Publications by authors named "Yi Sun"

1,852 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

AVEXIS technology identifies novel platelet-leukocyte binding partners including CD148-CD300a.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004546DOI Listing
September 2021

Development and clinical deployment of a smartphone-based visual field deep learning system for glaucoma detection.

NPJ Digit Med 2020 Sep 22;3(1):123. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

By 2040, ~100 million people will have glaucoma. To date, there are a lack of high-efficiency glaucoma diagnostic tools based on visual fields (VFs). Herein, we develop and evaluate the performance of 'iGlaucoma', a smartphone application-based deep learning system (DLS) in detecting glaucomatous VF changes. A total of 1,614,808 data points of 10,784 VFs (5542 patients) from seven centers in China were included in this study, divided over two phases. In Phase I, 1,581,060 data points from 10,135 VFs of 5105 patients were included to train (8424 VFs), validate (598 VFs) and test (3 independent test sets-200, 406, 507 samples) the diagnostic performance of the DLS. In Phase II, using the same DLS, iGlaucoma cloud-based application further tested on 33,748 data points from 649 VFs of 437 patients from three glaucoma clinics. With reference to three experienced expert glaucomatologists, the diagnostic performance (area under curve [AUC], sensitivity and specificity) of the DLS and six ophthalmologists were evaluated in detecting glaucoma. In Phase I, the DLS outperformed all six ophthalmologists in the three test sets (AUC of 0.834-0.877, with a sensitivity of 0.831-0.922 and a specificity of 0.676-0.709). In Phase II, iGlaucoma had 0.99 accuracy in recognizing different patterns in pattern deviation probability plots region, with corresponding AUC, sensitivity and specificity of 0.966 (0.953-0.979), 0.954 (0.930-0.977), and 0.873 (0.838-0.908), respectively. The 'iGlaucoma' is a clinically effective glaucoma diagnostic tool to detect glaucoma from humphrey VFs, although the target population will need to be carefully identified with glaucoma expertise input.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41746-020-00329-9DOI Listing
September 2020

Characterization of the chicken T cell receptor γ repertoire by high-throughput sequencing.

BMC Genomics 2021 Sep 21;22(1):683. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Shandong Province, 271018, Taian City, People's Republic of China.

Background: As one of "γδ-high" species, chicken is an excellent model for the study of γδ T cells in non-mammalian animals. However, a comprehensive characterization of the TCRγδ repertoire is still missing in chicken. The objective of this study was to characterize the expressed TCRγ repertoire in chicken thymus using high-throughput sequencing.

Methods: In this study, we first obtained the detailed genomic organization of the TCRγ locus of chicken based on the latest assembly of the red jungle fowl genome sequences (GRCg6a) and then characterized the TCRγ repertoire in the thymus of four chickens by using 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5' RACE) along with high-throughput sequencing (HTS).

Results: The chicken TCRγ locus contains a single Cγ gene, three functional Jγ segments and 44 Vγ segments that could be classified into six subgroups, each containing six, nineteen, nine, four, three and three members. Dot-plot analysis of the chicken TCRγ locus against itself showed that almost all the entire zone containing Vγ segments had arisen through tandem duplication events, and the main homology unit, containing 9 or 10 Vγ gene segments, has tandemly duplicated for four times. For the analysis of chicken TCRγ repertoire, more than 100,000 unique Vγ-region nucleotide sequences were obtained from the thymus of each chicken. After alignment to the germline Vγ and Jγ segments identified above, we found that the four chickens had similar repertoire profile of TCRγ. In brief, four Vγ segments (including Vγ3.7, Vγ2.13, Vγ1.6 and Vγ1.3) and six Vγ-Jγ pairs (including Vγ3.7-Jγ3, Vγ2.13-Jγ1, Vγ2.13-Jγ3, Vγ1.6-Jγ3, Vγ3.7-Jγ1 and Vγ1.6-Jγ1) were preferentially utilized by all four individuals, and vast majority of the unique CDR3γ sequences encoded 4 to 22 amino acids with mean 12.90 amino acids, which exhibits a wider length distribution and/or a longer mean length than CDR3γ of human, mice and other animal species.

Conclusions: In this study, we present the first in-depth characterization of the TCRγ repertoire in chicken thymus. We believe that these data will facilitate the studies of adaptive immunology in birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07975-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Operative management of equinus associated with lower limb venous malformations.

Phlebology 2021 Sep 20:2683555211047286. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Functional impairment is a common complaint in patients with venous malformations. Equinus can occur when the venous malformation involves the lower limb, a challenging condition with only a few studies to guide treatment choices. This study was aimed to investigate the operative management of equinus associated with lower limb venous malformations.

Method: Between August 2015 and September 2017, a total of 12 patients presented with equinus associated with lower limb venous malformations and underwent surgical correction. Preoperative and postoperative clinical symptoms, physical examination and orthopaedic evaluation were retrospectively reviewed. 8 patients who experienced pain underwent percutaneous sclerotherapy prior to the operation. Surgical management included gastrocnemius intramuscular aponeurotic recession, Z-lengthening of the Achilles tendon, Hoke technique and Taylor Spatial Frame external fixation.

Results: There were eight female and four male patients with a mean age of 14.3 ± 5.9 years. The mean follow-up period was 34.8 ± 9 months. The range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion (with knee extended) improved for each patient (mean, 25.4 degrees; standard deviation, 8.5 degrees). No neurovascular complications were observed.

