Publications by authors named "Yi Su"

403 Publications

Analysis of Antibiotic-induced Drug Resistance of Enteritidis and Its Biofilm Formation Mechanism.

Bioengineered 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Food Science and Technology Branch, Heilongjiang Vocational College of Biology Science and Technology, Harbin 150025, Heilongjiang Province, China.

This research was to explore the antibiotic-induced drug resistance of enteritidis and its biofilm formation mechanism. Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disk method recommended by (CLSI) was used to test the drug sensitivity of enteritidis to 16 kinds of antibiotics including ß-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfonamides, chloramphenicols, and tetracyclines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the carrying of drug resistance genes of 29 kinds of antibiotics including ß-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfonamides, chloramphenicols, and tetracyclines of enteritidis. The expressions of esp, ebpA, ge1E, and fsrB genes in biofilm group and plankton group were detected when was induced, and the difference of gene expression before and after induction was detected by FQ-PCR. The drug resistance rates of enteritidis to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, streptomyces, and cefoperazone were high, which were 94.5%, 75%, 67%, and 52%, respectively. 94 strains of enteritidis formed 22 kinds of drug resistance spectrum, the strains were generally resistant to 4-5 antibiotics, and some strains formed fixed drug resistance spectrum as follows: AMP-CFP-STR-NA-TE (22.6,21.7%), AMP-STR-NA-TE (17,16%), and AMP-CFP-STR-NA (11.1,10.6%). During biofilm formation, fsr can increase the expression of ge1E and decrease the expression of esp and ebpA. In summary, enteritidis was generally resistant to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, and streptomycin, and the multidrug resistance was severe. The drug resistance genes sul2, sul3, blaTEM-1-like, tet(A), and tet(G) were highly carried in enteritidis. In addition, esp, ebpA, ge1E, and fsrB genes were closely related to the biofilm formation of enteritidis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1988251DOI Listing
October 2021

Quantum Chemical and Kinetic Studies of NO Formation during Interaction between Char(N) and NO: Influence of Oxygen, Active Sites, and Nitrogen Status.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Oct 12;125(41):9180-9190. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China.

In order to obtain a deep insight into the NO formation mechanism in a fluidized bed, density functional theory was used to investigate the interaction between char(N) and NO at a molecular level. Three key influencing factors for the formation of NO, namely, active sites, nitrogen status, and oxygen molecules, were taken into study. The geometric structures, electron distribution characteristics, and reaction paths were optimized and calculated. The outer orbital electron properties of char(N) and NO indicate that NO acts as an oxidizer, which tends to abstract electrons from char(N) during the char(N)-NO interaction. A stable NO molecule has a singlet state and presents as a linear molecular structure. The chemisorption on the char surface will weaken the bond energy of NO from 620 to 94.1 kJ/mole, which promotes the catalytic reduction of NO. Active sites on the char surface benefit the reduction of NO to N, rather than NO, which indicates that excessive high temperatures will inhibit the production of NO. The combination of pyridine nitrogen and NO to form NO needs to overcome a much higher energy barrier of 357.4 kJ/mole. The initial chemisorption of oxygen molecules on the char surface will promote the formation of NO by lowering the dissociation energy of NO from the char surface as well as exposing nitrogen to the char surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.1c06125DOI Listing
October 2021

Retrieving zinc concentrations in topsoil with reflectance spectroscopy at Opencast Coal Mine sites.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 7;11(1):19909. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

College of Geomatics, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, China.

Heavy metals contaminations in mining areas aroused wide concerns globally. Efficient evaluation of its pollution status is a basis for further soil reclamation. Visible and near-infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy has been diffusely used for retrieving heavy metals concentrations. However, the reliability and feasibility of calibrated models were still doubtful. The present study estimated zinc (Zn) concentrations via the random forest (RF) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) using ground in-situ Zn concentrations as well as soil spectral reflectance at an Opencast Coal Mine of Ordos, China in February 2020. The coefficient of determination (R), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and the ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) were selected to assess the robustness of the methods in estimating Zn contents. Moreover, the characteristic bands were chosen by Pearson correlation analysis and Boruta Algorithm. Finally, the comparison between RF and PLSR combined with eight spectral reflectance transformation methods was conducted for four concentration groups to determine the optimal model. The results indicated that: (1) Zn contents represented a skewed distribution (coefficient of variation (CV) = 33%); (2) the spectral reflectance tended to decrease with the increase of Zn contents during 580-1850 nm based on Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG); (3) the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) demonstrated higher effectiveness than other spectral reflectance transformation methods in enhancing spectral responses, the R between Zn contents and the soil spectral reflectance achieved the highest (R = 0.71) by using CWT; (4) the RF combined with CWT exhibited the best performance than other methods in the current study (R = 0.97, RPD = 3.39, RMSE = 1.05 mg kg, MAE = 0.79 mg kg). The current study supplied a scientific scheme and theoretical support for predicting heavy metals concentrations via the Vis-NIR spectral method in possible contaminated areas such as coal mines and metallic mineral deposit areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99106-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497582PMC
October 2021

Exploration of the HO Oxidation Process and Characteristic Evaluation of Humic Acids from Two Typical Lignites.

ACS Omega 2021 Sep 9;6(37):24051-24061. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China.

