target for treating obesity and related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202101991DOI Listing
September 2021

Novel Role of miR-18a-5p and Galanin in Rat Lung Ischemia Reperfusion-Mediated Response.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 14;2021:6621921. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Center of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Lung ischemia reperfusion (IR) is known to occur after lung transplantation or cardiac bypass. IR leads to tissue inflammation and damage and is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Various receptors are known to partake in activation of the innate immune system, but the downstream mechanism of tissue damage and inflammation is yet unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are in the forefront in regulating ischemia reperfusion injury and are involved in inflammatory response. Here, we have identified by high-throughput approach and evaluated a distinct set of miRNAs that may play a role in response to IR in rat lung tissue. The top three differentially expressed miRNAs were validated through quantitative PCRs in the IR rat lung model and an model of IR of hypoxia and reoxygenation exposed type II alveolar cells. Among the miRNAs, miR-18a-5p showed consistent downregulation in both the model systems on IR. Cellular and molecular analysis brought to light a crucial role of this miRNA in ischemia reperfusion. miR-18a-5p plays a role in IR-mediated apoptosis and ROS production and regulates the expression of neuropeptide Galanin. It also influences the nuclear localization of transcription factor: nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) which in turn may regulate the expression of the miR-18a gene. Thus, we have not only established a rat model for lung IR and enumerated the important miRNAs involved in IR but have also extensively characterized the role of miR-18a-5p. This study will have important clinical and therapeutic implications for and during transplantation procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6621921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420977PMC
August 2021

Photoinduced Radical Emission in a Coassembly System.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Oct 30;60(44):23842-23848. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fiber and Polymer Materials, National Manufacturing Innovation Center of Advanced Dyeing and Finishing Technology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620, P. R. China.

Developing radical emission at ambient conditions is a challenging task since radical species are unstable in air. In the present work, we overcome this challenge by coassembling a series of tricarbonyl-substituted benzene molecules with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The strong hydrogen bonds between the guest dopants and the PVA host matrix protect the free radicals of carbonyl compounds after light irradiation, leading to strong solid state free radical emission. Changing temperature and peripheral functional groups of the tricarbonyl-substituted benzenes can influence the intensity of the radical emission. Quantum-chemical calculations predict that such free radical fluorescence originates from anti-Kasha D →D vertical emission by the anion radicals. The photoinduced radical emission by the tricarbonyl-substituted benzenes was successfully utilized for information encryption application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202110405DOI Listing
October 2021

Differential Survival Outcomes Between De Novo and Secondary Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: An Updated Population-based study.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Physiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China; The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Whether the characteristics and outcome of secondary acute promyelocytic leukemia (s-APL) are similar to de no APL (dn-APL) remains unknown.

Patients And Methods: Using the SEER database, we identified 3877 patients with APL diagnosed from 2000 to 2014, including 465 s-APL and 3412 dn-APL.

Results: Compared with dn-APL, s-APL werecharacterized by older median age, and a higher early mortality rate. Multivariate Cox model showed s-APL, older age, earlier year of diagnosis, and male gender were independently associated with worse survival. Notably, s-APL had a significantly inferior survival regardless of gender, race, marital status, and year of diagnosis. However, the difference between the 2 cohorts was only evident in younger patients (≤ 65 years) but was lost in older patients (> 65 years). Additionally, the majority of index cancer type was breast and prostate in female and male s-APL, respectively. Latency < 3 years was associated with superior survival in s-APL with breast index cancer.