Conclusion: Operative correction of equinus associated with lower limb venous malformations is safe and effective. Selective preoperative sclerotherapy is necessary for optimal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02683555211047286DOI Listing
September 2021

Trophoblast-derived interleukin 9 mediates immune cell conversion and contributes to maternal-fetal tolerance.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Sep 6;148:103379. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Obstetric Department, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Obstetric Department, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine-Related Diseases, Shanghai, China; Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

In the maternal-fetal crosstalk, fetal derived trophoblast cells can secret several molecules to regulate immune tolerance such as cytokines and chemokines, besides human leukocyte antigens (HLA) providing. However, the mechanism of these factors in pregnancy is still unknown. Our previous study showed that IL9 could be secreted by trophoblasts and exerted a positive effect on trophoblasts themselves through autocrine signaling. Given the immunoregulatory function of IL9 and its expression in trophoblasts, we hypothesize that IL9 contributes to maternal-fetal tolerance by regulating immune cells, especially CD14+ dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve CD4 + T cells who have essential roles in maternal-fetal immune tolerance. We performed a series of experiments, finding that HTR8/SVneo cells could secrete IL9 in vitro, and this secretion was decreased under hypoxia; both CD14 + DCs and naïve CD4 + T cells expressed IL9 receptors, indicating potential interactions among these cells. In CD14 + DCs, trophoblast-derived IL9 promoted the immature differentiation, and induced the secretion of Th2 cytokines, including IL4 and IL10, shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio to Th2. In naïve CD4 + T cells, IL9 also increased Foxp3 expression and promoted the secretion of Treg cytokines, including TGFβ and IL10, inhibiting pro-inflammatory Th17. Therefore, trophoblasts may act as fetal-derived immune cells to maintain maternal-fetal tolerance by secreting IL9. Given that trophoblast derived IL9 is decreased in preeclampsia, our study provides a new insight into maternal-fetal immunology and immunological disorders in abnormal pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2021.103379DOI Listing
September 2021

Blood volume vs. deoxygenated NIRS signal: computational analysis of the effects muscle O delivery and blood volume on the NIRS signals.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering, grid.7763.5University of Cagliari, Italy.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals quantify the oxygenated (ΔHbMbO) and deoxygenated (ΔHHbMb) heme group concentrations. ΔHHbMb has been preferred to ΔHbMbO in evaluating skeletal muscle oxygen extraction because it is assumed to be insensitive to blood volume (BV) changes, but uncertainties exist on this assumption. To analyze this assumption a computational model of oxygen transport and metabolism is used to quantify the effect of O delivery and BV changes on the NIRS signals from a canine model of muscle oxidative metabolism (Med.Sci.SportsExerc.,48(10)2013-2020,2016). The computational analysis accounts for microvascular (ΔHbO, ΔHHb) and extravascular (ΔHMb, ΔHMb) oxygenated and deoxygenated forms. Simulations predicted muscle oxygen uptake and NIRS signal changes well for blood flows ranging from resting to contracting muscle. Additional NIRS signal simulations were obtained in the absence or presence of BV changes corresponding to a heme groups concentration changes (ΔHbMb=0-48μM). Under normal delivery (Q=1.0L kgmin) of contracting muscle, capillary oxygen saturation (SO) was 62% with capillary ΔHbO and ΔHHb of ±41μM for ΔHbMb=0. An increase of BV (ΔHbMb =24mM) caused a ΔHbO decrease (16mM) almost twice as much as the increase observed for ΔHHb (9μM). When SO increased to more than 80%, only ΔHbO was significantly affected by BV changes. The analysis indicates that microvascular SO is a key factor in determining the sensitivity of ΔHbMbO and ΔHHbMb to BV changes. Contrary to a common assumption, the ΔHHbMb is affected by BV changes in normal contracting muscle and even more in the presence of impaired O delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00105.2021DOI Listing
September 2021

A novel surgical approach in dealing with the confusing sites in total mesorectal excision: fascial space priority approach with two tunnels established.

Tech Coloproctol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin, 300000, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10151-021-02512-wDOI Listing
September 2021

A cross-sectional study of olfactory and taste disorders among COVID-19 patients in China.

Mil Med Res 2021 09 13;8(1):51. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

College of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

To determine the prevalence and clinical features of olfactory and taste disorders among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in China. A cross-sectional study was performed in Wuhan from April 3, 2020 to April 15, 2020. A total of 187 patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) completed face-to-face interviews or telephone follow-ups. We found that the prevalence of olfactory and taste disorders was significantly lower in the Chinese cohort than in foreign COVID-19 cohorts. Females were more prone to olfactory and taste disorders. In some patients, olfactory and taste disorders precede other symptoms and can be used as early screening and warning signs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-021-00339-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435759PMC
September 2021

Enzymatic characterization of D-lactate dehydrogenase and application in alanine aminotransferase activity assay kit.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):6459-6471

Department of Research, Ningbo Institute of Life and Health Industry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, China.