To study the effect of HO on the content and properties of humic acids (HAs) in lignites, the experimental conditions including oxidation time, HO concentration, and the solid-liquid ratio were investigated. Under the optimum oxidation conditions, the contents of HAs of YL and HB lignite were 45.4 and 40.9%, respectively. The HAs extracted from oxidized and raw lignites were characterized and compared. The results showed that the HAs extracted from oxidized lignites contain more total acidic groups, carboxyl groups, and aliphatic carbon than that in HAs extracted from raw lignites, and their hydrophilic-hydrophobic index value is higher and thermooxidative stability is better than those in HAs extracted from raw lignites. In addition, the composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fluorophore types in HAs extracted from oxidized lignites are similar to the HAs extracted from raw lignites. The results indicated that the oxidation operation can increase the content of HAs in lignites, and simultaneously increase the content of oxygen-containing functional groups and biological activity of HAs, which provided a reference for the subsequent application of HAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c03257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459424PMC
September 2021

Topically applied liposome-in-hydrogels for systematically targeted tumor photothermal therapy.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1923-1931

School of Pharmacy, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Transdermal drug delivery for local or systemic therapy provides a potential anticancer modality with a high patient compliance. However, the drug delivery efficiency across the skin is highly challenging due to the physiological barriers, which limit the desired therapeutic effects. In this study, we prepared liposome-in-hydrogels containing a tumor targeting photosensitizer IR780 (IR780/lipo/gels) for tumor photothermal therapy (PTT). The formulation effectively delivered IR780 to subcutaneous tumor and deep metastatic sites, while the hydrogels were applied on the skin overlying the tumor or on an area of distant normal skin. The photothermal antitumor activity of topically administered IR780/lipo/gels was evaluated following laser irradiation. We observed significant inhibition of the rate of the tumor growth without any toxicity associated with the topical administration of hydrogels. Collectively, the topical administration of IR780/lipo/gels represents a new noninvasive and safe strategy for targeted tumor PTT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1974607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462874PMC
December 2021

Cortical thickness across the lifespan in a Colombian cohort with autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: A cross-sectional study.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 14;13(1):e12233. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston Massachusetts USA.

Introduction: Cortical thinning is a marker of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the age-related trajectory of cortical thickness across the lifespan (9-59 years) in a Colombian kindred with autosomal dominant AD (ADAD).

Methods: Two hundred eleven participants (105 presenilin-1 [] E280A mutation carriers, 16 with cognitive impairment; 106 non-carriers) underwent magnetic resonance imaging. A piecewise linear regression identified change-points in the age-related trajectory of cortical thickness in carriers and non-carriers.

Results: Unimpaired carriers exhibited elevated cortical thickness compared to non-carriers, and thickness more negatively correlated with age and cognition in carriers relative to non-carriers. We found increased cortical thickness in child carriers, after which thickness steadied compared to non-carriers prior to a rapid reduction in the decade leading up to the expected age at cognitive impairment in carriers.

Discussion: Findings suggest that cortical thickness may fluctuate across the ADAD lifespan, from early-life increased thickness to atrophy proximal to clinical onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438687PMC
September 2021

Editorial: Vascular Factors and Vascular Lesions in Pre-clinical Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 1;12:738465. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Banner Alzheimer's Institute, Phoenix, AZ, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.738465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442912PMC
September 2021

Positron emission tomography imaging of serotonin degeneration and beta-amyloid deposition in late-life depression evaluated with multi-modal partial least squares.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 09 13;11(1):473. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Banner Alzheimer's Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Depression in late-life is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and development of all-cause dementia. The neurobiology of late-life depression (LLD) may involve both neurochemical and neurodegenerative mechanisms that are common to depression and dementia. Transgenic amyloid mouse models show evidence of early degeneration of monoamine systems. Informed by these preclinical data, the hypotheses were tested that a spatial covariance pattern of higher beta-amyloid (Aβ) and lower serotonin transporter availability (5-HTT) in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical regions would distinguish LLD patients from healthy controls and the expression of this pattern would be associated with greater depressive symptoms. Twenty un-medicated LLD patients who met DSM-V criteria for major depression and 20 healthy controls underwent PET imaging with radiotracers for Aβ ([C]-PiB) and 5-HTT ([C]-DASB). A voxel-based multi-modal partial least squares (mmPLS) algorithm was applied to the parametric PET images to determine the spatial covariance pattern between the two radiotracers. A spatial covariance pattern was identified, including higher Aβ in temporal, parietal and occipital cortices associated with lower 5-HTT in putamen, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and raphe nuclei (dorsal, medial and pontine), which distinguished LLD patients from controls. Greater expression of this pattern, reflected in summary 5-HTT/Aβ mmPLS subject scores, was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The mmPLS method is a powerful approach to evaluate the synaptic changes associated with AD pathology. This spatial covariance pattern should be evaluated further to determine whether it represents a biological marker of antidepressant treatment response and/or cognitive decline in LLD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01539-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437937PMC
September 2021

A computational Monte Carlo simulation strategy to determine the temporal ordering of abnormal age onset among biomarkers of Alzheimers disease.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 Aug 24;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