Conclusions: Inferior survival of s-APL points to the need for treatment improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.07.023DOI Listing
August 2021

HPLC fingerprinting-based multivariate analysis of chemical components in Tetrastigma Hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg: Correlation to their antioxidant and neuraminidase inhibition activities.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Oct 8;205:114314. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, China. Electronic address:

Tetrastigma Hemsleyanum Diels & Gilg (TDG) has attracted growing attention in China; however, there were few studies on its bioactive components. Herein, the characteristic chemical components and dual antioxidant and neuraminidase inhibitory activities of fifteen batches of TDG from different places of origin and their relevance were investigated. The HPLC fingerprint was first established and the marker components were identified by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Catechin-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, tartaric acid, (1R, 2R, 4S)-2-hydroxy-1, 8-cineole-β-d-glucopyranoside, and phlorizin were identified for the first time. The result of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that multiple components have a significant contribution to the classification of TDG, such as chlorogenic acid, saccharumoside C/D, robinin, procyanidin B, rutin, isoquercitrin, etc. Then, the antioxidant and neuraminidase inhibitory activities of fifteen batches of TDG were measured. The result of grey relationship analysis showed that the contents of rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, and astragalin were positively correlated with these two activities with correlation coefficients more than 0.8. The quantitative analysis of these four bioactive compounds was performed by using HPLC-DAD. The recovery rate of the method varied from 98.02% to 100.21%, the RSD values of precision, stability and repeatability were between 1.32-3.15 %, and the R value of the linear equation was above 0.9990. To sum up, this study is valuable in the quality control of TDG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114314DOI Listing
October 2021

Bidirectional Modulation of Contact Thermal Resistance between Boron Nitride Nanotubes from a Polymer Interlayer.

Nano Lett 2021 Sep 20;21(17):7317-7324. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, United States.

Enhancing the thermal conductivity of polymer composites could improve their performance in applications requiring fast heat dissipation. While significant progress has been made, a long-standing issue is the contact thermal resistance between the nanofillers, which could play a critical role in the composite thermal properties. Through systematic studies of contact thermal resistance between individual boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) of different diameters, with and without a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) interlayer, we show that the contact thermal resistance between bare BNNTs is largely determined by reflection of ballistic phonons. Interestingly, it is found that a PVP interlayer can either enhance or reduce the contact thermal resistance, as a result of converting the ballistic phonon dominated transport into diffusion through the PVP layer. These results disclose a previously unrecognized physical picture of thermal transport at the contact between BNNTs, which provides insights into the design of high thermal conductivity BNNT-polymer composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02504DOI Listing
September 2021

Hamilton's rule and kin competition in a finite kin population.

J Theor Biol 2021 11 13;529:110862. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Kin selection means that individuals can increase their own inclusive fitness through displaying more altruistically toward their relatives. So, Hamilton's rule says kin selection will work if the coefficient of relatedness exceeds the cost-to-benefit ratio of the altruistic act. However, some studies have shown that the kin competition due to the altruism among relatives can reduce, and even totally negate, the kin-selected benefits of altruism toward relatives. In order to understand how the evolution of cooperation is influenced by both kin selection and kin competition under a general theoretical framework, we here consider the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation in a finite kin population, where kin competition is incorporated into a simple Prisoner's Dilemma game between relatives. Differently from the previous studies, we emphasize that the difference between the effects of mutually and unilaterally altruistic acts on kin competition may play an important role for the evolution of cooperation. The main results not only show the conditions that Hamilton's rule still works under the kin competition but also reveal the evolutionary biological mechanism driving the evolution of cooperation in a finite kin population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2021.110862DOI Listing
November 2021

18F-FDG PET/CT of Primary Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Sep;46(9):766-767

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; and Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma in the trachea is a very rare tumor. A 40-year-old woman presented with persisting cough and wheezing over 2 months. A CT scan showed a mass in the tracheal wall. The bronchoscopic biopsy confirmed adenoid cystic carcinoma. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed to evaluate the tracheal mass, which showed an FDG-avid mass in the right posterior tracheal wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003747DOI Listing
September 2021

Surface Charge Density Inside a Silicon Nitride Nanopore.

Langmuir 2021 Sep 4;37(35):10521-10528. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, People's Republic of China.