D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) is widely used for the clinical detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. It is a key enzyme in ALT detection kits, and its enzymatic properties directly determine sensitivity and accuracy of such kits. In this study, D-lactate dehydrogenase (WP_011543503, LDH) coding sequence derived from was obtained from the NCBI database by gene mining. LDH was expressed and purified in , and its enzyme activity, kinetic parameters, optimum temperature, and pH were characterized. Furthermore, stabilizers, including sugars, polyols, amino acids, certain salts, proteins, and polymers, were screened to improve stability of LDH during freeze-drying and storage. Finally, a kit based on LDH was tested to determine whether the enzyme had potential clinical applications. The results showed that LDH had a specific activity of 1,864 U/mg, value of 1.34 mM, optimal reaction temperature of 55°C, and an optimal pH between 7.0 and 7.5. When sucrose or asparagine was used as a stabilizer, freeze-dried LDH remained stable at 37°C for > 2 months without significant loss of enzymatic activity. These results indicated that LDH possesses high activity and stability. Test results using the ALT assay kit prepared with LDH were consistent with those of commercial kits, with a relative deviation <5%. These results indicated that LDH met the primary requirements for ALT assays, laying a foundation for the development of new ALT kits with potential clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1972781DOI Listing
December 2021

Efficient degradation of polyacrylamide using a 3-dimensional ultra-thin SnO-Sb coated electrode.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 19;416:125907. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China. Electronic address:

Polyacrylamide (PAM) is widely used in polymer flooding processes to increase oil recovery while the byproduct of PAM-containing wastewater is a serious environmental issue. In this study, electrochemical oxidation process (EAOP) was applied for treating PAM wastewater using a new type of 3-dimensional ultra-thin SnO-Sb electrode. Nano-sized catalysts were evenly dispersed both on the surface and inside of a porous Ti filter forming nano-thickness catalytic layer that enhances the utilization and bonding of catalysts. This porous Ti electrode showed 20% improved OH· production and 16.3 times increased accelerated service life than the planar Ti electrode. Using this electrode to treat 100 mg L PAM, the TOC removal efficiency reached over 99% within 3 h under current density of 20 mA cm. The EAOP could fastly break the long-chain PAM molecules into small molecular intermediates. With the porous electrode treating 5 g L PAM under current density of 30 mA cm, EAOP reduced 94.2% of average molecular weight in 1 h and 92.0% of solution viscosity in 0.5 h. Moreover, the biodegradability of PAM solution was significantly improved as the solution BOD/COD ratio raised from 0.05 to 0.41 after 4 h treatment. The degradation pathway of PAM was also investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125907DOI Listing
August 2021

Self-immobilized biochar fungal pellet combined with bacterial strain H29 enhanced the removal performance of cadmium and nitrate.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 24;341:125803. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.

A newly isolated strain Phoma sp. ZJ6, which could form fungal pellet (FP) by self-immobilization, was identified. A novel longan seed biochar embedded in FP (BFP) combined with strain H29 (BFP-H29) effectively improved the Cd(II) removal efficiency and simultaneously removed nitrate. The adsorption process of BFP was well fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and Langmuir isotherm model, which demonstrated that the adsorption process was favorable and mainly dominated by chemisorption. Compared with single FP, biochar, and strain H29, BFP-H29 significantly enhanced the Cd(II) removal and the removal ratio reached 90.47%. Meanwhile, the simultaneous removal efficiency of the BFP-H29 for nitrate could reach 93.80%. Characterization analysis demonstrated that the primary removal mechanisms of BFP-H29 were precipitation and surface complexation. BFP-H29 had excellent performance in simultaneous removal of Cd(II) and nitrate, indicating its potential as a promising composite in the removal of cadmium and nitrate in wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125803DOI Listing
August 2021

G protein coupled estrogen receptor attenuates mechanical stress-mediated apoptosis of chondrocyte in osteoarthritis via suppression of Piezo1.

Mol Med 2021 08 28;27(1):96. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Joint Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266000, China.

Background: Apoptosis of chondrocyte is involved in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, and mechanical stress plays a key role in this process by activation of Piezo1. However, the negative regulation of signal conduction mediated by mechanical stress is still unclear. Here, we elucidate that the critical role of G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in the regulation of mechanical stress-mediated signal transduction and chondrocyte apoptosis.

Methods: The gene expression profile was detected by gene chip upon silencing Piezo1. The expression of GPER in cartilage tissue taken from the clinical patients was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot as well as immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between GPER expression and OA was also investigated. The chondrocytes exposed to mechanical stress were treated with estrogen, G-1, G15, GPER-siRNA and YAP (Yes-associated protein)-siRNA. The cell viability of chondrocytes was measured. The expression of polymerized actin and Piezo1 as well as the subcellular localization of YAP was observed under laser confocal microscope. Western blot confirmed the changes of YAP/ Rho GTPase activating protein 29 (ARHGAP29) /RhoA/LIMK /Cofilin pathway. The knee specimens of osteoarthritis model were stained with safranin and green. OARSI score was used to evaluate the joint lesions. The expressions of GPER and YAP were detected by immunochemistry.

Results: Expression profiles of Piezo1- silenced chondrocytes showed that GPER expression was significantly upregulated. Moreover, GPER was negatively correlated with cartilage degeneration during OA pathogenesis. In addition, we uncovered that GPER directly targeted YAP and broadly restrained mechanical stress-triggered actin polymerization. Mechanism studies revealed that GPER inhibited mechanical stress-mediated RhoA/LIMK/cofilin pathway, as well as the actin polymerization, by promoting expression of YAP and ARHGAP29, and the YAP nuclear localization, eventually causing the inhibition of Piezo1. YAP was obviously decreased in degenerated cartilage. Silencing YAP caused significantly increased actin polymerization and activation of Piezo1, and an increase of chondrocyte apoptosis. In addition, intra-articular injection of G-1 to OA rat effectively attenuated cartilage degeneration.