To quantitatively determining the temporal ordering of abnormal age onsets (AAO) among various biomarkers for Alzheimers disease (AD), we introduced a computational Monte-Carlo simulation (CMCS) to statistically examine such ordering of an AAO pair or over all AAOs. The CMCS 1) simulates longitudinal data, estimates AAO for each iteration, and finally assesses the type-I error of an AAO pair or all AAO ordering. Using hippocampus volume (V), cerebral glucose hypometabolic convergence index (HCI), plasma neurofilament light (NfL), mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the auditory verbal learning test-long term memory (AVLT-LTM), short term memory (AVLT-STM) and clinical-dementia rating sum of box scale (CDR-SOB) from 382 mild cognitive impairment converters and non-converters, the CMCS estimated type-I error for the earlier AAO of V, AVLT_STM and AVLT_LTM each than MMSE was significant (p<0.002). The type-I error for the overall AAO temporal ordering of V AVLT_STM AVLT_LTM < HCI MMSE CDR-SOB NfL was p = 0.012. These findings showed that our CMCS is capable of providing statistical inferences for quantifying AAO ordering which has important implications in advancing our understanding of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2021.3106939DOI Listing
August 2021

Predicting Brain Amyloid Using Multivariate Morphometry Statistics, Sparse Coding, and Correntropy: Validation in 1,101 Individuals From the ADNI and OASIS Databases.

Front Neurosci 2021 6;15:669595. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.

Biomarker assisted preclinical/early detection and intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be the key to therapeutic breakthroughs. One of the presymptomatic hallmarks of AD is the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the human brain. However, current methods to detect Aβ pathology are either invasive (lumbar puncture) or quite costly and not widely available (amyloid PET). Our prior studies show that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based hippocampal multivariate morphometry statistics (MMS) are an effective neurodegenerative biomarker for preclinical AD. Here we attempt to use MRI-MMS to make inferences regarding brain Aβ burden at the individual subject level. As MMS data has a larger dimension than the sample size, we propose a sparse coding algorithm, Patch Analysis-based Surface Correntropy-induced Sparse-coding and Max-Pooling (PASCS-MP), to generate a low-dimensional representation of hippocampal morphometry for each individual subject. Then we apply these individual representations and a binary random forest classifier to predict brain Aβ positivity for each person. We test our method in two independent cohorts, 841 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and 260 subjects from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Experimental results suggest that our proposed PASCS-MP method and MMS can discriminate Aβ positivity in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [Accuracy (ACC) = 0.89 (ADNI)] and in cognitively unimpaired (CU) individuals [ACC = 0.79 (ADNI) and ACC = 0.81 (OASIS)]. These results compare favorably relative to measures derived from traditional algorithms, including hippocampal volume and surface area, shape measures based on spherical harmonics (SPHARM) and our prior Patch Analysis-based Surface Sparse-coding and Max-Pooling (PASS-MP) methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.669595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377280PMC
August 2021

Correction to: Discovery of a novel third-generation EGFR inhibitor and identification of a potential combination strategy to overcome resistance.

Mol Cancer 2021 Aug 17;20(1):102. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Division of Antitumor Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai, 201203, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-021-01391-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369743PMC
August 2021

Recycling of Brewer's Spent Grain as a Biosorbent by Nitro-Oxidation for Uranyl Ion Removal from Wastewater.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 19;6(30):19364-19377. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Chair of Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

Developing biosorbents derived from agro-industrial biomass is considered as an economic and sustainable method for dealing with uranium-contaminated wastewater. The present study explores the feasibility of oxidizing a representative protein-rich biomass, brewer's spent grain (BSG), to an effective and reusable uranyl ion adsorbent to reduce the cost and waste generation during water treatment. The unique composition of BSG favors the oxidation process and yields in a high carboxyl group content (1.3 mmol/g) of the biosorbent. This makes BSG a cheap, sustainable, and suitable raw material independent from pre-treatment. The oxidized brewer's spent grain (OBSG) presents a high adsorption capacity of U(VI) of 297.3 mg/g ( (U) = 900 mg/L, pH = 4.7) and fast adsorption kinetics (1 h) compared with other biosorbents reported in the literature. Infrared spectra (Fourier transform infrared), C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to characterize the biosorbents and reveal the adsorption mechanisms. The desorption and reusability of OBSG were tested for five cycles, resulting in a remaining adsorption of U(VI) of 100.3 mg/g and a desorption ratio of 89%. This study offers a viable and sustainable approach to convert agro-industrial waste into effective and reusable biosorbents for uranium removal from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340112PMC
August 2021

Comparing amyloid-β plaque burden with antemortem PiB PET in autosomal dominant and late-onset Alzheimer disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 10 28;142(4):689-706. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can bind to different types of amyloid-β plaques and blood vessels (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). However, the relative contributions of different plaque subtypes (diffuse versus cored/compact) to in vivo PiB PET signal on a region-by-region basis are incompletely understood. Of particular interest is whether the same staging schemes for summarizing amyloid-β burden are appropriate for both late-onset and autosomal dominant forms of Alzheimer disease (LOAD and ADAD). Here, we compared antemortem PiB PET with follow-up postmortem estimation of amyloid-β burden using stereologic methods to estimate the relative area fraction of diffuse and cored/compact amyloid-β plaques across 16 brain regions in 15 individuals with ADAD and 14 individuals with LOAD. In ADAD, we found that PiB PET correlated with diffuse plaques in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and striatal regions commonly used to summarize amyloid-β burden in PiB PET, and correlated with both diffuse and cored/compact plaques in the occipital lobe and parahippocampal gyrus. In LOAD, we found that PiB PET correlated with both diffuse and cored/compact plaques in the anterior cingulate, frontal lobe (middle frontal gyrus), and parietal lobe, and showed additional correlations with diffuse plaque in the amygdala and occipital lobe, and with cored/compact plaque in the temporal lobe. Thus, commonly used PiB PET summary regions predominantly reflect diffuse plaque burden in ADAD and a mixture of diffuse and cored/compact plaque burden in LOAD. In direct comparisons of ADAD and LOAD, postmortem stereology identified much greater mean amyloid-β plaque burdens in ADAD versus LOAD across almost all brain regions studied. However, standard PiB PET did not recapitulate these stereologic findings, likely due to non-trivial amyloid-β plaque burdens in ADAD within the cerebellum and brainstem-commonly used reference regions in PiB PET. Our findings suggest that PiB PET summary regions correlate with amyloid-β plaque burden in both ADAD and LOAD; however, they might not be reliable in direct comparisons of regional amyloid-β plaque burden between the two forms of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02342-yDOI Listing
October 2021