Surface charges inside a nanopore determine the zeta potential and ion distributions and play a significant role in affecting ion transport and the sensitivity of detecting biomolecules. It is of great importance to study the fluctuation of surface charges with the salt concentration and pH in various applications of nanopores. Herein, we proposed a theoretical model to predict the surface charge density of a SiN nanopore, in which both silanol and amine groups were taken into account. It was demonstrated that the surface charge density in the SiN nanopore changes not only with pH but also with the salt concentration. The theoretical model could well predict the experimental results with different salt concentrations, pH values, and pore sizes. The effect of surface functional groups on the isopotential point (pH) of the SiN nanopore was also systematically studied. The results indicated that the silanol groups are major determinants of the surface charge, but the influences of the amine groups should not be ignored because the small number of amine groups can change pH dramatically. The pH value of the SiN nanopore was measured as 4.1, and the ratio of amine over silanol was ascertained as 0.013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01504DOI Listing
September 2021

A PdMo bimetallene with precise wavelength adjustment and catalysis for synergistic photothermal ablation and hydrogen therapy of cancer at different depths.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Aug 30;9(32):6441-6459. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China.

By delivering the idea of green and safe hydrogen energy and novel photothermal therapy to the biomedical field, engineering of therapeutic nanomaterials for treatment of major diseases (such as cancer) holds great significance. In this work, a novel PdMo bimetallene was synthesized by a solvothermal reduction method, and it was explored and applied in the field of anti-tumor therapy for the first time. The absorption peak of the PdMo bimetallene can be precisely adjusted in the NIR biological window (700-1350 nm) only by changing the synthesis time. At the same time, it also shows strong light absorption and high photothermal conversion efficiency. Specifically, the photothermal conversion efficiencies at 808 nm, 980 nm and 1064 nm are 43.1%, 51.7% and 69.15%, respectively. Surprisingly, a PdMo bimetallene is an efficient catalyst, which can effectively promote hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB) under acidic and photothermal conditions. Benefitting from these excellent properties, a multifunctional composite nano therapeutic agent ([email protected]@HA) was developed via layer-by-layer surface modification with AB and hyaluronic acid (HA). In this way, the synergistic PTT/hydrogen therapy of [email protected]@HA composite nanosheets in the NIR-I and NIR-II windows (808 nm, 980 nm, and 1064 nm) on mouse tumor xenografts of different depths was realized. Furthermore, the controlled release of hydrogen, targeted endocytosis, efficient eradication of tumors of different depths and high biosafety were systematically proved in vitro and in vivo. This work not only provides a novel and efficient theranostic nanoplatform for efficient cancer theranostics, but also provides a new strategy for the development of safe and efficient new anti-tumor therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01284cDOI Listing
August 2021

Tracing anti-osteoporosis components from raw and salt-processed semen of Cuscuta chinensis by employing a biochemometrics strategy that integrates ultrasonic-assisted extraction, quantitation, efficacy assessment in zebrafish, and grey relationship analysis.

J Sep Sci 2021 Sep 17;44(17):3229-3236. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, P. R. China.

Semen of Cuscuta chinensis has been reported to have an anti-osteoporosis effect, however, the components which account for the anti-osteoporosis effect have not been clarified. In this work we propose a biochemometrics strategy that integrates quantitation, anti-osteoporosis evaluation in zebrafish, and grey relationship analysis for the identification of anti-osteoporosis components from the semen of Cuscuta chinensis. In the beginning, a precise and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established for simultaneous quantitation of seven major components in crude and salt-processed Cuscuta chinensis. The mode of multiple reaction monitoring was used. Chloramphenicol was selected as the internal standard. The method showed good linearity and repeatability. The recovery rates of each component ranged from 95.4 to 103.9%. The precisions of intra-day and inter-day were all within 5.0%. The method was then applied for quantitation of the seven major components in 11 batches of crude and salt-processed Cuscuta chinensis. Subsequently, the anti-osteoporosis effects of crude and salt-processed Cuscuta chinensis were evaluated in zebrafish. Principle component analysis, grey relationship analysis, and partial least squares regression were applied for deciphering the relationship between the contents of seven major components and the anti-osteoporosis effects. Hyperin, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, and astragalin were found to be the major anti-osteoporosis components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100272DOI Listing
September 2021

HOCl-Activated Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles for Multimodality Therapy of Tumors.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 09 8;8(17):e2100074. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China.