Conclusion: We propose a novel regulatory mechanism underlying mechanical stress-mediated apoptosis of chondrocyte and elucidate the potential application value of GPER as therapy targets for OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10020-021-00360-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403401PMC
August 2021

ELOVL5-Mediated Long Chain Fatty Acid Elongation Contributes to Enzalutamide Resistance of Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 5;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) exhibits an elevated level of de novo lipogenesis that provides both energy and basic metabolites for its malignant development. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are elongated and desaturated from palmitate but their effects on PCa progression remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that PUFAs were significantly upregulated by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and elevated in neuroendocrine (NE)-like PCa cells. The key enzyme of PUFA elongation, ELOVL5, was overexpressed in NE-like PCa cells as well. Furthermore, we demonstrated that knocking down ELOVL5 in enzalutamide resistant NE-like PCa cells diminished the neuroendocrine phenotypes and enzalutamide resistance, while overexpressing ELOVL5 augmented the enzalutamide resistance of PCa cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ELOVL5-mediated PUFA elongation enhanced the lipid raft-associated AKT-mTOR signaling activation and therefore contributes to the enzalutamide resistance. These findings suggest that ELOLV5-mediated PUFA elongation may be a potential novel target for the treatment of enzalutamide resistant NE-like PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13163957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391805PMC
August 2021

New Cytotoxic Cytochalasans from a Plant-Associated Fungus kz-19.

Mar Drugs 2021 Jul 31;19(8). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

Four new cytochalasans, phychaetoglobins A-D (-), together with twelve known cytochalasans (-), were isolated from a mangrove-associated fungus kz-19. The new structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, HR ESIMS spectroscopic analyses, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. The absolute configuration of was established by application of Mosher's method. Compounds - exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against A549 and HeLa cell lines with the IC values less than 20 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19080438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398356PMC
July 2021

MiR-1273 g-3p Promotes Malignant Progression and has Prognostic Implications in Prostate Cancer.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Urology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, 710068, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most popular cancer of mankind. Our study aimed to provide the expression and the predictive significance of miR-1273 g-3p in PCa. Moreover, the effects on cell biological activities were also investigated. The relative expression of miR-1273 g-3p in PCa tissues and cell lines was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression analyses were performed to indicate the prognostic value. The implications of miR-1273 g-3p on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were validated using the CCK-8 and Transwell assay. Our results provided that the expression of miR-1273 g-3p was increased in PCa tissues and cell lines. The levels of miR-1273 g-3p were associated with Gleason score, TNM stage, clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of miR-1273 g-3p indicated a promising overall survival rate. Cox regression results indicated miR-1273 g-3p might be an independent marker for PCa patients. Silenced miR-1273 g-3p inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In total, miR-1273 g-3p was increased in PCa and identified as a therapeutic target and a prognostic factor for PCa patients. Overexpression of miR-1273 g-3p might be an oncogene via accelerating cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-021-00384-xDOI Listing
August 2021

A non-enzymatic, isothermal strand displacement and amplification assay for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.

Nat Commun 2021 08 24;12(1):5089. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Health Technology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

The current nucleic acid signal amplification methods for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection heavily rely on the functions of biological enzymes which imposes stringent transportation and storage conditions, high cost and global supply shortages. Here, a non-enzymatic whole genome detection method based on a simple isothermal signal amplification approach is developed for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and potentially any types of nucleic acids regardless of their size. The assay, termed non-enzymatic isothermal strand displacement and amplification (NISDA), is able to quantify 10 RNA copies.µL. In 164 clinical oropharyngeal RNA samples, NISDA assay is 100 % specific, and it is 96.77% and 100% sensitive when setting up in the laboratory and hospital, respectively. The NISDA assay does not require RNA reverse-transcription step and is fast (<30 min), affordable, highly robust at room temperature (>1 month), isothermal (42 °C) and user-friendly, making it an excellent assay for broad-based testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25387-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385016PMC
August 2021

USP2 is an SKP2 deubiquitylase that stabilizes both SKP2 and its substrates.

J Biol Chem 2021 Aug 21;297(4):101109. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Cancer Institute of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; Cancer Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The stability of a protein is regulated by a balance between its ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation. S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is an oncogenic F-box protein that recognizes tumor suppressor substrates for targeted ubiquitylation by the E3 ligase SKP1-Cullin1-F-box and degradation by proteasome. SKP2 is itself ubiquitylated by the E3 ligases APC/C and SCF, and deubiquitylated by deubiquitylases (DUBs) USP10 and USP13. Given the biological significance of SKP2, it is likely that the other E3s or DUBs may also regulate its stability. Here, we report the identification and characterization of USP2 as a new DUB. We first screened a panel of DUBs and found that both USP2 and USP21 bound to endogenous SKP2, but only USP2 deubiquitylated and stabilized SKP2 protein. USP2 inactivation via siRNA knockdown or small-molecule inhibitor treatment remarkably shortened SKP2 protein half-life by enhancing its ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation. Unexpectedly, USP2-stabilized SKP2 did not destabilize its substrates p21 and p27. Mechanistically, USP2 bound to SKP2 via the leucine-rich repeat substrate-binding domain on SKP2 to disrupt the SKP2-substrate binding, leading to stabilization of both SKP2 and these substrates. Biologically, growth suppression induced by USP2 knockdown or USP2 inhibitor is partially mediated via modulation of SKP2 and its substrates. Our study revealed a new mechanism of the cross-talk among the E3-DUB substrates and its potential implication in targeting the USP2-SKP2 axis for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.101109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446802PMC
August 2021

Inhibition of RhoA/MRTF-A signaling alleviates nucleus pulposus fibrosis induced by mechanical stress overload.