Childhood Maltreatment Was Correlated With the Decreased Cortical Function in Depressed Patients Under Social Stress in a Working Memory Task: A Pilot Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 8;12:671574. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute of Mental Health, The Sixth Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with working memory (WM) impairment. Neuroimaging studies showed divergent results of the WM process in MDD patients. Stress could affect the occurrence and development of depression, in which childhood maltreatment played an important role. Thirty-seven MDD patients and 54 healthy control subjects were enrolled and completed a WM functional magnetic resonance imaging task with maintenance and manipulation conditions under stress and non-stress settings. We collected demographical and clinical data, using 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in MDD patients. In the WM task, we analyzed the main diagnosis effect and explored the correlation of impaired brain regions in MDD patients with CTQ and HAMD-17. No group differences were found in the accuracy rate and reaction time between the two groups. MDD patients had lower brain activation in following regions ( < 0.05). The left fusiform gyrus showed less activation in all conditions. The right supplementary motor area (SMA) exhibited decreased activation under non-stress. The anterior prefrontal cortex showed reduced activation during manipulation under stress, with the β estimations of the peak voxel showing significant group difference negatively correlated with childhood sex abuse ( < 0.05). In our pilot study, MDD patients had reduced brain activation, affecting emotional stimuli processing function, executive function, and cognitive control function. Childhood maltreatment might affect brain function in MDD. This work might provide some information for future studies on MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.671574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295536PMC
July 2021

Pattern and degree of individual brain atrophy predicts dementia onset in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 5;13(1):e12197. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

The Florey Institute University of Melbourne Parkville Victoria Australia.

Introduction: Asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (DIAD-MC) are ideal candidates for preventative treatment trials aimed at delaying or preventing dementia onset. Brain atrophy is an early feature of DIAD-MC and could help predict risk for dementia during trial enrollment.

Methods: We created a dementia risk score by entering standardized gray-matter volumes from 231 DIAD-MC into a logistic regression to classify participants with and without dementia. The score's predictive utility was assessed using Cox models and receiver operating curves on a separate group of 65 DIAD-MC followed longitudinally.

Results: Our risk score separated asymptomatic versus demented DIAD-MC with 96.4% (standard error = 0.02) and predicted conversion to dementia at next visit (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.15, 1.49]) and within 2 years (area under the curve = 90.3%, 95% CI [82.3%-98.2%]) and improved prediction beyond established methods based on familial age of onset.

Discussion: Individualized risk scores based on brain atrophy could be useful for establishing enrollment criteria and stratifying DIAD-MC participants for prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dad2.12197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256623PMC
July 2021

PET evidence of preclinical cerebellar amyloid plaque deposition in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease-causing Presenilin-1 E280A mutation carriers.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 4;31:102749. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Banner Alzheimer's Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Arizona Alzheimer's Consortium, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In contrast to sporadic Alzheimer's disease, autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) is associated with greater neuropathological evidence of cerebellar amyloid plaque (Aβ) deposition. In this study, we used positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of fibrillar Aβ burden to characterize the presence and age at onset of cerebellar Aβ deposition in cognitively unimpaired (CU) Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers from the world's largest extended family with ADAD.

Methods: F florbetapir and C Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET data from two independent studies - API ADAD Colombia Trial (NCT01998841) and Colombia-Boston (COLBOS) longitudinal biomarker study were included. The tracers were selected independently by the respective sponsors prior to the start of each study and used exclusively throughout. Template-based cerebellar Aβ-SUVR (standard-uptake value ratios) using a known-to-be-spared pons reference region (cerebellar SUVR_pons), to a) compare 28-56-year-old CU carriers and non-carriers; b) estimate the age at which cerebellar SUVR_pons began to differ significantly in carrier and non-carrier groups; and c) characterize in carriers associations with age, cortical SUVR_pons, delayed recall memory, and API ADAD composite score.

Results: Florbetapir and PiB cerebellar SUVR_pons were significantly higher in carriers than non-carriers (p < 0.0001). Cerebellar SUVR_pons began to distinguish carriers from non-carriers at age 34, 10 years before the carriers' estimated age at mild cognitive impairment onset. Florbetapir and PiB cerebellar SUVR_pons in carriers were positively correlated with age (r = 0.44 & 0.69, p < 0.001), cortical SUVR_pons (r = 0.55 & 0.69, p < 0.001), and negatively correlated with delayed recall memory (r = -0.21 & -0.50, p < 0.05, unadjusted for cortical SUVR_pons) and API ADAD composite (r = -0.25, p < 0.01, unadjusted for cortical SUVR_pons in florbetapir API ADAD cohort).