Tumor microenvironment-responsive nanodrugs offer promising opportunities for imaging-guided precision therapy with reduced side effects. Considering that the antitumor effect is closely related to the size of the nanodrugs, it is particularly important to develop a therapeutic system with size adjustability in the tumor microenvironment, which is still a great challenge in the field of nanotheranostics. Herein, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activated aggregation strategy is reported for imaging-guided precision therapy of tumors. The ROS-activated nanoplatform is constructed based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with an HOCl probe on its surface (namely, Au-MB-PEG NPs). The Au-MB-PEG NPs show high sensitivity toward HOCl, resulting in the modulation of surface charge and rapid aggregation of AuNPs, and simultaneous release of methylene blue as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the tumor environment, the aggregated AuNPs ensure higher tumor accumulation and retention. Furthermore, the redshift of the absorption of aggregated AuNPs leads to activated photoacoustic imaging signals and photothermal therapy (PTT) under near-infrared irradiation. Au-MB-PEG NPs thus efficiently inhibit the tumor growth through combined PTT-PDT therapy. This work contributes to the design of stimuli-induced size-aggregation nanodrugs, thereby attaining advanced performance in cancer diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425924PMC
September 2021

High thermoelectric figure of merit of porous Si nanowires from 300 to 700 K.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 24;12(1):3926. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Energy Technology Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Thermoelectrics operating at high temperature can cost-effectively convert waste heat and compete with other zero-carbon technologies. Among different high-temperature thermoelectrics materials, silicon nanowires possess the combined attributes of cost effectiveness and mature manufacturing infrastructures. Despite significant breakthroughs in silicon nanowires based thermoelectrics for waste heat conversion, the figure of merit (ZT) or operating temperature has remained low. Here, we report the synthesis of large-area, wafer-scale arrays of porous silicon nanowires with ultra-thin Si crystallite size of ~4 nm. Concurrent measurements of thermal conductivity (κ), electrical conductivity (σ), and Seebeck coefficient (S) on the same nanowire show a ZT of 0.71 at 700 K, which is more than ~18 times higher than bulk Si. This ZT value is more than two times higher than any nanostructured Si-based thermoelectrics reported in the literature at 700 K. Experimental data and theoretical modeling demonstrate that this work has the potential to achieve a ZT of ~1 at 1000 K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24208-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225643PMC
June 2021

Chondrosarcoma in the chest wall - an interesting special type.

Am J Med Sci 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Radiology, Affilited Hospital of Southwest Medical University, LuZhou, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjms.2021.06.004DOI Listing
June 2021

Toxicity of 17 Disinfection By-products to Different Trophic Levels of Aquatic Organisms: Ecological Risks and Mechanisms.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 08 16;55(15):10534-10541. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, P. R. China.

Intensified disinfection of wastewater during the COVID-19 pandemic increased the release of toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, studies relating to the ecological impacts of DBPs on the aquatic environment remain insufficient. In this study, we comparatively investigated the toxicities and ecological risks of 17 typical, halogenated DBPs to three trophic levels of organisms in the freshwater ecosystem, including phytoplankton ( sp.), zooplankton (), and fish (). Toxicity of DBPs was found to be species-specific: sp. was the most sensitive to haloacetic acids, while was the most sensitive to haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes. Specific to each DBP, toxicities were also related to their classes and substituted halogen atoms. Damage to photosystems and oxidative stress served as the potential mechanisms for DBPs toxicity to microalgae. The different sensitivities to DBPs indicate that a battery of bioassays with organisms at different trophic levels is necessary to determine the ecotoxicity of DBPs. Furthermore, the ecological risks of DBPs were assessed by calculating the risk quotients (RQs) based on toxicity data from multiple bioassays. The cumulative RQs of DBPs to all the organisms were greater than 1.0, indicating high ecological risks of DBPs in wastewater effluents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08796DOI Listing
August 2021

The landscape of tumors-infiltrate immune cells in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its prognostic value.