Connect Tissue Res 2021 Aug 21:1-16. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Purpose/aim: : Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the leading cause of lower back pain, and clinically useful drugs for IDD are unavailable. Mechanical stress overload-induced fibrosis plays a critical role in IDD. RhoA/MRTF-A signaling is known to regulate tissue fibrosis; however, the effect of RhoA/MRTF-A on the development of IDD is unclear.

Materials And Methods: : The expression of aggrecan, collagen I, collagen II, MMP-12, CTGF, and MRTF-A in nucleus pulposus (NP) samples from IDD patients and controls was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Primary nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) were isolated and cultured to establish an overload strain model treated with or without CCG-1423. The protein levels of RhoA, ROCK2, MRTF-A, CTGF, and MMP-12 as well as fibrosis-associated proteins were detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence.

Results: : ollagen I, MMP-12, and CTGF were significantly upregulated, and aggrecan and collagen II were significantly downregulated in the IDD samples. The cellular localization of MRTF-A was associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Overloaded strain enhanced the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A and changed the NPC morphology from spindle-shaped to long strips. Additional experiments showed that RhoA, ROCK2, MRTF-A, SRF, MMP-12, and CTGF were upregulated; however, aggrecan and collagen II were downregulated in NPCs under overload strain. CCG-1423, a RhoA/MRTF-A pathway inhibitor, reversed strain-induced fibrosis.

Conclusion: : Mechanical stress activates RhoA/MRTF-A signaling to promote extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration in the NP, which is associated with the development of IDD. Our findings suggest that the RhoA/MRTF-A inhibitor CCG-1423 can alleviate NPC degeneration caused by overload stress and has potential as a therapeutic agent for IDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03008207.2021.1952193DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of hub genes and their novel diagnostic and prognostic significance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, China.

Objective: The main reasons for the poor prognoses of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) patients are rapid early-stage progression, advanced stage metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. Identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of PA is therefore urgently needed.

Methods: Three mRNA microarray datasets were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to select differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses for hub genes were performed using DAVID. Correlations between expression levels of hub genes and cancer-infiltrating immune cells were investigated by TIMER. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were also performed. Serum hub genes were screened using the HPA platform and verified for diagnostic value using ELISAs.

Results: We identified 59 hub genes among 752 DEGs. GO analysis indicated that these 59 hub genes were mainly involved in the defense response to viruses and the type I interferon signaling pathway. We also discovered that and were associated with immune cell infiltration in the PA microenvironment. Additionally, mRNA might be used as an independent risk factor for the prognoses of PA patients. Furthermore, the protein encoded by , which exists in peripheral blood, was validated as a potential diagnostic biomarker that distinguished PA patients from healthy controls (area under the curve: 0.902, 95% confidence interval: 0.819-0.961).

Conclusions: Our study suggested that and were associated with immune cell infiltration in the PA microenvironment, while mRNA expression might be an independent risk factor for the survival prognoses of PA patients. Moreover, ELISAs indicated that serum ISG15 could be a potential novel diagnostic biomarker for PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0516DOI Listing
August 2021

[Molecular identification and alkaloids content of endangered Chinese medicinal plant Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Jul;46(14):3514-3521

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

According to the records of Chinese materia medica,Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala is an authentic Chinese medicinal plant highly recommended by ancient physicians since its rhizome is like a string of beads and has a good medicinal value. However,its medicinal components and values remain to be studied as it is endangered because of overexploitation. Therefore,this study aims to quantitatively determine its effective components based on UPLC-QTOF-MS,and to compare the contents of isoquinoline alkaloids in C.chinensis var. brevisepala with those in other Coptis species. Meanwhile,molecular methods accurately identified 12 batches of C. chinensis var. brevisepala,9 batches of C. chinensis,4 batches of C. deltoidea,and 1 batch of C. teeta. Gradient elution was performed with Waters CORTECS C18 column( 4. 6 mm× 150 mm,2. 7 μm) and the mobile phase acetonitrile-water with 0. 4% formic acid. Mass spectrometry was conducted in ESI positive mode. The quantitative results showed that 8 main alkaloids had a good linear relationship within the concentration range( R~2>0. 996),with the recovery rate of 95. 18%-105. 0% and the RSD of 0. 28%-3. 7%. Compared with that of other Coptis species,the rhizome of C. chinensis var. brevisepala had the highest contents of berberine and columbamine. The total content of the 8 alkaloids in C. chinensis var. brevisepala was similar to that in C. chinensis but higher than that of the other two species. PCA was performed to compare the alkaloids among the 4 species. Besides,the 8 alkaloids were evaluated in different parts of C. chinensis var. brevisepala. The results indicate that this method is reliable and efficient and can provide a reference for the quality research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210430.102DOI Listing
July 2021