Conclusion: This PET study provides evidence of cerebellar Aβ plaque deposition in CU carriers starting about a decade before the clinical onset of ADAD. Additional studies are needed to clarify the impact of using a cerebellar versus pons reference region on the power to detect and track ADAD changes, even in preclinical stages of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278433PMC
September 2021

Dynamic formation and transcriptional regulation mediated by phytohormones during chalkiness formation in rice.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 30;21(1):308. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China.

Background: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Chalkiness, the opaque part in the kernel endosperm formed by loosely piled starch and protein bodies. Chalkiness is a complex quantitative trait regulated by multiple genes and various environmental factors. Phytohormones play important roles in the regulation of chalkiness formation but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear at present.

Results: In this research, Xiangzaoxian24 (X24, pure line of indica rice with high-chalkiness) and its origin parents Xiangzaoxian11 (X11, female parent, pure line of indica rice with high-chalkiness) and Xiangzaoxian7 (X7, male parent, pure line of indica rice with low-chalkiness) were used as materials. The phenotype, physiological and biochemical traits combined with transcriptome analysis were conducted to illustrate the dynamic process and transcriptional regulation of rice chalkiness formation. Impressively, phytohormonal contents and multiple phytohormonal signals were significantly different in chalky caryopsis, suggesting the involvement of phytohormones, particularly ABA and auxin, in the regulation of rice chalkiness formation, through the interaction of multiple transcription factors and their downstream regulators.

Conclusion: These results indicated that chalkiness formation is a dynamic process associated with multiple genes, forming a complex regulatory network in which phytohormones play important roles. These results provided informative clues for illustrating the regulatory mechanisms of chalkiness formation in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03109-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247166PMC
June 2021

Protocol for a pharmacogenomic study on individualised antipsychotic drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia.

BJPsych Open 2021 Jun 29;7(4):e121. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Institute of Mental Health, The Sixth Hospital of Peking University, China; and Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health & National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University), China.

Background: Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder that needs treatment based on extensive experience. Antipsychotic drugs have already become the cornerstone of the treatment for schizophrenia; however, the therapeutic effect is of significant variability among patients, and only around a third of patients with schizophrenia show good efficacy. Meanwhile, drug-induced metabolic syndrome and other side-effects significantly affect treatment adherence and prognosis. Therefore, strategies for drug selection are desperately needed. In this study, we will perform pharmacogenomics research and set up an individualised preferred treatment prediction model.

Aims: We aim to create a standard clinical cohort, with multidimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia.

Method: This trial is designed as a randomised clinical trial comparing treatment with different kinds of antipsychotics. A total sample of 2000 patients with schizophrenia will be recruited from in-patient units from five clinical research centres. Using a computer-generated program, the participants will be randomly assigned to four treatment groups: aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. The primary outcomes will be measured as changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of schizophrenia, which reflects the efficacy. Secondary outcomes include the measure of side-effects, such as metabolic syndromes. The efficacy evaluation and side-effects assessment will be performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months.

Results: This trial will assess the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotics and create a standard clinical cohort with a multi-dimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia patients.

Conclusion: This study aims to set up an individualized preferred treatment prediction model through the genetic analysis of patients using different kinds of antipsychotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269926PMC
June 2021

[Efficacy and Safety of PEG-rhG-CSF in HSC Mobilization in 71 Normal Healthy Donors for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):951-956

Department of Hematology, The General Hospital of Western Theater Command, Chengdu 610083, Sichuan Province, China.

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the efficacy and safety of pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) in hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in 71 normal healthy donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).

Methods: From March 2018 to July 2019, 71 patients received allo-HSCT in The General Hospital of Western Theater Command were enrolled in the study, a single dose of PEG-rhG-CSF was injected subcutaneously at 12 mg to all the stem cell donors. After injection for 4 days, CD34 cell number were detected, stem cells were collected on day 4 or 5 according to the CD34 cell number. The successful collection criteria were CD34 cells≥2×10/kg, and the excellent collection criteria were CD34 cells≥4×10/kg. The side effects after mobilization were observed and the collection time, the success rate, excellent rate, and times of the collection were evaluated in the donors, as well as the infused cell number, the engraftment rate, the time of engraftment, and the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) of the recipients.

Results: Seventy-one healthy stem cell donors included 39 males and 32 females with a median age of 38 (16-58) years old. The median number of CD34 cells on day 4 was 46 (7.4-133)/μl, of which 39 cases with CD34 cells ≥ 40/μl were collected on day 4, 28 cases with CD34 cells 20-40/μl were collected on day 5, and 4 cases with CD34 cells <20/μl were collected on day 5 after a salvage treatment with rhG-CSF. Sixty-five cases were collected once, while 6 cases twice. The median number of collected CD34 cells was 6.1(3.1-18.1)×10/kg. The success collection rate was 100% (71/71), and the excellent collection rate was 81.6% (58/71). All the cases had varying degrees of muscle and bone soreness, 17 cases (23.9%) had headache, 11 cases (15.5%) had fatigue, and 3 cases (4.2%) had a mild fever. Among 71 recipients, the median number of infused mononuclear cells (MNC) was 8.3(5-23.3)×10/kg, the median number of infused CD34 cells and CD3 cells was 5.3(3.1-10.7)×10/kg and 1.9 (0.5-7.6)×10/kg, respectively. Among them, 68 cases (95.8%) had a stable engraftment, the median time of neutrophil engraftment was 11(8-19) days, and the median time of platelet engraftment was 12(8-23) days. Among the 68 cases who were engrafted, 15 cases (22%) had grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ aGVHD, including grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ aGVHD in 3 patients (4.4%), 2 cases (2.9%) died of severe aGVHD.