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e11494. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Introduction: Thyroid cancer is a very common malignant tumor in the endocrine system, while the incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) throughout the world also shows a trend of increase year by year. In this study, we constructed two models: ICIscore and Riskscore. Combined with these two models, we can make more accurate and reasonable inferences about the prognosis of PTC patients.

Methods: We selected 481 PTC samples from TCGA and 147 PTC samples from GEO (49 samples in GSE33630, 65 samples in GSE35570 and 33 samples in GSE60542). We performed consistent clustering for them and divided them into three subgroups and screened differentially expressed genes from these three subgroups. Then we divided the differential genes into three subtypes. We also distinguished the up-regulated and down-regulated genes and calculated ICIscore for each PTC sample. ICIscore consists of two parts: (1) the PCAu was calculated from up-regulated genes. (2) the PCAd was calculated from down-regulated genes. The PCAu and PCAd of each sample were the first principal component of the relevant gene. What's more, we divided the patients into two groups and constructed mRNA prognostic signatures. Additionally we also verified the independent prognostic value of the signature.

Results: Though ICIscore, we were able to observe the relationship between immune infiltration and prognosis. The result suggests that the activation of the immune system may have both positive and negative consequences. Though Riskscore, we could make more accurate predictions about the prognosis of patients with PTC. Meanwhile, we also generated and validated the ICIscore group and Riskscore group respectively.

Conclusion: All the research results show that by combining the two models constructed, ICIscore and Riskscore, we can make a more accurate and reasonable inference about the prognosis of patients with clinical PTC patients. This suggests that we can provide more effective and reasonable treatment plan for clinical PTC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142931PMC
May 2021

Resonance in Atomic-Scale Sliding Friction.

Nano Lett 2021 Jun 21;21(11):4615-4621. Epub 2021 May 21.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China.

Friction represents a major energy dissipation mode, yet the atomistic mechanism of how friction converts mechanical motion into heat remains elusive. It has been suggested that excess phonons are mainly excited at the washboard frequency, the fundamental frequency at which relative motion excites the interface atoms, and the subsequent thermalization of these nonequilibrium phonons completes the energy dissipation process. Through combined atomic force microscopy measurements and atomistic modeling, here we show that the nonlinear interactions between a sliding tip and the substrate can generate excess phonons at not only the washboard frequency but also its harmonics. These nonequilibrium phonons can induce resonant vibration of the tip and lead to multiple peaks in the friction force as the tip sliding velocity ramps up. These observations disclose previously unrecognized energy dissipation channels associated with tip vibration and provide insights into engineering friction force through adjusting the resonant frequency of the tip-substrate system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00622DOI Listing
June 2021

[Study on oral absorption mechanisms of puerarin in nanocrystals self-stabilized pickering emulsion].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):2051-2060

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University Chongqing 400716, China.

Nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion(NSSPE) is a new kind of emulsion where only nanocrystals of poorly soluble drugs are used as stabilizers. Our previous study showed that NSSPE with Ligusticum chuanxiong oil as the main oil phase can significantly promote oral absorption of puerarin. The present study aimed to explore its absorption mechanism in oral administration. The in vitro dissolution test was carried out to study the effect of NSSPE on release of puerarin. The effects and mechanism of NSSPE on uptake and transport of puerarin across Caco-2 cell were investigated. The results showed that the drug release rate of NSSPE was similar to that of nanocrystals, with their cumulative dissolution of puerarin not affected by pH of releasing mediums, both significantly higher than that of crude material. The uptake of puerarin in NSSPE was concentration-dependent and significantly higher than that of solution or surfactant stabilized emulsion. Genistein and indomethacin, inhibitors of lipid rafts/caveolin, could significantly reduce the uptake of puerarin in NSSPE. Compared with solution, NSSPE and surfactants stabilized emulsion obviously increased transport rate K_a and apparent permeability coefficient P_(app) of puerarin in AP → BL direction, but there was no significant difference in BL → AP direction. It could be inferred that there were both passive and active transport mechanisms, as well as lipid raft/caveolin mediated endocytosis for absorption of NSSPE. The promoted oral absorption of puerarin in NSSPE was mainly related to the existing nanocrystal form which could promote dissolution, puerarin as well as Ligusticum chuanxiong oil which could promote drug transmembrane transport and inhibit drug efflux. It is the unique structure and composition of the compound NSSPE that promoted the oral absorption of puerarin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210129.304DOI Listing
April 2021