[Research progress on medicinal resources of Coptis and its isoquinoline alkaloids].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Jul;46(14):3504-3513

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

Coptidis Rhizoma is a common Chinese medicinal in clinical practice,with the effects of clearing heat,drying dampness,purging fire,and removing toxin. All the medicinal plants of Coptis can be used for clinical treatment,but some species are endangered due to resource destruction and difficulty in planting. The dominant medicinal components in Coptidis Rhizoma are isoquinoline alkaloids. There are various methods for the analysis and detection of alkaloids,such as LC-MS,HPLC,and TLC,among which LC-MS is the most widely applied. Different plants of Coptis vary in the kind and content of alkaloids. C. chinensis,C. deltoidea,C. teeta,C. chinensis var. brevisepala,C. omeiensis,C. quinquefolia,and C. quinquesecta mainly contain berberine,palmatine,coptisine,jatrorrhizine,and columbamine,five effective alkaloid components. Plant isoquinoline alkaloids( PIAs) have strong pharmacological activity but are difficult to prepare. The application of synthetic biology of PIAs will be helpful for the clinical application of PIAs. This paper reviews the research progress on biological resources of Coptis species and structures of alkaloids as well as analysis methods and synthetic biology for isoquinoline alkaloids in the medicinal plants of Coptis in recent years,which will facilitate the protection of Coptis medicinal resources and the application and development of alkaloids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210430.103DOI Listing
July 2021

The prognostic value of the SOFA score in patients with COVID-19: A retrospective, observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(32):e26900

Department of Dermatology, Jingzhou Hospital, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China.

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to serious illness and death, and thus, it is particularly important to predict the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score has been used to predict the clinical outcomes of patients with multiple organ failure requiring intensive care. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and relationship between the SOFA score and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.We retrospectively included all patients ≥18 years old who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in the laboratory continuously admitted to Jingzhou Central Hospital from January 16, 2020 to March 23, 2020. The demographic, clinical manifestations, complications, laboratory results, and clinical outcomes of patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 were collected and analyzed. Clinical variables were compared between patients with mild and severe COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for severe COVID-19. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze risk factors for hospital-related death. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival differences were assessed by the log-rank test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the SOFA score in different situations were drawn, and the area under the ROC curve was calculated.A total of 117 patients with confirmed diagnoses of COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed, of which 108 patients were discharged and 9 patients died. The median age of the patients was 50.0 years old (interquartile range [IQR], 35.5-62.0). 63 patients had comorbidities, of which hypertension (27.4%) was the most frequent comorbidities, followed by diabetes (8.5%), stroke (4.3%), coronary heart disease (3.4%), and chronic liver disease (3.4%). The most common symptoms upon admission were fever (82.9%) and dry cough (70.1%). Regression analysis showed that high SOFA scores, advanced age, and hypertension were associated with severe COVID-19. The median SOFA score of all patients was 2 (IQR, 1-3). Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibited a significantly higher SOFA score than patients with mild COVID-19 (3 [IQR, 2-4] vs 1 [IQR, 0-1]; P  < .001). The SOFA score can better identify severe COVID-19, with an odds ratio of 5.851 (95% CI: 3.044-11.245; P < .001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the SOFA score in predicting severe COVID-19 (cutoff value = 2; AUC = 0.908 [95% CI: 0.857-0.960]; sensitivity: 85.20%; specificity: 80.40%) and the risk of death in COVID-19 patients (cutoff value = 5; AUC = 0.995 [95% CI: 0.985-1.000]; sensitivity: 100.00%; specificity: 95.40%). Regarding the 60-day mortality rates of patients in the 2 groups classified by the optimal cutoff value of the SOFA score (5), patients in the high SOFA score group (SOFA score ≥5) had a significantly greater risk of death than those in the low SOFA score group (SOFA score < 5).The SOFA score could be used to evaluate the severity and 60-day mortality of COVID-19. The SOFA score may be an independent risk factor for in-hospital death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360480PMC
August 2021

Associations between meteorological variation and rupture of intracranial aneurysm in Fujian, China: A 5-year multicenter study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 9;223:112609. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: By exploring the exposure-response relationships between meteorological factors and rupture of intracranial aneurysm (IA) to reveal the influence of meteorological variation on IA rupture under the specific climate in Fujian, China.

Method: 7515 cases of IA rupture from several municipal medical institutions in Fujian Province as well as local meteorological data during the same period were collected from 2013 to 2017. Poisson regression and Spearman correlation analysis were applied to explore the distribution characteristics of IA rupture and how it is associated with meteorological parameters. Poisson generalized additive model was established to further analyze the exposure-response relationships between meteorological factors and IA rupture, and its hysteresis effects.

Result: The IA rupture exhibited a negative correlation with temperature (r = -0.323, 95% CI: -0.539 ~ -0.068) and a positive correlation with atmospheric pressure (r = 0.397, 95% CI: 0.152-0.597) or pressure difference (r = 0.296, 95% CI: 0.038-0.517), 21.05 ℃ and 1000.14 hPa were the risk thresholds for the onset ascribed to variation in temperature and atmospheric pressure, respectively. Temperature and atmospheric pressure also exerted hysteresis effects on IA rupture. Cold will increase the rupture risk in the subsequent 1-3 days, and high pressure will raise the morbidity in the next 1-2 days. Besides, drastic variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure were also associated with the higher risk of IA rupture in the next 2 days and 1 day, respectively.