Conclusion: For allo-HSCT donor mobilization, PEG-rh-G-CSF is effective, safe, and convenient, providing more options for HSC mobilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.03.047DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluation of superinfection, antimicrobial usage, and airway microbiome with metagenomic sequencing in COVID-19 patients: A cohort study in Shanghai.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2021 Oct 6;54(5):808-815. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Departments of Infectious Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: In COVID-19 patients, information regarding superinfection, antimicrobial assessment, and the value of metagenomic sequencing (MS) could help develop antimicrobial stewardship.

Method: This retrospective study analyzed 323 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients for co-infection rate and antimicrobial usage in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center (SPHCC) from January 23rd to March 14th 2020. The microbiota composition was also investigated in patients with critically severe COVID-19.

Results: The total population co-infection rate was 17/323 (5.3%) and 0/229 (0), 4/78 (5.1%), and 13/16 (81.3%) for the mild, severe, and critically severe subgroups, respectively. Proven fungal infection was significantly associated with a higher mortality rate (p = 0.029). In critically severe patients, the rate of antimicrobials and carbapenem usage were 16/16 (100%) and 13/16 (81.3%), respectively, in which the preemptive and empiric antimicrobial days accounted for 51.6% and 30.1%, respectively. Targeted therapy only accounted for 18.3%. MS was implemented to detect non-COVID-19 virus co-existence and the semi-quantitative surveillance of bacteremia, with clear clinical benefit seen in cases with MS-based precision antimicrobial management. Airway microbiome analysis suggested that the microbiota compositions in critically severe COVID-19 patients were likely due to intubation and mechanical ventilation.

Conclusions: In the SPHCC cohort, we observed a non-negligible rate of super-infection, especially for the critically ill COVID-19 patients. Fungal co-infection requires intensive attention due to the high risk of mortality, and the clinical benefit of MS in guiding antimicrobial management warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2021.03.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021444PMC
October 2021

Association of C677T Polymorphism With Antipsychotic-Induced Change of Weight and Metabolism Index.

Front Psychiatry 2021 21;12:673715. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Mental Health, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Beijing, China.

Although antipsychotic medication contributed to the improvement of psychotic symptoms and reduced relapse, it induced weight gain and metabolic syndrome during antipsychotic medication treatment, which was seriously concerning. To investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase () gene C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism with antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolism parameter change, we employed 1,868 patients with schizophrenia in this study and randomly allocated them to seven antipsychotic medication treatment groups. All patients received antipsychotics monotherapy and were followed up for 6 weeks. Height, body weight, and metabolic parameters of the patients were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after antipsychotic treatment. We genotyped blood DNA from patients for C677T polymorphisms and performed quantitative analyses using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) among three genotype groups. We found a predominant association between C677T and body weight mass index (BMI) change after 6-week risperidone treatment. After 6-week treatment of risperidone, the BMI change rate (%) of C677 carriers was significantly higher than that of TT genotype carriers [CC (2.81 ± 6.77)%, CT (3.79 ± 5.22)%, TT (1.42 ± 3.53)%, = 4.749, = 0.009]. Some of the abnormal metabolic parameters were found to be associated with the 677T, including higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and waist circumference. Validation was performed in an independent cohort, consisting of 252 patients with schizophrenia treated with three atypical antipsychotic drugs. Overall, the C677 was associated with high risk of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolism abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.673715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177429PMC
May 2021

Gibberellin Increases the Bud Yield and Theanine Accumulation in (L.) Kuntze.

Molecules 2021 May 29;26(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410125, China.

Tea () is one of the most important cash crops in the world. Theanine, as an important amino acid component in tea, is a key quality index for excellent tea quality and high economic value. People increase theanine accumulation in tea mainly through the application of nitrogen fertilizer, shading and pruning. However, these methods are not effective. In this study, we treated tea buds with a 100 μM solution of GA containing 1‰ tween-20, investigated the effects of GA on theanine accumulation, bud yield, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and expression level of theanine biosynthesis pathway genes in tea plant by qPCR, LC-MS/MS etc. Results showed that change trends of theanine and GA was extremely positively correlated with each other. Exogenous GA upregulated the expression level of theanine biosynthesis pathway genes, caused an increase of theanine content (mg·g) by 27% in tea leaves compared with Mock, and accelerated the germination of buds and elongation of shoots, which lead to a significant increase of tea yield by 56% (/). Moreover, the decrease of chlorophyll contents, photochemical quenching coefficient () and relative electron transport rate () under GA treatment suggested that GA reduced photosynthesis in the tender tea leaves, indicating that the decline of carbon assimilation in tea plants was conducive to the nitrogen metabolism, and it was beneficial to the accumulation of theanine. This study provided a new technical and theoretical support for the precise control of tea quality components and phenophase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198828PMC
May 2021