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor of the Kidney With Mainly Pulmonary Symptoms by F-FDG PET/CT.

Urology 2021 Aug 5;154:e15-e16. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, PR China; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, PR China; Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province. Electronic address:

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy believed to originate from the serous membranes and it is highly aggressive with 5-year overall survival of 18.4%. Only a small number of DSRCT cases have been documented. Here, we report findings of DSRCT of the kidney on F-FDG PET/CT in a 30-year-old woman who presented with repetitive pulmonary infection and spontaneous pneumothorax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.04.026DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of Prognostic Genes in the Tumor Microenvironment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:653836. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The efficacy of immunotherapy usually depends on the interaction of immunomodulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This study aimed to explore the potential stromal-immune score-based prognostic genes related to immunotherapy in HCC through bioinformatics analysis. ESTIMATE algorithm was applied to calculate the immune/stromal/Estimate scores and tumor purity of HCC using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) transcriptome data. Functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was analyzed by the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery database (DAVID). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis were performed for prognostic gene screening. The expression and prognostic value of these genes were further verified by KM-plotter database and the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database. The correlation of the selected genes and the immune cell infiltration were analyzed by single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) algorithm and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). Data analysis revealed that higher immune/stromal/Estimate scores were significantly associated with better survival benefits in HCC within 7 years, while the tumor purity showed a reverse trend. DEGs based on both immune and stromal scores primarily affected the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathway. Among the DEGs, three genes (CASKIN1, EMR3, and GBP5) were found most significantly associated with survival. Moreover, the expression levels of CASKIN1, EMR3, and GBP5 genes were significantly correlated with immune/stromal/Estimate scores or tumor purity and multiple immune cell infiltration. Among them, GBP5 genes were highly related to immune infiltration. This study identified three key genes which were related to the TME and had prognostic significance in HCC, which may be promising markers for predicting immunotherapy outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.653836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059369PMC
September 2021

An efficient high-speed countercurrent chromatography method for preparative isolation of highly potent anti-cancer compound antroquinonol from Antrodia camphorata after experimental design optimized extraction.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jul 11;44(13):2655-2662. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Pharmacy, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, P. R. China.

To avoid irreversible stationary phase adsorption and tedious and time-consuming separation steps, high-speed countercurrent chromatography was employed for the preparative separation of anti-tumor compound antroquinonol from solid fermentation culture of Antrodia camphorata for the first time. A Box-Behnken experimental design, based on three parameters including liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, was applied to optimize the ultrasonic extraction procedure. The optimal extraction condition was set as follows: liquid-to-solid ratio: 49.57:1; extraction time: 55.76 min; extraction temperature was arranged as 44.21°C. Meanwhile, an optimized solvent system containing petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water (4:1:4:1, v/v/v/v) was selected for the preparative separation of antroquinonol at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min. The yield of isolated antroquinonol was determined to be 6.0 mg from 0.67 g of ethyl acetate extracts. The isolated antroquinonol was elucidated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy, and by comparison with literature data. The purity of isolated antroquinonol was determined to be 97.12%. This study confirmed that high-speed countercurrent chromatography was powerful and cost-effective for the preparative separation of the high-potently anti-tumor compound antroquinonol from solid fermentation culture of A. camphorata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100162DOI Listing
July 2021
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