Conclusion: Temperature and atmospheric pressure have a negative and positive correlation with IA rupture in Fujian, China, respectively. Variation in temperature and atmospheric pressure exert different degrees of hysteresis effects on IA rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112609DOI Listing
October 2021

Cost-Sensitive Classification for Evolving Data Streams with Concept Drift and Class Imbalance.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 2;2021:8813806. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute of Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology, Zhengzhou, China.

Class imbalance and concept drift are two primary principles that exist concurrently in data stream classification. Although the two issues have drawn enough attention separately, the joint treatment largely remains unexplored. Moreover, the class imbalance issue is further complicated if data streams with concept drift. A novel Cost-Sensitive based Data Stream (CSDS) classification is introduced to overcome the two issues simultaneously. The CSDS considers cost information during the procedures of data preprocessing and classification. During the data preprocessing, a cost-sensitive learning strategy is introduced into the ReliefF algorithm for alleviating the class imbalance at the data level. In the classification process, a cost-sensitive weighting schema is devised to enhance the overall performance of the ensemble. Besides, a change detection mechanism is embedded in our algorithm, which guarantees that an ensemble can capture and react to drift promptly. Experimental results validate that our method can obtain better classification results under different imbalanced concept drifting data stream scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8813806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352686PMC
August 2021

Changes in ocular parameters the crystalline lens after implantation of a collamer lens.

Clin Exp Optom 2021 Aug 11:1-6. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hangzhou MSK Eye Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Clinical Relevance: Understanding changes in ocular anatomical parameters after intraocular lens implantation will allow a more accurate determination of dioptric power prior to surgery.

Background: The crystalline lens position might change due to the implantation and removal of an implantable collamer lens (ICL) or toric implantable collamer lens (TICL). This study aimed to assess the effect of ICL implantation on position of the crystalline lens.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent V4c ICL or V4c TICL implantation between March and September, 2018. Preoperative and post-operative (2 weeks, 3 months and 6 months) axial length, central corneal thickness, crystalline lens position, crystalline lens thickness and vault height were analysed. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the variables associated with 6-month changes in lens position.

Results: This study included 117 eyes of 117 patients. There were decreases in all vertical distance measures from the central corneal endothelium to the anterior and posterior crystalline lens capsule (all p > 0.05). The amount of reduction was related to the crystalline lens position before the operation and crystalline lens thickness after the operation (all p < 0.01). An error in anterior chamber depth and lens thickness may appear when the ICL/TICL is close to the crystalline lens.

Conclusion: Phakic intraocular lens implantation resulted in lens thickening and forward movement on day 1 post-operatively, which becomes stable within 6 months. Preoperative lens position and post-operative lens thickness were related to the amount of movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08164622.2021.1958654DOI Listing
August 2021

Novel Bionic Soy Protein-Based Adhesive with Excellent Prepressing Adhesion, Flame Retardancy, and Mildew Resistance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 8;13(32):38732-38744. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76207, United States.

Soy protein (SP)-based adhesives can replace traditional aldehyde-based adhesives for the manufacturing of wood-based panels. However, developing a SP-based adhesive with excellent prepressing bonding strength, flame retardancy, and mildew resistance remains a challenge. Herein, an inorganic crystal cross-linked hybrid SP adhesive was developed inspired by the "secreting-hardening" process of the mussel adhesive protein and the organic-inorganic hybrid adhesive system of the oyster. Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) was introduced into the adhesive mixture of SP and acrylic acid to induce the in situ polymerization of acrylic acid to achieve adhesive gelation. The generation of the inorganic crystals by hydration of CSA not only contributed to the formation of a stable cross-linked hybrid adhesive system for strong cohesion but also provided strong interfacial adhesion between the adhesive layers and the plywood veneers. As anticipated, the prepared plywood sample bonded with the hybrid adhesive gel had an excellent prepressing bonding strength of 544 kPa, representing a significant increase compared to that of the pure SP adhesive (19 kPa). Moreover, the generated inorganic crystals endowed the adhesive with excellent mildew resistance and flame retardancy. This study provides a novel and effective strategy for the preparation of high-performance SP-based adhesives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11004DOI Listing
August 2021

A 20-Year Antifungal Susceptibility Surveillance (From 1999 to 2019) for spp. and Proposed Epidemiological Cutoff Values for and : A Study in a Tertiary Hospital in China.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:680884. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