Preparation and characterization of DNA aptamers against roxithromycin.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jun 16;1164:338509. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Medicine, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, 362021, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Roxithromycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in human and livestock. It is continually released and accumulated in our natural environment. It exhibited an extreme resistance to microbial biodegradation and has a serious impact on ecosystem and human health. It is in urgent need of establishing a rapid and efficient method for the detection of environmental roxithromycin. This study was based on capture-SELEX to select aptamers against roxithromycin from an initial library containing randomized ssDNA sequences. Candidate aptamers were obtained by 16 rounds of capture-SELEX process. Competent clones were prepared for sequencing. Clone Ap01 was chosen for further characterization. SYBR Green I fluorescence assays showed high affinity with roxithromycin. The dissociation constant of Ap01 was 0.46 ± 0.08 μM. Ap01 bound specifically to roxithromycin with capable of distinguish from non-roxithromycin macrolides. There was no cross reaction with the detected non-macrolide compounds. Accordingly, a colorimetric aptasensor has been developed. It has been demonstrated that the detection limit achieved 0.077 μM. To proof the concept, detections of roxithromycin contained in tap water and lake water were evaluated. It laid a foundation for further study on the detection of roxithromycin in actual aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338509DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Combined with Aerobic Training on Pulmonary Function in COPD Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021;16:969-977. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Medicine, Respiratory Disease Key Laboratory of Qingdao, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China.

Background: The proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching could improve the contractile capacity of respiratory muscles, but the effect on pulmonary function, when it is combined with aerobic training, remains unknown.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of PNF combined with aerobic training on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function and neck/shoulder mobility in patients with COPD.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Participants: Fifty-five COPD patients were randomly divided into PNF group (n=28) and control group (n=27).

Intervention: On the basis of conventional treatment, the control group performed 30 min aerobic training on a treadmill, while the PNF group added 10-minute PNF stretching 3 times every training day. Both groups did their training in 5 days per week for 6 weeks.

Measures: Measures were taken before and after 6 weeks of training. COPD Assessment Test (CAT), dyspnea Visual Analog Scale (VAS), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV), inspiratory capacity (IC), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the range of motion (ROM) of head protraction, shoulder flexion, and the non-dominant pectoralis minor muscle (PmM) length were measured.

Results: All the indicators of both groups were significantly improved after 6 weeks of intervention except for FVC, FEV and PmM length. Compared to the control group, the PNF group showed significant improvement in the CAT score, dyspnea VAS score, IC, IRV, 6MWT, as well as head protraction ROM and shoulder flexion ROM. Furthermore, IC was positively correlated with the head protraction ROM and PmM length (=0.415, 0.579, =0.028, 0.001); IRV was positively correlated with the shoulder flexion ROM (=0.405, =0.032) in the PNF group.

Conclusion: PNF stretching combined with aerobic training reduces dyspnea and improves some pulmonary function measures, which is associated with neck/shoulder mobility, in COPD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S300569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053505PMC
July 2021

Plasma Apolipoprotein E3 and Glucose Levels Are Associated in APOE ɛ3/ɛ4 Carriers.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;81(1):339-354

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Altered cerebral glucose metabolism, especially prominent in APOE ɛ4 carriers, occurs years prior to symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently found an association between a higher ratio of plasma apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) over apoE3, and cerebral glucose hypometabolism in cognitively healthy APOE ɛ3/ɛ4 subjects. Plasma apoE does not cross the blood-brain barrier, hence we speculate that apoE is linked to peripheral glucose metabolism which is known to affect glucose metabolism in the brain.

Objective: Explore potential associations between levels of plasma insulin and glucose with previously acquired plasma apoE, cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRgl), gray matter volume, and neuropsychological test scores.

Methods: Plasma insulin and glucose levels were determined by ELISA and a glucose oxidase assay whereas apoE levels were earlier quantified by mass-spectrometry in 128 cognitively healthy APOE ɛ3/ɛ4 subjects. Twenty-five study subjects had previously undergone FDG-PET and structural MRI.

Results: Lower plasma apoE3 associated with higher plasma glucose but not insulin in male subjects and subjects with a body mass index above 25. Negative correlations were found between plasma glucose and CMRgl in the left prefrontal and bilateral occipital regions. These associations may have functional implications since glucose levels in turn were negatively associated with neuropsychological test scores.

Conclusion: Plasma apoE3 but not apoE4 may be involved in insulin-independent processes governing plasma glucose levels. Higher plasma glucose, which negatively affects brain glucose metabolism, was associated with lower plasma apoE levels in APOE ɛ3/ɛ4 subjects. High plasma glucose and low apoE levels may be a hazardous combination leading to an increased risk of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203224PMC
September 2021

Relationship between Sleep Duration Trajectories and Self-Rated Depressive Symptoms in South Koreans with Physical Disabilities.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Health Administration, College of Health Science, Dankook University, 119 Dandae-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si 31116, Chungchungnam-do, Korea.

Physically disabled persons can have sleep problems, which affects their mental health more than those in non-disabled people. However, there are few studies on the relationship between sleep duration and mental health targeting physically disabled people in South Korea, and existing studies on the disabled have mostly used data collected from convenience rather than nationally representative samples, limiting the generalization of the results. This study used data from the second wave of the Panel Survey of Employment for the Disabled (PSED, 2016-2018, 1st-3rd year). Participants included 1851 physically disabled individuals. The Chi-square test and generalized estimating equation (GEE) were used and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) value and the AIC log Bayes factor approximation were used to select sleep trajectories. This is the first study to elucidate multiple sleep trajectories in physically disabled people in Korea, and the relationship between sleep duration trajectories and self-rated depressive symptoms. People with physical disabilities who sleep more than 9 h have the highest risk of depression and need more intensive management as a priority intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005137PMC
March 2021

Improved Prediction of Imminent Progression to Clinically Significant Memory Decline Using Surface Multivariate Morphometry Statistics and Sparse Coding.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;81(1):209-220

School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Background: Besides their other roles, brain imaging and other biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have the potential to inform a cognitively unimpaired (CU) person's likelihood of progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and benefit subject selection when evaluating promising prevention therapies. We previously described that among baseline FDG-PET and MRI measures known to be preferentially affected in the preclinical and clinical stages of AD, hippocampal volume was the best predictor of incident MCI within 2 years (79%sensitivity/78%specificity), using standard automated MRI volumetric algorithmic programs, binary logistic regression, and leave-one-out procedures.