The emergence of resistant spp. is increasing worldwide. Long-term susceptibility surveillance for clinically isolated spp. strains is warranted for understanding the dynamic change in susceptibility and monitoring the emergence of resistance. Additionally, neither clinical breakpoints (CBPs) nor epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for spp. in China have been established. In this study, we performed a 20-year antifungal susceptibility surveillance for 706 isolates of spp. in a clinical laboratory at Peking University First Hospital from 1999 to 2019; and antifungal susceptibility to triazoles, caspofungin, and amphotericin B was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. It was observed that was the most common species, followed by and . Forty isolates (5.7%), including , , , , and , were classified as non-wild type (non-WT). Importantly, multidrug resistance was observed among , , and isolates. mutations were characterized for 19 non-WT isolates, and TR/L98H/S297T/F495I was the most prevalent mutation during the 20-year surveillance period. The overall resistance trend of increased over 20 years in China. Furthermore, based on ECV establishment principles, proposed ECVs for and were established using gathered minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)/minimum effective concentration (MEC) data. Consequently, all the proposed ECVs were identical to the CLSI ECVs, with the exception of itraconazole against , resulting in a decrease in the non-WT rate from 6.0 to 0.6%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.680884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339419PMC
July 2021

Virtual Reality-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 23;12:575094. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

We aim to explore the effectiveness of virtual reality-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (VRCBT) in the treatment of anxiety and depression in patients with anxiety disorders. We further compare the therapeutic effect of VRCBT with that of standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), as well as investigate the long-term efficacy of VRCBT. As of March 3, 2020, a total of four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus) were retrieved, and two researchers independently conducted literature retrieval and research selection and performed data extraction. Methodological quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool (GRADE). A total of 11 studies were included ( = 626; range, 25.3-43.8), and six randomized controlled trials were quantitatively analyzed. The main outcome was anxiety and depression, and the secondary outcome was the withdrawal rate and long-term effects. Meta-analysis showed that the therapeutic effect of VRCBT on anxiety was better than that of the waiting list group (WLG) (SMD = -0.92; 95% CI: -1.34, -0.50; = 0.005, = 66%, = 276), while the therapeutic effect of VRCBT on anxiety was similar to that of standard CBT treatment (SMD = -0.26; 95% CI: -0.50, -0.01; = 0.77, = 0%, = 150). We further found that the therapeutic effect of VRCBT on depression was better than that of the WLG (SMD = -1.29; 95% CI: -2.26, -0.32; = 0.09, = 58%, = 74), while the effect of VRCBT was similar to that of standard CBT (SMD = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.67, -0.07; = 0.39, = 1%, = 116). Of the five studies that reported withdrawal rates of patients during the VRCBT and CBT treatment process, the withdrawal rates of the VRCBT group and CBT group did not reach statistical significance (OR = 0.70, 1.48, > 0.05); only two studies reported the long-term effectiveness of VRCBT in anxiety and depression on patients with anxiety disorders. VRCBT treatment has a specific positive effect on patients with anxiety disorders (anxiety and depression). Compared with standard CBT, similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in the treatment of anxiety disorders. However, limited randomized controlled trials were included, requiring that these results be treated with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.575094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342859PMC
July 2021

Identification and Evaluation of Aromatic Volatile Compounds in 26 Cultivars and 8 Hybrids of .

Molecules 2021 Jul 25;26(15). Epub 2021 Jul 25.

School of Design, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

is a group of cultivars in the genus with a strong floral scent composed of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, the VOCs of 34 were extracted and analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 164 VOCs whose relative contents were higher than 0.05% were detected. The numbers of VOCs in all germplasms differed between 11 to 38, and the relative contents ranged from 32.39% to 94.28%, in which most germplasms were higher than 80%. Terpenoids, especially monoterpenes, were the crucial type of VOCs in most germplasms, of which linalool and D-limonene were the most frequently occurring. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly separated samples based on whether linalool was the main component, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) clustered samples into 4 groups according to the preponderant compounds linalool and ()-β-ocimene. Comparison of parental species and hybrids showed heterosis in three hybrids, and the inherited and novel substances suggested that monoterpene played an important role in floral scent. This study established a foundation for the evaluation of genetic resources, breeding for the floral aroma and promoting commercial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347352PMC
July 2021

Parietal Lobe Reorganization and Widespread Functional Connectivity Integration in Upper-Limb Amputees: A rs-fMRI Study.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:704079. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

The right parietal lobe plays an important role in body image, and disorders of body image emerge after lesions in the parietal lobe or with parietal lobe epilepsy. Body image disorder also often accompanies upper-limb amputation, in which the patient misperceives that their missing limb is still part of their body. Cortical reorganization is known to occur after upper-limb amputation, but it is not clear how widespread and to what degree functional connectivity (FC) is reorganized post-amputation, nor whether such changes might be related to misperceptions of body image. Twenty-four subjects who had a traumatically upper-limb amputees (ULAs) and 24 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans. Regions of interest (ROIs) in the right superior parietal gyrus (SPG_R) and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL_R) were defined using BrainNet Viewer. We calculated the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in ROIs and correlated the ROI mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (mALFF) and mean scores on the phantom limb sensation (PLS) scale and beck depression index (BDI). We also calculated ROIs and whole-brain FC. Compared to the HC group, we observed significantly increased activation (mALFF) in ROIs of the ULA group. Moreover, correlation analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between ROI mALFF and scores on the PLS. There was a significant negative correlation between the SPG_R mALFF and BDI scores. Seed-based, whole-brain FC analysis revealed that FC in the ULA group significantly decreased in many brain regions across the entire brain. The right parietal lobe appears to be involved in some aspect of body awareness and depression in amputation patients. Upper-limb amputation results not only in reorganization in the local brain area formerly representing the missing limb, but also results in more widespread reorganization through FC changes in whole brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.704079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329664PMC
July 2021
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