Objective: To improve the same prediction by using different hippocampal features and machine learning methods, cross-validated via two independent and prospective cohorts (Arizona and ADNI).

Methods: Patch-based sparse coding algorithms were applied to hippocampal surface features of baseline TI-MRIs from 78 CU adults who subsequently progressed to amnestic MCI in approximately 2 years ("progressors") and 80 matched adults who remained CU for at least 4 years ("nonprogressors"). Nonprogressors and progressors were matched for age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E4 allele dose. We did not include amyloid or tau biomarkers in defining MCI.

Results: We achieved 92%prediction accuracy in the Arizona cohort, 92%prediction accuracy in the ADNI cohort, and 90%prediction accuracy when combining the two demographically distinct cohorts, as compared to 79%(Arizona) and 72%(ADNI) prediction accuracy using hippocampal volume.

Conclusion: Surface multivariate morphometry and sparse coding, applied to individual MRIs, may accurately predict imminent progression to MCI even in the absence of other AD biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200821DOI Listing
September 2021

Association Study of C677T Polymorphism and Birth Body Mass With Risk of Autism in Chinese Han Population.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:560948. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

School of Nursing & Sixth Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China.

To explore the association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase () C677T polymorphism with birth body mass and risk of autism in Chinese Han population. A total 1,505 Chinese Han autism patients were recruited, using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th revised version (DSM-IV-R) diagnostic criteria for autism, and 1,308 sex-matched healthy controls were also enrolled for the study. All the participants' birth body masses were counted according to the medical records. The C677T genotypes were detected using the polymerase chain reaction-restrict fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The association between C677T polymorphism, birth body mass, and risk of autism were analyzed using the chi-square tests. The present study found that the 677T was significantly associated with risk of autism [ = 0.004, odds ratio () = 1.18, 95% = 1.02-1.29). The autism children more frequently showed low birth body mass (<2.5 kg) than healthy control subjects (8.6 vs. 5.3%, = 0.001, = 1.67, 95% = 1.24-2.26). The interactive effects between 677T and low birth body mass ( = 0.0001, = 2.18, 95% = 1.44-3.32) were also significantly associated with risk of autism. The C677T polymorphism and low birth body mass may be associated with risk of autism in Chinese Han population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.560948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947295PMC
February 2021

Estimating PM concentrations via random forest method using satellite, auxiliary, and ground-level station dataset at multiple temporal scales across China in 2017.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 6;778:146288. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

College of Geomatics, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, China.

Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM) poses adverse impacts on public health and the environment. It is still a great challenge to estimate high-resolution PM concentrations at moderate scales. The current study calibrated PM concentrations at a 1 km resolution scale using ground-level monitoring data, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), meteorological data, and auxiliary data via Random Forest (RF) model across China in 2017. The three ten-folded cross-validations (CV) methods including sample-based, time-based, and spatial-based validation combined with Coefficient Square (R), Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE), and Mean Predictive Error (MPE) have been used for validation at different temporal scales in terms of daily, monthly, heating seasonal, and non-heating seasonal. Finally, the distribution map of PM concentrations was illustrated based on the RF model. Some findings were achieved. The RF model performed well, with a relatively high sample-based cross-validation R of 0.74, a low RMSE of 16.29 μg × m, and a small MPE of -0.282 μg × m. Meanwhile, the performance of the RF model in inferring the PM concentrations was well at urban scales except for Chengyu (CY). North China, the CY urban agglomeration, and the northwest of China exhibited relatively high PM pollution features, especially in the heating season. The robustness of the RF model in the present study outperformed most statistical regression models for calibrating PM concentrations. The outcomes can supply an up-to-date scientific dataset for epidemiological and air pollutants exposure risk studies across China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146288DOI Listing
July 2021

The Copy Number Variation of Regulates Rice Plant Architecture.

Front Plant Sci 2020 11;11:620282. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China.

Copy number variation (CNV) may have phenotypic effects by altering the expression level of the gene(s) or regulatory element(s) contained. It is believed that CNVs play pivotal roles in controlling plant architecture and other traits in plant. However, the effects of CNV contributing to special traits remain largely unknown. Here we report a CNV involved in rice architecture by modulating tiller number and leaf angle. In the genome of ssp. cv. Nipponbare, we found a locus is derived from a 13,002-bp tandem duplication in the nearby region of , a gene regulating tillering in rice. Further survey of 230 rice cultivars showed that the duplication occurred in only 13 rice cultivars. Phenotypic investigation indicated that this CNV region may contribute to tiller number. Moreover, we revealed that not only influences rice tiller number and leaf angle, but also represses transcription in the CNV region. Intriguingly, this CNV performs function through both the dosage and position effects on and . Thus, our work identified a CNV and revealed a molecular regulatory basis for its effects on plant architecture, implying this CNV may possess importance and application potential in molecular breeding in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.620282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905320PMC
February 2021
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